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Customer Training Material

L t Lecture 6 6-DOF Rigid g Body y Solver

Solving FSI Applications Using ANSYS Mechanical and CFX


ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2010 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.

L6-1

Release 13.0 December 2010

FSI with ANSYS Mechanical and CFX

Rigid Body FSI CFX includes a 6-DOF rigid body solver Fluid forces/torques on a body auto-calculated Body B d response i included l d d in i flow fl solution l ti Either via mesh motion or via immersed solid

Customer Training Material

Simplified FSI case where body does not change shape under fluid load Can make assumptions about its behaviour Does not need the expense of a full structural simulation

ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2010 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.

L6-2

Release 13.0 December 2010

FSI with ANSYS Mechanical and CFX

Rigid Body Dynamics

Customer Training Material

Forces and torques acting on a rigid body can be summed and assumed to act on/about the centre of mass Chasles Theorem: The general displacement of a rigid body is a linear motion of a origin point plus a rotation around the origin point Can separate p translation and rotation

ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2010 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.

L6-3

Release 13.0 December 2010

FSI with ANSYS Mechanical and CFX

Rigid Translation

Customer Training Material

Translational equation of motion, applied to Centre of Mass

dP &G = F = m& x dt

& = Linear Momentum P = mx

& &G = Acceleration about centre of mass x

F = FAero + mg [kSpring ( x x so )] + FExt


Discretized using implicit Newmark integration scheme
Default integration parameters give 2nd order accuracy Advantage over previous explicit CEL implementation

Can add influence of external spring or external force to F


ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2010 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. Release 13.0 December 2010

L6-4

FSI with ANSYS Mechanical and CFX

Rigid Rotation

Customer Training Material

Rotational equation of motion about Centre of Mass

d d ( I B ) = = M dt dt

= Angular Momentum = Moment of Inertia tensor

d ( IB ) &B = B IB + I dt

& B = I 1 ( M B B I B )

M B = M Aero [kSpring p g ( so )] + M Ext

Two methods of discretization available


Simo-Wong [1] (Default. Second order, iteratively conservative) First Fi t Order O d Backward B k d Euler E l

Can add influence of external torsion spring or external q to MExt torque


[1] Simo, J.C., Wong, K.K., Unconditionally Stable Algorithms for Rigid Body Dynamics that exactly Preserves Energy and Momentum, Int. J. Num. Methods in Eng., vol. 31, 19-52 (1991)
ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2010 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.

L6-5

Release 13.0 December 2010

FSI with ANSYS Mechanical and CFX

Creating a Rigid Body in CFX-Pre Insert a Rigid Body into the Flow Analysis

Customer Training Material

ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2010 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.

L6-6

Release 13.0 December 2010

FSI with ANSYS Mechanical and CFX

Rigid Body Basic Settings


Mass
Rigid body mass

Customer Training Material

Location
The 2D boundary region of the rigid body

Coord Frame
Must create a Coord Frame at the centre of mass (based on the initial rigid body position) and select here Cannot constrain a body to rotate about a point

Mass Moment of Inertia


E Enter t components t for f the th Mass M Moment M t of Inertia tensor
See next slides

As calculated with respect to the rigid body coordinate frame


ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2010 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.

L6-7

Release 13.0 December 2010

FSI with ANSYS Mechanical and CFX

Mass Moment of Inertia Tensor

Customer Training Material

This tensor describes an objects resistance to changes in its rotation rate I I I


I = I yx I zx
xx xy

I yy I zy

I yz I zz

xz

Its a symmetric tensor, so Ixy = Iyx


Hence only 6 components are entered on the Basic Settings panel

Ixx describes the moment of inertia around the x-axis when the objects are rotated around the x-axis
Non-zero Non zero when you have rotation about the x x-axis axis

Ixy describes the moment of inertia around the y-axis when the objects are rotated around the x-axis x-axis, etc
Non-zero when you have rotation about the x and y axis
ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2010 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.

L6-8

Release 13.0 December 2010

FSI with ANSYS Mechanical and CFX

Mass Moment of Inertia Tensor

Customer Training Material

For rotation about only the y-axis, the tensor simplifies to:
0 0 I = 0 I yy 0 0 0 0 0

For rotation about the x and y axes we have:


I xx I = I yx 0 I xy I yy 0 0 0 0

See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moment_of_inertia for detailed background on mass moment of inertia

ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2010 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.

L6-9

Release 13.0 December 2010

FSI with ANSYS Mechanical and CFX

Rigid Body Dynamics


External Forces / Torques
- Use Spring or Value option
- Spring:
- Set Origin coords and Spring Constant

Customer Training Material

- Value
- Enter Cartesian components (can use CEL expressions)

Degrees of Freedom Select Translational / Rotational DOF Default is None need to set at least one DOF

Enter Gravity Vector


Acts at the centre of mass as set by y Coord Frame Should be consistent with Domain gravity (if specified in the Domain)

Everything specified in Rigid Body Coord Frame


ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2010 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.

L6-10

Release 13.0 December 2010

FSI with ANSYS Mechanical and CFX

Rigid Body Initialization All state variables defining rigid body can be initialized in terms of the rigid body coordinate frame Default behaviour is to use Automatic
Assumes quiescent conditions unless a previous solution is provided to restart from

Customer Training Material

ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2010 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.

L6-11

Release 13.0 December 2010

FSI with ANSYS Mechanical and CFX

Rigid Body Mesh Motion


After creating the rigid body, set mesh motion parameters on boundaries, , subdomains and/or interfaces Option = Rigid Body Solution Rigid Body = <Location> Motion Constraints
Can ignore Translations or Rotations

Customer Training Material

The boundary that corresponds to the rigid body should clearly move with the rigid body, without ignoring any motion T To maintain i t i mesh h quality, lit you may want t other th boundaries/interfaces b d i /i t f to move using only the translations/rotations from the RB solution
ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2010 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.

L6-12

Release 13.0 December 2010

FSI with ANSYS Mechanical and CFX

Rigid Body Mesh Motion Example Ship hull example 2-DOF 2 DOF
Rotation about y-axis Translation along the zaxis

Customer Training Material

A subdomain moves with the rigid body so that near-wall mesh quality can be maintained See EX4 in the examples folder

ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2010 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.

L6-13

Release 13.0 December 2010

FSI with ANSYS Mechanical and CFX

Rigid Body Mesh Motion Example

Customer Training Material

Hull wall boundary mesh motion defined by the Rigid Body Solution

ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2010 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.

L6-14

Release 13.0 December 2010

FSI with ANSYS Mechanical and CFX

Rigid Body Mesh Motion Example

Customer Training Material

Subdomain mesh motion also defined by the Rigid Body Solution


Hull and subdomain rotate and translate together as a rigid body

ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2010 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.

L6-15

Release 13.0 December 2010

FSI with ANSYS Mechanical and CFX

Rigid Body Mesh Motion Example

Customer Training Material

A Domain Interface is used between the subdomain and the rest of the domain The subdomain side of the interface uses the same mesh motion setting as the subdomain and hull

ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2010 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.

L6-16

Release 13.0 December 2010

FSI with ANSYS Mechanical and CFX

Rigid Body Mesh Motion Example

Customer Training Material

The other side of the interface uses the Rigid Body Solution to set the mesh motion, but Ignore Rotations is selected

The mesh slides at the domain interface so rotational motion is not transmitted to the outer domain Translational motion is passed and absorbed by the outer domain
ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2010 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.

L6-17

Release 13.0 December 2010

FSI with ANSYS Mechanical and CFX

Rigid Body Mesh Motion Example This example demonstrates the preferred topology when rotation about a single axis is included For rotation about multiple axes surround the rigid body with a sphere when significant rotation occurs

Customer Training Material

ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2010 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.

L6-18

Release 13.0 December 2010

FSI with ANSYS Mechanical and CFX

CEL Access of Rigid Body Variables

Customer Training Material

Use the rbstate() CEL function to access rigid body variables


E.g. rbstate(Linear Velocity X)@RigidBodyObject

The returned values are with respect to the Global Coord Frame Variables that can be accessed are:
Position X/Y/Z, Linear Velocity X/Y/Z, Linear Acceleration X/Y/Z, Euler Angle X/Y/Z, Angular Velocity X/Y/Z, Angular Acceleration X/Y/Z If a component (X/Y/Z) is not provided the magnitude is returned, except for Euler Angle which requires a component

A beta feature allows values to be returned in the rigid body coordinate frame
E.g. rbstate(linacc x_Coord Name)@RigidBodyObject where linacc x is the short form variable name. See the VARIABLES file in .../ANSYS /ANSYS I Inc/v130/CFX/etc / 130/CFX/ t to find the short form names
ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2010 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.

L6-19

Release 13.0 December 2010

FSI with ANSYS Mechanical and CFX

Rigid Body Solver Control


Solver Control > Rigid Body Control Update Frequency
Every Time Step
Explicit coupling between the rigid body solution and the flow field field. Lowest computational cost, but weakest coupling. Suitable for loosely coupled cases; will be unstable for more tightly coupled l d cases

Customer Training Material

Every Coefficient Loop / Iteration


Tighter coupling that is iteratively-implicit. Higher computational cost, but more stable for large timestep use and cases with high virtual-mass (bodymass ratio). May still fail the forces from the flow field dont get a chance to stabilize after receiving the new rigid body position. Can use underrelaxation (see later). later)

ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2010 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.

L6-20

Release 13.0 December 2010

FSI with ANSYS Mechanical and CFX

Rigid Body Solver Control


Update Frequency (cont.)
General Coupling Control
The most robust approach; same approach as stagger/coupling iterations in 2-way FSI. Set the number of Rigid Body updates to perform per timestep. timestep After each RB update within a timestep, the flow solver will perform the number of p set under Basic coefficient loops Settings.

Customer Training Material

Under Internal Coupling Data Transfer Control can set Under Relaxation Factors and Convergence Control
Available for Update Frequency other than Every Timestep
ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2010 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.

L6-21

Release 13.0 December 2010

FSI with ANSYS Mechanical and CFX

Rigid Body Solver Control


Can adjust under relaxation for forces & torques sent to the RB solver and for mesh motion received from f the RB solver
External Force set via a Linear Spring is not under-relaxed

Customer Training Material

U Under d relaxation l ti is i usually ll the th first fi t choice to improve robustness and is easy to use Default D f lt under d relaxation l ti is i 0.75 0 75

The default Simo Wong g Integration g Method for Angular Momentum is recommended

ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2010 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.

L6-22

Release 13.0 December 2010

FSI with ANSYS Mechanical and CFX

Rigid Body Monitor Plots


Default monitor plots are created
Rigid Body Convergence, Euler Angles & Position

Customer Training Material

Select under Monitors > Rigid Body


Motion convergence is based on the distance moved compared to the last time the RB solver was called Force/Torque convergence is based on the change in force/torque divided by the force/torque magnitude See CFX-Pre Solver Control doc for further details
ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2010 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.

L6-23

Release 13.0 December 2010

FSI with ANSYS Mechanical and CFX

Rigid Body Monitor Plots


Can also access additional plots; create a new monitor or right-click to access Monitor Properties p
Angular/Linear Acceleration and Angular/Linear Velocity are available in addition to the default Position, Euler Angle and Force/Motion Convergence plots

Customer Training Material

ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2010 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.

L6-24

Release 13.0 December 2010

FSI with ANSYS Mechanical and CFX

Rigid Body Solution

Customer Training Material

ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2010 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.

L6-25

Release 13.0 December 2010

FSI with ANSYS Mechanical and CFX

Limitations Cant be combined with MFX 2-way FSI

Customer Training Material

No contact/collision modelling with walls or other rigid bodies


Practically, this only matters for the Immersed Solid approach since the mesh would fold prior to a collision An immersed solid driven by 6-DOF has no problems moving through a wall and outside the flow domain

Cant be used in rotating domains General constraints cant be applied


Cant Can t make a rigid body rotate about a point point, other than its center of mass

ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2010 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.

L6-26

Release 13.0 December 2010