August 02, 2010 This training material was produced for review by the United States Agency for International Development by Global Energy Consulting Engineers and Tetra Tech
TRAINING PROGRAM FOR CEYLON ELECTRICITY ENGINEERS ON POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS AND OPERATION
August 2  13, 2010 Colombo, Sri Lanka
USAID South Asia Regional Initiative for Energy (USAID SARI/Energy) Contract Number 386C00070003300 TASK ORDER 1.3
Prepared for
USAID/Sri Lanka
Prepared by
Tetra Tech DLF Cyber City Building 9B, 11th Floor Gurgaon  122 002 Haryana, India Tel: 91 124 4737400 Fax: 91 124 4737444
DISCLAIMER This training material is made possible by the support of the American people through the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). The contents of this report are the sole responsibility of Tetra Tech and do not necessarily reflect the views of USAID or the United States Government.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This training material was prepared by Global Energy Consulting Engineers and Tetra Tech under Task Order 1.3 : India SriLanka Submarine Cable Interconnection Project. The authors gratefully acknowledge the assistance and support of the Ceylon Electricity Board, Transmission Operations Department and USAID.
Introduction to Power Systems and their Components Basic Functionalities of Power System Grid Operation Power System Representation using Oneline Diagrams Modeling of Transmission Lines and Transformers Modeling of Power System Loads Basic Power Flow Equations Power Flow Analysis 1 Power Flow Analysis 2 Power Flow Analysis 3
1 9 16 22 37 40
7 8 9 10 11 12 13 17 18 19 20
Modeling of HVDC System Power Flow Analysis of AC / HVDC Systems Optimal Power Flow 1 Optimal Power Flow 2 Contingency Analysis 1 Contingency Analysis 2 Principles of Power System Dynamic Simulation Synchronous Machine Models 1 Synchronous Machine Models 2 Generator Capability Curve Excitation System and Controller Models
CRK CRK MSRM MSRM CRK CRK CRK CRK CRK CRK CRK
Modeling of Automatic Voltage Regulators (AVR) Modeling of Power System Stabilizers (PSS) Power Transfer Capability Limits 1 Power Transfer Capability Limits 2
25 26 27 28 29 30
Power System Network Reduction Techniques Modeling of Hydro Turbine and its Governing System Modeling of Steam Turbine and its Governing System Modeling of Gas Turbine and its Control System Modeling of Diesel Engine and its Governing System Modeling of Wind Turbine Generator and its Control System 1 Modeling of Wind Turbine Generator and its Control System 2
32 33 34 35 36
FACTS Controllers Basic Concepts of SSR Tuning of Governor Parameters Tuning of AVR Parameters Transient Stability Analysis 1 Transient Stability Analysis 2
38 39 40
Dynamic Stability Analysis (Small Signal Stability) 1 Dynamic Stability Analysis 2 Static VAR Compensators
Reactive Power Management Voltage Stability Analysis 1 Voltage Stability Analysis 2 Automatic Generation Control (AGC) 1 Automatic Generation Control (AGC) 2
46 47
Basic Concepts of EMTP Impact of Wind Generation Analysis of Wind Generation Penetration
326 331
CRK MSRM
49
Energy Management System and its Application Programs Restructured Electrical Power Systems
340
MSRM
50
346
MSRM
1: INTRODUCTION TO POWER SYSTEMS AND THEIR COMPONENTS 1.1 General The purpose of this presentation is to introduce an overview of electrical power systems to have better understanding of electric power business. New technologies require new institutional approaches; new institutional mechanisms require new technology. Both must be understood. The technological improvements increased transmission and generation capacity at decreasing unit costs, accelerating the high degree of use of electricity .At the same time, the concentration of more capacity in single generating units, plants, and transmission lines had considerably increased the total investment required for such large projects, even though the cost per unit of electricity had come down. Not all of the pioneering units at the next level of size and efficiency were successful, because the technology was not adequate to provide reliable service at the level intended. Each of these steps involved a risk of considerable magnitude to the utility first to install a facility of a new type or a larger size or a higher transmission voltage. Creating the new technology required the investment of considerable capital that in some cases ended up being a penalty to the utility involved. To diversify these risks companies began to jointly own power plants and transmission lines so that each company would have a smaller share, and thus a smaller risk, in any one project. 1.2 Development of Electric Power Grid Electric power must be produced at the instant it is used. Needed supplies cannot be produced in advance and stored for future use. At an early date those providing electric power recognized that peak use for one system often occurred at a different time from peak use in other systems. They also recognized that equipment failures occurred at different times in various systems. Analyses showed significant economic benefits from interconnecting systems to provide mutual assistance. The investment required for generating capacity could be reduced. Reliability could be improved. The development of huge synchronous areas, in each of which all generation is connected directly and indirectly by a network transmission lines (the grid), presents some unique problems because of the special nature of electric power systems. 1.3 Blackouts and the Reliability Crisis As an alternate to additional legislation, the industry recognized the need to govern itself and formed NERC and EPRI. Formal regional reliability criteria were developed, reliability conditions monitored and major funds contributed to develop new technology. 1.4 Environmental Crisis  The Shift to LowSulfur Oil Starting shortly after the reliability crisis, and overlapping it considerably, was the environmental crisis. New environmental legislation was passed. These laws made the siting of new power plants very difficult.
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1.5Electric Power System An electric power system is comprised of the following parts: Customers, who require the electric energy and the devices in which they use the electric energyappliances, lights, motors, computers, industrial processes, and so on; Sources of the electric energyelectric power plants/electric generation of various types and sizes; Delivery system, by which the electric energy is moved from the generators to the customers. Taken together, all of the parts that are electrically connected or intertied operate in an electric balance. The technical term used to describe the balance is that the generators operate in synchronism with one another. 1.6 Customers Customer usage is typically referred to as customer load or the load. Industry practice has been to group customers by common usage patterns. Typically these customer groups (or classes) are: Residential; Commercial; Industrial; Governmental; Traction/railroad. 1.7 Delivery System A system of overhead wires and underground cables is used to deliver the electric energy from the generation sources to the customers. This delivery system, which electrically operates as a three phase, alternating current system, has four parts: 1. Transmission; 2. Subtransmission; Primary distribution; 3. 4. Secondary distribution. The transmission systems in the various parts of the country have different characteristics because of differences in the locations of generating units and stations in relation to the load centers, differences in the sizes and types of generating units, differences in geography and environmental conditions, and differences in the time that the transmission systems were built. As the industry developed, generation sites were usually located away from highdensity customer load centers and the highvoltage transmission system was the most economic and reliable way to move the electricity over long distances. When new large central station generating plants were built, they either were connected to the nearest point on the existing transmission system. The connection points are called substations or switching stations. These new higher voltage lines were connected to the existing system by means of transformers. This process is sometimes referred to as an overlay and resulted in older generation being connected
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to transmission at one voltage level and newer, larger generation connected at a new higher voltage level. Over time, the lower voltage facilities became called subtransmission. 1.8 Interconnections As individual companies built their own transmission, it became apparent that there were many reasons to built transmission lines or interties between adjacent systems. 1.9 GRID The resulting transmission system is not a linear arrangement of lines fed from a single generating station and tying to a single primary distribution system, but something much more complex. Generating units are located at a number of sites as are the locations of distribution substations. The generating sites are often electrically directly connected by transmission lines (some short and some long) to nearby substations where transmission lines also connect. Other transmission lines connect the substations together and also connect to distribution substations where there are connections to lower voltage facilities. Taken together, this arrangement of transmission lines tied together at various substations provides a degree of redundancy in the delivery paths for the electric energy. Power engineers have coined the terms the grid, the bulk power system and the interconnection to describe the delivery system. 1.10Basic Electric Power Concepts It is important to remember that the operation of an electric power system is governed and described by the laws of physics, which are unchanging, whereas the commercial operations are subject to manmade rules which are subject to modification and change. There is an interrelationship between the two in that the rules established for commercial operations must recognize and respect the physical laws by which the power system operates and the commercial rules often determine the design and operation of the system. 1.11 Synchronism When a number of generators are connected to the same electric grid, they are said to be in synchronism because they operate at the same frequency and the angular differences between the voltage angles of each generator are stable and less than 90 degrees. Units operating in synchronism are magnetically coupled by their connections through the power system. If any one changes its angle of operation, all the others are affected. Power in Alternating Current Circuits Apparent power = Real or True power (associated with a resistance) + Reactive power (associated with an inductance or capacitance) . Sources of reactive power which raise voltage: Generators; Capacitors; Lightly loaded transmission lines due to the capacitive charging effect.
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Sinks of reactive power which lower voltage: Inductors; Transformers; Most heavily loaded transmission lines due to the I2 *XL effect; Most customer load (due to the presence of induction motors and the supply to other electric fields). A synchronous generator can be made to be either a source of reactive power or a sink by using the generator excitation system to vary the level of its dc field voltage. During peak load conditions generators are usually operated to supply reactive power to the grid. During light load conditions generators may be used to absorb excess reactive power from the grid, especially where there are long transmission lines or cables nearby. 1.12 Power Flow Stability Stability refers to the ability of the generators in a power system to operate in synchronism both under normal conditions and following disturbances. Three categories of instability are: Steadystate instability; Transient instability; Dynamic instability. 1.13 Technology of the Electric Transmission System This Section discusses the elements of the transmission system. Transmission is the means by which large amounts of power are moved from generating stations, where this power is produced, to substations from which distribution facilities transport the power to customers. Transmission lines are also used to provide connections to neighboring systems. Components The transmission system consists of threephase transmission lines and their terminalscalled substations or switching stations. Transmission lines can be either overhead, underground (cable) or submarine. There are highvoltage alternating current (HVAC) lines and highvoltage direct current lines (HVDC). Overhead transmission, subtransmission and primary distribution lines are strung between towers or poles. In urban settings underground cables are used primarily because of the impracticality of running overhead lines along city streets. While underground cables are more reliable than overhead lines (because they have less exposure to climatological conditions such as hurricanes, ice storms, tornadoes, etc.), they are also much more expensive than overhead lines to construct for unit of capacity and take much longer to repair because of the difficulty in finding the location of a cable failure and replacement. 1.13(a) HVAC Overhead The primary components of an overhead transmission line are:
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Substations
Conductors; Ground or shield wires; Insulators; Support Structures; and Land or rightofway (ROW).
Transmission System Aging 1.13 (b) HVDC Knowledge Required of Transmission System Those familiar with transmission system problems and policies have developed the following list, sometimes called the ten commandments of transmission knowledge: Thou shall understand and consider: 1. How systems are planned and operated; 2. Effect of generation on transmission and vise versa; 3. Causes of circulating power, parallel path flow, and loop flow; 4. Differences between individual circuit capacities and transmission capacities; 5. Synchronous ac connection advantages and disadvantages; 6. Reactive power and its role; 7. Causes and consequences of blackouts; 8. Need for new technology; 9. Disincentives to building new transmission; 10. Need for special training and education. 1.14 Functioning of the Electric Bulk Power System So far we have discussed the elements of the electric system. This Section addresses how these elements come together to ensure that electricity is available when needed. The chapter will cover both the operation and the planning of the system. The process by which the electric bulk power system functions has both a technical and organizational dimension. 1.15 Coordination The operation of the bulk power system in the United States reflects the interdependency of the various entities involved in supplying electricity to the ultimate consumers. These interdependencies have evolved as the utility industry grew and expanded over the century. 1.16 Operation Control Areas The overriding objectives of those individuals responsible for the performance of the electric system is to ensure that at every moment of time there is sufficient generation to reliably supply the customer requirements and all associated delivery system losses. The process is complicated by the fact that the customer load changes continuously and, therefore, the generation must
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adjust immediately, either up or down, to accommodate the load change. Since electric power cannot be stored, the generation change must be accomplished by a physical adjustment of the equipment generating the electricity. To coordinate the operation of the bulk power system, a system of control areas has evolved. Each control area is responsible for maintaining its own load/generation balance including its scheduled interchange, either purchases or sales. A control area can consist of a generator or group of generators, an individual company, or a portion of a company or a group of companies providing it meets certain certification criteria specified by NERC. It may be a specific geographic area with set boundaries or it may be scattered generation and load. Each control center maintains communication with adjoining areas in order to coordinate operations. Coordination activities can include interarea power exchanges, power transfer limits on interties and circulating or inadvertent power flows. 1.17 Ancillary Services Ancillary Services needed to facilitate the operation of a bulk supply system are grouped into categories. Emergencies At present, two basic philosophies exist concerning potential emergencies. 1. Preventative Philosophy. 2. Corrective Philosophy. Eventually both the capacity and reliability of transmission networks will have to be improved simultaneously through development of a highly automated, smart power system. The grid will need technological advances in four major areas: 1. Improved physical control to expedite grid operations by switching power more quickly and preventing the propagation of disturbances; 2. Monitoring systems that can improve reliability by surveying network conditions over a wide area; 3. Analytical capability to interpret the data provided by the wide area monitoring system for use in network control; and 4. A hierarchical control scheme that will integrate all the above technologies and facilitate flexible network operations on a continental scale. Electric systems are now adding these technologies to their transmission systems, creating smart networks. The possible future of these smart control schemes will have to be carefully analyzed to recognize and evaluate such a potential future. 1.18 Power Transfer Limits A primary aspect of a control centers responsibility toward the reliability of the bulk power system is to make certain that the levels of power transfers that take place are within the capability of the bulk power transmission system reflecting that areas operating criteria. Reduction of Power TransfersCongestion Management
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Congestion is a term that is applied to situations where the amount of power flowing or projected to flow across a group of transmission lines (a flowgate or interface) exceeds its capacity. 1.19 Planning Prior to the opening of the transmission system to many different users, the planning process was reasonably straightforward. The process integrated load forecasting, generation planning and transmission planning and was usually done by one entity, either a company or a power pool. The process normally started with a peak load forecast. In most cases the forecast projected a growth in peak loads. The planning objectives were: Generationto have enough generation capacity to meet the projected peak load plus a reserve margin; Transmissionto connect generators to the grid, to have enough transmission capability to reliably deliver generation and firm purchases to existing and new load centers, to accommodate the sharing of reserves with nearby areas, and to allow economically driven power exchanges both intraarea and interarea; To provide these services over an extended period of time at minimum cost. In both cases, the financial return on and of the resulting facilities was regulated and based on a costofservice perspective. 1.20 Planning Standards NERCs Planning Standards define the reliability aspect of the interconnected bulk electric systems in two dimensions: 1. Adequacythe ability of the electric systems to supply the aggregate electrical demand and energy requirements of their customers at all times, taking into account scheduled and reasonably expected unscheduled outages of system elements; 2. Securitythe ability of the electric systems to withstand sudden disturbances such as electric short circuits or unanticipated loss of system elements. To these we should add safety for workers and the general public and, especially since September 11th, 2001, an expanded sense of the meaning of the term security. 1.21 Transmission Planning NERC specifies transmission systems planning standards that cover the types of contingencies that must be examined for conditions for all facilities in service and with facilities outofservice for maintenance while delivering generator output to projected customer demands and providing contracted firm (nonrecallable reserved) transmission services, at all demand levels. These contingencies can result in the loss of single or multiple components. NERC also covers in its Planning Standards: Reliability assessment; Facility connection requirements; Voltage support and reactive power; Transfer capability; Disturbance monitoring.
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As a generation expansion pattern was being developed, transmission planners would address the transmission expansion needed to accommodate the generation and the forecast load growth. There are three situations that confront the transmission planner: 1. Connect a new generator or generating station to the grid. 2. Connect a new substation to the grid. 3. Reinforce the existing grid. After examining the need over a sufficiently long time span, decisions are needed on the voltage level of the new line(s), their thermal capacity, their terminal locations, and the circuit breaker arrangements at these locations. LoadFlow Studies. Stability Studies. ShortCircuit Duty Studies.
REFERENCES : [ 1 ] Jack Casazza & Frank Delea : Understanding Electric Power Systems : An Overview of the Technology and the Marketplace IEEE Press, WileyInterscience, 2003.
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2.1 INTRODUCTION The power system interconnects generating sources and loads through the transmission network and distribution network in the form of a GRID. The operation of the grid is a complex process involving generators, transmission lines etc. In this lecture various aspects of power system (grid) operation are discussed. 2.2 BASIC POWER SYSTEM A power system consists of: Power plants: Thermal (Coal / Oil, diesel, gasbased) , Hydro, Nuclear etc., Transmission lines, Distribution lines Substations with transformers, circuit breakers, protection system, capacitors Static Var Compensation & FACTS devices HVDC transmission equipment with converter devices Renewable Energy sources like wind generator, solar power plants etc. Load dispatch centre / System Control Centre / Energy Control Centre (ECC) with computes performing Energy Management systems (EMS) functions. Communication devices like Remote Terminal Units (RTUs) 2.3 Information & Communication Technologies (ICT) play a vital role in the modern power systems operation. A typical power system scheme is shown in a simplified way. Generation is at a voltage level of 11 kV and transmission is at 132 / 220 / 400 kV etc., Transformers located at substations convert the voltage from one level to another. Loads may be connected at different voltage levels usually from 33kV and lower.
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2.4 INTERCONNECTION The power plants are located at different places away from load centers based on the considerations of availability of coal /oil/ gas, hydraulic resources etc.,. Wind power plants are located at the places where sufficient wind velocity is true. The grid may be formed at various regions or areas as local grid. Interconnection of regions has shared advantages. Power from surplus regions can be shared by regions with deficit capacities. The need for spare capacity (spinning reserve) is less. In case of emergencies, support for regulation of frequency of voltage will be available from healthy regions. Economy and Security are thus prime considerations in the interconnection of power systems. 2.5 POWER INDUSTRY STRUCTURE In the classical structure of power system, the generation, transmission and distribution are vertically integrated. In the recent years, deregulation has taken place and horizontal structure has evolved as shown in figure. Several private participants joined the generation & distribution business.
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The voltage regulation is done at varies locations in the lower supply at local level and at power station level by the following mechanisms Transformer tap changing Switching capacitors Line compensation using reactors Synchronous condensers Excitation control of generates at power stations.
The modern grid operation is computerized and central control is exercised from Energy Control Centre (ECS) by Energy Management system (EMS).
The operation of the power system can be considered in terms of various operating states as described by Di Lyaccio. These operating states are: 1. 2. 3. 4. Normal state Alert State Emergency state Blackout
During the Normal state the load requirements are met by the generation. The system frequency and voltage are maintained at the rated values. The main consideration in operation is economic operation. How to meet the load requirement with minimum expenditure on fuel? Which generators should be run at what load? The constraints to be considered are the limits on transmission line capacities and transformer capacities. During the normal state, load continuously varies but does not cause major deviations in frequency and voltage. The generation control and systemwide controls can regulate the frequency and voltage. Enough generation margins are available. However contingencies can occur during the normal state. These contingencies can be in the form of line trip or generating unit trip or any other fault. There are mechanisms provided to tackle the contingencies like spinning reserve, protection systems. The state of the power system changes from normal state to alert state. Preventive control actions are initiated to bring the power system state to normal state.
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Fig. 3 POWER SYSTEM OPERATION IN TIME FRAME 2.11 SUMMARY The power system operation has the main objective of supplying electrical energy at most economical way keeping the system parameters voltage and frequency at the specified values. Security is of utmost concern for various contingencies. The computerized operation with Energy Management systems (EMS), a set of computer programs is done from the Energy Control Centre. Deregulation has made the power system operation more complex due to the commercial aspects that are to be considered in the technical operation.
REFERENCES
1. Olle. I. Elgerd, Electric Energy Systems Theory An Introduction, Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Company Ltd, New Delhi, Second Edition, 2003. 2. Allen.J.Wood and Bruce F.Wollenberg, Power Generation, Operation and Control, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2003. 3. P. Kundur, Power System Stability & Control, McGraw Hill Publications, USA, 1994. 4. D.P. Kothari and I.J. Nagrath, Modern Power System Analysis, Third Edition, Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Company Limited, New Delhi, 2003. 5. L.L. Grigsby, The Electric Power Engineering, Hand Book, CRC Press & IEEE Press, 2001.
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A typical single line diagram of a simple power system is shown in Fig. 2. The power system has two synchronous machines, two loads, two busses, two transformers, and a transmission line to connect busses together.
Bus is shown with a vertical bar with number 1 and 2. Bus is a node to which various components are connected. Generators are represented by circles and the 3 connections of generators are shown with neutral grounded either directly or through a resistor.
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All devices are protected by oil circuit breakers (OCBs). We notice that the diagram indicates the type of connection for each machine and transformer, and also the points in the system connected to the ground.
Machine ratings, impedances, and/or consumed (or supplied) powers are usually included in the diagrams.
The active powers, reactive powers at various points like generator terminals, loads, both ends of transmission lines are also shown for different scenarios.
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The analysis is carried by considering the equivalent circuits of components. Generator is represented by an A.C source in series with a reactance. Transmission line is represented by a equivalent circuit with series & shunt elements (resistance, reactance and capacitance). The perphase impedance diagram of the single line diagram is shown in Fig.3.
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In power systems analysis computer programs like PSS/E, Powerworld a library of modules representing components are made available. A component like bus may be selected and dragged into work space. Other components like generator, loads, transmission lines etc., may also be dragged and connected. For each component, data required is to be filled in formats provided which usually will be open when right clicked on a component. Various options are given to design the graphics like size and orientation of the components, thickness of lines etc. 3.5 CONCLUSION Single line diagrams are the starting point for the analysis of power systems in the computer programs. Load flow studies, fault analysis etc., are carried out by creating conditions on the one line / single line diagram. Stability analysis, Automatic generator control study are not done using one line diagram. The representation will be in the form of equations or block diagrams with transfer functions. REFERENCES 1. Grainger, J. J., Stevenson, W. D, Power System Analysis: McGrawHill, New York, 1994. 2. Arthur R. Bergen, Vijay Vittal, Power Systems Analysis (2nd Edition), Pearson Education (Singapore) Pte Ltd (2009) . . 3. I.J.Nagrath and D.P.Kothari, Modern Power System Analysis, Tata McGraw Hill, 1980 4. G.L.Kusic, Computer Aided Power System Analysis, Prentice Hall, 1986.
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4: MODELING OF TRANSMISSIONLINES AND TRANSFORMERS 4.1 Modeling of Transmission Lines Electrical power is transferred from generating stations to consumers through overhead Overhead lines are used for long distances in open country and rural areas, lines and cables. whereas cables are used for underground transmission in urban areas and for underwater crossings. For the same rating, cables are 10 to 15 times more expensive than overhead lines and they are therefore only used in special situations where overhead lines cannot be used; the distances in such applications are short. 4.2 Electrical Characteristics (a) Overhead lines A transmission line is characterized by four parameters: series resistance R due to the conductor resistivity, shunt conductance G due to leakage currents between the phases and ground, series inductance L due to magnetic field surrounding the conductors, and shunt capacitance C due to the electric field between conductors. (b) Underground cables Underground cables have the same basic parameters as overhead lines: series resistance and inductance; shunt capacitance and conductance. However, the values of the parameters and hence the characteristic of cables differ significantly from those of overhead lines for the following reasons: 1. The conductors in a cable are much closer to each other than are the conductors of overhead lines. 2. The conductors in a cable are surrounded by metallic bodies such as shields, lead or aluminum sheets, and steel pipes. 3. The insulating material between conductors in a cable is usually impregnated paper, lowviscosity oil, or an inert gas. 4.3 Natural or Surge Impedance Loading Since G is negligible and R is small, highvoltage lines are assumed to be lossless when we are dealing with lightning and switching surges. Hence, the characteristic impedance Zc with losses neglected is commonly referred to as the surge impedance. It is equal to (L/C) and has the dimension of a pure resistance. The propagation constant, , is defined as, = (yz) = + j .
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The power delivered by a transmission line when it is terminated by its surge impedance is known as the natural load or surge impedance load (SIL):
SIL = V 02 ZC
(1)
where V0 is the rated voltage of the line. If V0 is the linetoneutral voltage, SIL given by the above equation is the perphase value; if V0 is the linetoline value, then SIL is the threephase value. At SIL, transmission lines (lossless) exhibit the following special characteristics: % have constant amplitude along the line. % and I V % are in phase throughout the length of the line. % and I V The phase angle between the sending end and receiving end voltages (currents) is equal to l.
At the natural load, the reactive power generated by C is equal to the reactive power absorbed by L, for each incremental length of the line. Hence, no reactive power is absorbed or generated at either end of the line, and the voltage and current profiles are flat. This is an optimum condition with respect to control of voltage and reactive power. The natural or surge impedance loading of a line serves as a convenient reference quantity for evaluating and expressing its capability. 4.4 Classification of line length Overhead lines may be classified according to length, based on the approximations justified in their modeling: (a) Short lines: lines shorter than about 80 km (50 mi). They have negligible shunt capacitance, and may be represented by their series impedance. (b) Mediumlength lines: lines with lengths in the range of 80 km to about 200 km (125 mi). They may be represented by the nominal equivalent circuit. (c) Long lines: lines longer than about 200 km. For such lines the distributed effects of the parameters are significant. They need to be represented by the equivalent circuit. Alternatively, they may be represented by cascaded sections of shorter lengths, with each section represented by a nominal equivalent.
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4.5 Performance Requirements of Power Transmission Lines Efficiency, economy and reliability of supply are factors of prime importance in the case of power transmission. There is only one frequency, and distortion is not a problem in the same sense as it is in communication lines. The lengths of most power lines are a fraction of the normal wavelength; hence, the lines can be terminated on equivalent load impedances which are much lower than their characteristic impedances. If the power line is very long (greater than 500 km), terminating close to the characteristic impedance becomes imperative. To increase power levels that can be transmitted, either the characteristic impedance has to be reduced (by adding compensation) or the transmission voltage has to be increased. Voltage regulation, thermal limits, and system stability are the factors that determine the power transmission capability of power lines. 4.6 TERMINAL V, I RELATIONS We consider the transmission line in the sinusoidal steady state. Thus we may use phasors and impedances. Assume that z = r + j = series impedance per meter y = g + jc = shunt admittance per meter to neutral The lowercase letters are sued for the distributed parameters; we will reserve uppercase letters for lumped (total) impedances and admittances. We also note the use of the symbol for (distributed) inductance and l for total length of line. The per phase circuit is shown in Fig.1. The per phase terminal voltages and currents are V1 and I1 at the left end and V2 and I2 at the right end. With the given reference directions for current it is useful to think of the left side (side 1) as the sending end of the line and the right side (side 2) as the receiving end.
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Fig. 1: Transmission line A typical differential section of line length dx is shown in Fig.1. The series impedance of the differential section is then z dx. The shunt admittance is y dx; its location within the differential section is of no consequence. Note that the receiving end is located at x = 0, the sending end is at x = l. We get the pair of equations V = V2 cosh x + ZcI2 sinh x I = I2 cosh x + (V2 / Zc) sinh x where (yz) is called the propagation constant. (2)
and Z c
We are particularly interested in the terminal conditions (i.e., V and I when x = l). In this case V1 = V2 cosh l + Zc I2 sinh l I1 = I2 cosh l + (V2 / Zc) sinh l (3)
Equation (3) is the desired relationship between the per phase voltages and currents at the two ends of the transmission line. The relationship is specified by the series impedance z and shunt admittance y in combination in their effect on the propagation constant and the characteristic impedance Zc.
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4.7 Transmission Matrix Considering equation (3), we note that it is in the form V1 = AV2 + BI2 I2 = CV2 + DI2 (4) where A = cosh l C = (l / Zc) sinh l B = Zc sinh l D = cosh l (5)
Note: If is complex, A, B, C, and D also are complex. The A, B, C, D parameters are called transmission parameters. The matrix
A T = C
2
B D
(6)
is called a transmission matrix or chain matrix. By direct calculation det T = AD BC = cosh l sinh2 l = 1. Thus the inverse exists and in fact is
D B T 1 = A C
(7)
The advantage of the transmission matrix description is that the T matrix for a cascade of two ports is the product of individual T matrices. 4.8 LumpedCircuit Equivalent We next wish to derive a lumpedcircuit equivalent for the transmission line. We will find a equivalent circuit which has the same A, B, C, D parameters as the transmission line. We note that a Tequivalent circuit may also be derived. In either case, for electrical engineers there are many advantages to the circuit representation. Among these is a better sense of the physical behavior of the line.
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Z Y C = Y 1 + 4
D = 1+
Z Y 2
Now that Z and Y have been defined, it is useful to note the following alternative expressions for Zc and l.
Zc = z = y
zy l =
zl = yl
ZY
Z Y
(8) (9)
and
l =
4.9 Simplified Models The circuit in Fig.2 is equivalent to the equations given in (3). Sometimes it is more convenient to use one representation over the other, but either may be used to give the exact relationships between the terminal voltages and currents of a transmission line. For a long line the use of the exact circuit and/or equations is indicated. However, for mediumlength lines, it turns out that the circuit and equations may be greatly simplified. Thus, we can see that it l << 1, and we can replace Z by Z, and Y by Y. In this case the circuit elements in Fig.2 may
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be found without the tedious calculation of the correction factors. For socalled short lines, with Y small, we can even leave out the shunting elements. Experience indicates the following classification of lines to be reasonable. Long line ( l > 150 mi, approximately): Use the equivalent circuit model with Z and ( Y / 2 ) ; of course, instead of the circuit model we can use (3). Mediumlength line (50 < l < 150 mi, approximately): Use the circuit model with Z and (Y/2) instead of Z and ( Y / 2), where Z = zl and Y = yl. This is called the nominal equivalent circuit. Short line (l < 50 mi, approximately): same as the mediumlength line except that we neglect Y/2. Example: Consider the receivingend voltage of a lossless opencircuited line and compare the results by use of the three models. V1 is a fixed voltage. Solution j. By open circuited we mean I2 = 0. By lossless we mean = 0, or equivalently =
Model 1: Longline model. It is easiest to use (3) rather than the circuit model and we find that V1 = V2 cosh l = V2 cos l Model 2: Mediumlength line model. Using the nominal equivalent circuit we get
ZY ( l ) 2 V1 = 1 + V 1 = + 2 2 2 ( l )2 V 1 = 2 2 V2
The terms in parentheses are seen to be the first two terms in the series expansion of cos l. Model 3: Shortline model. We get V1 = V2
Thus it appears we have retained only the first term in the series expansion of cos l and have completely lost the property observed in the first two models that the voltage at the (open) receiving end is higher than at the sending end, for small l.
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Let us compare these models as they predict V2 for different length lines. A figure of = 0.002 rad/mi is representative for a 60Hz openwire line. For a 50mi line, l 0.1 rad and thus Model 1 : V1 = 0.995004V2 Model 2 : V1 = 0.995000V2 Model 3 : V1 = V2 The errors in calculating V2 are certainly negligible in using the simpler models. But consider a 200mi line, l 0.4. Model 1 : V1 = 0.921V2 Model 2 : V2 = 0.920V2 Model 3 : V3 = V2 The differences between models 1 and 2 are still negligible but there is about a 8% error in using the shortline model. Finally, consider a 600mi line, l 1.2. Model 1 : V1 = 0.362V2 Model 2 : V1 = 0.280V2 Model 3 : V1 = V2 The difference between the exact (longline) model and the nominal equivalent model is significant. The shortline model is totally inaccurate. (A) Modeling of Transformers: Transformers enable utilization of different voltage levels across the system. From the viewpoints of efficiency and powertransfer capability, the transmission voltages have to be high, but it is not practically feasible to generate and consume power at these voltages. In modern electric power systems, the transmitted power undergoes four to five voltage transformations between the generators and the ultimate consumers. Consequently, the total MVA rating of all the transformers in a power system is about five times the total MVA rating of all the generators. In addition to voltage transformation, transformers are often used for control of voltage and reactive power flow. Therefore, practically all transformers used for bulk power transmission and many distribution transformers have taps in one or more windings for changing the turns
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ratio. From the power system viewpoint, changing the ratio of transformation is required to compensate for variations in system voltages. Two types of tapchanging facilities are provided: offload tap changing and under load tap changing (ULTC). The offload tapchanging facilities require the transformer to be deenergized for tap changing; they are used when the ratio will need to be changed only to meet longterm variations due to load growth, system expansion, or seasonal changes. The ULTC is used when the changes in ratio need to be frequent; for example, to take care of daily variations in system conditions. The taps normally allow the ratio to vary in the range of 10% to 15%. When the voltage transformation ratio is small, autotransformers are normally used. The primary and secondary windings of autotransformers are interconnected so that the power to be transformed by magnetic coupling is only a portion of the total power transmitted through the transformer. There is thus inherent metallic connection between the primary side and secondary side circuits; this is unlike the conventional twowinding transformer which isolates the two circuits. As compared to the conventional twowinding transformer, the autotransformer has advantages of lower cost, higher efficiency, and better regulation. These advantages become less significant as the transformation ratio increases; hence, autotransformers are used for low transformation ratios (for example, 500/230 kV). In interconnected systems, it sometimes becomes necessary to make electrical connections that form loop circuits through one or more power systems. To control the circulation of power and prevent overloading certain lines, it is usually necessary in such situations to use phaseangle transformers. Often it is necessary to vary the extent of phase shift to suit changing system conditions; this requires provision of onload phaseshifting capability. Voltage transformation may also be required in addition to phase shift. Here, we will focus on representation of transformers in stability and powerflow studies. 4.10 Representation of TwoWinding Transformers Basic equivalent circuit in physical units: The basic equivalent circuit of a twowinding transformer with all quantities in physical units is shown in figure 3. The subscripts p and s refer to primary and secondary quantities, respectively. The magnetizing reactance Xmp is very large and is usually neglected. For special studies requiring representation of transformer saturation, the magnetizing reactance representation may be approximated by moving it to the primary or the secondary terminals and treating it as a voltagedependent variable shunt reactance.
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With appropriate choice of primary and secondary side base quantities, the equivalent circuit can be simplified by eliminating the ideal transformer. However, this is not always possible and the base quantities often have to be chosen independent of the actual turns ratio. It is therefore necessary to consider an offnominal turns ratio.
Zp = Rp + jXp ; Zs = Rs + jXs Rp, Rs = primary and secondary winding resistances Xp, Xs = primary and secondary winding leakage reactances np, ns = number of turns of primary and secondry winding Xmp = magnetizing reactance referred to the primary side Fig. 3 Basic equivalent circuit of a twowinding transformer Standard equivalent circuit: The equivalent circuit can be reduced to the standard form shown in Figure 4, where n is the per unit turns ratio:
n = np ns = n p ns 0 n p 0 ns
Z e = n s2 ( Z p 0 + Z s 0 )
n = s (Z p0 + Z s0 ) ns 0
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Figure 4 Standard equivalent circuit for a transformer The equivalent circuit of Figure 4 is widely used for representation of twowinding transformers in power flow and stability studies. The IEEE common format for exchange of solved power flow cases uses this representation. We see from above that Z e does not change with n p . Therefore, if the tap is on the primary side, only n changes. If the actual turns ratio is equal to np0 / ns0, then n =1.0, and the ideal transformer vanishes. When the actual turns ratio is not equal to the nominal turns ratio, n represents the offnominal ratio (ONR). The equivalent circuit of Figure 4 can be used to represent a transformer with a fixed (or offload) tap on one side and an underload tap changer (ULTC) on the other side. The offnominal turns ratio is assigned to the side with ULTC and Z e has a value corresponding to the fixedtap position of the other side. Equivalent circuit representation : We will therefore reduce the equivalent circuit of Figure 4 to the form of a network of Figure 5.
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(10) (11)
where c =
1 n
y 3 = (1 c )Ye
(12)
The equivalent circuit with parameters expressed in terms of the ONR and transformer leakage impedance is shown in Figure 5. 4.11 Consideration of threephase transformer connections The standard equivalent circuit of Figure 4 represents the singlephase equivalent of a threephase transformer. In establishing the ONR, the nominal turns ratio (np0/ns0) is taken to be equal to the ratio of linetoline base voltages on both sides of the transformer irrespective of the winding connections (YY, , or Y). For YY and  connected transformers, this makes the ratios of the base voltages equal to the ratios of the nominal turns of the primary and secondary windings of each transformer phase. For a Y connected transformer, this in addition accounts for the factor 3 due to the winding connection. In the case of a Y connected transformer, a 30o phase shift is introduced between linetoline voltages on the two sides of the transformer. The linetoneutral voltages and line currents are similarly shifted in phase due to the winding connections. It is usually not necessary to take this phase shift into consideration in system studies. Thus, the singlephase equivalent circuit of a Y transformer does not account for the phase shift, except in so far as the phase shift of voltages due to the impedance of the transformer. 4.12 Representation of ThreeWinding Transformers
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Figure 6 shows the singlephase equivalent of a threewinding transformer under balanced conditions. The effect of the magnetizing reactance has been neglected, and the transformer is represented by three impedances connected to form a star. The common star point is fictitious and unrelated to the system neutral.
Figure 6 Equivalent circuit of a threewinding transformer The three windings of the transformer may have different MVA ratings. However, the per unit impedances must be expressed on the same MVA base. As in the case of the twowinding transformer equivalent circuit developed in the previous section, offnominal turns ratios are used to account for the differences between the ratios of actual turns and the base voltages. The values of the equivalent impedances Zp, Zs and Zt may be obtained by standard shortcircuit tests as follows. Zps = leakage impedance measured in primary with secondary shorted and tertiary open Zpt = leakage impedance measured in primary with tertiary shorted and secondary open Zst = leakage impedance measured in secondary with tertiary shorted and primary open Zp = (Zps + Zpt Zst) Zs = (Zps + Zst  Zpt) Zt = (Zpt + Zst Zps) In large transformers, Zs is small and may even be negative. 4.13 PhaseShifting Transformers A phaseshifting transformer can be represented by the equivalent circuit shown in Figure 7. It consists of an admittance in series with an ideal transformer having a complex turns ratio, % = n . The phase angle step size may not be equal at different tap positions. However, n equal step size is usually used in power flow and transient stability programs. (13)
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(14)
% p leads v %q . where is the phase shift from bus p to bus q; it is positive when v
We obtain the following matrix equation relating the phaseshifter terminal voltages and currents.
Ye % i p a s2 + b s2 = i%s Ye a + jb s s Ye a s jbs Ye
(15)
We see that the admittance matrix in the above equation is not symmetrical, that is, the transfer admittance from p to s is not equal to the transfer admittance from s to p. therefore, a equivalent circuit is not possible. If the turns ratio is real (i.e., a s = n and bs = 0), the model reduces to the equivalent circuit shown in Figure 5.
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REFERENCES: [ 1 ] Arthur R. Bergen & Vijay Vittal : Power System Analysis , 2nd edition, Prentice Hall, Inc., 2000. [ 2 ] Prabha Kundur : Power System Stability and control , Engineering Series, McGrawHill, Inc., 1994. The EPRI Power System
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5: MODELLING OF POWER SYSTEM LOADS Stable operation of a power system depends on the ability to continuously match the electrical output of generating units to the electrical load on the system. Consequently, load characteristics have an important influence on system stability. The modeling of loads is complicated because a typical load bus represented in stability studies is composed of a large number of devices such as fluorescent and incandescent lamps, refrigerators, heaters, compressors, motors, furnaces, and so on. The exact composition of load is difficult to estimate. Also, the composition changes depending on many factors including time (hour, day, season), weather conditions, and state of the economy. Even if the load composition were known exactly, it would be impractical to represent each individual component as there are usually millions of such components in the total load supplied by a power system. Therefore, load representation in system studies is based on a considerable amount of simplification. 5.1 Basic LoadModeling Concepts In power system stability and power flow studies, the common practice is to represent the composite load characteristics as seen from bulk power delivery points. The load models are traditionally classified into two broad categories: static models and dynamic models. 5.2 Static Load Models A static load model expresses the characteristics of the load at any instant of time as algebraic functions of the bus voltage magnitude and frequency at that instant. The active power component P and the reactive power component Q are considered separately. Traditionally, the voltage dependency of load characteristics has been represented by the exponential model:
P = P0 (V ) a
Q = Q 0 (V ) b
(1)
V = V V0
where P and Q are active and reactive components of the load when the bus voltage magnitude is V. The subscript 0 identifies the values of the respective variables at the initial operating condition.
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The parameters of this model are the exponents a and b. With these exponents equal to 0, 1, or 2, the model represents constant power, constant current, or constant impedance characteristics, respectively. For composite loads, their values depend on the aggregate characteristics of load components. The exponent a (or b) is nearly equal to the slope dP/dV (or dQ/dV) at V=V0. A significant characteristic of the exponent b is that it varies as a nonlinear function of voltage. At higher voltages, Q tends to be significantly higher. An alternative model which has been widely used to represent the voltage dependency of loads is the polynomial model:
2 P = P0 p1V + p 2V + p 3
2 Q = Q0 q1V + q 2V + q 3
(2)
This model is commonly referred to as the ZIP model, as it is composed of constant impedance (Z), constant current (I), and constant power (P) components. The parameters of the model are the coefficients p1 to p3 and q1 to q3, which define the proportion of each component. The frequency dependency of load characteristics is usually represented by multiplying the exponential model or the polynomial model by a factor as follows:
P = P0 (V ) a (1 + K pf f ) Q = Q 0 (V ) b (1 + K qf f )
(3)
Or
2 P = P0 p1V + p 2V + p 3 (1 + K pf f ) 2 Q = Q0 q1V + q 2V + q 3 (1 + K qf f )
where f is the frequency deviation (ff0). 5.3 Dynamic Load Models The response of most composite loads to voltage and frequency changes is fast, and the steady state of the response is reached very quickly. This is true at least for modest amplitudes of voltage / frequency change. The use of static models described in the previous sections is justified in such cases.
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There are, however, many cases where it is necessary to account for the dynamics of load components. Studies of interarea oscillations, voltage stability, and longterm stability often require load dynamics to be modeled. Study of systems with large concentrations of motors also requires representation of load dynamics. Typically, motors consume 60 to 70% of the total energy supplied by a power system. Therefore, the dynamics attributable to motors are usually the most significant aspects of dynamic characteristics of system loads. 5.4 Modeling of Induction Motors: Induction motors in particular form the workhorse of the electric power industry; hence modeling of motors is important in system stability studies. 5.5 Synchronous Motor Model : A synchronous motor is modeled in the same manner as a synchronous generator. The only difference is that, instead of a prime mover providing mechanical torque input to the generator, the motor drives a mechanical load.
REFERENCES: [1] Prabha Kundur: Power System Stability and control , Engineering Series, McGrawHill, Inc., 1994. The EPRI Power System
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69: POWER FLOW EQUATIONS AND ANALYSIS 69.1 INTRODUCTIONS The power flow analysis is important to both electric power system planners, electric power system operators, and electric power system operational planners. To carry out the load flow or power flow study, the following are required: Single Line Diagram of the power system Impedance diagram and admittance diagram derived from the equivalent circuits of generators, transmission lines, loads etc., with voltage/current sources, impedances Admittance matrix or Y Bus Matrix In this Chapter the formation of the Y Bus matrix is explained. 69.2 IMPEDANCE AND ADMITTANCE MATRICES Consider the voltage source with voltage (Vs) in series with impedance (Zs) which reprents the Thevenin equivalent circuit of a generator. The circuit can be represented with Norton equivalent current source (Is) and admittance (Ys) sing the following relations:
IS =
VS 1 and YS = ZS ZS
Fig. 1 (a) Voltage source with a source impedance and (b) its Norton equivalent.
A 4Bus power system is shown in Fig. 2 in which generators are connected to buses 1 and 2 through transformers. Between each bus there is a transmission line.
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The impedance diagram for the 4bus power system is shown below in Fig.2 where neutral is represented by node 0. Voltage source in series with impedance represents generator. Each transmission line is represented by the impedance like Z12 ,Z13 etc.,
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0 = Y13 (V3 V1 ) + Y23 (V3 V2 ) + Y34 (V3 V4 ) 0 = Y24 (V4 V2 ) + Y34 (V4 V3 )
Combining the above equations, the following matrix equation can be obtained.
0 V1 Y12 Y13 I1 Y11 + Y12 + Y13 I Y22 + Y12 + Y23 + Y24 Y12 Y23 Y24 V2 2 = 0 Y13 + Y23 + Y34 Y13 Y23 Y34 V3 0 Y24 + Y34 V4 Y24 Y34 0
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Ybus
Ybus
Y1 Y = 12 M Y1n
Y12 Y2 M
Y2 n
n
Where
Yk = Ykj
j =1
It may be noted that Ybus is a symmetric matrix in which the sum of all the elements of the kth column is Ykk. The bus impedance and admittance matrices are inverses of each other. Also since Ybus is a symmetric matrix, Zbus is also a symmetric matrix. The voltagecurrent relation can be written in terms of the Zbus matrix as
V1 Z11 V Z 2 = 21 V3 Z 31 V4 Z 41
Z12 Z 22 Z 32 Z 42
Z13 Z 23 Z 33 Z 43
Z14 I1 Z 24 I2 Z 34 I 3 Z 44 I 4
Power system is a complex electric network and it is required to find the voltages, currents and powers at various points. In most electrical circuit analyses, the network consists of known impedances, voltage sources, and current sources. However, in the load flow problem, active and reactive powers, rather than shunt impedances, are specified at most network busses, because most loads behave, on average, as constant power loads (active and reactive power), as long as their applied voltage remains within reasonable ranges.
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The purpose of the load flow program is to compute bus voltages and line/transformer/cable power flows once network topology, impedances, loads, and generators have been specified. Ideally, the computed bus voltages for the study system should remain within acceptable ranges, and line/transformer/cable power flows should be below their rated values, for a reasonable set of outage contingencies. Given knowledge of the real and reactive demands, the real power generation, and the generator terminal voltages,together with the network topology, compute the voltage magnitudes and angles at all buses. From bus voltage magnitudes and angles, all of the real and reactive power flows along the circuits can then be directly computed. To do this, we consider a general node, any node, in the network. Lets assume, for example, that we have a 4 node network, and we want to express the complex power for node 3. This is just going to be:
* S3 = V3 I 3
The complex power S3 is defined positive when power is injected into the bus (as a generator) and negative when power is required from the bus (as a load). Defining SG3 and SD3 as the generation and load components of S3, respectfully, then, we have:
S 3 = SG 3 S D 3
Recall the Ybus relation.
(2)
(3)
(4)
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* I3 = Y3*kVk* k =1 4
(5)
(6)
(7)
S 3 = Y3*k V3 e j 3 Vk e j k
k =1
(8)
Note that the negative sign on the Vk angle comes from the conjugation of Vk in (7).
S3 = Y3*k V3 Vk e j ( 3 k )
k =1
(9)
Now consider Y3k in eq. (9). It is a complex number and can therefore be written in either rectangular or polar form, i.e.,
Y3 k = G3 k + jB3 k = Y3 k e j 3 k
where
(10)
3 k = tan
B3 k G3 k
(11)
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Y3k is the element in position row 3, column k, of the Y bus. It is NOT the admittance of the circuit connecting buses 3 and k, and therefore G3k and B3k are NOT the conductance and susceptance, respectively, of the circuit connecting buses 3 and k . But when k3, Y3k is the NEGATIVE of the admittance connecting buses 3 and k, and therefore G3k and B3k are the NEGATIVE of the conductance and susceptance, respectively, of the circuit connecting buses 3 and k. Since transmission lines and transformers always have

positive resistance and positive reactance, positive conductance and negative susceptance,
the numerical value of offdiagonal Ybus elements will have negative real part and positive imaginary part, whereas the numerical value of diagonal Ybus elements will be just the opposite. Now we will develop two different forms of the power flow equations.
Polar Form of Ybus elements
S3 = Y3 k e j 3 k V3 Vk e j ( 3 k )
k =1
(12)
where the negative angle results from the conjugation of Y3k in eq. (9). Combining exponentials, we obtain:
S3 = Y3 k V3 Vk e j ( 3 k 3 k )
k =1
(13)
S 3 = Y3 k V3 Vk (cos( 3 k 3 k ) + j sin( 3 k 3 k ))
k =1
(14)
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S3 = {Y3 k V3 Vk cos( 3 k 3 k )
4
+ j Y3 k V3 Vk sin( 3 k 3 k )}
Now recalling that
k =1
(15)
S 3 = P3 + jQ3
it must be the case that
(16)
P3 = Y3 k V3 Vk cos( 3 k 3 k )
k =1
(17a)
Q3 = Y3 k V3 Vk sin( 3 k 3 k )
k =1
(17b)
The above development could be done for any bus i, and for any network size n. Therefore,
Pi = Y3 i Vi Vk cos( i k ik )
k =1 n
(18a)
Qi = Y3 i V3 Vi sin( i k ik )
k =1
(18b)
Equations (18a) and (18b) are one form in which you may see the power flow equations. However, eqns. (18a) and (18b) are not the form that your text uses. We develop that form in the next subsection.
Rectangular Form of Ybus elements
(19)
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where the negative sign in front of jB3k results from the conjugation of Y3k in eq. (9). Shifting the first term in the summation to the right,
S 3 = V3 Vk (G3 k jB3 k )e j ( 3 k )
k =1
(20)
(21)
(22)
S3 = P3 + jQ3
it must be the case that
4
(23a)
(23b)
The above development could be done for any bus i, and for any network size n. Therefore,
(24a)
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(24b)
Defining the angular difference in the above equations as ik, i.e., ik=ik., eqs. (24a) and (24b) become:
(25a)
(25b)
Either the angular notation of eqs. (24a) and (24b) or the angular notation of eqs. (25a) and (25b) are used in power flow analysis.
Consider the test system shown below in Fig. 1. All circuit admittances are 1j10 pu. Write down the power flow equations for all 5 buses. Then show that the solution is given by
2 5 10 3 = 4 10 V4 1.0 V = 1.0 5 15 , 5
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Pg2=0.8830
Pg3=0.2076 V3 =1
SD3=0.2+j0.1
V4 SD3=1.7137+j0.5983
V5 SD3=1.7355+j0.5496
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P1 = V1 Vk (G1k cos( k ) + B1k sin( k )) + V1 V2 (G12 cos( 2 ) + B12 sin( 2 )) + V1 V3 (G13 cos( 3 ) + B13 sin( 3 )) + V1 V4 (G14 cos( 4 ) + B14 sin( 4 )) + V1 V5 (G15 cos( 5 ) + B12 sin( 5 )) = V1 V1 (G11 cos( 1 ) + B11 sin( 1 ))
k =1
Filling in the values from the given solution, (note all voltage magnitudes are 1.0) we get:
+ V1 V2 (G12 sin( 2 ) B12 cos( 2 )) + V1 V3 (G13 sin( 3 ) B13 cos( 3 )) + V1 V4 (G14 sin( 4 ) B14 cos( 4 )) + V1 V5 (G15 sin( 5 ) B15 cos( 5 ))
Filling in the values from the given solution, (noting that all voltage magnitudes are 1.0) we get:
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+ V3 V2 (G32 cos( 10 2 ) + B32 sin( 10 2 ) ) + V3 V3 (G33 cos( 10 3 ) + B33 sin( 10 3 ) ) + V3 V4 (G34 cos( 10 4 ) + B34 sin( 10 4 )) + V3 V5 (G35 cos( 10 5 ) + B32 sin( 10 5 )) = 1 cos( 5) + 10 sin( 5) + 2 1 cos(5) + 10 sin( 5) = 0.0076
Likewise, for the reactive power,
+ V3 V2 (G32 sin( 10 2 ) B32 cos( 10 2 )) + V3 V3 (G33 sin( 10 3 ) B33 cos( 10 3 )) + V3 V4 (G34 sin( 10 4 ) B34 cos( 10 4 )) + V3 V5 (G35 sin( 10 5 ) B35 cos( 10 5 )) = 1 sin( 5) 10 cos( 5) + 20 1 sin( 5) 10 cos(5) = 0.0761
69.5 BUS CLASSIFICATION
For each bus, there are four possible variables that characterize the buses electrical condition. Let us consider an arbitrary bus numbered k. The four variables are real and reactive power injection, Pk and Qk, respectively, and voltage magnitude and angle, Vk  and k, respectively.
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PV Buses: For type PV buses, we know Pk and Vk  but not Qk or k. These buses fall under the category of voltagecontrolled buses because of the ability to specify (and therefore to know) the voltage magnitude of this bus. Most generator buses fall into this category, independent of whether it also has load; exceptions are 1. buses that have reactive power injection at either the generators upper limit (Qmax) or at its lower limit (Qmin), and 2. the system swing bus (we further describe the swing bus below).
There are also special cases where a nongenerator bus (i.e., either a bus with load or a bus with neither generation or load) may be classified as type PV, and some examples of these special cases are buses having switched shunt capacitors or static var compensation systems (SVCs). In the example that we worked on previously, illustrated below for convenience, buses B2 and B3 are type PV.
Pg1 V2 =1 V1=10 SD3=0.2+j0.1 Pg2=0.8830 Pg3=0.2076 V3 =1
V4 SD3=1.7137+j0.5983
V5 SD3=1.7355+j0.5496
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The real power injections of the type PV buses are chosen according to the system dispatch corresponding to the modeled loading conditions. The voltage magnitudes of the type PV buses are chosen according to the expected terminal voltage settings, sometimes called the generator set points, of the units. PQ Buses: For type PQ buses, we know Pk and Qk but not Vk  or k. All load buses fall into this category, including buses that have not either load or generation. In Fig. 1, buses 4 and 5 are type PQ. The real power injections of the type PQ buses are chosen according to the loading conditions being modeled. The reactive power injections of the type PQ buses are chosen according to the expected power factor of the load. The third type of bus is referred to as the swing bus. Two other common terms for this bus are slack bus and reference bus. There is only one swing bus, and it can be designated by the engineer to be any generator bus in the system. For the swing bus, we know V and . The fact that we know is the reason why it is sometimes called the reference bus. Physically, there is nothing special about the swing bus; in fact, it is a mathematical artifact of the solution procedure. So we may set the real power injections for, at most, all but one of the generators. The one generator for which we do not set the real power injection is the one modeled at the swing bus. Thus, this generator swings to compensate for the network losses, or, one may say that it takes up the slack. Therefore, rather than call this generator a V bus (as the above naming convention would have it), we choose the terminology swing or slack as it helps us to better remember its function. The voltage magnitude of the swing bus is chosen to correspond to the typical voltage setting of this generator. The voltage angle may be designated to be any angle, but normally it is designated as 0o. Because the real power injection of the swing bus is not set in the analysis but rather is an output of the power flow solution, it can take on mathematically tractable but physically impossible values. Therefore, the swing bus generation level following a solution is to be checked to ensure that it is within the physical limitations of the generator.
69 .6 Number of variables and equations
Consider a power system network having N buses, NG of which are voltageregulating generators. One of these must be the swing bus. Thus there are NG1 type PV buses, and NNG type PQ buses. We assume that the swing bus is numbered bus 1, the type PV buses are numbered 2,, NG, and the type PQ buses are numbered NG+1,,N (this assumption on numbering is not necessary, but it makes the following development notationally convenient). Typically, the following information about the network is known. 1. The admittances of all series and shunt elements (i.e., Ybus),
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2. The voltage magnitudes Vk, k=1,,NG, at all NG generator buses, 3. The real power injection of all buses except the swing bus, Pk, k=2,,N 4. The reactive power injection of all type PQ buses, Qk, k=NG+1, , N In the power flow equations are very valuable because they have one less unknown than equations for which we do not know the lefthandside. The number of these equations for which we know the lefthandside can be determined by adding the number of buses for which we know the real power injection (statement 3 above) to the number of buses for which we know the reactive power injection (statement 4 above). This is (N1)+(NNG)=2N1NG. We repeat the power flow equations here, but this time, we denote the appropriate number to the right.
i=2,N
i=NG+1,N The following information about the network is to be found: The angles for the voltage phasors at all buses except the swing bus (it is 0 at the swing bus), i.e., k, k=2,,N The magnitudes for the voltage phasors at all type PQ buses, i.e., Vk, k=NG+1,..., N We have N1 angle unknowns and NNG voltage magnitude unknowns, for a total number of unknowns of (N1)+(NNG)=2N1NG. Referring to the power flow equations above, we see that there are no other unknowns on the righthand side besides voltage magnitudes and angles (the real and imaginary parts of the admittance values, Gkj and Bkj, are known, based on statement 1 above). Thus we see that the number of equations having known lefthand side (injections) is the same as the number of unknown voltage magnitudes and angles. Therefore it is possible to solve the system of 2NNG1 equations for the 2NNG1 unknowns. The power flow equations are nonlinear equations. This nonlinearity comes from the fact that we have terms containing products of some of the unknowns and also terms containing trigonometric functions of some of the unknowns. The unknown variables are defined as the vector of unknown angles (an underline beneath the variable means it is a vector or a matrix) and the vector of unknown voltage magnitudes V.
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2 = 3 , M N
Second, define the vector x as the composite vector of unknown angles and voltage magnitudes.
2 x1 x 2 3 M M N x N 1 = x= = V V N G +1 x N V N + 2 x N +1 G M M V  x 2 N 1 N G N
The righthand sides of the power flow equations depend on the elements of the unknown vector x. Expressing this dependence more explicitly, we rewrite the power flow equations as
Pi = Pi ( x ) , Qi = Qi ( x ) ,
i = 2 ,...,N i = N G + 1 ,...,N
In the above, Pi and Qi are the specified injections (known constants) while the righthand sides are functions of the elements in the unknown vector x. Bringing the lefthand side over to the righthand side, we have that
Pi ( x ) Pi = 0 , Qi ( x ) Q i = 0 ,
i = 2 ,...,N i = N G + 1 ,...,N
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f 1 ( x ) P2 ( x ) P2 M M f N 1 ( x ) PN ( x ) PN f ( x ) = = f N ( x ) Q N G + 1 ( x ) Q N G + 1 M M f x ( ) Q x Q ( ) N N 2 1 N N G P2 0 M M PN 0 = = = 0 0 Q N G + 1 M M Q 0 N
The above equation is in the form of f(x)=0, where f(x) is a vectorvalued function and 0 is a vector of zeros; both f(x) and 0 are of dimension (2N1NG)1, which is also the dimension of the vector of unknowns, x. We have also introduced nomenclature representing the mismatch vector, as the vector of Pis and Qis. This vector is used during the solution algorithm, which is iterative, to identify how good the solution is corresponding to any particular iteration. The NewtonRaphson method can be used to solve this kind of system of equations. For the 5 bus system shown in the figure below, we can write down the solution vector and the minimum set of power flow equations necessary to solve the problem.
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Pg2=0.8830
Pg3=0.2076 V3 =1
SD3=0.2+j0.1
V4 SD3=1.7137+j0.5983
V5 SD3=1.7355+j0.5496
The solution elements for the power flow can be written as:
2 3 4 V4 V 5 , 5
These can be expressed as a single vector x,
x1 2 x 2 3 x3 4 x= = x4 5 x5 V4 x6 V5
There will be real power flow equations for all buses except the swing bus: buses 25. There will reactive power flow equations for only the type PQ buses: buses 45.
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f 1 ( x ) P2 ( x ) P2 P2 0 f ( x ) P ( x ) P P 2 2 3 3 0 f ( x ) P ( x ) P2 P4 0 f ( x) = 3 = 4 = = =0 P x P P f x ( ) ( ) 2 4 5 5 0 f 5 ( x ) Q 4 ( x ) Q 4 Q 2 0 Q x Q Q f x ( ) ( ) 0 5 6 5 3
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Where
In the NewtonRaphson method of power flow analysis, Newton's method is used to determine the voltage magnitude and angle at each bus in the power system and solve the power balance equations.
Assuming the slack bus to be the first bus (with a fixed voltage angle/magnitude) the voltage angle/magnitude at the other buses are determined.
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The most difficult part of the algorithm is determining and inverting the n by n Jacobian matrix.
Jacobian elements are calculated by differentiating each function, f(), with respect to each variable. For example, if f() is the bus i real power equation
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For the two bus power system shown below, the NewtonRaphson power flow method is used to determine the voltage magnitude and angle at bus two. Assume that bus one is the slack and SBase= 100 MVA.
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Once the voltage angle and magnitude at bus 2 are known we can calculate all the other system values,such as the line flows and the generator reactive power output
This case actually has two solutions! The second "low voltage" is found by using a low initial guess and setting =0,
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The most difficult computational task is inverting the Jacobianmatrix. Inverting a full matrix is an order n3operation, meaning the amount of computation increases with the cube of the size size. This amount of computation can be decreased substantially by recognizing that since the Ybusis a sparse matrix, the Jacobianis also a sparse matrix. Using sparse matrix methods results in a computational order of about n 1.5. Advantages of Newton Raphson method: fast convergence as long as initial guess is close to solution large region of convergence Disadvantages: each iteration takes much longer than a GaussSeidel iteration more complicated to code, particularly when implementing sparse matrix algorithms
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NewtonRaphson algorithm is very common in power flow analysis. Su bstantial savings when solving systems with tens of thousands of buses are possible.
69.8 Decoupled Power Flow
Decoupled power flow method uses approximation of the Jacobian matrix. In this approach approximations are used to decouple the real and reactive power equations. Consider the general form of the power flow problem.
Usually the offdiagonal matrices, and are small. Therefore we approximate them as zero:
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By continuing with our Jacobian approximations we can actually obtain a reasonable approximation that is independent of the voltage magnitudes/angles. This means the Jacobianneed only be built/inverted once. This approach is known as the fast decoupled power flow (FDPF). FDPFuses the same mismatch equations as standard power flow so it should have same solution. The FDPFis widely used, particularly when we only need an approximate solution.
Then,
Where B is just the imaginary part of the Ybus =G+jB ,except the slack bus row/column are omitted.
FDPF Three Bus Example:
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Actual solution:
69.10 . CONCLUSIONS
Power flow analysis is a fundamental analysis technique used in planning and operation of power systems. Detailed methods are used at the planning stage to find the power flows through transmission lines, bus voltages etc., for normal and contingency cases. Simpler methods are used for online repeated applications by computer systems. In this paper, the power flow equations formulations are given and different methods of solving them are described.
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d*=break even distance Fig 1: Variation of costs with line length Figure 1 shows the variations of costs of transmission with distance for AC and DC transmission. AC tends to be more economical than DC for distances less than break even distances and costlier for longer distances. The break even distances can vary from 500 to 800 km in overhead line depending on the per unit line costs. 10.2 Technical performance The dc transmission has some positive features which are lacking in AC transmission. These are mainly due to the fast controllability of power in DC lines through converter control. The following are the advantages: 1) Full control over power transmitted. 2) The ability to enhance transient and dynamic stability in associated AC network. 3) Fast control to limit fault currents in DC lines. This makes it feasible to avoid DC breakers in two terminals DC links In addition, the DC transmission overcomes some of the problems of AC transmission. These are described below: 10.3 Stability limits The power transfer in AC line is dependent on the angle difference between the voltage phasors at the two ends. For a given power level, this angle increases with distance. The maximum power transfer is limited by the considerations of steady state and transient stability.
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Fig: 2 Power transfer capability vs. Distances The power carrying capability of an AC line as a function of distance is shown in fig 2. The same figure also shows the power carrying capability of DC lines which is unaffected by the distance of transmission. 10.4 Voltage control The voltage control in AC line is complicated by the line charging and inductive voltage drop. The voltage profile in an AC line is relatively flat only for a fixed level of power transfer corresponding to surge impedance loading (SIL). The voltage profile varies with the line loading. For constant voltage at the line terminals, the midpoint voltage is reduced for line loading higher than SIL and increased for loadings less than SIL. This is shown in fig 3.
Fig:3 Variation of voltage along the line The maintenance of constant voltages at the two ends requires reactive power control from inductive to capacitive as the line loading is increased. The reactive power requirements increase with the increase in line lengths.
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Some of the above advances have resulted in improving the reliability and reduction of conversion costs in DC systems. It can be said without exaggeration that complexity of control does not pose a problem and can actually be used to provide reliable and fast control of power transmission not only under normal conditions but also under abnormal conditions such as line and converter faults. This has removed the need for DC currents interruption in two terminal links. Even for multi terminal operation, the requirements of current ratings of DC breakers are modest due to effective converter control. 10.9 Reliability The reliability of DC transmission systems is quite good and comparable to that of AC systems. An exhaustive record of existing HVDC links in the world is available from which the reliability statistics can be computed. It must be remembered that the performance of thyristor valves is much more reliable than mercury arc valves and a further developments in devices, control and protection is likely to improve the reliability level. There are two measures of overall system reliability: energy availability and transient reliability. 10.9(a) Energy availability Equivalent outage time Energy availability = 100 (1 ) % Total time
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where a= (3/) 2 Ns /(Np T) Ns /Np = nominal turns ratios of the three phases transformer, T=off nominal ratio, V=line to line voltage at the primary. In Fig.5 , Rc is the commutation resistance given by Rc = (3/) Xc where Xc is the leakage reactance of the converter transformer, Lc is the average inductance given by Lc = (Xc /o) [2(1k) +1.5k] where k=3u/ , u=overlap angle o= system frequency in rad/sec. The transformer winding resistance and valve voltage drop can also be taken into account in a manner similar to the inductance Lc. The equivalent circuit of fig. 5 is based on the following assumptions: 1. the harmonics in the DC voltage are neglected 2. the AC voltages are assumed to balanced and the transformer winding asymmetry is neglected 3. the converter control is assumed to be continuous the inclusion of the inductance Lc is based on the state space averaging 4. concepts. This is an average inductance calculated on the basis that when three valves conduct, during the overlap period, the apparent inductance in
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However, the effect of IPC or EPC can be included in the controller model in conjunction with the simplified converter model. The basic difference in the two schemes is that the change in the phase of the converter bus AC voltage will affect the delay angle in case of EPC, while it does not in the case of IPC. The converter control is usually represented by block diagram and specifying the transfer function of each block. A typical controller block diagram is shown in fig.6. This does not give all the details but is adequate in system modeling.
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10.14 Modeling of DC Network: The DC network is assumed to consist of smoothing reactor, DC filters and the Transmission line. The smoothing reactor and DC filters can be represented by lumped parameter linear elements. The DC line can also be modeled as a T or equivalent if the higher frequency behaviour is not of interest. 10.15 Modelling of AC networks: For some types of analyses, the AC network can be assumed to be in steadystate (say for load flow analysis or long term stability analysis). In this case, single phase representation is most often used. However, three phase representation is also possible for analysis of unsymmetrical network. 10.16 Control of HVDC Systems An HVDC transmission system is highly controllable. Its effective use depends on appropriate utilization of this controllability to ensure desired performance of the power system. With the objectives of providing efficient and stable operation and maximizing flexibility of power control without compromising the safety of equipment, various levels of control are used in a hierarchical manner. 10.17 Basic Principles of Control Consider the HVDC link shown in Figure 7(a). It represents a monopolar link or one pole of a bipolar link. The corresponding equivalent circuit and voltage profile are show in figures 7(b) and (c), respectively.
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(c) Voltage Profile Fig.7: HVDC transmission link The direct current flowing from the rectifier to the inverter is Vdor Cos Vdoi Cos Rcr + RL  Rci The power at the rectifier terminal is Pdr = Vdr Id and at the inverter terminal is Pdi = Vdi Id = Pdr  R L Id2 10.18 Basic means of control The direct voltage at any point on the line and current (or power) can be controlled by controlling the internal voltages (Vdor co s) and (Vdoi co s). This is accomplished by grid/gate control of the valve ignition angle or control of the ac voltage through tap changing of the converter transformer. Grid/gate control, which is rapid (1 to 10 ms), and tap changing, which is slow (5 to 6 s per step), are used in a complementary manner. Grid/gate control is used initially for rapid action, followed by tap changing to restore the converter quantities ( for rectifier and for inverter) to their normal range. Power reversal is obtained by reversal of polarity of direct voltages at both ends.
Id =
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Rapid control of the converters to prevent large fluctuations in direct current is an important requirement for satisfactory operation of the HVDC link. Referring to equation for Id, the line and converter resistances are small; hence, a small change in Vdor or Vdoi causes a large change in Id. . For example, a 25% change in the voltage at either the rectifier or the inverter could cause direct current to change by as much as 100%. This implies that, if both r and i are kept constant, the direct current can vary over a wide range for small changes in the alternating voltage magnitude at either end. Such variations are generally unacceptable for satisfactory performance of the power system. In addition, the resulting current may be high enough to damage the valves and other equipment. Therefore, rapid converter control to prevent fluctuation of direct current is essential for proper operation of the system; without such a control, the HVDC system would be impractical. For a given power transmitted, the direct voltage profile along the line should be close to the rated value. This minimizes the direct current and thereby the line losses. There are several reasons for maintaining the power factor high : (A) To keep the rated power of the converter as high as possible for given current and voltage ratings of transformer and valve; (B) To reduce stresses in the valve; (C) To minimize losses and current rating of equipment in the ac system to which the converter is connected; (D) To minimize voltage drops at the ac terminals as loading increases; and (E) To minimize cost of reactive power supply to converters. We get : cos 0.5[cos + cos(+)] 0.5[cos + cos(+)] Therefore, to achieve high power factor, for a rectifier and for an inverter should be kept as low as possible. The rectifier, however, has a minimum limit of about 50 to ensure adequate voltage across the valve before firing. The rectifier normally operates at a value of within the range of 150 to 200 so as to leave some room for increasing rectifier voltage to control dc power flow.
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REFERENCES : [ 1 ] Prabha Kundur : Power System Stability and control , The EPRI Power System Engineering Series, McGrawHill, Inc., 1994. [ 2 ] K. R. Padiyar : HVDC Power Transmission Systems : Technology and System Interaction , New Age International (P) Limited, Publishers, 1996.
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11.1 Modelling of HVDC systems In this section, we discuss the modelling of HVDC systems in powerflow and stability studies. The representation of the dc systems requires consideration of the following: Converter model DC transmission line/network model Interface between ac and dc systems DC system controls model The representation of the converters is based on the following basic assumptions: (a) The direct current Id is ripplefree (b) The ac systems at the inverter and the rectifier consist of perfectly sinusoidal constant frequency, balanced voltage sources behind balanced impedances. This assumes that all harmonic currents and voltages introduced by the commutation system do not propagate into the ac system because of filtering. (c) The converter transformers do not saturate. 11.2 Representation for power flow solution From the analysis presented earlier the converter equations may be summarized as follows: Vdo = 32 BTEac Vd = VdoCos 3 X c I d B Vd = VdoCos  3 X c I d B = Cos1 (Vd/Vdo)
P = Vd Id = Pac Q = P tan
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Figure. 8 Here Eacr and Eaci are considered to be input quantities for the solution of dc system equations. They are known from the previous step in ac solution.
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Variables Pr ,Qr, Pi and Qi and considered to be the outputs from the solution of the dc system equations. They are used in the next iteration for solving the ac system equations. The dependent and independent variables in the solution of dc equations depend on rectifier and inverter control modes. The three possible modes of operation are: Mode 1: rectifier on CC control; inverter on CEA control Mode 2: inverter on CC control; rectifier on CIA control Mode 3: rectifier on CIA control; inverter on modified characteristic. In mode1, alternative inverter control functions are constant voltage control and constant control. 11.3 Power Flow Analysis in AC/DC Systems Power flow analysis is an essential component of system studies carried out for planning, design and operation of power systems. It is basically simulation of the system in steadystate and determines the operating point which is later used for initializing variables in transient and dynamic system simulation. The power flow or load flow analysis of AC systems has been thoroughly investigated in terms of numerical algorithms for obtaining the solution to the nonlinear algebraic equations. Although, there is little work reported on analytical aspects such as the existence and number of solutions, the convergence characteristics of different algorithms etc., there are several production grade computer programs that can handle large systems with thousands of buses and lines. For most of the cases, the use of flat start results in convergence to a solution that is in most of the cases the unique and stable operation point .The GaussSeidal method has given way to the use of Newtons method which results in fast convergence. The computations are further simplified using fast decoupled load flow method in which the corrections to the bus voltage estimates are found from solving the following equations: P/V = [B] Q/V = [B] V where Pi, Qi are mismatches of real and reactive powers at bus i, and V are the correction vectors to bus angles and voltages magnitudes. B and B are constant matrices of appropriate sizes and consist of elements that are related to the reactances of the elements of the network .The sparse nature of B and B matrices permits the solution of very large scale networks with moderate computational costs. The existence of a DC link in the power systems requires the modeling of DC links in the power flow analysis. While the modelling of DC systems for power flow is fairly standard, the solution methodology varies. The sequential or alternating method which does not require major changes in the software available for the power flow analysis of AC systems, is widely used. The mathematical models and the solution methods are discussed here.
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11.4 Solution of DC Load Flow There are four basic variables per converter, Vd , Id , () and T. If the voltages at all the converters that form tree branches (in addition to the conductances of the network) are specified, currents at the remaining converters are specified, then it is possible to solve for the remaining variables (voltages at the current controlled converters and currents at the voltage controlled converters ). Once this is done ,the power factor is computed from the appropriate equations. The power and reactive power at each converter station are then obtained from the use of corresponding equations. The knowledge of the AC voltages allows the calculation of taps. The specification of power instead of current at a converter requires an iterative solution of the variables using, say, GaussSeidel method. The inclusion of limits on control and dependent variables does complicate the solution to some extent. 11.5 Solution of ACDC power flow The solution methodology for ACDC power flow can be classified as 1) Simultaneous or unified 2) Sequential or alternating In the first approach, the AC and DC equations are solved together. Conceptually, the simplest implementation of this approach is to consider all the equations (for DC and AC systems) combined into one set of nonlinear algebraic equations. A Jacobian matrix is then constructed and Newtons method is used to solve this set of equations. A variation of this approach is to use fast decoupled method of solution for the AC system equations. Here the Jacobian matrix is approximated and at each step, the following equation is solved.
Here x is the vector of dependent variables for DC system and R is the vector of mismatches of DC system equations. In the second approach, the AC and DC system equations are solved separately and sequentially. The AC system is solved to some degree of convergence using a simple model for the DC system based on its last solution. The DC system is then solved using a simplified representation of the AC system. There are many variations of this approach as given below.
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The supplementary controls use signals derived from the ac systems to modulate the dc quantities. The modulating signals can be frequency, voltage magnitude and angle, and line flows. The particular choice depends on the system characteristics and the desired results.
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Power flow deals with the process of finding the active and reactive power flows over the transmission lines corresponding to a particular system load. The power flow problem is solved by finding out magnitudes and angles of the bus voltages. This involves solution of the power flow equations which are non linear algebraic using Newton Raphson and other methods. Several combinations of generation set points are possible to achieve a required power flow that meets the load. In power flow analysis, the generation set points are given as inputs. But these set points may not correspond to the most economic operation of the generating units as the cost of generation (which includes fuel cost etc.,) varies with the operating level. Economic dispatch (ED) problem deals with the determination of most economic operating points of generating units, mainly thermal units. ED problem also considers losses in transmission lines. Mathematically, economic dispatch problem is an OPTIMIZATION problem. Optimization problems are solved by forming a performance index and constraints (equality and inequality). These constraints are : Total generation is equal to load plus losses The generation set points (active powers) have minimum and maximum limits, Several techniques are available to solve optimization problems like Lambda iteration method, gradient search method etc., Optimal power flow problem is an extension of economic dispatch problem in which various constraints are included like: Total power flow solution (rather than total generation equals load + losses) Various limits like reactive power limits, limits on bus voltages Power flows on transmission lines and transformers Security constraints : constraints corresponding to contingencies like outages Similarly apart from active power generation set points various other control set points like transformer tap positions, switched capacitor settings etc.,
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In Economic dispatch allocation of the load demand among the available generation units to achieve minimum cost of operation. The problem is solved using optimization techniques. Economic Dispatch problem is a nonlinear, multivariable, constrained optimization problem. 12.2 ECONOMIC DISPATCH: PROBLEM FORMULATION The cost of operation in a thermal power plant is expressed by costrate curves. Each plant i has a costrate curve that gives the cost Ci in $/hour as a function of its generation level PGi . The costrate functions, designated as Ci(PGi), are normally assumed to be quadratic. Two typical cost functions are given below.
(1) (2)
CT = Ci ( PGi )
i =1
(3)
Equation (3), represents the objective function that should be minimized. The generation values PGi are the decision variables. There are two basic kinds of constraints associated with this problem. 1. Power balance 2. Generation limits Power balance constraint For power balance, the total generation equals the total demand PD plus the total losses PL.
P
i =1
Gi
= PD + PL
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(4a)
P
i =1
Gi
(4b)
In the power flow problem, one generator is considered as the swing bus. This is assumed to be the generator unit 1. Given demand and losses, one of the generation values is determined once the other m1 of them are set. PG1 can be removed from the arguments of PL so that eq. (4) becomes
P
i =1 m
Rearranging eq. (4c):
Gi
= PD + PL ( PG 2 ,K, PGm )
PL ( PG 2 ,K, PGm ) = PD
(4c)
P
i =1
Gi
(4d)
(5)
Min
CT = Ci ( PGi )
i =1
Subject to
P
i =1
Gi
PL ( PG 2 ,K, PGm ) = PD
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i = 1,..., m
i = 1,...m
(7) (8)
There are m equations of the form given in (8). However, the one corresponding to i=1 will not have a loss term and therefore will be:
(9)
PL = 0 , eq. (7) appropriately captures eq. (9). Because P1 Ci The term PGi is called the incremental cost of unit i and is denoted by ICi.
From eq. (7):
i = 1,...m
(10)
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Li =
1 PL ( PG 2 , K , PGm ) 1 P Gi
i = 1,...m
(11)
Li is called the penalty factor for the ith unit. Note that L1=1. Substituting eq. (11) into (10) results in
= Li
Ci ( PGi ) PGi
(12)
From eq. (12) it can be stated that, at the optimum dispatch, for each unit not at a binding inequality constraint, the product of the penalty factor and the incremental cost of unit is the same and is equal to . Example: Considering the fuelcost expressions:
In this example, we assume that there are no losses. This means that all penalty factors are 1.0. Assuming there are no binding inequality constraints, eq. (12) is
C2 ( PG 2 ) PG 2
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49
48 IC1=45+0.02Pg1 47 $/MWhr
46
45
IC2=43+0.006Pg2
44
43
100
200
300 MW
400
500
600
Fig. 1 The lambda iteration method begins with a guess in regards to a value of which satisfies the condition that all incremental costs are equal, and the total demand equals the load. The lambda iteration may be performed graphically. Lets guess that =46. To determine what the corresponding generation levels are at the optimum, a horizontal line across the IC curves is drawn, as shown by the dark horizontal line in Fig. 2.
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49
48 IC1=45+0.02Pg1 47 $/MWhr
46
45
IC2=43+0.006Pg2
44
43
100
200
300 MW
400
500
600
Fig. 2 The corresponding generation values are the dark vertical dashed lines, corresponding to PG1=50 and PG2=500, for a total generation of 550 MW. This is less than the desired 600 MW so another guess about 46.4 is made, as shown in Fig. 3.
49
48 IC1=45+0.02Pg1 47 $/MWhr
46
45
IC2=43+0.006Pg2
44
43
100
200
300 MW
400
500
600
Fig. 3
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49
48 IC1=45+0.02Pg1 47 $/MWhr
46
45
IC2=43+0.006Pg2
44
43
100
200
300 MW
400
500
600
Fig. 4 The corresponding generation levels are about PG1=55 MW and PG2=540 MW for a total of 595 MW. To improve the guess is chosen and the generation levels are obtained from the plots. The plots are analytical relations between and the generation levels, and can be easily manipulated to get the generation levels as a function of , as shown below.
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Because our equations for PG1 and PG2 are linear with , the linear interpolation will provide an exact answer as can be seen from the following:
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12.3 ECONOMIC DISPATCH CONSIDERING LOSSES In the previous ED problem losses are neglected. In this section losses will be included. An insight into the effect of including losses can be obtained and the penalty factors will be introduced. Problem statement, solution procedure The Economic Dispatch problem with losses can be written as
Min
CT = Ci ( PGi )
i =1
Subject to
P
P
i =1 min Gi
Gi
PL ( PG 2 ,K, PGm ) = PD
i = 1,..., m
The first step to solving this problem is to apply the Lagrangian method ignoring the inequality constraints:
i = 1,...m
(1) (2)
= Li
Ci ( PGi ) PGi
i = 1,...m
(3)
The basic lambdaiteration solution procedure is the same as the case without losses and is described by the following steps.
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1. Select 2. Compute the associated PGis from eq. (3) 3. Check to see if eq. (2) is satisfied, i.e., if sum of generation is within tolerance of losses + demand. a. If sum of generation exceeds losses + demand, go to 2 with decreased . b. If sum of generation is less than losses + demand, go to 2 with increased . 4. Stop.
Fig. 1: Algorithm A To include penalty factors another loop is added to the above Algorithm A. This loop will update the penalty factors after each iteration of Algorithm A, and then repeat Algorithm A. The modified algorithm is shown in Fig. 2.
0. 1. 2. 3.
Compute losses and penalty factors. Select Compute the associated PGis from eq. (3) Check to see if eq. (2) is satisfied, i.e., if sum of generation is within tolerance of losses + demand. a. If sum of generation exceeds losses + demand, go to 2 with decreased . b. If sum of generation is less than losses + demand, go to 2 with increased . 4. Check to see if any PGi has changed by more than tolerance . If so, go to 0. 5. Stop.
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Li =
1 PL ( PG 2 , K , PGm ) 1 PGi
Li = 1 PL 1 P Gi PGi [PGi PL ]
(1)
(2)
Li =
(3)
PGi is a small change in generation. But that cannot be all, because if you make a change in generation, then there must be a change in injection at, at least, one other bus. Lets assume that a compensating change is equally distributed throughout all other load buses. By doing so, we are embracing the socalled conforming load assumption, which indicates that all loads change proportionally. Also
PGi + PG1 = PD + PL
where generation changes are on the left and load & loss changes are on the right. Solving for PGiPL (because it is in the denominator of (3)):
(4)
PGi PL = PD PG1
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(5)
Li =
PGi PD PG1
(6)
So the penalty factor indicates the amount of generation at unit i necessary to supply a change in load of PD. Clearly this is going to depend on how the load is changed, which is why we must have the conforming load assumption. Condition for optimality with losses:
= Li
Ci ( PGi ) PGi
i = 1,...m
(7)
This says that all units (or all regulating units) must be at a generation level such that the product of their incremental cost and their penalty factor must be equal to the system incremental cost . Calculation of penalty factors Consider a power system with total of n buses of which bus 1 is the swing bus, buses 1m are the PV buses, and buses m+1n are the PQ buses. Consider that losses must be equal to the difference between the total system generation and the total system demand:
PL = PG PD
Recall the definition for bus injections, which is
(8)
Pi = PGi PDi
Now sum the injections over all buses to get:
(9)
P = (P
i =1 i i =1 n i =1
Gi
PDi )
n
(10)
= PGi PDi = PG PD
i =1
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Therefore,
PL = Pi
i =1
(11)
which is eq. (11.46) in the text. Now differentiate with respect to a particular bus angle k (where k is any bus number except 1) to obtain:
P P P PL P1 P2 = + K + m + m +1 + K + n , k = 2,..., n k k k k k k
(12) Assumption to the above: All voltages are fixed at 1.0 (this relieves us from accounting for the variation in power with angle through the voltage magnitude term). Now lets assume that we have an expression for losses PL as a function of generation PG2, PG3,,PGm, i.e., (13) PL=PL(PG2, PG3,,PGm) Then we can use the chain rule of differentiation to express that
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Now bring the first term to the lefthandside, for k=2,,n Writing the above
P P2 1 = k k + Pm +1 k
Pm PL ( P G ) PL ( P G ) + K + 1 P 1 P G2 k Gm P +K+ n k
PL ( P G ) 1 P G2 Pn P1 K M 2 PL ( P G ) 2 = K M 1 P M Gm Pn P1 K 1 2 n M 1
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The above equation, when written for k=2,,n, can be expressed in matrix form as
P2 2 M P2 n
Pm 2 K M Pm K n K
REFERENCES: 1. Grainger, J. J., Stevenson, W. D, Power System Analysis: McGrawHill, New York, 1994. 2. Arthur R. Bergen, Vijay Vittal, Power Systems Analysis (2nd Edition), Pearson Education (Singapore) Pte Ltd (2009) .
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min
C (P )
k =1 k k
Subject to:
P
k =1
= PT ==> g ( Pk ) = Pk PT = 0
k =1
The optimization methods Newton approach or lambda iteration are both effective in solving this problem. The above optimization problem can be formulated as a linear program by using a piecewise linear approximation of the cost curves. In this formulation, the problem statement appears as:
k max min C ( P ) s P + k , min k , min kj kj k =1 j =1 n
Subject to:
P
k =1 j =1
n k max
kj
= PT Pk , min
k =1
DC Power flow equations can be used to compute real power flows in a network using a set of linear equations, according to:
P = B'
P B = ( D A)
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13.2 Formulation of the linearized OPF The network constraints are introduced in to the optimization problem in order to study the influence of transmission constraints on the most economic distribution of generation. To maintain simplicity, a piecewise linear approximation of the cost curves with only 1 piece per curve is used. Thus, each unit is represented in the objective function by a constant times the generation level for that unit. Statement of our problem:
min
Subject to:
k gk k {generator _ buses
s P }
P = B'
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Pg x = P B
There are two kinds of equality constraints: one due to line flows
(1)
where Pg is the vector of generation increments [Pgk ]T for all bus k that has generation. PB is the vector of line flows [Pb1 Pb2PbM]T, M is # of branches. is the vector of bus angles, in radians [1 2N], N is # of buses.
P B = ( D A)
(2)
(3) These are rewritten to make them more convenient to embed in a single matrix equation.
P = B'
(5) All angles must reside between radians and + radians. Therefore, the inequality constraints will be:
P B + ( D A) = 0 P + B ' = 0
(4)
(6)
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Pg2
y23 =j10
y34 =j10
Pg4
Pd3=1.1787pu
Fig. 1: One line diagram for example system The cost curves and corresponding min and max generation limits are as follows (note Pg3 is changed to Pg4 in the cost curves to conform with the bus numbering convention in the 4 bus system): 2 1 g1 g1 g1 ,
50 Pg1 200
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1000
500 20
40
60
80
100 MW
120
140
160
180
200
Fig. 2: Cost curves for example These curves can be approximated using three segments based on the slopes given in Table 1 below. Table 1: Slopes of piecewise linear approximations of cost curves sk2 sk4 Unit, k sk1 1 12.46 13.07 13.58 2 11.29 12.11 12.82 4 11.83 12.54 13.20 The approximate cost curves were then given as:
K1 ( P11 , P12 , P13 ) = C1 ( P1, min ) + s11 P11 + s12 P12 + s13 P13
K 2 ( P21 , P22 , P23 ) = C 2 ( P2, min ) + s 21 P21 + s 22 P22 + s 23 P23
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K1 ( Pg1 ) = s1 Pg1 K 2 ( Pg 2 ) = s2 Pg 2 K 4 ( Pg 4 ) = s4 Pg 4
3. Model the decision variables as actual generation values rather than generation increments. It is important to do this in order to properly coordinate with the DC power flow equations, which compute the flows (and limit the flows) based on the magnitudes of the injections. The constraints on the left rather than the constraints on the right are used:
Another implication is that, once a solution is obtained, it is added to the given objective function, for each unit, kCk, as defined in Fig. 3 below.
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Pgk,min
Pgk (MW)
Objective function: The solution vector is explicitly written so that the objective function can be written easily.
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Pg1 P g2 Pg 4 PB1 PB 2 Pg PB 3 x = P B = PB 4 P B5 1 2 3 4
So, using the middle slope coefficients from the piecewise linear approximation, the objective function is given by:
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(5) All of these equality constraints can be brought into a matrix form of Aeqx=beq by noting dimensions. Columns: Since the solution vector x is 12x1, Aeq must have 12 columns in order to premultiply x. Rows: Since there are 5 branches, eq. (4) will contribute 5 rows to Aeq. Since there are 4 buses, eq. (5) will contribute 4 rows to Aeq. So Aeq will have total of 9 rows. Therefore, the dimensions of Aeq will be 9x12. In the line flow equations, eq. (4) the D and A matrices are:
P B + ( D A) = 0 P + B ' = 0
(4)
10 0 0 0 0 0 10 0 0 0 D = 0 0 10 0 0 0 0 0 10 0 0 0 0 0 10
But the nodearc incidence matrix, A, must be modified to account for the fact that there are 4 angle variables. So it will get another column to multiply the new variable, which is 1:
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1 0 0  1 1  1 0 0 A = 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 0
The DxA product required by eq. (4) is then given by:
0 10 10 0 0 0 0 1 0 0  1 10 0 0 10 0 0 0 1  1 0 0 10 10 0 0 D A = 0 0 10 0 0 0 1 1 0 = 0 10 10 0 0 0 0 10 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 10 10 10 0 0 0 0 0 10 1 0 1 0 10 0
So based on eq. (4) and the solution vector, these elements will occupy the upper right hand corner of Aeq. So that will take care of the last 4 columns in the first 5 rows. The first 8 columns are the elements in the line flow equations that multiply the variables Pg1, Pg2, Pg4, PB1, PB2, PB3, PB4, PB5. As the generation variables within the line flow equations are not used, the first 3 columns of these top 5 rows will be zeros. The last 5 columns in these top 5 rows will also be zeros, except the one element in each of these rows that multiply the corresponding line flow variable, and that element will be 1. Finally, with respect to these top 5 equations, eq. (4) indicates that the righthandside will be 0 for each of them. The elements in the first 5 rows of our matrix are as follows:
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0 0 0 0 Aeq x = 0 _ _ _ _
0 0 0 0 0 _ _ _ _
0 0 0 0 0 _ _ _ _
Pg1 P g2 0 0 0 10 0 0 1 0 10 0 Pg 4 0 1 0 0 0 10 10 0 0 0 PB1 0 0 1 0 0 0 10 10 0 0 PB 2 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 10 10 0 PB 3 0 0 0 0 1 10 0 0 = 0 10 PB 4 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ P B5 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 1 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 2 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 3 4
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30 10 10 10 10 20 10 0 B' = 10 10 30 10 0 10 20 10
The Aeq matrix appears as:
0 0 0 0 Aeq x = 0 _ _ _ _
0 0 0 0 0 _ _ _ _
0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
10 10 0 0 10 30
10 0 10 10 0 10 0 10
10 10 10 20 10 10 10 30 10 0 10
Pg1 P 10 g 2 0 Pg 4 0 P 0 0 B1 0 P 10 B 2 0 P 0 B3 = 0 P 10 B 4 _ P 0 B5 _ 10 1 _ 2 20 _ 3 4
Columns 48 correspond to the line flow variables, which do not appear in the DC power flow equations, so these will be zero.
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0 0 0 0 Aeq x = 0 _ _ _ _
0 0 0 0 0 _ _ _ _
0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 _ 0 0 0 0 0 _ _ _ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
10 10 0 0 10 30
10 0 10 10 0 10 0 10
10 10 10 20 10 10 10 30 10 0 10
Pg1 P 10 g 2 0 Pg 4 0 P 0 0 B1 0 P 10 B 2 0 P 0 B3 = 0 P 10 B 4 _ P 0 B5 _ 10 1 _ 2 20 _ 3 4
The first three columns multiply the generation variables Pg1, Pg2, and Pg4. However, the DC power flow equations, eq. (5), require the negative of the injections for all buses, and the injections are the generation minus the load, i.e., PgkPdk. The load variables Pdk and generation for bus 3 are not included in the solution vector.
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0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 10 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 10 10 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 10 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 Aeq x = 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 10 0 30 10 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 10 20 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 10 10 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 10 0
0 0 10 10 10 10 10 30 10
Inequality constraints: The inequality constraints are simple, as given in what follows:
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0.5 Pg1 2 0.375 P 1.5 g2 0.45 Pg 4 1.8 500 PB1 500 500 PB 2 500 500 PB 3 500 500 P 500 B4 500 PB 5 500 1 2 3 4
Solution by Matlab: The code for solving this linear program using Matlab is given below: ( Reference: www.ee.iastate.edu/~jdm/ee458Old/LPOPF.doc)
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%Build objective function vector. c=[1307 1211 1254 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0]'; %Build A matrix for inequality constraints Ax<b. A=[]; %Build b, the righthandside of inequality constraints. b=[]; %Build Aeq matrix for equality constraints. Aeq=[0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 10 0 0 10; 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 10 10 0 0; 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 10 10 0; 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 10 10; 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 10 0 10 0; 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 30 10 10 10 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 10 20 10 0; 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 10 10 30 10; 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 10 0 10 20;]; %Build righthand side of equality constraint. beq=zeros(9,1); beq(7)=1; beq(8)=1.1787; %Build upper and lower bounds on decision variables. %LB=[0 0 0 500 500 500 500 500 pi pi pi pi]'; %UB=[1.50 1.125 1.35 500 500 500 500 500 pi pi pi pi]'; LB=[.50 .375 .45 500 500 500 500 500 pi pi pi pi]'; UB=[2.00 1.50 1.80 500 500 500 500 500 pi pi pi pi]'; [X,FVAL,EXITFLAG,OUTPUT,LAMBDA]=LINPROG(c,A,b,Aeq,beq,LB,UB);
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Pg1 0.5 P 1.2287 g2 Pg 4 0.45 0 . 0152 P B1 PB 2 0.0955 0 . 3242 P x = B3 = 0.4348 PB 4 PB 5 0.4197 0.0125 , 1 2 0.003 0 . 0295 3 4 0.0140
Z=2705.8
2 PB3 =0.3242
Pd3=1.1787pu
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REFERENCES: 1. Power Generation, Operation, and Control Wood & Wollenberg, John Wiley, Second Edition, 1996
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14: CONTINGENCY ANALYSIS 1 When an abnormal condition arises in a power system such as a fault, an insulator flashover, or a lightning stroke to the transmission tower, high currents flow in the system depending on the nature and location of the fault. These currents are sensed through relays, which take about half a cycle or so, and with proper coordination among relays, faulty sections of the power system are isolated quickly by actuation of the circuit breakers in another three to four cycles. Thus the time scale of interest is of the order of 10100 msec. Delay in the operation of the circuit breaker action might result in creating instability in the system. Also when the circuit breakers operate under abnormal conditions high currents have to be interrupted and the circuit breaker must be able to withstand such high interrupting MVA. In the planning and design stage, studies are done to determine the short circuit currents throughout the network for various types of faults. Based on these studies the short circuit MVA at various points in the network can be calculated. These short circuit levels provide the basis for specifying interrupting capacities of circuit breakers. Constant changes in the configuration of the transmission network alter both the short circuit levels and the short circuit currents at various points in the system .Hence when any major modifications to the power system are made, these computations must be repeated to determine the adequacy of the protective equipment. Here techniques for the determination of bus voltages and line currents under short circuit conditions are developed for various types of faults. Based on these studies the engineer can specify both the circuit breaker rating and the relay settings. Analysis is done on the basis of steady state a.c. model by representing the generators as constant voltage sources in series with appropriate machine reactances, transient or subtransient. The transmission network is also assumed to be in steady state with some additional simplifications. The analysis can be carried either in terms of phase quantities or in terms of sequence quantities. 14.1 Physical Assumptions In arriving at a mathematical model for short circuit studies a number of assumptions are made which simplify the formulation of the problem and, in addition, facilitate the solution without introducing significant in accuracies in the results. The main assumptions are as follows: (1) the normal loads, linecharging capacitances, and other shunt connections to the ground are neglected. This is based on the fact that the fault circuit has predominantly lower impedance than the shunt impedances. The saving in computational effort as a result of this assumption justifies the slight loss in accuracy. (2) The generator is represented by a voltage source in series with a reactance which is taken as the subtransient or transient reactance. Such a representation is adequate to compute the magnitudes of currents in the first 34 cycles after the fault occurrence. In addition, all these voltages are assumed to be equal. (3) All the transformers are considered to
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be at their nominal taps. (4) If the resistances of the transmission lines are smaller than the reactances by a factor of six or more, the resistances are neglected.
REFERENCES: [1] M.A. Pai: Computer Techniques in Power System Analysis, 2nd edition, Tata McGrawHill Publishing Company Limited, 2006.
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Faults of the type (1) and (2) have symmetric impedance and/or admittance representation. Hence, for faults of these two types, we have a three phase network with balanced threephase components only and balanced excitation. Analysis of such balanced networks can be carried out on the basis of a per phase equivalent, except that the impedances are now replaced by what are called positive sequence impedances. In the case of unsymmetrical faults of the type (3), (4) and (5), such a simplified analysis is not possible and the analysis is either carried out on a threephase basis itself or through sequence components. 15.2 Sequence Impedances for Symmetrical Faults a) Symmetrical ThreePhase to Ground Fault The general fault impedance diagram is shown in fig. 1(a). There are four nodes in all a,b,c, and 0, and the node connecting the three Zf s to Zg. We get
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(1)
(2)
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(3)
Fig.(1): Representation of symmetrical threephase to ground fault b) Sequence Impedance of Symmetrical ThreePhase Fault (not involving ground)
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Fig (2): Representation Symmetrical ThreePhase Fault However, the admittance form does exist. This is derived by considering the limiting case of the symmetrical threephase to ground case by letting Zg =. In phase quantities from Eq.1 Ia, b, c = Ya, b, c where Va, b, c (4)
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(a) (b) Fig. 3 Power System Representation for Short Circuit Studies As an intermediate step in our procedure of fault calculations we shall get an nport description of the transmissiongenerator network as shown in Fig (3). It is obtained in two stages as follows: (1) First consider that the voltage source VOa is shorted, i.e. nodes 0 and 0 merge. Then for the resulting passive network ZBus can be obtained with the ground bus as reference as VBus = ZBus IBus(7)
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(8)
The pth port is terminated with this impedance [Fig.4]. The constraints between the variables of the fault impedance and port variables are written from inspection as IF =  I p(F) ; I i(F) = 0; VF = V p(F) Vi(F) = unknown for i=1,2,n i p
(10)
where I p(F) and V p(F) are the port current and voltage variables respectively under faulted conditions. The nport description from Eq.(8) is V 1(F) = Z11 I1(F) ++ Z1(p) Ip(F) ++ Z1n In(F) + VOa V 2(F) = Z21 I1(F) ++ Z2(p) Ip(F) ++ Z2n In(F) + VOa
. . . .
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V p(F) = Zp1 I1(F) ++ Zp(p) Ip(F) ++ Zpn In(F) + VOa . . . . V n(F) = Zn1 I1(F) ++ Zn(p) Ip(F) ++ Znn In(F) + VOa (11) From the pth equation in Eq. (11) and using the relations in Eqs. (9) and (10) we obtain zF IF= Zpp IF + VOa i.e. VOa I F = Zpp + zF VF = V p(F) = zF IF = zF ( Zpp + zF )1 VOa (13) (12)
and
The other bus voltages are obtained from the rest of the equations in Eq. 11 as Vi(F) = VOa Z ip ( Zpp + zF )1 VOa, for i=1,2,n ip
(14)
This determines all the bus voltages in the system which in turn will determine the line currents in all the lines by elementary application of Ohms law. Fault in admittance form: if the fault is in admittance form, the fault description is given by (15) IF = yF VF The port constraints are as given earlier in Eq. 10. Instead of substituting for VF, we now substitute for IF in Eq .11 using Eq 15. Hence from the pth equation in eq. 11, Vp(F) = Zpp yF Vp(F) + VOa Hence and At other buses Vi(F) = VOa + Zip Ip(F) = VOa Zip IF = VOa Zip yF (1 + Zpp yF ) 1 VOa Vp(F) = (1 + Zpp yF )1 VOa IF = yF (1 + Zpp yF)1 VOa (18) (16) (17)
i = 1, 2, .,n i p (19)
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Thus all the bus voltages are determined. (b) Symmetrical ThreePhase Fault (not involving ground) Since there is no impedance description for the fault, we have only the positive sequence admittance description from Eq. 6, i.e., IF = yF VF (20)
Results of the previous section are immediately applicable. Hence results for the symmetrical three phase fault are the same as those for the symmetrical threephase to ground fault given by Eqs. 17 to 19 For a symmetrical fault the symbolic formulation for the admittance description of a fault has been included because the procedure will be found to be useful and valid when we discuss unsymmetrical faults not involving ground. 15.4 Some comments on ZBUS and YBUS formulation for Short Circuit Studies: The use of ZBus for short circuit calculations is seen to involve only trivial computations. Most of the effort will be expended in constructing the ZBus using the building algorithm. Once this is done the rest of the computations are straight forward. Prior to the advent of the building algorithm, the method using YBus was used. But this requires solution of simultaneous linear equations. To solve these unknown for a large network on a computer, some kind of iterative solution will have to be used. This is quite unattractive as compared to the ZBus method where having constructed ZBus the remaining computations are trivial. If there are n buses in the network, the terminal representation will correspond to a 3n port network. The variables of the three phases at any one bus are always treated as one 3component variable. Thus in the bus frame of reference with ground as reference bus we have [VBusa,b,c ] = [ZBusa,b,c ] [IBusa,b,c] [IBusa,b,c ] = [YBusa,b,c ] [VBusa,b,c] (21)
And
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ZBusa,b,c has a similar structure. 15.5 Symmetrical Component Analysis: The short circuit study based on phase impedance quantities involves ZBusa,b,c which besides being large in size is also a nearly full matrix. Hence, a computation using such a representation may have limitations in terms of computer size for large networks. If all components in the system excepting the fault are balanced, a symmetrical component transformation of the generatortransmission network yields three uncoupled networks thereby simplifying the analysis. Through such an analysis the degree of unbalance also gets clearly exhibited. The voltages behind transient reactances are also expressed in terms of the symmetrical component variables, viz.
For balanced excitation Voa = 10o , Vob= 1120o , Voc= 1240o . Hence,
Thus only the positive sequence component of the voltages source is present.
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The fault description may be given either in impedance form as [ZF0,1,2 ] or admittance form as YF0,1,2 . ZF0,1,2 and YF0,1,2 for various types of faults are obtained by applying the symmetrical component transformation to the corresponding ZFa,b,c or YFa,b,c 15.6 Computation of Currents and Voltages Under Faulted Condition. The procedure is analogous to that of phase quantities. (i) When ZF0,1,2 exists : IF0,1,2 = [ZF0,1,2 + Zpp0,1,2]1 VO0,1,2 (23)
Vi(F)0,1,2 = VO0,1,2 Zip0,1,2 IF0,1,2 i =1,2,,n ip Vp(F)0,1,2 = Z(F)0,1,2 I(F)0,1,2 (ii) When Y(F)0,1,2 exists : IF0,1,2 = YF0,1,2 [U + Zpp0,1,2 YF0,1,2] 1 VO0,1,2 (26) and Vi(F)0,1,2 = VO0,1,2 Zip0,1,2 IF0,1,2 i =1,2,,n ip Vp(F)0,1,2 = [U + Zpp0,1,2 Y(F)0,1,2] 1 VO0,1,2
(24) (25)
(27) (28)
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REFERENCES : [ 1 ] M.A. Pai : Computer Techniques in Power System Analysis, 2nd edition, Tata McGrawHill Publishing Company Limited, 2006.
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Training for Transmission System EngineersCeylon Electricity Board 16: PRINCIPLES OF POWER SYSTEM DYNAMIC SIMULATION 16.1 Introduction to the Power System Stability Problem
Power system stability may be broadly defined as that property of a power system that enables it to remain in a state of operating equilibrium under normal operating conditions and to regain an acceptable state of equilibrium after being subjected to a disturbance. Instability in a power system may be manifested in many different ways depending on the system configuration and operating mode. Traditionally, the stability problem has been one of maintaining synchronous operation. Since power systems rely on synchronous machines for generation of electrical power, a necessary condition for satisfactory system operation is that all synchronous machines remain in synchronism or, colloquially, in step. This aspect of stability is influenced by the dynamics of generator rotor angles and powerangle relationships. 16.2 MidTerm and LongTerm Stability The terms longterm stability and midterm stability are relatively new to the literature on power system stability. They were introduced as a result of the need to deal with problems associated with the dynamic response of power systems to severe upsets. Severe system upsets result in large excursions of voltage, frequency, and power flows that thereby invoke the actions of slow processes, controls, and protections not modeled in conventional transient stability studies. The characteristic times of the processes and devices activated by the large voltage and frequency shifts will range from a matter of seconds (the responses of devices such as generator controls and protections) to several minutes (the responses of devices such as prime mover energy supply systems and loadvoltage regulators). Longterm stability analysis assumes that intermachine synchronizing power oscillations have damped out, the result being uniform system frequency. The focus is on the slower and longerduration phenomena that accompany largescale system upsets and on the resulting large, sustained mismatches between generation and consumption of active and reactive power. These phenomena include: boiler dynamics of thermal units, penstock and conduit dynamics of hydro units, automatic generation control, power plant and transmission system protection/controls, transformer saturation, and offnominal frequency effects on loads and the network. The midterm response represents the transition between shortterm and longterm responses. In midterm stability studies, the focus is on synchronizing power oscillations between machines, including the effects of some of the slower phenomena, and possibly large voltage or frequency excursions. Typical range of time periods are as follows:
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(2)
where f is an n vector of nonlinear functions. Determining the dynamic behavior of the system described by (2) is a more difficult task than that of the linearized system of (l). Usually time solution of the nonlinear differential equations are obtained by numerical methods with the aid of digital computers, and this is the method usually used in power system stability studies. Stability of synchronous machines is usually decided by behavior of their rotor angles. More recently, modern theories of stability of nonlinear systems have been applied to the study of power system transients to determine the stability of synchronous machines without obtaining time solutions. 16.7 Problems of electric power system dynamics In this section, problems associated with the dynamic behavior of electric power systems will be discussed. The term dynamics used here has a broader meaning than that associated with the term stability in the classical literature on electric power systems. It not only includes the stability analysis of electric power systems, but also deals with such topics as dynamic equivalents, torsional oscillations, and control. Before addressing these power system dynamic problems, we shall first present some stability definitions. 16.8 Stability Definitions The power system stability definitions in the literature have been changing and the wellaccepted definitions are two: the transient stability due to large disturbances, and the steadystate stability due to small disturbances. However, whether a disturbance is large or small is sometimes hard to define, as it may well depend on the capability of stability control. Steadystate stability refers to the stability of a power system subject to small and gradual changes in load, and the system remains stable with conventional excitation and governor controls.
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16.13 Nonlinear Stability Analysis and Transient Stability Controls When a very large disturbance occurs suddenly to a power system because of a serious fault more effective countermeasures than the linear continuous supplementary stability control must be taken immediately to balance the mechanical power input and the electric power output and to maintain the system stability. In the worst case, the faulted area must be isolated and the .system separated, resulting in "island" operation. There are also many nonlinear stability analysis techniques. One technique that has been fascinating power engineers for years , Lyapunov's direct method. 16.14 Basic Models for Power System Dynamic Studies For any power system dynamic study, a proper and adequate power system model must be chosen to include all significant components relevant to the problem in the model, and to exclude insignificant components irrelevant to the problem from the model. For example, for the study of lowfrequency oscillations of a large electric power system as a onemachine infinitebus system, a simple mechanical model with only one inertia constant, a simple synchronous generator model with only one field circuit differential equation, and an excitation system is sufficient. On the other hand, for the study of torsional oscillations of a steam turbine generator plant due to the subsynchronous resonance of a capacitorcompensated transmission system to which the plant is connected, the simple model for the lowfrequency study is neither proper nor adequate. For that study, the turbines and generator set must be considered as a multiple massspring system, and all generator windings, transmission lines, and the capacitor compensation must be described by differential equations. Although there are many power system dynamic problems, the number of basic component models needed to describe any power system dynamic problem is rather limited. The basic models include the highand loworder synchronous machines, the exciter and voltage regulator systems, and the turbines and governors. 16.15 System Dynamic Problems The development of fast acting static exciters and electronic voltage regulators overcame to a large extent the transient stability and steady state stability problems (caused by slow drift in the generator rotor motion as the loading was increased). A parallel development in high speed operation of circuit breakers and reduction of the fault clearing time and reclosing, also improved system stability. The regulation of frequency has led to the development of turbine speed governors which enable rapid control of frequency and power output of the generator with minimum dead band. The various primemover controls are classified as (a) primary
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REFERENCES: [1] Yaonan Yu : Electric Power System Dynamics , Academic Press, Inc. , 1983. [2] K.R. Padiyar : Power System Dynamics : Stability and Control , 2nd edition, BS Publications, 2002. [3] P.M. Anderson & A.A. Fouad : Power System Control and Stability , 2nd edition, IEEE Press Power Engineering Series, WileyInterscience, 2003.
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17: SYNCHRONOUS MACHINE MODELS 1 17.1 Synchronous Machine Theory and Modelling Synchronous generators form the principal source of electric energy in power systems. Many large loads are driven by synchronous motors. Synchronous condensers are sometimes used as a means of providing reactive power compensation and controlling voltage. These devices operate on the same principle and are collectively referred to as synchronous machines. The power system stability problem is largely one of keeping interconnected synchronous machines in synchronism. Therefore, an understanding of their characteristics and accurate modeling of their dynamic performance are of fundamental importance to the study of power system stability. 17.2 Direct and Quadrature Axes: We see that the magnetic circuits and all rotor windings are symmetrical with respect to both polar axis and the interpolar axis. Therefore, for the purpose of identifying synchronous machine characteristics, two axes are defined as: The direct (d) axis, centred magnetically in the centre of the north pole; The quadrature (q) axis, 90 electrical degrees ahead of the daxis.
The position of the rotor relative to the stator is measured by the angle between the daxis and the magnetic axis of phase a winding. The selection of the qaxis as leading the daxis is purely arbitrary. This convention is based on the IEEE standard definition, and is widely used. 17.3 Mathematical Description of a Synchronous Machine In developing equations of a synchronous machine, the following assumption are made: (a) The stator windings are sinusoidally distributed along the airgap as far as the mutual effects with the rotor are concerned. (b) The stator slots cause no appreciable variation of the rotor inductances with rotor position. (c) Magnetic hysteresis is negligible. (d) Magnetic saturation effects are negligible. Assumptions (a), (b) and (c) are reasonable. The principal justification comes from the comparison of calculated performances based on these assumptions and actual measured performances. Assumption (d) is made for convenience in analysis. With magnetic saturation
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neglected, we are required to deal with only liner coupled circuits, making superposition applicable. However, saturation effects are important. 17.4 Representation in System Studies For analysis of power system dynamic performance, the component models are expressed in the statespace form or the block diagram form. The statespace form requires the component models to be expressed as a set of first order differential equations. The swing equation, expressed as two first order differential equations, becomes
d r 1 = (T m T e K D r ) dt 2H d = 0 r dt
(1)
(2)
In the above equations, time t is in seconds, rotor angle is in electrical radians, and 0 is equal to 2f. We will assume the variables r, Tm and Te to be in per unit. However, t will be expressed in seconds and 0 in electrical radians per second. 17.5 Typical values of standard parameters: Table 1 gives ranges within which generator parameters normally lie. From the expressions for machine parameters, it is apparent that
Xd > Xq X d Xd Xq > Xq
Table 1
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Hydraulic Units 0.6 1.5 0.4 1.0 0.2  0.5 0.15 0.35 0.2 0.45 1.5 9.0 s 0.01 0.05 s 0.01 0.09 s 0.1 0.2 0.002 0.02
Thermal Units 1.0 2.3 1.0 2.3 0.15 0.4 0.3 1.0 0.12 0.25 0.12 0.25 3.0 10.0 s 0.5 2.0 s 0.02 0.05 s 0.02 0.05 s 0.1 0.2 0.0015 0.005
Xd Subtransient Reactance
Xq
Td0
Tq0
X1 Ra
Notes: 1. Reactance values are in per unit with stator base values equal to the corresponding machine rated values. 2. Time constants are in seconds. 17.6 Simplifications essential for largescale studies For stability analysis of large systems, it is necessary to neglect the following for stator voltage: The transformer voltage terms, p The effect of speed variations.
d
and p
The reasons for and the effects of these simplifications are discussed below.
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Terms
As discussed earlier the p d and p q terms represent the stator transients. With these terms neglected, the stator quantities contain only fundamental frequency components and the stator voltage equations appear as algebraic equations. This allows the use of steadystate relationships for representing the interconnecting transmission network. 17.8 Neglecting the Effect of Speed Variations on Stator Voltages Another simplifying assumption normally made is that the per unit value of r is equal to 1.0 in the stator voltage equations. This is not the same as saying that speed is constant; it assumes that speed changes are small and do not have a significant effect on the voltage. The assumption of per unit r = 1.0 (i.e., r = 0 rad/s) in the stator voltage equations does not contribute to computational simplicity in itself. The primary reason for making this assumption is that it counterbalances the effect of neglecting p d, p q terms so far as the lowfrequency rotor oscillations are concerned. 17.9 Simplified model with Amortisseurs Neglected: The first order of simplification to the synchronous machine model is to neglect the amortisseur effects. This minimizes data requirements since the machine parameters related to the amortisseurs are often not readily available. In addition, it may contribute to reduction in computational effort by reducing the order of the model and allowing larger integration steps in timedomain simulations. 17.10 Constant Flux Linkage Model: 17.10(a) Classical Model For studies in which the period of analysis is small in comparison to Td0 , the machine
(or model of earlier section is often simplified by assuming E q
fd)
study period. This assumption eliminates the only differential equation associated with the electrical characteristics of the machine. A further approximation, which simplifies the machine model significantly, is to ignore = Xq , and to assume that the flux linkage 1q (associated transient saliency by assuming X d
) also remains constant. With these with the qaxis rotor circuit corresponding to X q
has a constant magnitude. assumptions, the voltage behind the transient impendence R a + jX d The corresponding equivalent is shown in figure 1.
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Figure 1 Simplified transient model This model offers considerable computational simplicity; it allows the transient electrical performance of the machine to be represented by a simple voltage source of fixed magnitude behind an effective reactance. It is commonly referred to as the classical model, since it was used extensively in early stability studies. 17.11 Constant Flux Linkage Model Including the Effects of Subtransient Circuits The corresponding equivalent circuit is shown in Figure 2 with constant rotor flux and E q are constant. This model is used in shortcircuit programs for computing linkages, E d the initial value of the fundamental frequency component of shortcircuit currents. As the rotor flux linkages cannot change instantaneously, the value E is equal to its prefault value. Such a constant flux linkage model would not be generally acceptable for stability studies. 17.12 Summary of Simple Models for Different Time Frames Figure summaries the simple models of the synchronous machine applicable to the three time frames; subtransient, transient, and steady state. The subtransient and transient models assume constant rotor flux linkages, and the steadystate model assumes constant field current. These models neglect saliency effects and stator resistance and offer considerable structural and computational simplicity.
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Figure 3 summarizes the simple models of the synchronous machine applicable to the three time frames: subtransient, transient, and steady state. The subtransient and transient models assume constant rotor flux linkages, and the steadystate model assumes constant field current. These models neglect saliency effects and stator resistance and offer considerable structural and computational simplicity.
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% = E % + jX I% E q t0 s t0
E q = X ad i fd = E I
REFERENCES : [ 1 ] P.M. Anderson & A.A. Fouad : Power System Control and Stability , 2nd edition, IEEE Press Power Engineering Series, WileyInterscience, 2003. [ 2 ] K.R. Padiyar : Power System Dynamics : Stability and Control , 2nd edition, BS Publications, 2002.
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18: SYNCHRONOUS MACHINE MODELS 2 18.1 Machine Representation and Equations Machine armature is represented by a single phase equivalent circuit shown in Figure 1. The equivalent circuit consists of a current source whoso magnitude and phase angle are determined from a knowledge of the rotor flux linkages and the rotor angle. The model can take into account any number of circuits in the d and q axes of the rotor. However, a synchronous machine with two rotor circuits in each axis is considered here and is shown in Figure2. The subscripts f and h refer to the field circuit and the damper circuit in the daxis respectively. The subscripts g and k refer to the damper circuits in the q axis. All variables and parameters are expressed in per unit of the machine rating. The generator convention is used. Also, the convention of qaxis leading the daxis is followed in the present analysis. 18.2 Rotor Circuit equations Park's equations for rotor circuit are given by
vr = [ Rr ] ir +
r r
t
(1)
where v r = v fd o o o
t t r = rd rq
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where
t M d 0 [ Lr ] = t Mq 0
[ Lrd ] [ 0]
Lkg Lg
L rq
[ 0]
and
[ Lrd ] =
Lf L fh
L fh Lk L = ; rq Lh Lkg
Md = M df M dh ;Mq = M qk M qg
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The rotor flux linkages are more important than the rotor currents. Therefore, after eliminating
i rd and i rq , we get
t p rd = 0 [ Rrd ][ Lrd ] rd + 0 V fd 0 1
t 0 [ Rrd ][ Lrd ] 1M d id
18.3 Stator Equations Parks equations for the stator are given by
vd = ra id + vq = ra iq +
But,
0
1
p d p q
0 q
0 d
Therefore, we get
" 0 vd 1 Ld = " vq 0 L 0 q
p p
id 1 + iq 0
L"d 0
0 L"q
p p
Id Iq
+ 0 + 0
0 L"q " 0 L d
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where
t L"d Ld M d [ Lrd ] 1 M d
1 t L"q Lq M q Lrq Mq
Id
' Id
The armature transients are ignored by neglecting p d and p q terms in Parks equations. This is normally justified since these terms are small compared to the speed terms and also their exclusion makes the armature equations algebraic which is consistent with the steady state representation of the network to which the machine armature circuits are connected. This results in the reduction of the order of the machine1 dynamical system by two. By setting p d and p q equal to zero and = 0 in Park's equations, the stator equations are reduced to a pair of algebraic equations given by
L"q id vd 0 + v = " i 0 L d q q
18.4 Equations of Mechanical Motion
0 L"q " 0 L d
I d ra 0 ' + Iq 0 ra
id iq
M p + K D ( 0 ) = Pm Pg
p = 0
where
M=
2H
and Pm is the mechanical power input and Pg is the electrical power output.
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18.5 Subtransient Saliency Although Ld and Lq are not equal, in general, introduction of dummy coils car make the new values equal. The effect of the sub transient saliency is taken into account and we get
' Iq = I q + iq
"
"
(2)
Where
Iq =
1 1 rq Mq Lrq " Ld
L"q 1 L" d
"
"
The second term in the equation (2) represents sub transient saliency; and Ld and Lq are the conventional sub transient inductances. The variables Id and Iq are directly utilized as state variables. Therefore, in the rotor circuit equations, h and g are replaced by Id and Iq, respectively and the resultant equations are given by
t Id Iq f k t = [ Ar ] Id Iq f k t + b me v fd + [ Bal ] id iq p
The elements of the matrices Ar, Bal and vector bme depend upon the machine parameters and are given by
C1 0 0 C2 C 0 [ Ar ] = 5 0 C6 [ 0]
C 0 [ Bal ] = 9 0 C10
C3 0 C7 0
0 C4 0 C8
[ 0] [ 0]
( K D / M ) 1
[ 0]
C11 0
0 0
0 C12
[ 0 ]
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Rf ))0 bme = (0 a1 ( M df
(0 (
Rf M df
))0
The linearized rotor circuit differential equations are derived and can be put in the compact form
p X m = [ Ar ] X m + b me v fd + b mg ( Pm Pg ) + [ Bal ] i m
Where i m id
b mg = [ 0 0
(3)
iq
(1 / M )
0]
In the steady state representation, fa = fd cos (0t + ) fq sin (0t + ) where f is a current or voltage variable and subscript 0 denotes the reference frame. r ( = 0 + & ) is the rotor speed and is the relative angle. Parks components fd and fq can be used to denote the magnitudes of the phasor representing fa. The phasor diagram is shown in Figure 3. The usual convention is to denote as the angle between the quadrature axis and the reference frame. Hence the phasor f a can be written as
f a = ( f q j f d ) e j
Hence in steady state, the single phase equivalent circuit of the machine can be represented as shown in Figure 4, when all the phasors are referred to the reference axis.
Expression for
im
Now, because we wish to represent the network by its Jacobian matrix from which S g is directly available, i m will be replaced by S g . The expression for i m is derived as follows: Generator power output is given by
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Pg + j Qq = Vg i *
where and
' Vg = j X " ( ( I q iq ) j ( I d id ) )
(4) (5)
i = iq j id
(6)
[Wa1 ] =
1 ( I q 0 2( 1) iq 0 ) " Xd 1 ( I d 0 2 id 0 )
( I d 0 id 0 ) ( I d 0 + iq 0 )
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iq 0 id 0
ido iq 0
[ 0 ] [ 0 ]
d1 ( I q 0 + iq 0 ) ( I q 0 + 2( 1) iq 0 ) + ( I d 0 2 id 0 ) ( I d 0 id 0 )
The matrices Am, Bp and Cm are obtained as [Am] = [Ar] + [Bal] [Wa2] [Tal] [Bp] = [bmg 0] + [Bal] [Wal]
B
(7) (8)
1 0 [Cm] = 0 0
0 1 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 1 0
0 0 1
(9)
Next, expressions for generator terminal bus voltage magnitude and phase angle are derived as follows: Since Vg = Vq jVd , we have (10) (11)
g = tan 1 (Vd / Vq )
Vg = (1/ Vg ) Vq 0 Vd 0 Vq
Vd
(12)
t
g = (1/ Vg2 ) Vd 0 Vq 0 Vq Vd
Also, we have from equation (5),
(13)
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Vq " 1 = X 0 Vd
0 1 1 0
(15)
and
X " 1 V V [G2 ] = 0 0 q d 0 Vg [ H1 ] = D p H [ 2 ]
0 1 0 [Wa 2 ] [Ta 2 ] 1 0 ( 1)
(16)
where
and
1 where [Ta 2 ] = 0
REFERENCES :
[ 1 ] C. Radhakrishna : Stability Studies of AC/DC Power Systems , Ph. D. Thesis , submitted to Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, India, 1980.
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~~ S = P + jQ = E t I t * = E t I t (cos + j sin )
where is the power factor angle.
Figure 1 Armature current heating limit Therefore, in the PQ plane the armature current limit, as shown in Figure 1, appears as a circle with centre at the origin and radius equal to the MVA rating.
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(1)
Q = E t I t sin =
X ad E2 E t i fd cos i t Xs Xs
(2)
The relationship between the active and reactive powers for a given field current is a circle centred at ( E t2 / X s ) on the Qaxis and with ( X ad / X s ) E t i fd as the radius. Therefore, the effect of the maximum field current rating on the capability of the machine may be illustrated on the PQ plane as shown in Figure 3.
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In any balanced design, the thermal limits for the field and armature intersect at a point A, which represents the machine nameplate MVA and power factor rating. 19.4 End region heating limit The localized heating in the end region of the armature imposes a third limit on the operation of a synchronous machine. This limit affects the capability of the machine in the under excited condition. This is illustrated in Figure 4, which also includes the limit imposed by the armature current heating effects. The field current and armature current heating limits when plotted on a PQ plane depend on the armature voltage.
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REFERENCES : [1] Prabha Kundur : Power System Stability and control , The EPRI Power System Engineering Series, McGrawHill, Inc., 1994.
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This is shown in Figure.2. The terminal voltage of the generator is sensed and transformed to a dc quantity. Although the filtering associated with the voltage transducer may be complex, it is usually modeled as a single time constant TR. In many systems, TR is very small and can be assumed to be zero for simplicity.
Figure.2 Transducer and Load compensation The purpose of the load compensation is to synthesize a voltage which differs from the terminal voltage by the voltage drop in an impedance (Rc+jXc). Both voltage and current phasors must be used in computing Vc. The objectives of the load compensation are as follows. a) Sharing of reactive power among units which are bussed together with zero impedance between them. In this case, Rc and Xc are positive and the voltage is regulated at a point internal to the generator. b) When the generating units are connected in parallel through unit transformers, it may be desirable to regulate voltage at a point beyond the machine terminals to compensate for a portion of the transformer impedance. In this case both Rc and Xc are negative values. In most cases, Rc is negligible and can be ignored. 2021.4 Exciters and Voltage Regulators
The modelling of various excitation systems has been reported in two IEEE Committee reports. Modern Automatic Voltage Regulators (AVR) are continuously acting electronic regulators with high gain and small time constants. The exciters can be of the following types 1. Field controlled dc generator  commutator 2. a) Field controlled alternator with noncontrolled rectifier (using diodes) i) With slip rings and brushes (stationary rectifier) ii) Brushless, without sliprings (rotating rectifier) b) Alternator with controlled rectifier
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3. Static exciter with a) Potential source controlled rectifier in which the excitation power is supplied through a potential transformer connected to generator terminals b) Compound source (using both current and voltage transformers at the generator terminals) with (i) Noncontrolled rectifier (control using magnetic elements such as saturable reactors) (ii) controlled rectifier (for controlling the voltage) Historically, DC generatorcommutator exciters were first to be used. The DC generator may be selfexcited or separately excited (using a pilot exciter). The voltage regulator for DC excitation systems were based on rotating amplifier (amplidyne) or magnetic amplifiers. AC and static excitation systems invariably use electronic regulators which are fast acting and result in the phase control of the controlled rectifiers using thyristors. In type 2(a) exciters, field control of the alternator is achieved using controlled rectifier with power source derived from the alternator output. The performances of the exciters type 2(b) and 3(a) are expected to be similar as in both systems, the generator field is directly supplied through controlled rectifiers which have fast response. The only difference is that of the power source for the rectifiers (and the generator field) in 2(b) it comes from the alternator (hence a part of the AC excitation systems) and in 3(a) it comes from static elements (potential transformer) and thus belongs to the static excitation systems. In the first IEEE committee report published in 1968, excitation systems were classified not according to their power source but in an arbitrary manner. However the IEEE Type 1 excitation system defined in that report represents a majority of the excitation systems in service and is widely used. It essentially represents rotating exciters but with some modifications can also represent static exciters. This is shown in Figure 3. Here, VR is the output of the regulator, which is limited. The regulator transfer function has single time constant TA and a positive gain of KA. The saturation function SE = f(EFD) represents the saturation of the exciter. It is to be noted that the limits on VR also imply limits on EFD. Actually the latter are usually specified, and the former can be found from the equation (in steady state) VR(KE + SE)EFD = 0 EFDmin EFD EFDmax (1)
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Figure 3 IEEE Type 1 Excitation system IEEE Type 1 can also represent the static excitation system (3(a)) by specifying the following parameters KE = 1, TE = 0, SE = 0 and VRMAX = KPVT (2)
Eq. (2) shows that the upper limits on the regulator and exciter outputs are directly related to the terminal voltage {VT) of the generator. 2021.5 Excitation System Stabilizer (ESS) and Transient Gain Reduction (TGR) This is used for increasing the stable region of operation of the excitation system and permit higher regulator gains. It is to be noted that feedback control systems, of which the excitation system is an example, often require lead/lag compensation or derivative (rate) feedback. The feedback transfer function for ESS is shown in Figure (4). This can be realized by a transformer (assumed to be ideal) whose secondary is connected to a high impedance. The turns ratio of the transformer and the time constant (L/R) of the impedance determine KF and TF according to the relations
TF =
L R
(3)
nL (4) R The time constant is usually taken as 1 second. Instead of feedback compensation for ESS, a series connected lead/lag circuit can also be used as shown in Figure 5. Here KF =
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Figure 5 Transient Gain Reduction (TGR) 2021.6 Control configurations We now consider the physical configuration of components used for excitation systems. Figure 6 shows in block form the arrangement of the physical components in any system. In many presentday systems the exciter is a dc generator driven by either the steam turbine (on the same shaft as the generator) or an induction motor. An increasing number are solidstate systems consisting of some form of rectifier or thyristor system supplied from the ac bus or from an alternatorexciter.
Fig. 6 Arrangement of excitation components The voltage regulator is the intelligence of the system and controls the output of the exciter so that the generated voltage and reactive power change in the desired way. In earlier systems the "voltage regulator" was entirely manual. Thus the operator observed the terminal voltage and adjusted the field rheostat (the voltage regulator) until the desired output conditions were observed. In most modern systems the voltage regulator is a controller that senses the generator output voltage (and sometimes the current) then initiates corrective action by changing the exciter control in the desired direction. The speed of this device is of great interest in studying stability. Because of the high inductance in the generator field winding, it is difficult to make rapid changes in field current. This introduces considerable "lag" in the control function and is one of the major obstacles to be overcome in designing a regulating system.
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Fig.7 : Type 1 excitation system representation for a continuously acting regulator and exciter. The amplifier has time constant TA and gain KA, and its output is limited by VRmax and VRmin. 2021.9 Type IS systemcontrolled rectifier system with terminal potential supply only This is a special case of continuously acting systems where excitation is obtained through rectification of the terminal voltage. In this case the maximum regulator voltage is not a constant but is proportional to Vt, i.e., VRmax = Kp Vt Such systems have almost instantaneous response of their main excitation components such that in Figure 7. KE = 1, TE = 0, and SE = 0. This system is shown in Figure 8.
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Fig. 8 Type 1S System 2021.10 Type 2 systemrotating rectifier system Another type of system, the rotating rectifier system, incorporates damping loops that originate from the regulator output rather than from the excitation voltage since, being brushless, the excitation voltage is not available to feed back. The IEEE description of this system is shown in Figure 9, where the damping feedback loop is seen to be different from that of Figure 7. Note that two time constants appear in the damping loop of this new system, TF1 and TF2, one of which approximates the exciter time delay and is
Fig.9 : Type 2 excitation system representationrotating rectifier system before 1967 considered "major damping." with the second or minor damping being present to damp higher frequencies. The Type 2 excitation system representation is intended for use in simulating the Westinghouse Brushless excitation system. An alternate representation developed by the manufacturer is reported to represent the physical equipment more accurately. 2021.11 Type 3 systemstatic with terminal potential and current supplies Some systems use a combination of current and voltage intelligence as a feedback signal to be compared against the reference. These systems are not properly represented by Type 1 or 1S and require special treatment, as shown in Figure 10. Here the regulator and input smoothing are similar to the Type 1 system. However, the signal denoted VB incorporates information fed forward from Vt with added information concerning both It and IF. Thus VC represents the selfexcitation from the generator terminals. Constants
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Fig. 10 Type 3 excitation system representationstatic with terminal potential and current supplies. Kp and Kt are proportionality factors indicating the proportion of the Thevenin voltage, VTH due to potential and current information. Multiplying VTH is a signal proportional to IF, which accounts for variation of selfexcitation with change in the angular relation of field current (IF) and selfexcitation voltage (VTH). Obviously, systems of this type are nonlinear.
Fig.11 Type 4 excitation system representationnoncontinuously setting regulator. Note: VRH limited between VRmin and VRmax : time constant of rheostat travel = TRH. 2021.12 Type 4 systemnoncontinuous acting The previous systems are similar in the sense that they are all continuous acting with relatively high gain and are usually fast acting. However, a great many systems are of an earlier design similar to the rheostatic system and are noncontinuous acting; i.e.. they have dead zones in which the system operates essentially open loop. In addition to this, they are generally characterized as slow due to friction and inertia of moving parts. Type 4 systems often have two speeds of operation depending upon the magnitude of the voltage error. Thus a largeerror voltage may cause several rheostat segments to be shorted out, while a smallerror voltage will cause the segments to be shorted one at a time. The Computer representation of a system is illustrated in Figure 11,
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REFERENCES : [ 1 ] K.R. Padiyar : Power System Dynamics : Stability and Control , 2nd edition, BS Publications, 2002. [ 2 ] P.M. Anderson & A.A. Fouad : Power System Control and Stability , 2nd edition, IEEE Press Power Engineering Series, WileyInterscience, 2003.
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It is worth noting here that the input signal for PSS is derived from speed/frequency, or accelerating power or a combination of these signals. The PSS design in a multimachine environment can be complex, as several rotor oscillation frequencies have to be considered. In any case, the stabilizer is designed to have zero output in steady state. Also the output is limited in order not to adversely affect the voltage control. The stabilizer output Vs is added to the terminal voltage error signal. 22.2 Supplementary Stabilizing Signals We note that the excitation system introduces a large phase lag at low system frequencies just above the natural frequency of the excitation system. Thus it can often be assumed that the voltage regulator introduces negative damping. To offset this effect and to improve the system damping in general, artificial means of producing torques in phase with the speed are introduced. These are called "Supplementary Stabilizing Signals" and the networks used to generate these signals have come to be known as "Power System Stabilizer" (PSS) networks. Stabilizing signals are introduced in excitation systems at the summing junction where the reference voltage and the signal produced from the terminal voltage are added to obtain the error signal fed to the regulatorexciter system. To illustrate, the signal usually obtained from speed or a related signal such as the frequency, is processed through a suitable network to obtain the desired phase relationship. Such an arrangement is shown schematically in Figure 1.
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where X is the state vector, u is the control vector and Y is the output vector. In deriving this model, the generating units are represented by differential equations and the power system network by algebraic equations. The degree of the detail used in the representation of generating unit can vary depending on the availability of data and the need for suitable accuracy. The model can be used for 1. Prediction of the performance of the system under specified disturbances. The prediction of the stability characteristics is an important application and can be determined from eigenvalue analysis and is independent of the disturbances. 2. The design of suitable controllers. Normally, in control theory, the structure of the controller is specified in advance. In the case of feedback control, for example, it can be represented by u=FY where the elements of the matrix F have to be properly chosen. In a power system, the selection of the control vector u has to be made first before the controller can be designed. Assuming that there are a total of m control vectors out of which one has to be selected, the problem can be stated as follows: Select a control vector ui where i can range from l to m such that the system described by p X = A X + Bi ui (4) (3)
satisfies the control criterion in the most optimal manner among all possible choices of the control vector. In general, the solution to this problem requires the specification of the control criterion and the control structure such as that given by equation (3).
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where A is a diagonal matrix (with the assumption that all the eigenvalues are distinct) whose elements are the eigenvalues of the A matrix. The row in equation (6) corresponding to the critical eigenvalue (mode) j can be expressed as p Zj = j Zj + Bji ui (7) where Bji is the jth row of [Bi] Assuming that the control law of ui is going to be selected suitably in order to shift the eigenvalue j to the left in the complex plane (to increase the damping), it can be observed that the control effort would be minimum if a scalar norm of the vector B'ji is maximum. If the control ui is a scalar then B'ji is also a scalar and the criterion for the best control is to maximum  B'ji  over all possible values of the index i. It is to be noted that B'ji is the scalar product of the eigenvector Wj (of the matrix At) and the vector Bi. 22.6 Selection of Control wit Fixed Configuration In the previous discussion the nature of the control law or the configuration of the controller has not been assumed apriori. In the alternate method of selection of the best control vector, the control law given by the equation (3) is assumed. For the singleinputsingleoutput (SISO) case, the system equation (4) reduces to p X = (A + Bi Fi Cti) X (8)
where the output yi = Cti X is used for feedback. The value of the scalar Fi (feedback gain) is so chosen as to shift the open loop critical eigenvalue j to the left in the complex plane. This is to be achieved with the smallest possible value of gain. The closed loop eigenvalue j* is given by
*j = j +
j Fi
Fi
If the higher order terms are neglected, the best control is determined by maximizing the absolute value of
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< V j, W j >
(9)
where Vj and Wj are the eigenvectors of [A] and [A]t respectively corresponding to the jth eigenvalue. 22.7 Simplified Power System Models In the dynamic stability analysis, the interest is mainly centered around damping of the electromechanical oscillations of the rotors of synchronous machines. For an n machine system there are in general (n 1) modes of oscillations. For planning studies it is admissible to use a simplified system model which contains only the relevant features that are of interest. Thus, it is possible to consider only classical models of the machine neglecting damper windings, voltage regulator and governor. The machine is represented by a constant voltage source behind its transient reactance. The machine equations are given by [M] P2 g = Pm  Pg (10)
For constant mechanical power input, Pm = O. The network equations can be written in the form
P g Pl Q g Q l
J PA J QA
J PE J QE
g l E g E l
(11)
where JPA, JPE, JQA and JQE are the component matrices of the Jacobian evaluated from the network power flow equations. The subscript refers to the internal buses of the generators. To simplify the analysis it is assumed that the effect of the voltage variations in the load buses in negligible.
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Then, since only the active power component is required in the swing equation given by (10), the equation (11) can be written in the form given by
g J E1 P g P = [ J PA ] + J E g l l E3
Where
(12)
J [ J PA ] A1 J A3
J A2 J E1 [ ] J and PE J J A4 E3
JE2 JE4
(13)
(14)
The vector P l is zero for the constant power type loads and it can also be treated to be zero for any other type of voltage dependent loads by suitably modifying the diagonal block of the Jacobian corresponding to the load buses. The generator internal voltage is controlled by means of the PSS control on the machine. Thus, the generator internal voltage vector Eg consists of nonzero elements corresponding only to the machines on PSS control. The expression for Pg is given by the equation (14) when PSS is present. hence, in equation (14), i. ii. if the PSS is absent, the vector Eg is zero. if the PSS is present, the vector P l is zero.
22.8 System Model with PSS For simplicity it is assumed that only one location for PSS is considered at a time. For the location of PSS on the ith generator, Eg is given by
Eg = li uei
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(15)
(16) (17)
Using the equations (10) and (16), the static space form of the system model can be obtained and is given by PX = [A] where X = [tg X + b ' ei uei (18)
tg ] t
0 b ei = 1 b'ei [ M ]
(19)
[A] =
0 I ; P 0
[P ] = [ M ]1 K
Normally, the rotor velocity of the machine is used as the feedback control signal for the PSS. This can be derived as yi = ctei X ctei = [0
lt i ]
(20)
From the equation (3), for the SISO case, we get uei = Fi 22.9 Conclusions Improvement in the damping of electromechanical oscillations can be obtained by using the controller PSS. It is found from the study reported here that the proper location of PSS is important for it to be effective in damping the oscillations. A new concept is introduced here for selecting the optimum location of PSS for the above purpose. Two approaches are suggested. The first method is independent of yi (21)
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REFERENCES : [ 1 ] P.M. Anderson & A.A. Fouad : Power System Control and Stability , 2nd edition, IEEE Press Power Engineering Series, WileyInterscience, 2003. [ 2 ] K.R. Padiyar : Power System Dynamics : Stability and Control , 2nd edition, BS Publications, 2002. [ 3 ] Prabha Kundur : Power System Stability and control , The EPRI Power System Engineering Series, McGrawHill, Inc., 1994. [ 4 ] C. Radhakrishna : Stability Studies of AC/DC Power Systems , Ph. D. Thesis , submitted to Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, India, 1980
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23&24: POWER TRANSFER CAPABILITY LIMITS 2324.1 INTRODUCTIONS Transfer of bulk electrical power over long distances is necessary for reliable and economical electrical supply especially for hydroelectric power generated in remote locations. But the transmission system has a limited capability to transfer power. The maximum power that can be transferred is called the transfer capability. For proper operation of the power system and to gain the benefits of the bulk power transfers, the transfer capabilities must be calculated and the power system planned and operated so that the power transfers do not exceed the transfer capability. In this paper, power transfer capabilities are briefly explained. 2324.2 TRANSFER CAPABILITY: CONCEPTS The reliability of a power network can be characterized by its capability to carry power from one part to another. This is a characteristic which is very important when interconnections are involved, wherein close coordination to accommodate power transfers is required, and when wheeling and open access are allowed. It is likewise important in isolated systems where power generation is concentrated in one area, and load in another.
The transfer of power from one area to another, or from a set of delivery points to a set of points of receipt, is limited by capability of the transmission system. Key considerations in evaluating transfer limits are: thermal loading voltage problem, or angular stability
The limit may be reached during normal conditions, in the transient period following a disturbance or following a contingency such as loss of a line. Typically, there will be one limiting condition defined by the type of disturbance, the type of limit (thermal, voltage or stability) and the loading and dispatch state.
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The conditions by which a transfer level is acceptable or not are defined by the reliability criteria. The transfer capability is thus a function of the reliability criteria. In this sense, it is a qualitative measure, because it not only indicates whether a level of transfer is feasible or not, it also indicates the amount of real power that can be transferred. Hence, transfer limits also include concepts of operating margins from various limiting conditions. The most typical of such margins is the margin to voltage collapse  the amount of real power transfer prior to actual system collapse considered safe in the operating environment. Transfer limits are a function of the operating state: the load level generation dispatch the status of transmission elements (e.g., under maintenance or offline). Hence, there is also a difference between hourly transfer limits experienced by the operating power system, and planned transfer capability as studied by transmission planners. The calculation of transfer limits may sometimes be constrained by the actual capability to monitor specific parameters of the power system. For instance, in the Figure above, the amount of transfer is not completely reflected on the change in flows along the primary path. Some of the power, due to physical conditions, flows along the parallel path. There may exist constraints along the parallel path which could restrict the amount of power transfer as well. NERC defines a parameter called first contingency incremental transfer capability (FCITC). It is the amount of electric power, incremental above normal base power transfer, that can be transferred over the interconnected transmission systems in a reliable manner based on all of the following conditions. 1) With normal (precontingency) operating procedures...all facility loads are within normal ratings and all voltage are within normal limits. 2) The electric systems are capable of... remaining stable following [any single contingency]. 3) After the dynamic power swings subside following a [single contingency]...all transmission facility loadings are within emergency ratings and all voltages are within emergency limits. 2324.3 TRANSFER CAPABILITY ANALYSIS PROCEDURE The procedure followed in the calculation and define the transfer margin: can be described in the following steps: 1. 2. 3. 4. Establish a secure, solved base case. Specify a transfer including source and sink assumptions. Establish a solved transferlimited case and a binding security limit. The transfer margin is the difference between the transfer at the base case and the limiting case.
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2324.3(a) Base Case: The base case is an assumed power system operating condition to which the transfer is applied. That is, the base case is the assumed power system operating condition when no power has been transferred. A power system operating condition is generally obtained by specifying the powers generated or consumed at each bus and the control settings and then solving power system equations to calculate the other power system quantities such as power flows on the transmission lines. The base case is assumed to be an operating condition solved in this way and also a secure condition so that all quantities such as line flows and bus voltage magnitudes lie within their operating limits. 2324.3(b) Specifying the transfer: A transfer is specified by changes in power injections at buses in the network. For example, a point to point transfer from bus A to bus B is specified by increasing power at bus A and reducing power at bus B. In particular, if 100 MW are to be transferred from A to B, then power at bus B is reduced by 100 MW and power at bus A is increased by 100 MW plus an amount to cover the change in losses. In this case bus A is called a source of power and bus B is called a sink of power. 2324.3(c) Limiting Case: A solved transfer limited case is established at which the transfer has been increased to such a value that there is a binding security limit. The binding security limit can be a limit on line flow, voltage magnitude, voltage collapse or other operating constraint. Further transfer in the specified direction would cause a violation of the binding limit and compromise system security. One way to compute transfer capability with a software model is called continuation. First, the base case is solved. The amount of the transfer is a scalar parameter which can be varied in the model. The transfer is defined in terms of bus power injections to implement the amount of transfer as a scalar parameter in the model. Then the amount of transfer is gradually increased from the base case until a binding limit is encountered. This continuation process requires a series of power system solutions to be solved and tested for limits. The transfer capability is then the change in the amount of transfer from the base case transfer. Continuation can be simply done as a series of load flow calculations for increasing amounts of transfers or by more elaborate high performance numerical methods. Some continuation software can accurately take account of power system nonlinearity, operator actions, controls such as tap changes, and generator limits as the transfer is increased. On the other hand, useful transfer capabilities can also be obtained with simpler power system models such as the DC load flow approximation. 2324.4 Transfer Limit Analysis (TLA) IN PSS/E PROGRAM PSS/E program has a Transfer Limit Analysis (TLA) module that provides an analytical tool to evaluate available transfer capability, or transfer limits due to thermal and voltagerelated reliability criteria. Some of the features are:
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1. ACbased Transfer Limits  Thermal limit analysis using linear methods is fast but focuses only on one aspect. If the system has both thermal and voltage constrained transfers, then ACbased analysis provides better answers. This uses the PV Curve Analytical Engine.
2. Probabilistic Indices  The deterministic character of reliability criteria when applied to transfer limit analysis produces deterministic transfer limits. However, deterministic limits do not represent the risks sufficiently for todays competitive environment. Capability to study probabilistic transfer limits is alsoprovided.
The process of developing a series of Power Flows, known as parametric analysis, is shown in the Figure shown above. As transfer is increased, voltage decreases at some bus on or near the transfer path (See next Figure). The transfer where voltage reaches the low voltage criterion is
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the low voltage transfer limit. Transfer can continue to increase until the solution identifies a condition of voltage collapse; this is the voltage collapse transfer limit.
This curve is typically used by utilities for "kneeofcurve" analysis, so named because of its distinctive shape. The curve is also referred to as a PV curve. It is obtained by solving a series of AC Power Flows starting from a low transfer level and increasing in steps. The voltage collapse point needs to be identified with the NonDivergent Power Flow. For buses relatively remote from the transfer path, the curve is shallow and may not show a discernible knee. Thus, not all of the curves will have a low voltage transfer limit. However, all of the curves have the same voltage collapse transfer limit.
Algorithmically, the efficiency of calculating points on a PV curve is a function of the number of points evaluated, each point corresponding to an AC power flow solution. However, reducing the number of points may result in poor resolution, particular in the "knee" region of the PV curve. Hence, a delicate balance has to be made in selecting the number of PV curve points. By understanding the nature of the curve, the events which have the most significant influence on the shape of the curve can be identified and an efficient algorithm developed therefrom.
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The primary issues relating to PV curve analysis in thr commercial software programs are given below:
1. Monitors voltage at all buses or nodes within a monitored subsystem which may include buses on the transfer path as well as those in the receiving and sending areas. (TLA will also store power flows and generator real and reactive power outputs for elements within the monitored subsystem. The importance of this is described in the next section.) 2. Applies its nondivergent power flow algorithm to identify the transfer level at which voltage collapse occurs. 3. Allows the following options for adjusting transfers: load change, generation redispatch according to participation factors and generation redispatch according to economic basis. 4. Uses an adaptive step size to minimize the number of power flow evaluation points while maintaining resolution on the PV curves 2324.5 Thermal Transfer Limits Using the same series of Power Flows that defined the PV curve, the flow on a selected branch can be monitored as transfers change. This is illustrated in the Figure . The overload transfer limit for this branch occurs when a specified thermal rating is reached. The module monitors the flow on branches within a monitored subsystem and keeps track of their respective transfer limits.
However, this process may be approximated by a linear equivalent wherein the curve is assumed to be a straightline. This implies that reactive power and voltage magnitude are negligible and
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DC power flow methods can be applied. There are two common methods used for the linear approximation: distribution factors and interpolation.
The interpolation method uses two DC Power Flow solutions, one at a higher transfer level than the other. If the DC Power Flows are solved such that generator limits are recognized, then interpolated transfer limits would also recognize generator limits. The process for one branch/one transfer limit is shown in the Figure above. Note that should nonlinearities such as generator limits and phaseshifter angle limits not be present, the slope of the line defined by the change in transfer per change in line flow is equivalent to a form of distribution factor. Each monitored line would have its own transfer limit. The constraining thermal limit is the line which reaches its thermal rating at the lowest transfer level.
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In addition, each monitored line may have several ratings. The interpolation method will take into account multiple ratings with minimal additional computational effort. Multiple ratings may be attributed to individual components of a line. For example, transmission line components such as conductors, jumper connections, current transformers, etc., have distinct currentcarrying capabilities. Typically, the "rating" specified for a line is based on the lowest currentcarrying capability among its components. Also, if the transfer limit occurs outside of the range defined by the high and low transfer conditions, it is possible to extrapolate the transfer limit. The following capabilities with respect to linear calculation of thermal transfer limits are provided in PSS/E: 1. Allows multiple branch ratings 2. Uses two DC power flows for input, recognizing generator real power limits, as well as, phaseshifter angle limits 3. Interpolates transfer limits where the thermal rating is within the transfer levels of the two DC power flows. Otherwise, it interpolates. 4. Presents a table of transfer limits ordered from lowest and increasing in transfer level. 2324. 6 Probabilistic Transfer Limits Transfer limits (or ATCs  Available Transfer Capabilities) tend to be construed as firm, deterministic quantities. In fact, there are a number of uncertainties which impact the transfer limit, including: 1. 2. 3. 4. Generation dispatch and in the manner which in it changes as transfers increase Demand or load with respect to both the total and the distribution by substation The uncertainty in transfers increasing to the levels which have limiting conditions The impact of forced outages in the transmission system
To analyze item (4) shown above, modelling the frequency and duration of outage for each contingent event in the transmission system is required. Items 1, 2 and 3, are addressed by an exposure function that represents the probability of a given load, dispatch and transfer level occurring. A linear function is illustrated in Figure above.
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The cumulative probability of overloads as a function of transfers is shown in Figure below. There is nearly zero probability of overloads at transfers below 440 MW. There is nearly 100% probability of overload at transfers of 580 MW and higher.
2324.7 CONCLUSIONS Transfer capabilities are fundamental to appropriate operation of the system. The impact on transfer limits of system controls, data and other transactions can be quickly estimated.The concepts of transfer capability are introduced in this document. The features provided in the commercial power system analysis software like PSS/E are also explained.
REFERENCES: [1] North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC), Available transfer capability Definitions and determinations, NERC Rep., June 1996. [2] J. D. McCalley, J. F. Dorsey, Z. Qu, J. F. Luini, and J. L. Filippi, A new methodology for determining transmission capacity margin in electric power systems, IEEE Trans. Power Syst., vol. 6, pp. 944951, Aug.1991. [3] M. Ilic, F. Galiana, L. Fink, A. Bose, P. Mallet, and H. Othman, Transmission capacity in power networks, Elect. Power Energy Syst., vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 99110, 1998.
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25: POWER SYSTEM NETWORK REDUCTION TECHNIQUES From the power system Network Matrices, the relationship between the injected node currents and the node voltages is given by I = Ybus V where I = vector of injected node currents Ybus = Bus admittance matrix V = vector of node voltages In terms of the primitive admittances, the steps in developing the bus admittance matrix or Ybus for a given network are as follows: 1. The Ybus is symmetric. 2. Yii, the selfadmittance (diagonal term), is equal to the sum of the primitive admittances of all the components connected to the ith node. 3. Yij, the ijth element of the Ybus (offdiagonal element), is equal to the negative of the primitive admittance of all components connected between nodes I and j. It is to be noted here that if more than one component is connected in parallel between the two nodes, the equivalent primitive admittance of the components is first obtained before determining the entry in the Ybus. 25.1 Network Reduction (Kron Reduction) In a power system, the current injection is always zero at buses where there are no external loads or generators connected. Such nodes may be eliminated. We can generalize the procedure for an nbus system as follows: For an nbus system, if node k has zero current injection (i.e., Ik = 0 in the nodal equations), then we can obtain the reduced admittance matrix by eliminating node k by using the formula
Yij( new ) = Yij Yik Y kj Y kk
(1)
i, j = 1, 2, ,n
i, j k
(2)
The superscript (new) distinguishes the elements of the new (n1) x (n1) Ybus from the original n x n Ybus. The lower dimensional system in which the zero current injection bus is
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eliminated is said to be Kron reduced. Obviously, we can iterate on this scheme to eliminate as many nodes (with zero current injections) as desired. In stability studies, normally we eliminate all the nodes except for the internal generator nodes and obtain the Y matrix for the reduced network. The reduction can be achieved by matrix operation if we recall that all the nodes have zero injection currents except for the internal generator nodes. This property is used to obtain the network reduction as shown below. Let I=YV where
I I = n 0
(3)
(4)
where the subscript n is used to denote generator nodes and the subscript r is used for the remaining nodes. Thus for the network, Vn has the dimension (n x 1) and Vr has the dimension (r x 1). Expanding (4), In = Ynn Vn + Ynr Vr , from which we eliminate Vr to find
1 I n = (Y nn Ynr Yrr Yrn ) V n
0 = Yrn Vn + Yrr Vr
(5)
n) where n is the number of the generators. The network reduction illustrated here is a convenient analytical technique that can be used only when the loads are treated as constant impedances. If the loads are not considered to be constant impedances, the identity of the load buses must be retained. Network reduction can be applied only to those nodes that have zero injection current.
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25.2 Dynamic Equivalents of External Electric Power Systems In large power systems, normally it is desirable to consider only the local system under study in detail, and to represent the external systems by equivalents. Static equivalents for load flow studies are fairly well developed, and the development of the dynamic equivalents for dynamic studies requires more attention. Our primary concern is the dynamic interacting effect of the external system on the local system under investigation. As long as the interacting effect of the external system on the study system can be faithfully represented, the behavior of the various machines within the external system are of secondary interest. Dynamic equivalents are used for stability analysis, stabilizer design, and investigation of the electric power transfer limits among areas. The major approaches of dynamic equivalencing for stability studies are three: the modal approach, which keeps the main eigenvalues of the external system; the coherency approach, which separates machines in groups and combines machines within each group closely swinging together into one equivalent; and the estimation approach, which derives the equivalents for the external system through estimation.
REFERENCES : [ 1 ] P.M. Anderson & A.A. Fouad : Power System Control and Stability , 2nd edition, IEEE Press Power Engineering Series, WileyInterscience, 2003. [ 2 ] Arthur R. Bergen & Vijay Vittal : Power System Analysis , 2nd edition, Prentice Hall, Inc., 2000. [ 3 ] Yaonan Yu : Electric Power System Dynamics , Academic Press, Inc. , 1983.
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26.1 INTRODUCTION Governing system can be defined as a combination of devices and mechanisms which sense speed and power deviations and convert them to a servomotor stroke or gate position signal. Governing system is an important control system in the power plant as it regulates the turbine speed, power and participates in the grid frequency regulation. For starting, loading governing system is the main operator interface. Steady state and dynamic performance of the power system depends on the power plant response capabilities in which governing system plays a key role. With the development of digital electro hydraulic governors, processing capabilities have been enhanced but several adjustable parameters have been provided. A thorough understanding of the governing process is necessary for such adjustment. In this paper an overview of the hydro turbine governing system is given. The role of governing system in frequency control is also discussed. 26.2 BASIC GOVERNING SCHEME (a) Need for governing system The load on a turbine generating unit does not remain constant and can vary as per consumer requirement. The mismatch between load and generation results in the speed (or frequency) variation. When the load varies, the generation also has to vary to match it to keep the speed constant. This job is done by the governing system. Speed which is an indicator of the generation load mismatch is used to increase or decrease the generation. (b) Basic scheme Governing system controls the water flow to the turbine in response to the control signals like speed error, power error. It is a closed loop feedback control system in which control action goes on till the power mismatch is reduced to zero. As shown in the basic scheme given in Fig. 1, the inlet flow is controlled by the guide vanes or gate. It is regulated by the control valve servomotor. There is a main inlet valve ahead of the turbine which is either closed or open. In emergencies water flow is stopped by closing this valve by the protective devices. The governing process can be functionally expressed in the form of signal flow block diagram shown in Fig.2. The output signal of electronic part is a voltage or current signal and is converted into a hydraulic pressure or a piston position signal by the electro hydraulic converter (EHC).
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Francis Turbine
Fig. 1 TYPICAL HYDRO POWER PANT SCHEME
SET POINT S P E E D
GOVERNOR
TURBINE
+
Valve Position Load Mechanical Power
ROTOR INERTIA
Fig 2 GOVERNING SYSTEM FUNCTIONAL BLOCK DIAGRAM The water flow through the hydro turbine is proportional to the gate opening in the operating range. So when gate position changes, turbine flow changes and turbine power output also changes proportionally. Thus governing system changes the turbine mechanical power output. In no load unsynchronized condition, all the power is used to accelerate the rotor only (after meeting rotational losses) and hence the speed changes. The rate of speed change is governed by the inertia of the entire rotor system. In the grid connected condition, only power pumped into the system changes when governing system changes the valve opening.
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The governing system has three functional parts: i) sensing part ii) processing part and iii) amplification. These functions are realized using a set of electronic, hydraulic and mechanical elements, in the electrohydraulic governor (EHG), as shown in Fig. 3.
ELECTR ONIC PART
Speed & MW
E H
HYDRAULIC PART
Electrohydraulic Converter Sensing Hydraulic Amplification Actuation of Valve (Guide vane Servomotor)
Processing
Primary Amplification
Hydraulic Amplifier
Gate
Temporary Droop
Permanent Droop
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Derivative
Permanent Droop
(c) Amplification is necessary to obtain sufficient power to operate the guide vanes (where forces due to water pressure also act). A primary amplifier and a secondary amplifier are employed. Primary amplifier is a pilot valve. A combination of main distributing valve and main servomotor serves a secondary amplifier.
26.4 PERFORMANCE ASPECTS (a) Steady state and transient state The governing process involves not only the electro hydraulic governor but also the turbine proper and the hydraulic network (conduit, surge shaft, penstock etc.,). The performance aspects of governing system can be considered for steady state and transient state. Whenever disturbance occurs, the governing system is expected to bring the turbine to a new steady state as quickly as possible with as little transient deviation as possible in the plant parameters.
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(b) Regulation or droop characteristic Whenever there is a mismatch in power, speed changes. As seen earlier, the governing system senses this speed change and adjusts the gate opening which in turn changes power output. This action stops once the power mismatch is made zero. But the speed error remains. What should be the change in power output for a change in speed is decided by the regulation. If 4 % change in speed causes 100 % change in power output, then the regulation is said to be 4 % (or in per unit 0.04). The regulation can be expressed in the form of power frequency characteristic as shown in Fig. 6. At 100 % load the generation is also 100 %, frequency (or speed) is also 100%. When load reduces frequency increases, as generation remains the same. When load reduces by 50 %, frequency increases by 2 %, in the characteristic shown. When load reduces by 100 %, frequency increases by 4 %. In other words 4 % rise in frequency should reduce power generation by 100 %. This 4 % is called droop of 4 %. The characteristic is of drooping type. Droop or regulation is an important parameter in the frequency regulation. In hydro power plants droop value is generally 4 % or 5 %.
Frequency (Hz) 52
4% Drop
50
0%
50%
100%
Load
Fig 6 REGULATION OR DROOP CHARACTERSTIC In terms of control system steady state gain it is expressed as inverse of droop: gain of 25 in per unit corresponds to 4 % (or 0.04 p.u) droop. Temporary droop Hydro power plant is basically an unstable system due to the so called inverse response characteristic of the hydraulic network. When gate opening is increased, water flow also increases but head decreases. This effect is called water inertia effect. Power output is directly proportional to flow as well as head. During the initial period head variation is more. With the result power output decreases initially (rather than increasing when gate opening is increased). To overcome this destabilizing phenomenon, additional compensation called
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Adjustable parameters like temporary droop, and recovery time are provided in the temporary droop governor Proportional , Integral, Derivative gains in the PID governor. Optimum adjustment is necessary for stable operation based on the plant parameters water inertia time and rotor inertia time. (d) Governor insensitivity or dead band The governing system action depends on speed sensing. There is a minimum value of speed which cannot be picked by the sensing mechanism and hence may remain uncorrected. This minimum value is called governor insensitivity or dead band. The characteristic is shown in Fig. 9.
Valve Opening
Speed frequency
Sometimes due to wear and tear dead band increases over a period of time. This is detrimental to the frequency regulation. In control system analysis, it is well known that dead band or hysteresis in a closed loop causes instability or limit cycle oscillations. Governor hunting may occur. At the same time, governor should not react for very small changes in frequency, so dead band is introduced intentionally in the electronic governor which is an adjustable feature. Deadband permitted is + or 6 % (0.036 Hz ) in USA.
26.5 FREE GOVERNOR OPERATION AND FREQUENCY CONTROL When frequency changes in the grid, every TG unit reacts and adjusts its generation as dictated by power frequency or droop characteristic. For instance when frequency falls by 0.1 %, generation has to be increased by 20 % with droop of 5 %. In Indian situation most of the generating units operate at their peak values and no additional generation is possible. With the result many units do not increase their generation and load shedding is resorted to. In some cases, due to various operational reasons generating companies do not like to their machines
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(a) Automatic Load frequency Control system Hydro Units participation The responsibility of maintaining grid frequency is given to Automatic Load Frequency Control (ALFC) system or automatic generation control (AGC) system. Whenever there is a mismatch between generation and load in a grid or an area of a power system (such as Regional electricity Board in India), the grid frequency varies and ALFC gives commands to adjust the generation through the governing systems, as shown in Fig. 8. Due to the absence of thermal rate limits hydro units are preferred. The governing system must respond quickly for such requests. The load controller of electro hydraulic turbine control system has provision for such interfacing.
Set point AUTOMATIC LOAD REQUENCY CONTROLLER To Other Machines Secondary regulation
Generator Power
Other m/c
Total Load
+ + +
Frequency
GRID INERTIA
Area Frequency
26.6 MATHEMATICAL MODELLING The mathematical model development is described for a simple mechanical hydraulic hydro turbine governing system shown in Fig. 11. As a first step, functional block diagram can be prepared as shown in Fig. 12.
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Lever
Hydraulic Amplifier
Guide vanes
Speed Governor
Speed Governor output
Speed
The schematic diagram of an Electro hydraulic governing system is shown in Fig. 13.
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Speed SENSING
Electrical
A closed loop speed control system block diagram is given in Fig. 14.
Fig. 14 SPEED CONTROL SYSTEM IN CLOSED LOOP The Speed Governor block shown can be a temporary droop governor or a PID governor whose block diagrams are given in Fig 4 and Fig. 5 respectively. The transfer function block diagram is given in Fig. 15.
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A closed loop transfer function block diagram can be drawn as shown in Fig. 16 with PID structure. Kp, Ki, Kd are the proportional, intrgral and derivative gains respectively. The permanent droop is denoted by bp. Turbine penstock transfer function Head Flow Relation : Head (h) =  (Tw) (dq/dt ) Tw = Water Inertia time Tw = LV/gH L = penstock length V = Velocity of water H = nominal head Head : h = (Tw) dq/dt valid for medium size penstocks (h/q) = ( Tw s) For long penstocks : (h/q) = (Tw / Te) Tanh (Te . s)  Te = Pipe reflection time = (L / a) (Length / Wave velocity)  Te > 1 sec : difficult to stabilize with normal settings.
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P.I.D. KP nr= 0
+
ns
K I s
TURBINE PENSTOCK
1 TmS + D
Kd s
bp
Fig. 16 : Block diagram of the hydroturbine generating unit
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Fig. 17 Variation in Turbine power for gate signal change : Gate (g)
Power (m) : falls & rises
GOVERNOR has to COMPENMSATE this destabilizing effect while genarating gate signal. TEMPORARY DROOP GOVERNOR OR PID Governor are designed for the purpose.
The turbine penstock transfer function : [m/g] = [ 1 Tw s] / [ 1 + 0.5 Tws] Non minimum phase Difficult to stabilize Tw= Water inertia time, s = Laplace operator= [d/dt]
Kaplan Turbine Control Kaplan turbine has runner blade control apart from the guide vane control as shown in Fig. 18 below.
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Speed Reference
26.7 CONCLUSIONS The governing system plays an important role in the start up, synchronization and loading of a hydro turbine generating unit. It has to ensure stable and secure operation. With the developments in technology, digital governors are increasingly being used. In this paper a process overview of the governing system is given. The main functions of governing system are: Speed Control and Load Control. Droop is an important steady state characteristic indicating the relationship between speed/ frequency and Power. Hydraulic network causes water inertia which generates negative damping and Temporary droop in governor is a compensating mechanism. Temporary droop has a feedback structure and PID has a parallel structure which has similar function but PID parameters are not interrelated. In modern digital governors implementation of either structure is done easily. Stability is an important aspect and proper tuning of governor parameter is necessary. In this chapter an overview of the governing system in hydro power plant is given and its modeling aspects are presented.
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REFERENCES: 1. Hydraulic turbine and turbine control models for system pynamic studies, Working Group on Prime Mover and Energy Supply Models for System Dynamic Performance Studies, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol. 7, NO. 1, February 1992 2. M,S.R. Murty and M.V.Hariharan 'Analysis and improvement of the stability of Hydroturbine generating unit with long penstock' IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus & Systems, Vol.PAS103, 1984
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SV Steam CV
Reference
ST
Power
SET POINT
GOVERNOR
TURBINE
+
Valve Position Mechanical Power Elec. load
ROTOR INERTIA
S P E E D
Fig 2 GOVERNING SYSTEM FUNCTIONAL BLOCK DIAGRAM The steam flow through the control valve is proportional to the valve opening in the operating range. So when valve position changes, turbine steam flow changes and turbine
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Speed & MW
Processing
Primary Amplification
ST
G
27.4 Speed controller and load controller In the era of mechanical hydraulic governors (MHG), the control action is mainly proportional. That is valve opening command is just proportional to the speed error. In the isolated operation where speed control is active and in the inter connected operation where power output or MW only is controlled same control action is present. In the electronic governors it has become easier to realize complex control logic. Separate control actions are incorporated for speed control and load control, as shown in Fig. 4. SPEED CONTROLLER (PDP)
Speed Ref .
Speed
Load Ref.
Load
Fig 4 SPEED CONTROLLER AND LOAD CONTROLLER IN EHG Speed control loop demands additional capability to dampen the speed oscillations. This is obtained using so called proportional derivative (PD) controller. In this the valve
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4% Drop
50
0%
50%
100%
Load
Fig 6 REGULATION OR DROOP CHARACTERSTIC In terms of control system steady state gain it is expressed as inverse of droop: gain of 25 in per unit corresponds to 4 % (or 0.04 p.u) droop. (b) Transient performance
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(c) Lift flow characteristic An important characteristic that decides the loop gain is the valve lift versus flow characteristic. Due to the nature of design, this characteristic is nonlinear. Though linearization is done either in the forward path or reverse path using mechanical cam, the gain introduced is different at low openings. The effective closed loop gain is less resulting in less damping capability at low loads. (c) Governor insensitivity or dead band The governing system action depends on speed sensing. There is a minimum value of speed which cannot be picked by the sensing mechanism and hence may remain uncorrected. This minimum value is called governor insensitivity or dead band. The characteristic is shown in Fig. 8.
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Valve Opening
Speed / f
Dead band or insensitive zone Fig. 8 DEAD BAND CHARACTERISTIC Sometimes due to wear and tear dead band increases over a period of time. This is detrimental to the frequency regulation. In control system analysis, it is well known that dead band or hysteresis in a closed loop causes instability or limit cycle oscillations. Governor hunting may occur. At the same time, governor should not react for very small changes in frequency, so dead band is introduced intentionally in the electronic governor which is an adjustable feature. Unstable Speed (%) Oscillatory (Hunting)
Mathematical models help in analyzing the dynamic performance of engineering systems. The extent of details incorporated in the model depends on the purpose of analysis or study. The design studies are done using very detailed mathematical models. The mathematical models used for control studies are less detailed and often loworder models (LOM) or approximate models are used. The mathematical models of thermal power plant comprising boiler, turbine, generator their controls and auxiliaries have been described in the literature extensively. Low order or reduced order models are used for the boiler, turbine and generator for control system tuning and analysis. In the power system studies low order models of turbine and governing system are used. The mathematical model of steam turbine cylinders shown in the figure with High pressure (HP), Intermediate pressure (IP) and low pressure (LP) turbines is described here.
Steam HPCV
HPT
IPT
LPT
IPCV RH
Reheater
Condenser
Fig. 10 STEAM TURBINE FLOW SHEME Each steam turbine cylinder can be considered as a steam vessel. Steam pressure in any vessel depends on the balance of rate of flow of steam at the inlet and outlet as shown below.
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Steam inflow
Steam Vessel
Steam outflow
Steam pressure
The mass (rate) balance equation is written as: (Inflow  Outflow) = Rate of change of stored mass [Wi Wo] = [d/ dt ] ( Vs) Where Wi, Wo = mass flow rate of steam in and out respectively = density of steam in vessel Vs = volume of the steam vessel Density () is a function of steam pressure (pv) assumed uniform in the vessel. Laplace transforming and referring the variables to their nominal values (with subscript u) the above equation can be written in transfer function form: (Wiu Wou) = [( 1/ Tsv. s) pv ]where Tsv have the units of seconds.
Wi
1 (1 + TV. s)
Wo
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Speed Controller: Proportional Derivative Ks(1+VsTs.S) (1 + Ts . S) droop Load Controller : Proportional Integral KPL + 1 TILS
Feed forward provision
29
Fig 14 TURBINE CONTROLLER 27.8 CONCLUSIONS The mathematical model of the steam turbine governing system is described in this chapter. The models used vary depending on the manufacturer but the basic structure remains the same.
REFERENCES: 1. IEEE Committee Report. Dynamic Models for Steam and Hydro Turbines in Power System Studies. IEEE Trans Power Apparatus and Systems. Vol PAS92. pp 19041915. November/December 1973
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28.1 INTRODUCTION The gas turbines may be operating in open cycle or combined cycle modes. The mathematical model of gas turbine like other prime mover models is necessary in the study of dynamic stability, load frequency control etc., The dynamic behaviour of gas turbines (GT) is different from steam turbines (ST) and hydro turbines (HT). GT response is faster. But GT control action has to take care of exhaust temperature variation which may limit the response capability. In this paper, the mathematical model of gas turbine and its control system is selected. 28.2 GAS TURBINE SCHEME The gas turbine scheme is shown in Fig. 1. Air from atmosphere is drawn by the compressor part of GT and fed to the combustion chamber. Fuel (gas,oil etc.,) is admitted through a control valve (not shown in the figure) and combustion takes place. The flue gas enters the gas turbine proper and after giving its energy leaves as exhaust gas.
Governor Control The governor implements three major control loops: startup, speed and temperature. For the purposes of modeling , the speed control, which is active during partial load conditions, receives the most attention. The reason for this is that during startup, the unit
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is not online, and in temperature control mode, the governor will not respond to system frequency changes. The primary valve demand control signal is selected by a low value gate from the outputs of the three control loops. 28.3 MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF GAS TURBINE AND ITS CONTROL For the purpose of modeling (for power system studies), the dynamic relationship between fuel input control and power output (and exhaust temperature which affects power) is necessary. A mathematical model has been published by Rowen (Ref. 1) which is used widely for stability studies. The gas turbine model in the form of block diagram is shown in Fig. 2.. Various parameters are defined and their typical values are given in Table 1. In large power system studies, the mathematical model can be simplified as shown in Fig. 3 and Fig. 4. The controller can be represented in more detail as Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) as shown in Fig. 5 and typical data is given in Table 2. 28.4 TRANSIENT RESPONSE Typical gas turbine response for a step change in speed reference are given in Fig.6. Transient variation in speed, fuel control demand , valve opening and exhaust temperature are given. 28.5 CONCLUSIONS In modern power systems several gas turbine power plants and combined cycle power plants with gas turbines are installed. To study the power system frequency response or dynamic stability mathematical models of gas turbines and their controls are required in a simple block diagram form. In this paper the mathematical model of gas turbine are described.
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REFERENCES 1.0 W.I. Rowen, "Simplified Mathematical Representations of HeavyDuty Gas Turbines," ASME 83GT63, Engineering for Power, October 1983, pp. 865. 2.0 Soon Kiat Yee, Jovica V. Milanovic and F. Michael Hughes, Overview and Comparative Analysis of Gas Turbine Models for System Stability Studies, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 23, NO. 1, FEBRUARY 2008
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Fig. 6 RESPONSE OF GAS TURBINE AND ITS CONTROL FOR STEP CHANGE IN SPEED REFERENCE
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29: MODELING OF DIESEL ENGINE AND ITS GOVERNING SYSTEM 29.1 INTRODUCTION Diesel engine driven generators are used more in small power systems due to the higher fuel cost. The synchronous generator and the rotor inertia representations are included in the power system programs in the same way as those of steam and hydro turbine generators. However the time constants associated with diesel engine and valves are small. The governing process is also simple hence simple mathematical models are employed. 29.2 SIMPLIFIED MATHEMATICAL MODEL It is often sufficient to use the simple model of Fig. 1, where the speed governor is represented by its droop and integral gain (pi controller), along with a first order lag for the valve actuator mechanism. The electrical side of the diesel generator is carried out by a simplified model of threephase synchronous machine. The simplified synchronous machine block models both the electrical and mechanical characteristics of a simple synchronous machine.
Fig. 1 Speed governor block diagram of the diesel engine R = droop, KI = integral gain. 1 = time constant, Omega = Speed, mf =flow rate of fuel
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29.3 WODWARD DIESEL GOVERNOR MODEL The model used in PSS/E program for Woodward Governor used in Diesel engines is shown in Fig.2. The time constants are denoted by Ts.
29.4 CONCLUSIONS The diesel engine governor model used in power system stability studies is described in this paper. The model is simple compared to those of steam and hydro turbine governing system.
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30 & 31: MODELING OF WIND TURBINE GENERATOR AND ITS CONTROL SYSTEM
3031.1 INTRODUCTION The mathematical model of wind turbine generator along with its control system is required for power system studies like other models for steam turbine and hydro turbine control systems. When wind power is a considerable portion of total installed capacity wind turbine controls have significant contribution on frequency and voltage behavior. In order to investigate the dynamic interaction of wind farms and the electrical grid, dynamic models of wind farms are needed. Dynamic models of wind turbines and wind farms will be of great help in the design and evaluation of the behaviour of wind power during normal grid operation as well as during grid faults. In this chapter, an overview of the modeling aspects of wind turbine generator and its control systems. 3031.2 OVERVIEW OF MODELLING WIND TURBINES A dual fed induction generator (DFIG) with wind turbine drive is shown in the figure. The connection the grid is through power electronic converter.
Fig.1 WIND TURBINE SCHEME WITH DUAL FED INDUCTION GENERATOR AND CONVERTER
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The dynamic models of turbines and wind farms developed includes the following components: Electrical: induction generator; doublyfed induction generator; permanent magnet generator; voltage source converter; transformer; Mechanical and aerodynamic: turbine rotor; mechanical drive train; tower; rotor effective wind; Control: converter controller; wind turbine pitch controller; overall wind farm controller. To represent the interaction between the wind farm and the grid, a simplified grid model , based on the following component models is necessary: Grid model components: synchronous generator; frequency and voltage controller. consumer load; transformer;
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3031.3 MATHEMATICAL MODELLING (a) ELECTRICAL SYSTEM MODEL Electrical transients have very small time constants, resulting in small time steps and long computation time. An important increase in speed can be realised by the use of the dq0 transformation (also known as Park transformation). This transformation is mainly used in electrical machine theory. The main characteristics of the electrical models are: all electrical components are modelled in dq0 coordinates; ACDCAC converters are modelled by controlled voltage sources; (b) Wind model To evaluate the dynamic behaviour of wind turbines and wind farms, the shortterm variation of the wind has to be known. Since wind speed variation is a statistically determined phenomenon, a wind model is needed that will calculate a realisation of the stochastically changing wind speed in time. Furthermore, the wind speed averaged over the turbine rotor has to be determined, including variations caused by the passing of the blades through the inhomogeneous wind field over the rotor area. This inhomogeneous wind field is caused by wind shear and the tower. When a power measurement of a turbine is observed, the effect of the wind field inhomogenity can clearly be seen by regular changes in power with a frequency of the number of blades times the turbine's rotational frequency, often called nP. The wind model aims at a realistic representation of this effect. The objective of wind modelling in these type of problems is to generate a single point wind speed realisation, which gives instantaneous aerodynamic torque values that are statistically equivalent to the values resulting from the longitudinal turbulence. The effect of wind speed variations on the aerodynamic torque is determined by the Cp(,pitch angle) curves and the rotor diameter. This implies that a realisation not only depends on the statistical properties of the wind but also on the size and aerodynamic properties of the turbine rotor. The method makes use of the Auto Power Spectral Density (APSD) of the longitudinal wind speed changes in a single point. (c)Turbine model The turbine model used consists of submodels for: aerodynamic behaviour of the rotor;
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rotating mechanical system (drivetrain); tower (viz. motion of the tower top); electrical system (generator, power electronic converter); power limitation by pitch control or stall; The mechanical model for turbine rotor, low and high speed shaft, gearbox and generator rotor consists of a two mass spring and damper model. The torque of the gearbox and generator on the nacelle is determined, since it interacts with the tower naying. The simple tower model consists of a massspringdamper model for the translation of the tower top in two directions: frontaft (nodding) and sideways (naying). This is not sufficient if tower top rotation has to be modelled as well. In that case, a lumped parameter model for rotation is used, consisting of a number of massspringdamper models in series. The variable speed turbine includes two control loops: the turbine aerodynamic power is limited by pitch control and the electrical power is controlled to maximise energy production (optimallambda control). This requires additional component models (sensor and actuator models) and the design of two controllers. (c) Generator model Modelling of a doublyfed induction generator is described in the literature. The model of the induction machine is based on the fifthorder twoaxis representation. A synchronously rotating dq reference frame is used with the direct daxis oriented along the stator flux position. In this way, decoupled control between the electrical torque and the rotor excitation current is obtained. This reference frame is rotating with the same speed as the stator voltage. When modelling the DFIG, the generator convention will be used, which means that the currents are outputs and that real power and reactive power have a positive sign when they are fed into the grid.
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with v the voltage [V], R the resistance [], i the current [A], s and r the stator and rotor electrical angular velocity [rad/s] respectively and the flux linkage [Vs]. The indices d and q indicate the direct and quadrature axis components of the reference frame and s and r indicate stator and rotor quantities respectively. All quantities are functions of time. A converter is used to connect the rotor circuit of the DFIG to the grid, whereas the stator circuit is connected to the grid directly. The converter must be able to transfer energy in both directions. The gridside converter has to control the DClink voltage, regardless of the magnitude and direction of the rotor power and the rotorside converter has to control the rotor currents. For the converter model it is assumed that the converters are ideal. It assumed that they exactly make the reference voltage signal that is set by the controller. Such a model gives good simulation results. 3031.4 TYPICAL SIMULATION RESULTS The response of one string of the wind farm to a gust in the wind speed has been simulated. The gusts in the wind speed are important for the grid behaviour of the park, as the gust in wind speed will lead to a gust in the output power of the park and will thus cause fluctuations in the voltage at the connection point. The reactive power settings of the turbines are kept constant during the simulation. The gust is assumed to cross with a certain speed through the string. The turbines are affected one after another by the gust. It is assumed that the gust will affect first the turbine with the largest distance to shore, and it will come closer and closer to the shore, affecting each turbine. It is assumed that the time between affecting two turbines will be 5 seconds. The rotor effective wind speed at the first turbine that experiences the gust is shown in Fig. 2. The wind speed before the gust is about 5 m/s. The wind speed increases to 20 m/s during the gust.
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The increasing wind speed will cause an increasing output power of the turbine. The output power of the first turbine is shown in Fig. 3. The output power of the whole first string of the wind farm is shown in Fig. 4. The large changes in output power of the wind farm will also affect the voltage of the 150kV grid at the point of
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connection. The voltage at the park side of the 150Kv transformer is shown in Fig. 5. due to one string. The resulting change in output voltage due to the whole park will be somewhat higher, but it is to be expected that it will meet the grid requirements. The doublyfed induction generators used in this simulation offer the possibility to control the reactive power output. It should be investigated whether or not it is possible to decrease the voltage fluctuations by controlling the reactive power output of the turbines.
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3031.5 CONCLUSIONS The modeling aspects of the wind turbine generating unit and its controls are presented in this chapter. The commercial software programs like PSS/E, PSLF (of GE), Digsilent include models for modern wind turbines.
REFERENCES [1] J.G. Slootweg, H. Polinder, W.L. Kling, Dynamic Modelling of a Wind Turbine with Doubly Fed Induction Generator, in Proc. 2001 IEEE Power Engineering Society Summer meeting, pp. 644649. [2] J.G. Slootweg, W.L. Kling, Modeling of large wind farms in power system simulations, in Proc. 2002 IEEE Power Engineering Society Summer meeting, pp. 503508. [3] P. Sorensen, A. Hansen, L. Janosi, J. Bech, B. BakJensen, Simulation of Interaction between Wind Farm and Power System, Report RisoeR1281 (EN), Risoe National Laboratory, Roskilde, Denmark, December 2001. [4] V. Akhimatov, H. Knudsen, A. H. Nielsen, J.K. Pedersen, N.K. Poulsen,Modelling and transient stability of large wind farms, International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems, Vol. 25, No. 2, Feb. 2003, pp. 123144.
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Fig. 1 Power System Controllability: Power Angle Curve 32.3 ENHANCING POWER SYSTEM CONTROL (a) Conventional Equipment Conventionally the following devices/ equipment are used for enhancing limits on power transfer: Series Capacitor: Controls impedance Switched ShuntCapacitor and Reactor: Controls voltage Transformer LT C :Controls voltage Phase Shifting Transformer: Controls angle Synchronous Condenser: Controls voltage Special Stability Controls: focuses on voltage control but can often include direct control of power Others (When Thermal Limits are Involved): Can include reconductoring, raising conductors, dynamic line monitoring, adding new lines, etc.
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Each of the aforementioned (and similar) controllers impact voltage, impedance, and/or angle (and power). Thyristor Controlled Series Compensator (TCSC): Controls impedance Thyristor Controlled Phase Shifting Transformer: (TCPST): Controls angle Super Conducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES): Controls voltage and power Choice between conventional equipment and from FACTS controllers is made based on system studies. Switching speed: Mechanical and Power Electronic based As shown in Fig. 3, the speed of mechanical switches (primarily circuit breakers) for conventional equipment solutions can be as fast as a couple of cycles of 50 Hz. And that of power electronic based solutions is a fraction of that. The main benefit that FACTS controller solutions provide is the cycling/repeatability and smooth control that accompanies the power electronic based switching. Power electronic based solutions to alleviate power system constraints, it is not just speed but cycling and smooth control that is gained.
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The benefits of the added power system control are : Increased Loading and More Effective Use of Transmission Corridors Added Power Flow Control: Improved Power System Stability, Increased System Security , Increased System Reliability Added Flexibility in locating New Generation: Elimination or Deferral of the Need for New Transmission Lines
The following criteria are benefited in a power system area: Voltage Stability Criteria: e.g., PV voltage or power criteria with minimum margins, QV reactive power criteria with minimum margins Dynamic Voltage Criteria : Avoiding voltage collapse, Minimum transient voltage dip/sag criteria (magnitude and duration) Transient Stability Criteria Power System Oscillation Damping : Minimum damping ratio 32.4 FACTS CONTROL DEVICES The voltage of a transmission line can be controlled by connecting a compensator at the receiving end of the line. The compensator delivers or draws reactive power.
Static Var Compensator (SVC) The basic circuit for a Static Var Compensator (SVC) is shown in Fig. 3 and its voltagecurrent characteristics in Fig.4. Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM) Figure 3 shows the basic circuit for a Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM) and in Fig. 4 its voltage current characteristics.
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Circuit Diagram
VI Characteristic
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Circuit Diagram
VI Characteristic
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Fig. 9
32.5 CONCLUSIONS FACTS equipment have several benefits in power system reactive power control. The advances in power electronic devices with voltage sourced converter (VSC) technology, utilizing selfcommutated thyristors/ transistors such as GTOs, GCTs, IGCTs, and IGBTs, have found successful application worldwide for Static Synchronous Compensators (STATCOM)], Unified Power Flow Controllers (UPFC), Convertible Series Compensators (CSC) etc., In this paper, the importance of FACTS devices is presented along with the schemes.
REFERENCES Power System Stability and Control by P. Kundur, Chapter 12, Mc Graw Hill
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33.1 INTRODUCTION Resonant frequencies below the fundamental frequency are called subsynchronous frequencies. Subsynchronous resonance (SSR), occurs due to interaction between series capacitors and nearby turbinegenerators. Application of series capacitors in long electric power transmission lines is a costeffective method to increase power transfer but use of series capacitors has sometimes been limited because of the concerns for subsynchronous resonance (SSR). In this paper, basic aspects of sub synchronous resonance are described. 33.2 Subsynchronous Resonance (SSR): Basic phenomenon Subsynchronous resonance occurs due to interaction between series capacitors and the torsional natural frequencies of turbinegenerator rotors. Fig.1 illustrates the elements of the interaction, in a generating station as an example. The series compensated transmission lines have line inductance, resistance and series capacitance which result in electrical resonant frequencies (fe) below the fundamental power frequency. If the the fundamental power frequency is 60 Hz, it is called synchronous frequency. Resonant frequencies below the fundamental frequency are called subsynchronous frequencies. Turbinegenerators have rotating shaft systems comprised of large inertial masses that are interconnected with shafts that act as springs. These large masses and shafts create torsional resonant frequencies, fm, some of which are also subsynchronous. If the transmission line resonant frequency, fe, is close to the complementary mechanical system frequency (60fm) of the generating machine, then the two oscillatory systems can interact with each other. In some operating conditions, the interaction can result in damaging shaft torques on a turbinegenerator shaft. This interaction is called SSR, and it occurs because of the interchange of energy between the series capacitors on the transmission lines and the massspring system of the turbinegenerator shaft. This interchange occurs at the subsynchronous resonance frequency by modulating the 60 Hz wave form. The SSR phenomenon actually occurred at some generating plants resulting in shaft failures.
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ELECTRICAL OSCILLATION
Inductive reactance of line and system Resistance of line and system To plant Generators Other Generators in the area Mohave  Lugo series capacitors
MECHANICAL OSCILLATION
Torque effect of electrical system applied here H. P. Turbine I. P. Turbine Generator Rotor Exciter
TURBINE GENERATOR ROTATING SHAFT SYSTEM Fig.1 Interaction between electrical resonant frequency (fe) and the turbinegenerator mechanical resonant system (60fm).
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Xc
X line
Receiving System
(very low impedance)
Figure 2Simple seriescompensated transmission system For typical large nuclear or fossilfueled steam turbinegenerators, there are four to eight large masses with interconnecting shafts. Such machines are likely to have 3 to 6 natural torsional frequencies below 60 Hz. The mechanical frequencies may range from 7 Hz to 50 Hz. Thus there are multiple electrical frequencies and mechanical frequencies that may interact with each other depending on the system configuration. In general, lower torsional frequencies are more likely to interact with the electrical transmission system than higher torsional frequencies. This is due to the mode shapes and torsional interaction factors that result from the inherent geometry and physical nature of the shaft system. In view of this consideration, SSR problems are more likely to occur with high levels of series compensation. Conversely, the SSR problem may be avoided by keeping the series compensation levels low. Mechanical damping for torsional vibrations is always positive but small. It is mainly due to friction, wind losses, and steam flow (or gas flow) around the rotor. It is minimum when a turbinegenerator is at noload, and increases with the load. Measured noload damping for steam turbinegenerator torsional modes is typically in the range of 0.02 to
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REFERENCE Power System Stability and Control by P. Kundur, Chapter 15, Mc Graw Hill
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34.1 INTRODUCTION The frequency behaviour of an interconnected power system depends on the system parameters like rotor inertia, time constants of various devices in the governing loop, time constants of the steam turbine cylinders and the penstock water inertia time and the settings of the individual governors which are adjustable. It is important to tune the adjustable parameters in an optimum way otherwise an otherwise stable system may become unstable. A study of the tuning aspects of the governing systems of hydro and thermal power plants is given in this chapter. 34.2 DROOP The power frequency characteristic can be expressed in terms of Droop. As shown in the figure below (for 4 % droop) when power output changes from 100 % to 0 %, frequency changes from 50 Hz to 52 Hz i.e, it increases by 4 %. For 5 % droop frequency increases by 5 % to 52.5 % Hz. Droop can be defined as the percentage drop in system frequency which would cause the Generating Unit under free governor action to change its output from zero to full load. Frequency (Hz) 52
4% Drop
50
0%
50%
100%
Load
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Droop value Droop relates the power output versus speed or frequency, which relationship depends on the various components of governing system, governor valve lift steam flow characteristic. In the electrohydraulic governors adjustable parameter is provided as droop that relates the gate (or) valve opening command signal. For practical purposes this adjustable parameter is considered as the droop. In hydro power plants this droop is referred as the permanent droop as there is another parameter temporary droop. Normally, all turbine governors have a droop of between 3% and 6%. In India 4% or 5 % is set. In many utilities in USA 5 % droop value is set. In the CEB power stations, the value of 5 % is set ,as per the dynamic data given. Therefore there is no change in droop value is suggested. It should however be remembered that the droop value in practice may change due to the changes in the characteristics of the governing system components especially the mechanical hydraulic components. For old power stations or renovated power stations the power frequency relationship has to be checked by measurements. Dead band The governing system action depends on speed sensing. There is a minimum value of speed which cannot be picked by the sensing mechanism and hence may remain uncorrected. This minimum value is called governor insensitivity or dead band. The characteristic is shown in Fig.2 .
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Valve Opening
Speed / f
Dead band or insensitive zone Fig. 2 DEAD BAND CHARACTERISTIC Sometimes due to wear and tear dead band increases over a period of time. This is detrimental to the frequency regulation. In control system analysis, it is well known that dead band or hysteresis in a closed loop causes instability or limit cycle oscillations. Governor hunting may occur. At the same time, governor should not react for very small changes in frequency, so dead band is introduced intentionally in the electronic governor which is an adjustable feature. As per the NERC (North American Electric Reliability Council) of USA Operating Manual: Generators with nameplate ratings of 10 MW or ore must have governors should provide 5% droop. Deadband on all governors must be set to +/ 0.036 Hz i.e.,0.06 % of 60 Hz.
So for 50 Hz system, dead band should not be more than +/ 0.03 Hz or 30 mHz. . 34.3 Tuning of Hydro Turbine Governor Parameters The governors are provided with adjustable parameters that are to be properly tuned to achieve stable operation when the turbine generator unit is running in isolation and to obtain proper frequency regulation of the interconnected power system operation. The performance depends on adjustable controller parameters and plant parameters fixed in design like rotor inertia constant, water inertia constant (in hydro turbine) and various other machine constants depending on the scheme. The adjustable parameters, apart from droop, are:  temporary droop reset time
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Proper tuning of hydro turbine governor parameters is very important as hydro power plants can get isolated from the rest of the system. To overcome the negative effect of water inertia, proper values are to be set to the temporary droop or PID governor for stable operation. The following formulas may be used to tune the temporary droop governor for stable operation: Temporary droop: bt = Kt (Tw/Tm), where Tw = Water inertia time (sec.) and Tm = the rotor inertia time = 2 *H H = inertia constant Kt = 2 to 2.5 Recovery time Tr = Kr * Tw where Kr = 4 to 6; Tuning of Thermal power plant Governor Parameters In diesel generator governor droop value is provided as 5 %. In Combined Cycle Power plants, Gas turbine control and steam turbine control are adjusted using the standard proportional integral derivative (PID) controller tuning techniques while commissioning. One typical standard technique is based on the minimization of a performance index (J) based on the magnitude of speed error (e(t)) as given below. Different performance indices J1, J2 and J3 are given. In J3, time (t) is also used.
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35: THE EFFECT OF EXCITATION ON STABILITY: TUNING OF AVR PARAMETERS 35.1 Effect of Excitation on Generator Power Limits We observe that with the ideal regulation there is no stability limit. Also, it is noted that operation in the region where > 90 is possible. We should comment that the assumed physical system is not realizable since there is always a lag in the excitation response even if the voltage regulator is ideal. 35.2 Effect of the Excitation System on Transient Stability In the transient stability problem the performance of the power system when subjected to severe impacts is studied. The concern is whether the system is able to maintain synchronism during and following these disturbances. The period of interest is relatively short (at most a few seconds), with the first swing being of primary importance. In this period the generator is suddenly subjected to an appreciable change in its output power causing its rotor to accelerate (or decelerate) at a rate large enough to threaten loss of synchronism. The important factors influencing the outcome are the machine behavior and the power network dynamic relations. For the sake of this discussion it is assumed that the power supplied by the prime movers does not change in the period of interest. Therefore the effect of excitation control on this type of transient depends upon its ability to help the generator maintain its output power in the period of interest. To place the problem in the proper perspective, we should review the main factors that affect the performance during severe transients. These are: 1. The disturbing influence of the impact. This includes the type of disturbance, its location, and its duration. 2. The ability of the transmission system to maintain strong synchronizing forces during the transient initiated by a disturbance. 3. The turbinegenerator parameters. The above have traditionally been the main factors affecting the socalled firstswing transients. The system parameters influencing these factors are: 1. The synchronous machine parameters. Of these the most important are: (a) the inertia constant, (b) the direct axis transient reactance, (c) the direct axis open circuit time constant, and (d) the ability of the excitation system to hold the flux level of the synchronous machine and increase the output power during the transient.
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2. The transmission system impedances under normal, faulted, and postfault conditions. Here the flexibility of switching out faulted sections is important so that large transfer admittances between synchronous machines are maintained when the fault is isolated. 3. The protective relaying scheme and equipment. The objective is to detect faults and isolate faulted sections of the transmission network very quickly with minimum disruption. 35.3 Effect of Excitation on Dynamic Stability Modern fast excitationsystems are usually acknowledged to be beneficial to transient stability following large impacts by driving the field to ceiling without delay. However, these fast excitation changes are not necessarily beneficial in damping the oscillations that follow the first swing, and they sometimes contribute growing oscillations several seconds after the occurrence of a large disturbance. With proper design and compensation, however, a fast exciter can be an effective means of enhancing stability in the dynamic range as well as in the first few cycles after a disturbance. 35.4 Further considerations of the regulator gain and time constant At noload the angle is zero. For this condition we can easily show that the
. Changes in this latter voltage machine terminal voltage Vt is the same as the voltage Eq
0 . A block diagram representing the follow the changes in EFD with a time lag equal to d
machine terminal voltage at no load is shown in Figure 1. From that figure the transfer function for Vt/VREF can be obtained by inspection. Vt /VREF = Kt /[(1+Ke) + s(e+d0) + d0es2] Equation (1) can be put in the standard form for secondorder systems as Vt/VREF = K/(s2 + 2ns + n2) where K = Ke/d0e , n2 = (1 + Ke) / d0e , 2n = (1/e + 1/d0). For good dynamic performance, i.e.. for good damping characteristics, a reasonable value of is 1/ 2. For typical values of the gains and time constants in fast exciters we usually have d0 e, and Ke (2) (1)
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Ke d0/2e. This is usually lower than the value of gain required for steadystate
performance.
Fig. 1: Block diagram representing the machine terminal voltage at no load. Approximate excitation system representation The approximate system to be analyzed is shown in Figure 2, where the exciter and the generator have been approximated by simple firstorder lags.
Fig. 2: Approximate representation of the excitation system. 35.5 Some General Comments on the Effect of Excitation on Stability Regarding the dynamic performance, modern excitation systems play an important part in the overall response of large systems to various impacts, both in the socalled transient stability problems and the dynamic stability problems. For less severe transients, the effect of modern fast excitation systems on first swing transients is marginal. However, for more severe transients or for transients
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initiated by faults of longer duration, these modern exciters can have a more pronounced effect. Voltage regulators can and do improve the synchronizing torques. Their effects on damping torques are small; but in the cases where the system exhibits negative damping characteristics, the voltage regulator usually aggravates the situation by increasing the negative damping. Supplementary signals to introduce artificial damping torques and to reduce intermachine and intersystem oscillations have been used with great success. Large interconnected power systems experience negative damping at very low frequencies of oscillations. The parameters of the PSS for a particular generator must be adjusted after careful study of the power system dynamic performance and the generatorexciter dynamic response characteristics. Recently many studies have been made on the use of various types of compensating networks to meet different situations and stimuli. Most of these studies concentrate on the use of a signal derived from speed or frequency deviation processed through a PSS network to give the proper phase relation to obtain the desired damping characteristic. This approach seems to concentrate on alleviating the problem of growing oscillations on tie lines. However, in a large interconnected system it is possible to have a variety of potential problems that can be helped by excitation control. Whether the stabilizing signal derived from speed provides the best answer is an open question. It would seem likely that the principle of "optimal control" theory is applicable to this problem. Here signals derived from the various states" of the system are fed back with different gains to optimize the system dynamic performance. 35.6 Tuning of AVR Parameters This section examines the basic small signal characteristics that are typical for most modern excitation systems. The procedure is based on emulation of the opencircuit step response test, a standard control tuning practice for several decades. Where simulations with excitation system and generator model data result in unacceptable responses, guidelines are provided for tuning models until wellbehaved, and thus, realistic, responses are achieved. Limits and other nonlinear parameters in exciter models are also very important when conducting simulations. They determine the exciter response following a large perturbation to the system. These nonlinearities should be checked and tested against overall equipment characteristics such as the exciter ceiling and response ratio as a complement to the small signal tuning techniques employed. Excitation system tuning
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The unit is brought to nominal voltage with opencircuit generator terminals, and a small step is applied to the voltage reference. Field and terminal voltages responses are recorded. If the response of the voltageregulating loop is inadequate (too slow or too oscillatory) , the field engineer retunes whatever tunable parameters the excitation system has, so that the response is within expected performance. With the unit online, the closedloop response of voltage, as affected by flux changes only (no change in rotor angles), is normally more stable than under opencircuit conditions. The proposed tuning method tries to emulate this reallife test with a time simulation opencircuit step response test of the mathematical model. If the responses of the model to the step test are judged unacceptable, and no additional test data is available, the system engineer modifies parameters of the excitation system model that can be tuned by the field engineer. Although the model response will probably not match exactly that of the actual equipment, this is a much better practice than to use values which are obviously wrong. Exciter tuning objectives Figure (3) depicts a very simplified voltageregulating loop for an opencircuited unit. Automatic Voltage Regulator (AVR) and Exciter are represented with a gain and a single time constant (KA and TA), the generator is represented with the field open circuit time constant T'd0. Typical values of field and modern static exciter time constants are 5 and 0.05 seconds respectively.
Figure 3: Block diagram of simplified voltageregulating loop with machine on open circuit. Recognizing the twodecade separation between time constants, and thus choosing crossover frequencies close but lower than the second break frequency, the steadystate gain KA is limited to: KA < Td' 0 2TA
i.e., steadystate gain values are limited to less than 50 for a typical static exciter. This imposes a restriction on exciter performance because steadystate gain is directly
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related to exciter regulation. Under steadystate (s=0) and opencircuit or interconnected conditions, voltage error (VTVREF) will be equal to the change in EFD/KA. Let us assume a 2.7 pu full load EFD, a no load EFD of 1 pu and a KA of 50. This means that with constant reference voltage, terminal voltage will change by 100(2.71)/50 = 3.4%, from zero to fullload conditions, such regulation values are unacceptable in normal practice. Regulation of less than 1 % is usually required. Transient gain reduction is one widely used method the industry has used to resolve this conflict of objectives between a stable and welldamped voltageregulating loop, and a low value of exciter regulation. The way transient gain reduction is implemented has given origin to two of the most popular types of excitation system models that can be found in the power industry. Other Tuning Approaches There is a discussion in the industry whether transient gain reduction is necessary or not, particularly in the case of highresponse, very low time constant exciters. The reader should then be aware of alternative tuning philosophies which, in general, call for lower phase margins, with crossovers slightly above the second break (gains up to 4(T'd0/2TA)), somewhat oscillatory opencircuit test responses, and no transient gain reduction. The relatively high transient gains will generally require the use of Power System Stabilizers. The reader should also be aware that gain reduction at higher frequency may also be used to minimize the negative impact of short time constant, high gain excitation systems on system rotor angle damping, particularly in the absence of power System Stabilizers. Hence, the actual transient gain may be lower than the value required by opencircuit regulator constraints.
REFERENCES : [ 1 ] P.M. Anderson & A.A. Fouad : Power System Control and Stability , 2nd edition, IEEE Press Power Engineering Series, WileyInterscience, 2003. [ 2 ] Rodolfo J. Koessler, : Techniques for Tunning Excitation System Parametres, IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, Vol.3, No.4, December 1988, pp 785791.
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Figure 1: Representation of a synchronous machine by constant voltage behind transient reactance. During the transient the magnitude E is held constant, while the variation of angle is governed by the swing equation. Assumption 5, dealing with the representation of loads as constant impedances, is usually made for simplicity. This assumption allows us to eliminate the algebraic network equations and reduce the system of equations for the multimachine system to a system consisting of only differential equations. It is important to note, however, that loads have their own dynamic behavior. In many studies loads are modeled as a combination of constant impedance, constant current, and constant MVA, together with several critical loads modeled in detail using induction motor models. Load representation can have a marked effect on stability results. Considering these assumptions, we will now obtain the equations governing the motion of the multimachine power system. The assumptions provide a representation of the power system shown in Figure 2, for an ngenerator system. Nodes 1,2, ... ,n are referred to as the internal machine nodes. These are the nodes or buses to which the voltages behind transient reactances are applied. The transmission network, together with transformers modeled as impedances, connects the various nodes. The loads, modeled as impedances, also connect the load buses to the reference node.
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To prepare the system data for a stability study, the following preliminary calculations are made: 1. The system data are converted to a common system base; a system base of 100 MVA is conventionally chosen. 2. The load data from the prefault power flow are converted to equivalent impedances or admittances. The necessary information for this step is obtained from the result of the power flow. If a certain load bus has a voltage solution VLi and complex power demand SLi = PLi * * * / V Li (which implies I Li = S Li ), we get + jQLi, then using S Li = V Li I Li
y Li =
* I Li SL P jQ L i i = = Li 2 2 V Li V Li V Li
(1)
where yLi = gLi + jbLi is the equivalent shunt load admittance. 3. The internal voltages of the generators E i i0 are calculated from the power flow data using the predisturbance terminal voltages V ai i as follows. We will temporarily use the terminal voltage as reference as shown in Figure 3.
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(2)
(3)
' ' = ( V ai + Q G i x di / V ai + j ( PG i x di / V ai )
Thus, the angle difference between internal and terminal voltage in Figure 3, is . Since the actual terminal voltage angle is i, we obtain the initial generator angle
' i
4. The Ybus matrices for the prefault, faulted, and postfault network conditions are calculated. In obtaining these matrices, the following steps are involved: a. The equivalent load admittances calculated in step 2 are connected between the load buses and the reference node. Additional nodes are provided for the internal generator nodes (nodes 1, 2, . . . , n in Figure 2) and the appropriate values of ' admittances corresponding to x d are connected between these nodes and the generator terminal nodes.
b. In order to obtain the Ybus corresponding to the faulted system, we usually only consider threephase to ground faults. The faulted Ybus is then obtained by setting the row and column corresponding to the faulted node to zero. c. The postfault Ybus is obtained by removing the line that would have been switched following the protective relay operation.
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5.
In the final step we eliminate all the nodes except the internal generator nodes using Kron reduction. After Kron reduction we obtain the reduced Ybus matrix, which we will denote by Y. The reduced matrix can also be derived as follows. The system Ybus for each network condition provides the following relationship between the voltages and currents: I = Ybus V (5)
where the current vector I is given by the injected currents at each bus. In the classical model considered, injected currents exist only at the ninternal generator busesAll other currents are zero. As a result, the injected current vector has the form
I I= n 0
(6)
The subscript n is used to denote the internal generator nodes, and the subscript s is used for all the remaining nodes. Note that the voltage at the internal generator nodes are given by the internal emfs.
1 I n = (Ynn Yns Yss Ysn ) E n = YE n
(7)
The matrix Y is the desired reduced admittance matrix. It has dimensions (n X n) where n is the number of the generators. From (7) we also observe that the reduced admittance matrix provides us a complete description of all the injected currents in terms of the internal generator bus voltages. We will now use this relationship to derive an expression for the (active) electrical power output of each generator and hence obtain the differential equations governing the dynamics of the system. The power injected into the network at node i, which is the electrical power output of machine i, is given by PGi = R e E i I i* . The expression for the injected current at each generator bus Ii in terms of the reduced admittance matrix parameters is given by (7). We get
2 + PG i = E i G ii
j =1 ji
Ei E j B ij sin( i j ) + G ij cos( i j
i = 1,2, . . . ,n
(8)
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Substituting the preceding expression for PGi into the differential equation (swing equation) governing the dynamics of the synchronous machine, and neglecting the damping coefficient, we have for a multimachine system
&& = P 0 P M i i Mi Gi
Substituting (8) for PGi in (9), we obtain
i = 1,2, . . . , n
(9)
i= 1,2, ... ,n
(10)
In the preceding equations, the value of the mechanical power for each machine is determined from the prefault conditions. The mechanical power is set equal to the (active) electrical power output of each generator at the prefault conditions. This provides the equilibrium conditions and the initial angles for each generator as given by i0 calculated in step 3 in the preceding calculations. The equations given in (10) are secondorder differential equations. In order to perform numerical integration, we convert these equations into a set of coupled firstorder differential equations given by
2 0 M i i = PM G Ei E j i Ei ii B ij sin( i j ) + G ij cos( i j j =1 ji n
(11)
&i = i
i = 1,2, . . . , n
Several numerical techniques are available to solve the preceding set of differential equations. For a detailed description of the numerical techniques, reference may be made to Kundur, and Sauer and Pai. Standard techniques to solve these equations are available in numerical packages like MATLAB.
REFERENCES : [ 1 ] Arthur R. Bergen & Vijay Vittal : Power System Analysis , 2nd edition, Prentice Hall, Inc., 2000.
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equations
Synchronous machines, and the associated excitation systems and prime movers. Interconnecting transmission network. Static and dynamic (motor) loads Other devices such as HVDC converters, static var compensators
Figure (1) shows the general structure of the complete system model. For system stability studies it is appropriate to neglect the transmission network and machine stator transients. The dynamics of machine rotor circuits, excitation systems, prime mover and other devices are represented by differential equations. The result is that the complete system model consists of a large number of ordinary differential and algebraic equations.
* Algebraic equations ** Differential equations Figure.1: Structure of the complete power system model
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38.2 Special techniques for analysis of very large systems: Analysis of interarea oscillations in a large interconnected power system requires a detailed modelling of the entire system. This is well outside the range of the conventional eigenvalue analysis methods. Special techniques have therefore been developed that focus on evaluating a selected subset of eigenvalues associated with the complete system response. One such technique is the AESOPS algorithm. It uses a novel frequency response approach to calculate the eigenvalues associated with the rotor angle modes. Several powerful methods for the computation of eigenvalues associated with a small number of selected modes of oscillation have been published in the literature on power system stability. The selective modal analysis (SMA) approach computes eigenvalues associated with selected modes of interest by using special techniques to identify variables that are relevant to the selected modes, and then constructing a reducedorder model that involves only the relevant variables. The PEALS (Program for Eigenvalue Analysis of Large Systems) uses two of these techniques: the AESOPS algorithm and the modified Arnoldi method. These two methods have been found to be efficient and reliable, and they complement each other in meeting the requirements of smallsignal stability analysis of large complex power systems.
38.3 Characteristics of SmallSignal Stability Problems: In large power systems, smallsignal stability problems may be either local or global in nature. (a) Local problems Local problems involve a small part of the system. They may be associated with rotor angle oscillations of a single generator or a single plant against the rest of the power system. Such oscillations are called local plant mode oscillations. Most commonly encountered smallsignal stability problems are of this category. Local problems may also be associated with oscillations between the rotors of a few generators close to each other. Such oscillations are called intermachine or interplant mode oscillations. Usually, the local plant mode and interplant mode oscillations have frequencies in the range of 0.7 to 2.0 Hz. Other possible local problems include instability of modes associated with controls of equipment such as generator excitation systems, HVDC converters, and static var compensators. Analysis of local smallsignal stability problems requires a detailed representation of a small portion of the complete interconnected power system. The rest of the system representation may be appropriately simplified by use of simple models and system equivalents. Usually, the complete system may be adequately represented by a model having several hundred states at most.
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REFERENCES : [1] Prabha Kundur: Power System Stability and control, The EPRI Power System Engineering Series, McGrawHill, Inc., 1994.
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39: DYNAMIC STABILITY ANALYSIS 2 39.1. Introduction Many of the modern large interconnected power systems tend to exhibit undamped oscillations when subjected to small perturbations about their operating point. This constitutes a severe threat to system security, and creates difficult operating problems. The dynamic stability can be improved by the proper design of excitation and governor controller. The analysis of dynamic stability can be performed by deriving a linearized state space model of the system in the following form pX=AX+Bu (1) Where the matrices A and B depend on the system parameters and the operating conditions. The Eigen values of the system matrix A determine the stability of the operating point. The Eigen value analysis can be used not only for the determination of the stability regions, but also for the design of the controllers in the system. The primary objective of the work reported in this chapter is to develop a versatile and systematic procedure for the dynamic stability analysis of largescale power systems. Following are the novel features of the proposed method: i. It is not necessary to reduce the power system network to eliminate nongenerator buses. The same network used for load flow studies can also be used for the dynamic stability calculations. Actually the method is based on utilizing the network Jacobian which is calculated at the time of solving the power flow equations by Newtons method. Apart from the ease of programming introduced by this approach, non linear voltage dependent loads can also be conveniently considered. On the other hand the methods requiring network reduction assume load representations of constant impedance. ii. The development of system model proceeds systematically by the development of the individual models of various components and subsystems and their interconnection through the network model. This approach retains the identity of the generating unit in the system model. Further, the changes in the system matrix caused by the changes in the system configuration can be easily accommodated. 39.2. Overview of the Proposed Method Any complex power system can be represented, in general, as shown in Figure 1. This shows two types of buses in a power system: (i) Generator bus (G), and (ii) Load bus (L). Although only one bus or bus pair of each type is shown in figure, there can be a large number of generators, loads in a given system. At any bus k of an Nbus network the following equations apply
Pk =
jI k
Pk
j
j +
Pk V j V j

(2)
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j where Ik is the set of buses that are connected to bus k. Also it would be shown that for each bus, (P, Q) or (, V)
jI k
Qk =
j +
Fig. 1 Block diagram for power system network can be eliminated depending on the type of bus. This elimination procedure introduces the subset of generator output variables in the network equations. The remaining unknowns can thus be solved in terms of the system state variables. The A matrix formulation is based on identifying the interconnections among the various subsystems of the power system as shown in Figure 2. Each generating unit comprises of three subsystems representing the synchronous machine, excitation and governor systems. Network is represented by its Jacobian matrix [J] of (2N x 2N) dimension. The effect of any nonlinear voltage dependent load can be considered by modifying the corresponding diagonal block in [J].All the generators are interconnected through the network. In order to utilize the network equations given in the form of equation (2), the machine model has to be compatible. Hence the linearized machine representation is derived in a form such that Pg and Qg are the input variables from the network and the machine terminal quantities, g and Vg are expressed in terms of the machine output variables and Pg, Qg. The machine state variables are chosen such that the output variables are a subset of the state variables. A general synchronous machine model given in the reference [1] is utilized here with some modifications. In this model as in other models, the Parks components of the stator currents, id and iq, are the input variables. In order to make the machine model compatible with the network model of equation (2) the armature currents are eliminated by expressing them in terms of Pg and Qg.
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Fig. 2 Block diagram showing the interconnections among the various subsystems of the power system
The procedure outlined here has the advantage of eliminating the use of transformations of the variables from the machine reference frames to the common reference frame. This is because Pg and Qg remain invariant with the change of reference frame and are the natural variables to be chosen in the analysis of multimachine systems. The only assumption made here is that the network is in quasisteady state, which is invariably used in stability studies for largescale systems. Development of the system model is based on the formulation of the individual component models and identifying the various interconnections between the subsystems. The linearized network algebraic equations are solved in the terms of the system state variables resulting in the final system model. 39.3 Generating Unit 39.3(a) Synchronous Machine A method similar to that of reference documented in literature for the development of a simple, yet detailed model of synchronous machine based on Parks equations is utilized. The nonlinear equations are linearized around an operating point. The rotor circuit differential equations, including its motion, are given by, p Xm = [Am] Xm + bme vfd + b mg Pm + [Bp] Sg Ym = [Cm] Xm Xm = [Id Iq f k ]t Ym = [Id Iq ]t Sg = [Pg Qg]t (3) (4)
where,
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Also, the generator terminal bus voltage magnitude and phase angle are expressed in the form Zg = [Dm] Ym + [Dp] Sg (5) where Zg = [g Vg]t Id and Iq are state variables derived from the rotor flux linkages. Calculation of Equilibrium State Conditions: The values at the operating point (equilibrium state) of the power system are calculated from the load flow results of the system. At any generator bus, let Po and Qo represent the active and reactive components of power, respectively; also, Vg and o represent the magnitude and the angle of the terminal bus voltage, respectively. Hence, powerfactor angle is given by 0 = Tan1 (Qo/Po) iao = Po/(Vg Cos o) From the phasor diagram shown voltage Vg is given by and
go = tan 1
Fig. 3: Phasor diagram for synchronous machine Angle of lead of machine reference qaxis from the network reference frame is given by o = go + o and Vdo = Vg Sin go ,; Vqo = Vg Cos go ido = iao Sin (go + 0 ) ; iqo = iao Cos (go + o) Also, from Figure 4, we get
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Ido = (Vqo /X) + ido Iqo = (Vdo /X) + (1  ) iqo 39.3(b) Excitation and Governor Control Systems The excitation and governor control systems used in modern generators fall into standard categories compiled in IEEE Committee reports. The formulation given here can handle, with suitable modifications, different types of these systems which are generally used in practice. Excitation System While it was initially thought that high gain voltage regulator loop with a fast acting static exciter would improve transient stability, the practical experience was that it led to dynamic instability. Hence, power system stabilizer (PSS) which introduces supplementary stabilizing signal to suppress rotor oscillations has become a desirable part of any excitation system. The change in the magnitude of the terminal voltage, Vg, is one of the inputs for the excitation system and this has to be expressed in terms of the state variables and is given in the equation (5). The state space model of excitation system is represented in the form p Xe = [Ae] Xe + [Bem] Ym + [Bep] Sg + be ue (6) ye = [Ce] Xe (7) ye = Vfd; ue = Vref where Xe, ue and ye are respectively the state, input and output quantities; and the structures of the associated matrices are obtained for the IEEE Type 1 excitation system. TurbineGovernor System The state space model of governor control system can be represented in the form p Xg = [Ag] Xg + [Bgm] Ym + bg ug (8) yg = [Cg] Xg (9) yg = Pm; ug = Pmo where Xg, ug and yg are respectively the state, input and output quantities; and the structures of the associated matrices are obtained for an IEEE system model. 39.4 Combined Model of Generating Unit From the equations (3), (4), (6) (9) the following state space model is obtained, where all the component elements are matrices.
p X m A m p X e = Bem p X g Bgm B me Ae O O O B mg X m B p u e O X e + Bep S g + b e O  (10) u g Xg O b Ag O g
(11)
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39.5. Load Representation The usual constant power, constant current and constant impedance type loads and any other voltage dependent nonlinear loads can be represented in the general form
PL = k pVLnp ; QL = kqVLnq
(12)
where consent coefficients kp, kq and the exponents np and nq depend upon the type of load under consideration. Linearizing equation (12), we get where, S = [A l ] Z l S = [PL QL ]t S = [ L VL ]t
l l l
(13)
O n p k pV Lnp 1 [ Al ] = nq 1 O n q k qV L
Equation (13) is used to eliminate S corresponding to the load buses in the Jacobian.
l
The nonlinear loads dependent on the bus frequency, if present in the system, can also be handled without any difficulty, if desired. 5. MultiComponent Models The various subsystems described earlier can be assembled together for the analysis of largescale power systems including large number of machines and loads. Let n and l represent, respectively, the number of generating units, and loads. The following convention is used to indicate the multimachine case. Capital letters are used as subscripts to the vectors and matrices to distinguish the multicomponent system from the earlier equations. Also, block diagonal structure is displayed for the sub matrices. For example, [AM] = Block diag. [[Aml], [Am2], [Amn]] and X M = [Xtml Xtm2 Xtmn]t Following this procedure, the equation sets (10) and (11) can be put in the form,
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(14)
(16) (17)
6. Network Representation The network is represented by its Jacobian matrix in the polar form. For a Nbus power system network the Jacobian is of (2N x 2N) dimension and the identity of all the buses is preserved. The Jacobian of the network is obtained in one of the following ways: (i) The Jacobian of the network (excluding the slack bus) is available from the power flow calculations using Newtons method. The Jacobian elements corresponding to the slack bus quantities are obtained using the load flow results. Thus, the Jacobian available from the load flow calculations can conveniently be utilized in obtaining the full Jacobian of the network. (ii) Alternatively, if the Jacobian is not available from the load flow calculations, the Jacobian for the complete network can be easily constructed, using the load flow results.
Also, in the present analysis, it is not necessary to go through the process of network reduction techniques to eliminate the nongenerator buses, thus providing facility to represent the nonlinear load characteristics. Without loss of generality, it is assumed that the elements of the Jacobian are ordered and arranged in the form such that the first n nodes are generator buses, the next l nodes are load buses. The network equations are written in the following general form: [SGt SLt]t = [J] [ZGt ZLt]t (18) where [J] is the Jacobian matrix of the network and is given by J GL J [ J ] = GG (19) J LG J LL where all the components are matrices. Substituting the equations (17) in (18) and simplifying, we get,
S G J GG J GL Z G (20) O = J LG J LL Z L where [JLL] = [JLL] + [AL] Any type of nonlinear voltage dependent load, if present at the generator bus, can be treated in a manner similar to that of the load at the load bus, by modifying the diagonal block of the Jacobian corresponding to the generator buses. From equation (16) ZG is given by ZG = [DM] [CM] XM + [Dp] SG
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7. State Space Model of the Overall System After eliminating the nonstate variables SG in equations (14), we obtain the state space model of the overall system and given by, where all the components are matrices, p X = [A] X + [B] U (22) Y = [C] X (23) where X = [XMt XEt XGt]t U = [uet ugt ]t Y = [YMt YEt YGt]t
A' M B ME [ A] = B' EM A E O B GM O O [ B] = BE O O BG
B MG O AG
(24)
(25)
CM [C ] =
CE
CG
(26)
In the equations (24) to (26), the matrices AM and BEM are the modified matrices and are given below. All the components are matrices in the following equations. Hl2 H [ J M ]1 = l1 H 2l H 22 AM = AM BP Hll JGG DM CM BP Hl3 JLG DM CM BEM = BEM BEP Hll JGG DM CM BEP Hl3 JLG DM CM
(27)
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8. Conclusions A systematic and general procedure for the formulation of the system model on the basis of linearized analysis suitable for dynamic stability studies of largescale power systems has been developed. This state space model is amenable to the application of linear control theory and eigenvalue analysis. This allows one to study the overall dynamic performance of power systems, including the interaction between machine controls.
REFERENCES : [ 1 ] C. Radhakrishna : Stability Studies of AC/DC Power Systems , Ph. D. Thesis , submitted to Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, India, 1980.
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ES
Capacitive
Inductive
ISVC
Figure 1. Steady state control characteristics of variable impedance SVC The reference voltage of the SVC is chosen such that, under normal operating conditions, SVC delivers close to zero reactive power so that the full control range of SVC is available for use whenever there is a transient. Thus, slow coordination between a SVC and other reactive power control devices (such as mechanically switched capacitors and reactors) is necessary.
Figure 2: Equivalent circuit for SVC in control range It is to be noted that when the SVC hits the capacitive limit, it behaves like a fixed capacitor. Similarly, when it hits the inductive limit, it behaves as a fixed inductor. In the control range, the SVC can be modelled as a nonlinear voltage source Es in series with a fictitious, fixed inductor Xs (see Fig.2). The phase angle of the voltage source is same as that of the bus voltage Vs. The value of the inductor is related to the slope of the control characteristic.
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where Td is approximately T/12 for a six pulse converter and Ts is T/4 where T is the period of supply voltage. Tm represents the transducer time constant, Filters are neglected in this model. The output of SVC is a timevarying susceptance Bsvc. The inclusion of this in the network results in a time varying admittance matrix which can be problematic. The inclusion of a single SVC in the network can be handled by the use of compensation theorem which enables the calculation of SVC current using Thevenins equivalent of the network at the SVC bus. This equivalent has to be updated at every time step when SVC current is to be calculated.
REFERENCES : [ 1 ] K.R. Padiyar : Power System Dynamics : Stability and Control , 2nd edition, BS Publications, 2002.
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Loads normally absorbs reactive power. A typical load bus supplied by a power system is composed of a large number of devices. The composition changes depending on the day, season, and weather conditions. The composite characteristics are normally such that a load bus absorbs reactive power. Both active power and reactive power of the composite loads vary as a function of voltage magnitudes. Loads at lowlagging power factors cause excessive voltage drops in the transmission network and are uneconomical to supply. Industrial consumers are normally charged for reactive as well ass active power; this gives them an incentive to improve the load power factor by using shunt capacitors. Compensating devices are usually added to supply or absorb reactive power and thereby control the reactive power balance in a desired manner. Methods of voltage control: The control of voltage levels is accomplished by controlling the production, absorption, and flow of reactive power at all levels in the system. The generating units provide the basic means of voltage control; the automatic voltage regulators control field excitation to maintain a scheduled voltage level at the terminals of the generators. Additional means are usually required to control voltage throughout the system. The devices used for this purpose may be classified as follows: (a) Sources or sinks of reactive power, such as shunt capacitors, shunt reactors, synchronous condensers, and static var compensator (SVCs). (b) Line reactance compensators, such as series capacitors. (c) Regulating transformers, such as tapchanging transformers and boosters. Shunt capacitors and reactors, and series capacitors provide passive compensation. They are either permanently connected to the transmission and distribution system, or switched. They contribute to voltage control by modifying the network characteristics. Synchronous condensers and SVCs provide active compensation; the reactive power absorbed/supplied by them is automatically adjusted so as to maintain voltages of the buses to which they are connected. Together with the generating units, they establish voltages at specific points in the system. Voltages at other locations in the system are determined by active and reactive power flows through various circuit elements, including the passive compensating devices. Shunt reactor: Shunt reactors are used to compensate for the effects of line capacitance, particularly to limit voltage rise on open circuit or light load. They are usually required for EHV overhead lines longer than 200Km. A shorter overhead line may also require shunt reactors if the line is supplied from a weak system (low shortcircuit capacity). When the far end of the line is opened, the capacitive linecharging current flowing through the large source inductive reactance (Xs) will cause a rise in voltage Es at the sending end of the line. The Ferranti effect will cause a further rise in receivingend voltage ER
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Figure (1): Capacitor bank connections Series capacitor: Series capacitors are connected in series with the line conductors to compensate for the inductive reactance of the line. This reduces the transfer reactance between the buses to which the line is connected, increases maximum power that can be transmitted, and reduces the effective reactive power (XI2) loss. Although series capacitors are not usually installed for voltage control as such, they do contribute to improved voltage control and reactive power balance. The reactive power produced by a series capacitor increases with increasing power transfer; a series capacitor is selfregulating in this regard. Application to EHV transmission system: Because series capacitors permit economical loading of long transmission lines, their application to EHV transmission has grown. They have been primarily used to improve system stability and to obtain the desired load division among parallel lines. Complete compensation of the line is never considered. At 100% compensation, the effective line reactance would be zero, and the line current and power flow would be extremely sensitive to changes in the relative angles of terminal voltages. In addition, the circuit would be series resonant at the fundamental frequency. High compensation levels also increase the complexity of protective relying and the probability of subsynchronous resonance. A practical upper limit to the degree of series compensation is about 80%. It is not practical to distribute the capacitance in small units along the line. Therefore, lumped capacitors are installed at a few locations along the line. The use of lumped series capacitors results in an uneven voltage profile. The following are some of the key considerations in the application of series capacitor banks: a) Voltage rise due to reactive current: Voltage rise of on one side of the capacitor may be excessive when the line reactivecurrent flow is high, as might occur during power swings or heavy power transfers. This may impose unacceptable stress on equipment on the side of the bank experiencing high voltage. The system design must limit the voltage to acceptable levels, or the equipment must be rated to withstand the highest voltage that might occur.
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c)
d)
The following are the usual locations considered: Midpoint of the line Line terminals 1/3 or point of the line In practical all of the above arrangements have been used. The midpoint location has the advantage that the relaying requirements are less complicated if compensation is less than 50%. In addition, short circuit current is lower. However, it is not very convenient in terms of access for maintenance, monitoring, security, etc. Splitting of the compensation into two parts, with one at each end of the line, provides more accessibility and availability of station service and other auxiliaries. The disadvantages are higher fault current, complicated relaying, and higher rating of the compensation. The effectiveness of the compensation scheme depends on the location of the series capacitors and the associated shunt reactors. Synchronous condensers: A synchronous condenser is a synchronous machine running without a prime mover or a mechanical load. By controlling the field excitation, it can be made to either generate or absorb reactive power. With a voltage regulator, it can automatically adjust the reactive power output to maintain constant terminal voltage. It draws a small amount of active power from the power system to supply losses. They are often connected to the tertiary windings of transformers. They fall into the category of active shunt compensators. Because of their high purchase and operating costs, they have been largely superseded by static var compensators. Synchronous compensators have several advantages over static compensators,
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Types of SVC: The following are the basic types of reactive power control elements which make up all part of any static var system: Saturated reactor (SR) Thyristorcontrolled reactor (TCR) Thyristorswitched capacitor (TSC) Thyristorswitched reactor (TSR) Thyristor controlled transformer (TCT) Selfor linecommutated converter (SCC/LCC)
A number of different SVS configurations made of a combination of one or more of the basic types of SVC and fixed capacitor (FC) banks (i.e., capacitor not switched via local automatic control) have been used in practice for transmission system compensation. Static var systems are capable of controlling individual phase voltage of the buses to which they are connected. They can therefore be used for control of negative sequence as well as positive sequence voltage deviations. Application of static var compensators: Since their first application in the late 1970s, the use of SVCs in transmission systems has been increasing steadily. By virtue of their ability to provide continuous and rapid control of reactive power and voltage, SVCs can enhance several aspects of transmission system performance. Applications to date include the following: Control of temporary (power frequency) over voltages Prevention of voltage collapse Enhancement of transient stability Enhancement of damping of system oscillations
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Figure.2: Functional the block diagram of control system for automatic changing of Transformer taps
REFERENCES : [ 1 ] Prabha Kundur : Power System Stability and control , Engineering Series, McGrawHill, Inc., 1994. The EPRI Power System
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Training for Transmission System EngineersCeylon Electricity Board 42: VOLAGE STABILITY ANALYSIS 1
Voltage has always been considered as an integral part of the power system response and is an important aspect of system stability and security. Thus, voltage instability and collapse cannot be separated from the general problem of system stability. However, in the recent years, the analysis of voltage stability has assumed importance, mainly due to several documented incidents of voltage collapse in France, Japan, Belgium and Florida. There are several factors which contribute to voltage collapse such as increased loading on transmission lines, reactive power constraints, onload tap changer (OLTC) dynamics and load characteristics. In the present context, voltage instability implies an uncontrolled decrease in voltage triggered by a disturbance, leading to voltage collapse and is primarily caused by dynamics connected with the load. What is presented here is an attempt to define the problem of voltage instability and to outline the methods of analysis. What Is Voltage Stability? It is to be clearly understood that the problem of low voltages in steady state conditions, should not be confused with voltage instability. As a matter of fact, it is possible that the voltage collapse may be precipitated even if the initial operating voltages may be at acceptable levels. Voltage collapse may be fast (due to induction motor loads or HVDC converter station) or slow (due to onload tap changers and generator excitation limiters). Voltage stability is sometimes also termed as load stability. The terms voltage instability and voltage collapse are often used interchangeably. It is to be understood that the voltage stability is a subset of overall power system stability and is a dynamic problem. The voltage instability generally results in monotonically (or aperiodically) decreasing voltages. Sometimes the voltage instability may manifest as undamped (or negatively damped) voltage oscillations prior to voltage collapse. A CIGRE Task Force has proposed the following definitions for voltage stability. SmallDisturbance Voltage Stability A power system at a given operating state is smalldisturbance voltage stable if, following any small disturbance, voltages near loads are identical or close to the predisturbance values. The concept of smalldisturbance voltage stability is related to steadystate stability and can be analyzed using small signal (linearized) model of the system. Voltage Stability A power system at a given operating state and subjected to a given disturbance is voltage stable if voltages near loads approach postdisturbance equilibrium values. The disturbed state is within the region of attraction of the stable postdisturbance equilibrium.
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(b)Regulated shunt compensation A static var system (SVS) of finite size will regulate up to its maximum capacitive output. There are no voltage control or instability problems within the regulating range. When pushed to the limit, an SVS becomes a simple capacitor. The possibility of this leading to voltage instability must be recognized. A synchronous condenser, unlink an SVS, has an internal voltage source. It continues to supply reactive power down to relatively low voltages and contributes to a more stable voltage performance. (b) Series capacitors Series capacitors are self regulating. The reactive power supplied by series capacitors is proportional to square of the line current and is independent of the bus voltages. This has a favorable effect on voltage stability. Series capacitors are ideally suited for effectively shortening long lines. Unlike shunt capacitors, series capacitors reduce both the characteristic impedance (ZC) and the electrical length () of the line. As a result, both voltage regulation and stability are significantly improved. Voltage collapse: Voltage collapse is the process by which the sequence of events accompanying voltage instability leads to a low unacceptable voltage profile in a significant part of the power system. Voltage collapse may be manifested in several different ways. Typical scenario of voltage collapse: When a power system is subjected to a sudden increase of reactive power demand following a system contingency, the additional demand is met by the reactive power reserves carried by the generators and compensators. Generally there are sufficient reserves and the system settles to a stable voltage level. However, it is possible, because of a combination of events and system conditions that the additional reactive power demand may lead to voltage collapse, causing a major breakdown of part or all of the system.
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REFERENCES : [ 1 ] K.R. Padiyar : Power System Dynamics : Stability and Control , 2nd edition, BS Publications, 2002. [ 2 ] Prabha Kundur : Power System Stability and control , The EPRI Power System Engineering Series, McGrawHill, Inc., 1994.
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43: VOLAGE STABILITY ANALYSIS 2 Analysis of Voltage Instability and Collapse As mentioned earlier, voltage instability is a dynamic phenomenon and the system is described by nonlinear differential algebraic equations. For the study of voltage stability under large disturbances, it is necessary to simulate the system. Midterm stability programs that can simulate the system up to a few minutes can be utilized for this purpose provided that they can model the load characteristics accurately and also include the dynamics of OLTC and over excitation limiters. The representation of OLTCs can significantly increase the simulation time frame as they have an intrinsic time delay of the order of 30 s and an additional 15 s is taken for each subsequent tap movement. It is also necessary to model correctly step size, initial tap position and tap range. If AVR line drop compensation is used to control voltages remote from the generator terminals, they have a major effect on the reactive power outputs of a set of generating units and this needs to be represented as well in addition to over excitation limiters. Load representation should include not only static loads which are voltage dependent but also dynamic loads such as induction motors and thermostatic loads. All the reactive compensation devicesswitched shunt reactors, capacitors, SVC (with limiting action) need to be represented adequately. In addition, special protection schemes such as under voltage load shedding, OLTC blocking, reactor tripping and generator runback should be modeled. Small Signal (linear) Analysis There are two approaches here  static analysis (considering only algebraic equations) and dynamic analysis (considering system dynamics). It is to be understood that static analysis is an approximation which may give reasonably accurate results in identifying critical situations. By defining voltage collapse proximity indicators (VCPI) it is possible to implement security assessment. The sensitivity information can be used to devise corrective measures to overcome the problem of voltage collapse. The system equations are =f (x,y) 0 =g(x,y) The load flow equations are included in (2). Linerizing Eqs. (1) & (2) we get = [JSYS] x (3) [JSYS] is termed as the system Jacobian matrix and is distinct from the load flow Jacobian matrix [JFL]. All the eigenvalues of the system Jacobian matrix should lie in the LHP (Re (i) <0) for the equilibrium (perating) point to be stable. It is assumed that the system Jacobian matrix is dependent on a parameter (say load at a specified bus) which is varied. For < c, the equilibrium point is stable. At =c, the critical
(1) (2)
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value of the parameter, a bifurcation is said to occur and the equilibrium point becomes unstable for =c. At =c, the system Jacobian matrix can have either (a) A real eigenvalue which is zero or (b) A complex pair on imaginary axis In the first case, instability is due to the crossing of a real eigenvalue into the RHP and the bifurcation is said to be of saddlenode type. In the second type, the instability is due to the crossing of a complex pair into the RHP and it is termed as Hopf bifurcation. Control of Voltage Instability Voltage instability along with angle instability poses a threat to the system security. Uncontrolled load rejection due to voltage collapse can cause system separation and blackouts. Hence the system must be planned in such a way as to reduce the possibility of voltage instability. Also the system must be operated with adequate margin for voltage stability. In the event of voltage instability due to unforeseen contingencies, the system control must prevent widespread voltage collapse and restore the loads as quickly as possible. The incidence of voltage instability increases as the system is operated close to its maximum loadability limit. Environmental and economic constraints have limited the transmission network expansion, while forcing the generators to be sited far away from the load centres. This has resulted in stressing the existing transmission network The present trend is to operate the existing transmission facilities optimally to utilize the inherent margins available. The concept of Flexible AC Transmission system (FACTS) is an important step in this direction. The availability of FACTS controllers such as SVC, Controlled series compensation (CSC), static condenser (STATCON) permit operation close to the thermal limit of the lines without jeopardizing security. The reactive power compensation close to the load centers as well as at the critical buses in the network is essential for overcoming voltage instability. The location, size and speed of control have to be selected properly to have maximum benefits. The SVC and STATCON provide fast control and help improve system stability. The design of suitable protective measures in the event of voltage instability is also necessary. The application of undervoltage load shedding, controlled system separation and adaptive or intelligent control are steps in this direction Voltage Stability Analysis The analysis of voltage stability for a given system state involves the examination of two aspects : (a) Proximity to voltage instability: How close is the system to voltage instability? Distance to instability may be measured in terms of physical quantities, such as load level, active power flow through a critical interface, and reactive power reserve. The most appropriate
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measure for any given situation depends on the specific system and intended use of the margin. (b) Mechanism of voltage instability: How and why does instability occur? What are the key factors contributing to instability? What are the voltageweak areas? What measures are most effective in improving voltage stability? System dynamics influencing voltage stability are usually slow. Therefore, many aspects of the problem can be effectively analyzed by using static methods, which examine the viability of the equilibrium point represented by a specified operating condition of the power system. The static analysis techniques allow examination of a wide range of system condition and, if appropriately used, can provide much insight into the nature of the problem and identify the key contributing factors. Modelling Requirements The following are descriptions of models of power system elements that have a significant impact on voltage stability: Loads: load characteristics could be critical in voltage stability analysis. Unlike in conventional transient stability and power flow analyses, expanded subtransmission system representation in a voltageweak area may be necessary. This should include transformer ULTC action, reactive power compensation, and voltage regulators in the subtransmission system. It is important to account for voltage and frequency dependence of loads. It may also be necessary to model induction motors specifically. In some cases, appropriate representation of load characteristics at low voltages may be essential. Generators and their excitation controls. For voltage stability analysis, it may be necessary to account for the droop characteristic of the AVR rather than to assume zero droop. If load (line drop) compensation is provided, its effect should be represented. Field current and armature current limits should be represented specifically rather than as a fixed value of the maximum reactive power limit. Static var system (SVSs). When an SVS is operating within the normal voltage control range, it maintains bus voltage with a slight droop characteristic. When operating at the reactive power limits, the SVS becomes a simple capacitor or reactor; this could have a very significant effect on voltage stability. These characteristics of SVS should be represented appropriately in voltage stability studies. Automatic generation control (AGC). For contingencies resulting in a significant mismatch between generation and load, the actions of primary speed control and supplementary tie line bias frequency control can change system generation significantly, sometimes to the determent of voltage stability. Hence, these functions have to be represented appropriately. Protection and controls. These include generating unit and transmission network protection and controls. Examples are generator excitation protection, armature over current protection,
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transmission line over current protection, capacitor bank controls, phase shifting regulators, and under voltage load shedding Static Analysis The static approach captures snapshots of system conditions at various time frames along timedomain trajectory. In the past, the electric utility industry has largely depended on conventional powerflow programs for static analysis of voltage stability. Stability is determined by computing the VP and QV curves at selected load buses. Generally, such curves are generated by executing a large number of power flows using conventional models. While such procedures can be automated, they are time consuming and do not readily provide information useful in gaining insight into causes of stability problems. In addition, these procedures focus on individual buses; that is, the stability characteristics are established by stressing each bus independently. This may unrealistically distort the stability condition of the system. Also, the buses selected for QV and VP analysis must be chosen carefully, and a large number of such curves may be required to obtain complete information. In fact, it may not be possible to generate the QV curves completely due to power flow divergence caused by problems elsewhere in the system. (a) VQ Sensitivity Analysis The network constraints may be expressed in the following linearized form:
(4) where P = incremental change in bus real power Q = incremental change in bus reactive power injection = incremental change in bus voltage angle V = incremental change in bus voltage magnitude The elements of the Jacobian matrix give the sensitivity between power flow and bus voltage changes. The VQ sensitivity at a bus represents the slope of the QV curve at the given operating point. A positive VQ sensitivity is indicative of stable operation; the smaller the sensitivity, the more stable the system. As stability decreases, the magnitude of the sensitivity increases, becoming infinite at the stability limit. Conversely, a negative VQ sensitivity is indicative of unstable operation. A small negative sensitivity represents a very unstable operation. Because of the nonlinear nature of the VQ relationships, the magnitudes of the sensitivities for different system conditions do not provide a direct measure of the relative degree of stability.
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Prevention of Voltage Collapse: This section identifies system design and operating measures that can be taken to prevent voltage collapse. System Design Measures (a) Application of reactive powercompensating devices) Adequate stability margins should be ensured by proper selection of compensation schemes. The selection of the sizes, ratings, and locations of the compensation devices should be based on a detailed study covering the most onerous system conditions for which the system is required to operate satisfactorily. Design criteria based on maximum allowable voltage drop following a contingency are often not satisfactory from the voltage stability viewpoint. The stability margin should be based on MW and MVAr distances to instability. It is important to recognize voltage control areas and weak transmission boundaries in this regard. (b) Control of network voltage and generator reactive output. Load (or line drop) compensation of a generator AVR regulates voltage on the high tension side of, or partway through, the setup transformer . In many situations this has a beneficial effect on voltage stability by moving the point of constant voltage electrically closer to the loads. (c) coordination of protections/controls One of the causes of voltage collapse is the lack of coordination between equipment protection/controls and power system requirements. Adequate coordination should be ensured based on dynamic simulation studies. Tripping of equipment to prevent an overloaded condition should be the last resort. Wherever possible, adequate control measures (automatic or manual) should be provided for relieving the overload condition before isolating the equipment from the system. (d) Control of transformer tap changers Tap changers can be controlled, either locally or centrally, so as to reduce the risk of voltage collapse. Where tap changing is detrimental, a simple method is to block tap changing when the source side voltage sags, and unblock when the voltage recovers. There is potential for application of improved ULTC control strategies. Such strategies must be developed based on knowledge of the load and distribution system characteristics. The best strategy depends on the characteristics of the specific system.
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(e) Under voltage load shedding To cater to unplanned or extreme situations, it may be necessary to use under voltage loadshedding schemes. This is analogous to under frequency load shedding, which has become a common utility practice to cater to extreme situations resulting in generation deficiency and under frequency. Load shedding provides a lowcost means of preventing widespread system collapse. This is particularly true if system conditions and the contingencies leading to voltage instability are of low probability, but would result in serious consequences. The characteristics and locations of the loads to be shed are more important for voltage problems than they are for frequency problems. Loadshedding schemes should be designed so as to distinguish between faults, transient voltage dips, and low voltage conditions leading to voltage collapse. SystemOperating Measures (a) Stability margin The system should be operated with an adequate voltage stability margin by the appropriate scheduling of reactive power resources and voltage profile. There are at present no widely accepted guidelines for selection of the degree of margin and the system parameters to be used as indices. These are likely to be system dependent and may have to be established based on the characteristics of individual system. If the required margin cannot be met by using available reactive power resources and voltage control facilities, it may be necessary to limit power transfers and start up additional generating units to provide voltage support at critical areas. (b) Spinning reserve Adequate spinning reactivepower reserve must be ensured by operating generators, if necessary at moderate or low excitation and switching in shunt capacitors to maintain the desired voltage profile. The required reserve must be identified and maintained within each voltage control area. (c) Operators action Operators must be able to recognize voltage stabilityrelated symptoms and take appropriate remedial actions such as voltage and power transfer control and, possibly as a last resort, load curtailment. Operating strategies that prevent voltage collapse need to established. Online monitoring and analysis to identify potential voltage stability problems and possible remedial measures would be invaluable in this regard.
REFERENCES : [ 1 ] K.R. Padiyar : Power System Dynamics : Stability and Control , 2nd edition, BS Publications, 2002. [ 2 ] Prabha Kundur : Power System Stability and control , The EPRI Power System Engineering Series, McGrawHill, Inc., 1994.
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1.0 INTRODUCTION Maintaining power system frequency at constant value is very important for the health of the power generating equipment and the utilization equipment at the customer end. The job of automatic frequency regulation is achieved by governing systems of individual turbinegenerators and Automatic Generation Control (AGC) or Load frequency control ( LFC) system of the power system. 2.0 FREQUENCY VARIATION IN A SINGLE MACHINE To understand the variation of frequency in a power system, we can consider a single machine connected to an isolated load, as shown in the figure below.
Turbine
Gen
Pl
Pm
Fig.1 SINGLE TURBINE GENERATOR WITH LOAD Normally, the turbine mechanical power (Pm) and the electrical load power (Pl) are equal. Whenever there is a change in load, with mechanical power remaining the same the speed () of the turbine generator changes as decided by the rotating inertia (M) of the rotor system, as given by the following differential equation.. PmPl = M [d/dt ] The governing system senses this change in speed and adjusts steam control valve so that mechanical power (Pm) matches with the changed load (Pl). Speed variation stops but at a different steady value. The change in frequency () at steady state can be described using the following equation in terms of change in load ( Pl) and a factor R called speed regulation or droop. =  [ Pl ]( R) A 20 % change in load ( Pl = 0.2 per unit) causes 1 % change in frequency ( = 0.01 p.u) with a per unit (p.u) droop value of 0.05. Similarly full load throw off ( Pl =  1.0) causes 5 % change in speed. ( = + 0.05). This is described by the well known droop characteristic.
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0% Fig.2
50%
100%
Load
3.0 NEED FOR SUPPLEMENTARY CONTROL Now when there is a load change, speed settles down after a transient period at a value different from the original steady speed. This new speed value is dictated by the droop value. For instance a 100 % load rejection will cause the machine speed to settle down at 105 % speed, with a droop value of 5 %, as shown in the figure below. During the transient, speed may touch a higher value as shown in the figure (by TSR: transient speed rise). The speed however has to be brought back to the original value for which speed/ load reference (Pref) has to be adjusted either by the operator or by a supplementary control system.
Load TSR (6  10%) 100% 0% t 5% Droop 100%
Speed (%)
In the speed control system block diagram shown in Fig. 4, when elec. load changes, reference set point is to be adjusted to restore speed to the predisturbed value. This is equivalent to shifting the speed droop characteristic to match the new operating load as shown in Fig. 5.
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GOVERNOR
TURBINE
ROTOR INERTIA
Valve Position
Mechanical
Power
Elec. load
S P E E D
Frequency (Hz)
50
0% Fig.5
50%
100%
Load
4.0 AUTOMATIC GENERATION CONTROL (AGC) Automatic Generation Control (AGC) usually implemented in Energy Management system (EMS) of Energy Control centers (ECC) consists of Load frequency control Economic Dispatch Interchange scheduling
LOAD FREQUENCY CONTROL The speed/ frequency variation concept can be extended from a single turbine generator system to a power system comprising several turbine generators as shown in Fig.6. Now the mismatch between the total power generated and the total electrical load causes the frequency change as dictated by the combined system inertia. The governors of all the
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Composite Governor
Composite Turbine
Frequency
Set point AUTOMATIC LOAD REQUENCY CONTROLLER Generator Other m/c Power Governor Turbine
Secondary regulation
Total Load
+ +
GRID INERTIA
+
Frequency
Area Frequency
5.0 POWER SYSTEM FREQUENCY CONTROL :INDIAN SCENARIO In India, the power system is divided into regions. Load Despatch Center in each region monitors the frequency by interacting with State Load Despatch Centers and generating
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Implementation of FGMO in power plant In a typical 200 MW/ 250 MW thermal power plant, implementation scheme is shown in the figure below.
SCHEME OF FGMO.
FGMO WORKS WITHIN THE LOAD SET PT LIMITS OF 175 MW TO 220 MW ONLY CMC LOAD ST. PT. CMC MAX LOAD LIMIT. ( 220 MW) LOAD CORRECTION DUE TO FREQ. +/ 20 MW MIN. LOAD SET POINT.
LOAD CORRECTION OF +/ APPOX 2.5 MW FOR +/ 1 KG/CM2 MIN TURBINE CONTROL. TURB MAX LOAD LIMIT. (220 MW)
The Coordinated Master Control ( CMC) scheme gives commands to the turbine control as well as the boiler fuel control to raise/lower generation. When frequency changes these command signals are modified with a limit of plus or minus 20MW as shown below in Fig.9.
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In case CMC is not there FGMO can be implemented in the Load control loop of the electro hydraulic turbine controller (EHTC).
LOAD CORRECTION WITHOUT DEAD BAND
Fig.9
+20 MW
48Hz
49Hz
50
51 Hz
52 Hz
 20 MW
7.0 AUTOMATIC GENERATION CONTROL : DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION ASPECTS The objective of the AGC in an interconnected power system is to maintain the frequency of each area and to keep tieline power close to the scheduled values by adjusting the MW outputs the AGC generators so as to accommodate fluctuating load demands. The components of AGC in the modern power system are: Loadfrequency control (LFC) Economic dispatch (ED) Interchange scheduling (IS)
When frequency changes, under primary regulation, governors respond immediately. But as mentioned earlier, frequency does not get restored but will settle down at a different value. At this point of time LFC function comes in to the picture.LFC maintains the system frequency by performing the function of Secondary Regulation. It provides generation set points to the generators participating in the frequency regulation. But these set points may not be the optimum from cost point of view. Economic dispatch (ED) function readjusts the set points of the generations after the time scale of LFC. In a large interconnected power system there are a number of areas connected by tie lines with share agreements with neighbors. The LFC and ED functions have to take care of these agreements. This function is performed by Interchange Scheduling (IS).. Each of
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where, (1/R) is the generator regulation or droop, D is the load damping Characteristic.
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More practically it is necessary to use integral control ( or Proportional integral control) Prefi =  Ki ACEi dt Note in steady state Prefi must become constant and ACEi=0. Then necessarily Prefi=Pli. Integral control with stable gain Ki guarantees zero error.
LFC Implementation
~ every 4 sec
ACE Filters
Allocation To Plants
Other Considerations Economic Dispatch Actual Unit Movement Minimum Movement Severity Unit Energy Balance Response Rate
Time error
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Fig. 12 Typical frequency response of a 60Hz power system with Automatic Generation Control (AGC) for a step load increase But Automatic Generation Control (AGC) system which includes Load Frequency Control (LFC) acts on the set points of the governors and frequency gets restored to the 60 Hz value as shown in the response curve (Fig. 12). For a similar system, measured frequency variation when large generation is lost is shown in Fig. 13.
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Fig. 13 Typical frequency response of a 60Hz power system with Automatic Generation Control (AGC) for a generation loss The AGC implemented in developed countries includes load frequency control (LFC), economic dispatch (ED) and interchange scheduling (IS). These are implemented as application programs in Energy Management System (EMS) software located in Energy Control Centers. (ECC). The implementation scheme for AGC is shown in Fig. 14 .The AGC function within SCADA/EMS will receive frequency, generations (MW) etc., signals through remote terminal units (RTUs).
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f Set Point Electro Hydraulic Governor (EHG) Set Point Electro Hydraulic Governor (EHG) f Set Point TurbineGenerator (TG) f TurbineGenerator (TG)
System Frequency
TurbineGenerator (TG)
HYDRO POWER PLANTS Fig. 14 Typical implementation schemeof Automatic Generation Control (AGC) When there is a frequency change primary control action is performed by the governors of prime movers. After few seconds Secondary Control function by Automatic generation controller (AGC) is initiated. AGC computes the set point changes required to restore the frequency to the set value and issues commands to participating generating units. 8.0 CONCLUSIONS The basic concepts of power system load frequency control system are described in this article. In the literature, it is also referred to as Automatic Generation Control (AGC) where apart from load frequency control, economic allocation is also included. The computer based Energy Management System (EMS) installed in modern power systems includes AGC also. The concepts of Free governor mode of operation (FGMO) and implementation are also described. 9.0 REFERENCES 1. Frequency Control Concerns In The North American Electric Power System December 2002 by B. J. Kirby, J. Dyer, C. Martinez, Dr. Rahmat A. Shoureshi
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46: BASIC CONCEPTS OF ELECTROMAGNETIC TRANSIENTS PROGRAM (EMTP) Power System Transients Transients occur on power systems due to a variety of reasons. They may produce (i) overvoltages (ii) overcurrents, (iii) abnormal wave forms, or (iv) electromechanical transients. In general, a single event will give rise to all of the effects mentioned above. However, in most studies, one of these effects is of far greater concern than the others. Consequently, it is convenient to discuss the transient phenomena under these four categories. (i) Overvoltages: The design and insulation coordination of power apparatus and systems is determined by overvoltages to which it may be subjected. The overvoltages could be caused by quasisteady state conditions (in which case these are primarily fundamental frequency effects), or they may be due to shortduration high frequency phenomena created by shock excitation of the power system. Examples of quasisteady state overvoltage conditions often known as dynamic over voltage are voltage excursions during load rejection, loss of shunt reactor compensation on long over head lines or cables etc., and generally result from some abnormal system operating condition. Study of shockexcitation phenomena on a power system is one of the most important objectives of transient analysis. Shock excitation is caused by a discrete disturbance (stepfunction) of a sufficiently large magnitude leading to the generation and propagation of surges on the system. At EHV and UHV levels the switching surges (whose magnitudes are proportional to the system operating voltage) are the determining factors, whereas for lower system voltages lightning related over voltages are the determining factor. Overcurrents: Overcurrents result from system faults and their study helps determine such things as the interrupting duty on circuit breakers, mechanical and thermal stresses within machines, transformers and buses. Unbalanced fault simulation is often required for determining the negative sequence currents in machines. A fault also gives rise to induced voltages on unfaulted phases, and often the switching surges produced by the fault are causes of significant overvoltages. Abnormal waveforms: the spectrum of power system voltages and currents during transient conditions and during certain abnormal steady state operating conditions is of considerable importance in many studies. For example, the response of a protective relay to the fault generated transient wave form is to great concern in determining its reliability for a given application. Telephone interference problems also require a study of harmonic generation and distribution over transmission lines. Simulation of all of these system conditions requires an analytical tool capable of representing the power system over the entire spectrum of interest. Electromechanical Transients: Traditionally, electromechanical transients have been studied with transient stability programs, which use positive sequence
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(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
representation and fundamental frequency models for the entire system. However, certain phenomena require detailed three phase representation of machines and systems, as well s a proper simulation of transient waveforms. For example, the subsynchronous resonance phenomenon, the stresses on the generator shaft system following high speed tripling and reclosing into a fault require fairly detailed simulation models. Overvoltages in a power system can be caused by transient currents and by transient voltages after switching actions during normal operation or after clearing fault situations. The overvoltages originate from the state of the system. There are also overvoltages that come from outside the system as a result of atmospheric discharges. Large parts of the power system are formed by overhead transmission lines interconnected by outdoor substations. As switching devices, we make use of the ideal switch. The ideal switch in closed position is an ideal conductor (zero resistance) and in open position is an ideal isolator (infinite resistance). The ideal switch changes from close to open position instantaneously, and the sinusoidal current is always interrupted at current zero. When load break switches, circuit breakers, disconnectors, or fuses operate, a switching action takes place in the network and parts of the power system are separated from or connected to each other. The switching action can be either a closing or an opening operation in the case of a switching device. Fuses can perform opening operations only. After a closing operation, transient currents will flow through the system, and after an opening operation, when a powerfrequency current is interrupted, a transient recovery voltage or TRV will appear across the terminals of the interrupting device. The configuration of the network as seen from the terminals of the switching device determines amplitude, frequency, and shape of the current and voltage oscillations. Waveshape of the Lightning Current Lightning currents differ in amplitude and shape. The majority of the cloudtoground lightning strokes vary from kiloAmperes to several tenths of kiloamperes. The shape of the current wave and the related voltage wave is rather capricious and different for every stroke. To facilitate testing in the laboratory and computations either by hand or by computer, the shape of the current wave of the return stroke is standardized. When the current wave travels in the power system, there is, of course, a related voltage wave also present. The ratio between the voltage wave and the current wave at a certain place in the system is the characteristic impedance at that particular part of the network. System components can be exposed to very high lightninginduced overvoltages. The name plate of highvoltage equipment shows the Basic Insulation Level or BIL, which is a standardized figure for each voltage rating related to the voltage level at which the equipment should operate.
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Figure : Standardized waveform of a lightninginduced voltage wave Numerical Simulation of Electrical Transients Switching actions, shortcircuits, lightning strokes, and disturbances during normal operation often cause temporary overvoltages and high frequency current oscillations. The power system must be able to withstand the overvoltages without damage to the system components. The simulation of transient voltages and currents is of great importance for the insulation coordination, correct operation, and adequate functioning of the system protection. Transient phenomena can not only occur in a time frame of microseconds or (in the case of the initial rate of rise of the transient recovery voltages and shortline faults) milliseconds (when looking at transient recovery voltages because of switching actions) but can also be present for seconds, for instance, in the case of ferroresonance. Transients are usually composed of travelling waves on highvoltage transmission lines and underground cables, oscillations in lumped network elements, generators, transformers, and so on. To perform analytical transient calculations by hand is rather cumbersome or even impossible, and from the early days analogue scale models have been in use; the socalled Transient Network Analyser or TNA. The TNA consists of analogue building blocks, and transmission lines are built from lumped LC pisections. The availability of cheap computer power, at first mainframes, later workstations, and presently the personal computer had a great influence on the development of numerical simulation techniques. Sometimes it can be still convenient to make use of the TNA, but in the majority of the cases, computer programs, such as the widely spread and wellknown electromagnetic transients program (EMTP) are used. These computer programs are often more accurate and cheaper than a TNA but not always easy to use! Four different time domain computer programs are described: The Electromagnetic transient program, based on the Nodal Analysis from network theory; The MNA program, based on the Modified Nodal Analysis from network theory;
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The XTrans Program, based on the solution of differential and algebraic equations; and The MATLAB Power System Blockset.
The Electromagnetic Transient Program The electromagnetic transient program (EMTP) is the creation of H. W. Dommel. The EMTP became popular for the calculation of power system transients when Dommel and ScottMeyer, made the source code public domain. This became both the strength and weakness of EMTP; many people spent time on program development but their actions were not always as concerted as they should have been. This resulted in a large amount of computer code for every conceivable power system component but very often without much documentation. This problem has been overcome in the commercial version of the program, the socalled EPRI/EMTP version. Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has recoded, tested, and extended most parts of the program in a concerted effort and this has improved the reliability and functionality of the transient program. Presently, the EMTP and other programs that are built on a kernel (such as electromagnetic transients for DC (EMTDC) and power system computeraided design (PSCAD)) based on the same principles are a widely used and accepted program for the computation of electrical transients in power systems. The advantages of the DommelEMTP method, among others are simplicity (the network is reduced to a number of current sources and resistances of which the Ymatrix is easy to construct) and robustness (the EMTP makes use of the trapezoidal rule, which is a numerically stable and robust integration routine).
Alternative Transients Program (ATP) ATP is a universal program system for digital simulation of transient phenomena of electromagnetic as well as electromechanical nature. With this digital program, complex networks and control systems o arbitrary structure can be simulated. ATP has extensive modeling capabilities and additional important features besides the computation of transients. Typical Applications ATPEMTP is used worldwide for switching and lightning surge analysis, insulation coordination and shaft torsional oscillation studies, protective relay modeling, harmonic and power quality studies, HVDA and FACTS modeling. Typical EMTP studies are:
Lightning overvoltage studies Switching transients and faults Statistical and systematic overvoltage studies Very fast transients in GIS and groundings Machine modeling Transient stability, motor startup
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Shaft torsional oscillations Transformer and shunt reactor/capacitor switching Ferroresonance Power electronic applications Circuit breaker duty (electric arc), current chopping FACTS devices: STATCOM, SVC, UPFC, TCSC modeling Harmonic analysis, network resonances Protective device testing
REFERENCES : [1] Lou van der Sluis : Transients in Power Systems , John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. , 2001. [2] Arun G. Phadke (edited) : Digital Simulation of Electrical Transient Phenomena , IEEE Tutorial Course ( 81 EHO1735PWR ).
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1.0 INTRODUCTION The issues concerning the wind penetration study are: How much percentage of wind generation can be allowed in a power system ? At what voltage level wind power plants can be allowed to be connected to the CEB transmission and distribution system? How to operate the power system with noncentrally dispatched generation like wind? The effects od wind generation on the power system operation are discussed in this chapter. The penetration of wind power in the power systems worldwide is increasing gradually. In Denmark the penetration level is close to 20 %. Wind power varies with wind speed which is unpredictable and the supply is intermittent. A typical variation of energy output from a typical wind farm of total capacity of 19 MW is shown in Fig. 1. In some periods it approaches nominal capacity and in some periods it is as low as 1 MW.
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2.0 INFLUENCE ON FREQUENCY AND VOLTAGE CONTROL Wind power plants can influence the operation of power system in terms of voltage control and frequency control in various ways. 1. Unpredictable nature of wind: The wind turbine generator power depends on wind velocity which varies intermittently hence power balance in the system is affected. Sometimes suddenly gust of wind can also occur which may act as a disturbance in the system. 2. Reactive Power consumption: There are various types of wind generators like induction generator, doubly fed induction generator etc., as shown in Table. Induction generators consume reactive power and hence reactive power balance and voltage variation is affected. 3. Inertialess generator: In wind turbine generators connected to power system using power electronics based converters the wind turbine generator rotor inertia does not add to the grid inertia. Therefore grid frequency control becomes difficult. 4. Nonparticipation in dispatch: Wind generation cannot be dispatched due to intermittency. Wind power in place of other conventional power: When large numbers of wind turbines are connected to a system and they replace a substantial fraction of the output of the conventional synchronous generators, they will start to affect various aspects of the system behaviour. This will particularly be the case during periods with low loads and high wind speeds, because in these situations the relative contribution of wind power is at its maximum.
Induction Generators are the most common choice of machine for wind power generation. These generators can be categorized into two major types; constant speed units (cage rotor) and variable speed units (doubly fed). Constant speed wind turbine generators essentially run at a relatively fixed mechanical speed. The reactive power output for these machines is usually provided by fixed capacitors placed at the same bus. The variablespeed machines employ voltagesource converters that give these types of generators the ability to produce or absorb reactive power and thus regulate their apparent power factor. 3.0 SHARE OF WIND POWER IN A POWER SYSTEM A rule of thumb is that when the capacity of wind generation in a control area exceeds 5% of the total generation, then it could impose an undue burden on the control area to meet NERC control performance criteria.
Let us consider the primary frequency control aspect for the power system with specific regulation parameters. Following parameters and conditions were assumed as for calculation example:
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S = 0.05  governors droop parameter, fmax = 0.2 Hz  maximal permissible frequency deviation from the rated value, D = 1.6  load damping constant, frated = 50 Hz  rated frequency, Prated = 100 %  generating units rated power. The maximal load deviation value P (hosting capacity) the primary frequency control is able to secure for considered case study is: 8.6%
For considered case when DG penetration level is higher than 8.6 % from the installed capacity of those units, which participate in primary frequency control, the primary frequency control is not able to maintain power system frequency within permissible range.In the worstcase scenario equivalent wind power plant is 8.6 % of total installed power and its output power decreases to 0. [Problems of frequency controlin the power system with massive penetration of distributed generation Vladimir Chuvychin, Antans Sauhats, Vadims Strelkovs AT&P journal PLUS2 2008] 4.0 WIND TURBINE CONFIGURATIONS The wind turbine generators size varies from few kilowatts to few megawatts (up to 5 MW). A number of wind turbine generators are connected in a wind farm with capacities up to several megawatts. The wind farms may be connected to transmission and distribution networks. The generators driven by wind turbines are various types like squirrel cage induction generators of constant speed or doubly fed induction or inverter interfaced synchronous generators of variable speed. Induction generators are rugged and economical but they draw reactive power. Variable speed wind turbine generators of synchronous type or doubly fed wound rotor type are favored more for utility applications. The effect on reactive power balance in a power system with wind power generation depends on the configuration. As shown in the table, there are fixed speed and variable speed turbines. In modern wind turbines the grid connection of wind turbine generator is through power electronic converter.
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5.0 RELIABILTY CRITERIA The applicable NERC/WECC reliability criteria are listed below: Changes in bus voltages from pre to postcontingency must be less than 5% and 10% for single and double contingencies, respectively. All equipment loadings must be below their normal ratings under normal conditions. All line loadings must be below their emergency ratings for both single and double contingencies. All transformers and equipment with emergency rating should be below their emergency rating. Additions and exceptions to the NERC/WECC criteria are stated below in Table 1.
Wind Generation Interconnection System Requirement Perspective A. Voltage Ride Through B. Reactive power and voltage regulation C. Frequency control Wind Generation Interconnection
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Wind energy penetration (per cent) = Total amount of wind energy produced (annually) (TWh) Gross annual electricity demand (TWh)
This looks at how the total installed wind power capacity in a certain region is related to the peak load in this region over a certain time period.
This looks at the power balance in a certain region, taking into account the minimum demand, the maximum wind power generated and the exchange with neighbouring regions or countries. This figure must remain below 100 per cent to ensure the correct power balance in the region; the nearer to 100 per cent, the closer the system is to its limits (when wind power would need to be curtailed).
Maximum wind power generated (MW) Minimum load (MW) + power exchange capacity (MW
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7.0 TYPICAL CONNECTION SCHEME At what voltage wind generator is connected to the grid is an important issue. A typical scheme is shown in which wind generator voltage is upgraded to 11 kV and pooling is done at 66 kV.
Finally grid connection is done at 132 kV. The size of the wind generator determines the grid voltage level at the point of common connection for technoeconomic reason. Single or group of small plants (100500KVA) may be connected at low voltage grid at the consumer supply point. Generators in the range of 15 MVA may be connected at the distribution level (11KV/33kV). Higher capacity generators (30600MVA) are desirable to
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connect at subtransmission level (132kV/220kV). Large size generators with interstate transmission of energy may be interconnected at 400kV level. Inertial response to frequency The power system inertia determines the rate of change of frequency for load disturbances. The type of wind turbine generators preferred like dual fed induction generators do not contribute to the inertia. Also no frequency control system is used in wind power plant normally for gridconnected operation. The active power is controlled by modulating the converter. The variation of power output for frequency variation is not like in conventional power plant. Special control schemes have been suggested in literature to emulate inertia by controlling the power electronics converters. Reserve availability For load frequency control adequate reserve energy is to be made available when wind power plants are introduced in large scale. These can be in the form pumped storage plants or Energy Storage Systems (ESS). Location of wind power The frequency response and stability of the power system depends on the location of wind power plants also. Detailed investigations dynamic and transient stability are to be carried out to assess the effect of wind penetration. 8.0 CONCLUSIONS Wind power level is being increased in modern power systems more and more. However wind penetration affects the load frequency control, apart from voltage control due to the intermittent nature of wind energy and also due to the absence of inertial response. Supplementary control systems are to be introduced in the LFC or AGC and sufficient reserve capacities are to be ensured for stable operation. REFERENCES [1]. Johan Morren et al., Wind turbines emulating inertia and supporting primary frequency control, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol. 21, No.1, Feb 2006, pp 433434. [2]. Jos Luis RodrguezAmenedo, Santiago Arnalte, and Juan Carlos Burgos, Automatic Generation Control of a Wind Farm With Variable Speed Wind Turbines, IEEE Tansactions on Energy Cnversion, Vol. 17, No. 2, June 2002
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[3]. Gillian Lalor, Alan Mullane and Mark O Malley, Frequency Control and wind turbine technologies, IEEE Transactions on Power systems, Vol. 20, No.4, Nov 2005, pp 19051913.. [4]. Vladimir Chuvychin, Antans Sauhats, Vadims Strelkovs, Problems of frequency control in the power system with massive penetration of distributed generation, www.atpjournal.sk/atpplus/archiv/2008_2/PDF/plus19_23.pdf.
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49: ENERGY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM AND ITS APPLICATION PROGRAMS 49.1 INTRODUCTION The transmission and distribution systems are controlled by one national power dispatch center, several regional and provincial centers/ district centers. The dispatch facilities that are installed in these centers vary from the simple automation systems to the supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems. Energy Management Systems (EMS) fill the need for a comprehensive power dispatch automation system to control the complex transmission and distribution networks. The energy and distribution management systems (EMS/DMS) based on computer and network communication techniques are widely employed.. 49.2 EMS : TYPICAL HARDWARECONFIGURATION The distributed EMS/ functions can be distributed on a series of workstations and servers. The functions combine realtime data collected from SCADA and PAS (power application software) enabling all management functions of the dispatching center to be implemented. This will increase the efficiency and further improve the utilization and reliability of the power system. Hardware Configuration is based on the platform is built up by DEC Alpha servers and workstations laid on the dual Ethernet or fiber distributed data interface (FDDI) sections. Terminal servers, PCs and input/output (I/O) devices with single Ethernet interface are laid on single Ethernet section connected via local area network (LAN) switches. The data link can be automatically reorganized in the event of a LAN port failure on a dual LAN node or a primary node failure on a node pair. Three options exist for data exchange with remote operational units:  Front end computer with remote terminal units (RTU)  TCP/IP or X.25 routers with other control centers and power plants  LAN with message information system (MIS) Motorola DELTA 4000, DEC Alpha or PC can be selected as the front end node. The distributed support software package is based on a system software nucleus that resides on every node to construct a distributed operation environment. This package is composed of a set of distributed management software subsystems, such as database management system (MS), graphic MS, task MS, report MS, hardware MS, operation authorization MS and communication MS. The historical database (HDB) is relational managed by Sybase Database MS and the realtime database (RTDB), is a semirelational and semihierarchical management system. As any RTDB can be duplicated on to any assigned nodes for local access, the consistency of the DB is assured and both clientserver and peertopeer access is available. RTDB has a convenient visual graphical man machine interface (MMI) tool for DB defining, building, browsing, manipulating and maintaining. The RTDB management system also provides Structural Query Language (SQI) commands for application software interface and data exchange with HDB. Application programs can access data from DB, and system users can access any display, irrespective of the node in which the display definition is filed. Multilayer declutter displays and multiplane superimposed displays can be included in the design specification.
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A graphical power network model building tool offers the facility to automatically build the RTDB and network topology via a single line diagram editing process. A rubber band method is provided to enable the single line diagram to be updated for extensions and modifications to the transmission and distribution system. The user's operation authorization is controlled by application software, an algorithm that ensures that the user cannot exceed his authority in the course of local or remote MMI operations, on any node, in the system. SCADA Functions in addition to the general SCADA functions are provided with a video graphical project wall., which can accommodate the continual growth of power transmission and distribution network. Control center staff can access any size of display, on any part of the screen wall and undertake MMI operations. A general network topology dynamic coloring module is designed for SCADA, power application software and the dispatcher's training simulator (DTS). When the power network is separated, the largest island will keep each voltage level in its original color. The other islands will be colored with only one color for all voltage level parts; however, the color for each island differs. The isolated and grounded islands are colored with a predefined single color. 49.3 POWER APPLICATION SOFTWARE Various online programs are included as given below. Some are run automatically and others are executed by the dispatcher (dispatcherorientated in real time and online). Power network modeling State estimation Static security analysis Dispatcher's power flow Voltage and VAR optimal control Network reduction Dynamic security analysis (superfast transient stability analysis based on extended equal area criteriaEEAC) System load forecast Bus load forecast Loss sensitivity Automatic generation control/economic dispatch control (AGC/ED) Thermal and hydro coordination Short circuit calculation Online operating merit order generation
Dispatcher Training Simulator (DTS) Steady state and dynamic state simulation of power system are provided in the power system module of DTS and the steady simulation consists of dynamic power flow and variable frequency.
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The dynamic simulation is a full process which includes short term, mid term and long term dynamic behavior of the power system, the changes between terms, being automatic and smooth. The following models are available: Generator Exciter Governors Thermal and hydro, pump storage and nuclear reactor primemovers Transmission system Protection relays
Supporting Application Software The supporting application software forms part of the comprehensive automation system and runs on the main computer platform. They can share network topology data, measured data and one line diagram displays and can be operated with unified MMI style. The accuracy of the calculated conditions guarantees that the results match those available from PAS and DMS results and SCADA data. The following software programs are included; Power transaction study Thermal and hydro coordination study Operation plan study Overhaul schedule study Shortcircuit calculation Protection relay setting coordination and Protection relay material management Fault statistics and analysis  Historical data statistics and analysis  Financial analysis Automatic mapping/facility management/geometry information interface (AM/FM/GIS)
49.4 DISTRIBUTION MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS (DMS) Distribution Automation (DA) is the major part of DMS. The problems to be solved by DA programs are similar to some EMS programs. Due to the different structure of distribution and transmission networks, the DA programs require special algorithms as follows: Distribution topology Distribution state estimation Distribution power flow Distribution short circuit calculation Load management Feeder voltage and VAR control Fault positioning and feeder reconfiguring Power, kWh and customer accounting  Customer service AM/FM/GIS
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49.5 DISTRIBUTION AUTOMATION: TYPICAL IMPLEMENTATION An integrated distribution control system mainly comprises of systems necessary for Data Acquisition, Voltage & reactive power controls, System reconfiguration & Load Control. The components used for these are primarily Distribution remote terminal units, Pole top units and Distribution control receivers. The automation system can be designed using available technology in computer systems, control systems and metering systems and dovetailing the same into the existing power systems. All the tools required such as Computers, Remote Terminal Units (RTUs), breakers, Switched Capacitor Banks, OLTC Transformers, Auto Reclosures, Sectionlisers, AMR Systems and Communication Systems are available. An integrated Distribution Automation system enables utilities to have real time control over the costly energy sold. Improved efficiency results in lower costs, better reliability in power supply, planned control actions, optimum power factor, reduction in losses. It enables online energy audit (AMR Systems), which is now receiving the focused attention of all utilities. A scheme implemented by APTRANSCO in Andhra Pradesh (India) provides for real time monitoring of operating parameters of Amps, MW, MVAR, PF, Frequency, Voltages, etc at all points of the substation, status of circuit breakers, remote operation of circuit breakers and archiving of historical data, audio alarm and annunciation for limit violations and breaker tripping, recording of sequence of events, recording of maxima and minima of operating parameters with time of occurrence, cumulative energy fed, etc and is integrated with Computerised Trouble Call System, which receives all fuse off calls in twin cities. The Distribution Automation System aims at achieving: Control of DTRs, HT services and individual loads apart from 11KV feeders. Operation of lines sectionalisers, motorized isolators, auto Reclosures Data acquisition from load end CTs and PTs Operation of CBs for switched capacitors banks Use of customized EMS software packages with real time data collected through RTUs Issue, control and receiving back of line clears, introduce interlock and safety algorithm, password protected operating environment. Real time logging of data / archived records of hours of service. Equipment data base Integration with Automated Mapping (AM) and Geographical Information System (GIS) Software packages Integration with Distribution system engineering software for network planning
Other functions achievable through Distribution Automation are: Network Distribution Transformer control
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 Monitoring and Control of LV breakers  Trouble call management Consumer Interface  Load monitoring and control  Voltage monitoring  Metering and Billing through AMR  Immediate detection of attempts for meter tampering  DSM objectives (Individual pump control or group of pumps or DTRs)  Monitoring of captive generation when synchronized with system network Miscellaneous functions  Load forecasts and load surveys  System statistics  Optimal network planning  Energy Audit A Distribution Automation system basically comprises of a distribution control center (DCC), devices to be monitored / controlled like Substations, Switching Capacitors Banks, line equipment and a reliable communication system that forms the backbone for successful operation. Distribution Control Centre (DCC) The Distribution Control Centre (as shown on the right) consists of Computer system with software for Data Acquisition and applications, storage media for storing the Data, Visual Display Units (VDUs) for displaying the data to the operators and to issue control commands and communication interfaces. The scheme is shown in the following figure. Fig. DISTRIBUTION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM CONFIGURATION
Modem
Modem
CommunicationInterface
TeleControlSystem ComputerHardwareandSoftware
OperationandSupervision
System Console
TrainingforTransmissionSystemEngineersCeylonElectricityBoard
Communication Options The communication options for achieving Distribution Automation are: Radio (UHF) DLCC using the power lines for transmission of data (where commercially available) Optic Fibre Public switched telephone network and paging services for auto dialup schemes (where wide coverage is available)
Oneway VHF radio can be used for load control because low cost load control switches are available for this technology. VHF radio switches can also be used for capacitor control on the distribution network, in lieu of more expensive RTUs with remote MARS radios, if monitoring is not essential at the capacitor banks. The Radio Technology based communication system is chosen for the implemented system in which a TDM / TDMA System operating in 2 Ghz band is chosen as the primary communication. The Central Station for this system is located at DCC, which has 60 trunks of 64 Kbps capacity to provide high quality Data and Voice Communication. Connectivity from DCC is provided by this system up to EHV substations which are nodal points of the Power System by installing TDMA outstations. Two TDMA Repeaters are also provided to overcome line of sight problems and to ensure better coverage. At the 33/11 KV substations MAR remotes are installed. These are connected to EHV substation by colocating MARs Master Stations at nodal points and by connecting them back to back to TDMA outstations. MAR remotes at 33/11KV substations or at any field locations will be polled by the MARs Master Station. 49.6 CONCLUSIONS Energy Management System (EMS) are computer systems employed in Energy Control Centers in the power system. Various application programs like power flow, state estimation, Automatic Generation Control (with Load Frequency Control (LFC), Economic Dispatch (ED)), Security Analysis etc., are provided to perform online functions. In this paper, an overview of the EMS and the Distribution Management System (DMS) is given. 49.7 REFERENCES 1.Computer aided Power System Analysis by George L Kusic, Prentice Hall India, 2005 2: Power Generation Operation and Control by Allen J Wood and Bruce F Wollenberg, Second Edition, John Wiley and Sons. 3. The electrical power engineering handbook, Ed. By L.L Grigsby, CRC Press/ IEEE Press, 2001
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50.1 INTRODUCTION In the last two decades several changes affecting the planning and operation of the power system have taken place and the evolution is going on. Many countries have deregulated the electric power industry and have restructured . Market mechanisms have been brought in power generation and distribution. Customers have a choice to chose the supplier and the quality of power supply. In the developing countries, the restructuring is initiated and the process is going on. In this paper, the effects of restructuring on the operation of the power system are described. 50.2 RESTRUCTURING In the conventional power system, the generation, transmission and distribution of electrical energy is carried by a single company, usually owned by the government. Some times distribution is done by several local companies. The cost of generation and transmission are passed on to the customer who has no choice. The energy losses in transmission and distribution are also high. There is no incentive to improve the efficiency and economy of generation. The power industry has a VERTICALLY INTEGRATED structure. GENERATION
TRANSMISSION
DISTRIBUTION
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COORDINATOR
GENERATION
TRANSMISSION
DISTRIBUTION
The functions are unbundled into three parts: Generation Company GENCO: generation and ancillary services Transmission Company TRANSCO: transmission facilities Distribution Company DISTCO: to supply power to consumers
All the above three companies are market players and the central coordinator would be an agent between them. There are regulating authorities to set the rates for delivering energy. Some important aspects are given below: 1. The GENCO would try to minimize cost of production and maximize profits by reducing operating and maintaining costs. 2. TRANSCO would reduce transmission losses and operate efficiently to justify delivery fees.
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COORDINATOR
GENERATION (GENCO)
TRANSMISSION (TRANSCO)
DISTRIBUTION (DISTCO)
ANCILLARY (ANCILCO)
Reliability
The reliability of power system operation is of utmost importance and all the players are required to cooperate with the regulator or independent system operator (ISO). Market mechanisms Restructuring has brought in economic factors into the power system operation. Different aspects of power trading have come in as shown in the Fig. 4. How various entities interact in the market are shown typically for an USA power system in Fig. 5.
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Power Flow
Money Flow
GENCO
Broker
TRANSCO
Marketer
DISCO
Retailer
Aggregator Customer
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Payments
ISO Energy Spot Market Realtime Market Ancillary Services Security Constrained UC Congestion Management: Hourly LMPs Reliability & Security Coordination of Transmission Planning
OASIS
Generators
SelfScheduling by LSEs
LSE
Endusers Customers
Retailers
Power Marketers
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which together form part of Automatic Generation Control (AGC). Automatic generation control is the central control for power output of the generators, shall have three major requirements: Frequency: To maintain system frequency at or nearest to 60 Hz. According to NERC, the system frequency shall not over or below 1% of the nominal (e.g., 60 Hz). Power Flow: To monitor and maintain a balance input and output power between control areas. For example, if the frequency in area one is decreasing and the net power flow to area one is 30 MW then area one must increase power to restore frequency to nominal. It would also restore 30 MW it had borrow. Economic Dispatch: To keep each units generation at the least cost. The economic dispatch calculations must carry out once for every few minutes. The power system areas are interconnected and control of interchange is also the responsibility of AGC as shown in Fig. 6.
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