Sie sind auf Seite 1von 57

SENTENCE CORRECTION 14 SC Target to answer in 60 seconds.

Underlined segment which is to be corrected can be a small part of the sentence or the whole sentence itself. Choice A is exactly the same as underlined portion. Choose the best option- might not be ideal- even correct answer will mostly not be ideal for you it will sound bad, because normally used English is grammatically not correct. GRAMMAR IS IMPORTANT BUT MEANING IS JUST AS IMPORTANT: gramatically correct option can be wrong because of illogical meaning! How to answer Splits & Re-splits Key to answer: Split the answer choices 1. Read the sentence noting any obvious errors as you read. o Relationship between both the underlined and not underlined part is crucial. o Always read the entire sentence, since GMAT often places important deciding words far from the underlined portion. 2. Scan the answer choices VERTICALLY, without reading looking for differences that split answer choices. o Ideal splits will divide answer choices into 2-3 splits. There can be 1-4 split also. o Easiest splits to spot are at the beginning or end of answer choices. o Some splits can be red herring split both sides of split are correct. 3. Choose a split for which you know the grammatical rule and eliminate those options which are on the wrong side of the split 4. Compare remaining answer choices by re-splitting. Continue the process till you have only one answer left. Double check by reading and confirm that the answer works in the context of entire sentence Most sentence correction questions test several different rules at once. Most answer choices can be eliminated for multiple reasons. GMAT tests a finite number of grammatical principles, all of which are here. important Often the last word of underlined is played with, gmat traps you to assume that the required last word is there in an option you are picking while it is not there in the answer option, but in the underlined portion which you are substituting by the so called right answer! Know which topic to look for from seeing the choices split has been - have been : SV agreement

Grammar, Meaning and Concision Correct answer choice is meant to be best in terms of these 3 grammar, meaning and concision. Grammar adhere to grammatical rules Meaning obvious and unambiguous meaning Authors intended meaning shines through in a correct sentence. GMAT tends to use small errors in meaning which you have to pick Three kind of errors in meaning: 1. Choice of words- similar looking words, wrong one used Aggravate vs. aggravating Worsen irritating Known as vs. known to be Loss of vs. loss in Mandate vs. have a mandate Native of vs. native to Range of vs. ranging Rate of vs. rate for Rise vs. raise Such as vs. like Try to do vs. try doing Name acknowledged as No longer possesses- decline in Command have authority form voters Person from, species that originated in Variety of- varying Speed of price of General increase a bet or salary increase Example similar to 2. Position of Words Intended meaning should be maintained Pay attention to overall word order to maintain unambiguity. English normally puts subject in front of verb 'A law is passed' preferred to 'is passed a law' Only surpassed by x and y only surpassed and nothing else! surpassed only by x and y wrong right

only should be placed next to what it limits - x and y, not surpassed

economic vs. economical

3. Matching Words Seek to accomplish experiment with : subject verb, pronoun and noun making sense together Th e use of and do not and nothing in the same monetary - economical means sentence creates a double negative and reverses thrifty, efficient excepting usually comes in negative the intended meaning. Anything should be used constructions

Except vs Excepting unaccompanied- not accompanied 1st: emphasis on coming) He came, unaccompanied by her 2nd: emphasises the negation more He came, not accompanied by her strongly Helping verbs: Different levels of obligation, certainty, reality Will create may create: either correct, but ensure not to change the intent Court ruled I must go I should go: must go correct- must creates mandate, should creates moral obligation that court cant rule If A & B met, they fought- if A & B met, they would fight: 1st is unsure of whether they met or not,2nd is general statement hypothetical could and would so that he could marry (enabled) vs. so that he would marry (conditional - assuming he would marry) so as to marry vs so that to marry so that means the reason, so as doesnt so as also doesnt clarify who will marry

Concision as precise as possible Precise is preferred (everything else same) Redudancy Value rose by 10% increase Values sum to a total of Excited about night>Being excited about night Expressions of time: mostly duplicate usage

Concision is the last issue to consider in Sc differ> have differences

how>the way in which

invest>make investments

Simulataneoulsy while eating, he sang. Per capita - per person annual slalry per year Use VAN (active verb>adjective/adverb>noun preferred 1. Verb is preferred to an Action Noun My revolution was against corruption I revolted against corruption (a noun that expresses action) + a generic verb They are subject to applicability of rules Rules apply to them (be/make) will be used to replace a verb made a reference = refer Her decision was to go She decided to go weight of X is = X weighs His example was an influence/ inspiration on me His example influenced/ inspired me conception of x = conceives X as cost of x = x costs 2. Verb is prefered to adjective The artist was influential to the movement Artist ifluenced the movement ( adjective form + to be verb) is not prefered is aggravating to = agrravates is indicative of = indicates is suggestive of = suggests are able to go = can go was inspirational = inspired 3. Adjective is prefered to Noun avoid noun derived from adj, use adj itself There is an abundance of funds Funds are abundant has the ability to < is able to < can is in isolation < is isolated it is of such debilitation is wordier than it is so debilitating of the conviction that < convinced that have a disinclination < is disinclined 4. Adverb is prefered to prepositional clause to modify a verb phrase, use adverb rather than prepositional phrases (with nouns) to a significant degree = significantly prices have fallen to a considerable extent < prices have fallen considerably ( also fall to is use with a quantity, not extent - prices have fallen to one dollar) 5. That clause (with verbs) is prefered to a series of phrases (with nouns) Hypothesis about the composition of universe as largely dark energy Hypothesis that the universe is largely composed of dark energy seems strange Idea nouns such as - hypothesis, idea, sugegstion, belief, discovery, evidence, indication, report the belief that the earth is flat often modified by that clauses which are full sentences

can potentially harm redundant soaring increase in rates: Redundant - soaring rates should be used - indicates increase! Being doesnt add to meaning of the sentence. Mostly being signals redundancy One far from other one in underlined part, other in not underlined part Trenches cut>>> Trenches that were cut This is wrong because of redundancy: both simultaneously and while indicate simultaneity.

Elimination Be: Overuse of Be verb forms (is, are, am , was, were, will be ) 1. Adjective> Adjective clause with be Marcos is a professor who is admirable Marcos is an admirable professor Marcos, who is a professor, lives in Bombay Marcos, a professor, lives in Bombay 2. Remove it is.. That It is withour fear that children should play Children should play without fear It is expected that the prices will rise << prices are expected to rise remove it is construction it is their fault < they are at fault Concision should be used last, sometimes wordy options with 'the fact that' 'being..' are right, as all other answer options are gramatically wrong the fact that is correctly used to start noun clauses Overuse of Concision GMAT Trap: False Concision Keep the prepositional phrase if you need to I talked to Boston Soldier I talked to the soldier from Boston A noun adjective is a noun placed in front of another noun acting functionally as adjective works best with of prespositional phrases wall of stone = stone wall soldier from boston> boston soldier For prepositions other than of, avoid collapsing prepositional phrases Yamuna River Access < access to river yamuna population changes of bees < changes in population of bees Dont collapse even the -of prepositional phrases when you have a time period, quantity or other measurement as frst word the merger year < the year of merger honeybee population's density < density of honeybee population oxygen amount< amount of oxygen the memorial day week < the week of memorial day sugar weight/ Sugar's weight weight of sugar is preferred Dont modify a measurement using noun adjective or possessive Keep that of/those of if you need to The face I see in the mirros is a famous actor wrong The face I see in the mirror is that of a famous actor Eliminate the unnecessary ones! The fields I most enjoy studying are those of physics and english The fields I most enjoy studying are Physics and english Keep that after a reporting verb The study indicates the problem has vanished wrong The study indicates that the problem has vanished verbs like indicate, claim, contend, report which report thoughts or beliefs which are independent sentences (problem has vanished) agree, declare, find, reveal, rule, show, doubt,expect, hold, be convinced, be certain , be assured announce, assert, believe, confess, demonstrate, know, mention, observe, proclaim, reason, recognise, repeat, state, think , warn Exception : Say Say is followed by a full sentence but not with that People said I talked too much! right you may agree that there is wastage you may agree there is wastage wrong! always check for 'that'! So many options try to trap by being completely correct but missing the 'that' in the end - and you tend to overlook that!

GMAT ques: dont sacrifice meaning to concision - if there is pronoun ambiguity, repeat the noun. Meaning is more important - ambiguity in meaning is never forgiven however much voters may agree despite the agreement amongst voters by emitting may these options are avoiding uncertainty in the extent of agreement - it is assuming they agree! although the voters agree however much is leaving that scope open,are wrong as omission of may distorts the meaning! there is agreement amongst voters that even though the voters may agree this is correct because it uses may capable of being brought - wordy can be brought without is better than lack of should there be a need such constrcutions mostly wordy and awckward Meaning : Lack - Lacking Lack as verb (lacks, lacked according to number, tense) They lack the necessary support His work has lacked imagination Lack as noun - always followed by of There's been a lack of awareness The lack of housing areas is concerning Lacking as adjective Financial backing for the programme is still lacking Lacking as adjective - followed by in + noun Solidly built vessel but lacking in navigating instruments. Lacking as present participle (ing form) Lacking any maternal instinct, the mother bird flies away Lacking as reduced form of a relative clause students lacking a dictionary can use online resources - lacking is substitute for the relative clause who are lacking', which modifies the noun students Rates of insurace is wrong, rates for should be used! - GMAT TRAP use of 'the fact that' is mostly wordy Even though, although, and while introduce clausesthat appear to be logically incompatible but infact are not. In such sentences, the apparent incompatibility must be clearly expressed To use two contrary words is redundant and non sensical - even though he dances, but he is fat correspondingly increased sales <<< corresponding increase in sales You should look out for redundant expressions when you are comapring options and some dont have the redundant word! Never use more and rather than tigether redundant:

more for x than for y

for x rather than for y

Subject Verb Agreement Every sentence will have a: Subject the doer of the action in the sentence Noun or Pronoun Doer of action in active voice sentence, and receiver of action in passive voice sentence and a , Verb the action in the sentence Subject - Verb should accomplish following three things: I. Subject and Verb should both EXIST in a sentence II. Subject and Verb should both make logical sense together III. Subject and Verb both MUST AGREE in number Verb should be Working Verb I. Subject and Verb should both EXIST in a sentence Without both,it's not a sentence, it's a fragment! 1 Dropping the verb The state named in 1994 Incomplete Named is a past participle ed form of the verb the state was named in 1994 Now complete, was named is working verb used in perfect tenses and passivevoice 2 Starting sentence with connecting word also used as adjective contains no main clause indicate completed action in past or future a clause that can stand alone as a sentence, with its own subj and verb frozen lake, will be lost, have broken e.g. Because the dog was never mine Subordinate clauses - cant stand by themselves Which will go tomorrow Because, Which are subordinators - start a subordinate clause II. Subject and Verb should both make logical sense together Meaning principle Used subject and verb have a sensible meaning Development of such a car will be able to travel miles. Development can't travel! III. Subject and Verb should both MUST AGREE in number Singular Subject - Singular Verb Plural Subject - Plural Verb DOG RUNS DOGS RUN this everybody knows, how GMAT traps?? Hides the subject - you are unsure whether its singular or plural 1. By inserting words between subject and verb Middlemen Ignore all the words which are not Use the Sentence Structure to decide subject 2. Putting lots of words in front of the subject Warm up Types of Middle men and warm ups i. Prepositional Phrases A group of words headed by a preposition, which has a preposition as well as its object Can be eliminated to find the subject; sentence will make sense even when the phrase is removed

ii. Subordinate clauses fragments beginning with connecting words- who, which etc, cant stand alone as a sentence modify other parts of the sentence - act as big adjectives, big adverbs, big nouns DONT contain the main subject or verb -can be removed and the basic skeleton would remain iii. Modifiers Modify or describe other parts of the sentence Present participles - ING form; indicate ongoing action, in past,present,future. Past participles - ed form Commas - separate most modifiers from rest of sentence 3. Special Cases Compound Subjects 1 AND Plural verb form Joe AND his friends ARE going DONT change the number of subject 2 OTHER ADDITIVE PHRASES along with, as well as, in addition to Function as modifiers accompanied by, together with, including ONLY THE WORD AND CAN CHANGE A SINGULAR SUBJECT TO PLURAL ONE 3 OR, EITHER OR ,NEITHER NOR Number of the noun NEAREST to Verb When ONLY the words either, neither - SINGULAR always Subject joined by nor/or Depends on subject 4 COLLECTIVE NOUNS Looks singular, but refers to a group Almost always singular Agency, army, audience, class, committee, crowd, orchestra, team Baggage, equipment, fleet, furniture, fruit, citrus 5 INDEFINITE PRONOUNS SINGULAR not specific about the thing it refers to - anyone, someone, everyone, whoever all pronouns ending with - one, -thing, - body 5 indefinite Pronouns that can be plural or singular - SANAM (some, any, none, all, most/more) Depends on what follows the -of : Some of residents- Pural, some of the money - singular None of can take any form. Not one of always takes singular 6 EACH - EVERY Whenever a subject is preceded by each/every - SINGULAR Every boy and girl is singing Followed by each and every - no effect They EACH ARE great musicians 7 QUANTITY WORDS The number Singular Verb Form A number Plural verb form Fractions/% According to subject

The number of students Idiomatic A number of students Half of pie is, Half of slices are

IS ARE

Majority, According to subject, context minority, singularity Wild salmon's numbers are 8 Subject Phrases and Clauses Having good friends Whatever they want to do 9 FLIPPING mostly subject comes before Can be hidden to come after.

Part of a whole Totality itself

PLURALmajority of students are SINGULAR Majority is with him majority of class is going

ALWAYS SINGULAR IS IS

kung fu is traditional form from which HAVE descended many forms flipping: from which many forms have descended Of phrases to be ignored except - SANAM pronouns, quantity words When in doubt - SINGULAR PLURAL ALWAYS: AND, A number of

Learnings Federalist Papers is important as literarly heritage Federalist papers are important as literarly heritage Capitalized Papers makes it a title and singular not capitalized it refers to a collection of papers - plural data plural in gmat either should be followed by a list of two alternatives only
The period when the great painted caves at Lascaux and Altamira were occupied by Upper Paleolithic people has been established by carbon-14 dating, but what is much more difficult to determine are the reason for their decoration, the use to which primitive people put the caves, and the meaning of the magnificently depicted animals. (A) has been established by carbon-14 dating, but what is much more difficult to determine are (B) has been established by carbon-14 dating, but what is much more difficult to determine is (C) have been established by carbon-14 dating, but what is much more difficult to determine is (D) have been established by carbon-14 dating, but what is much more difficult to determine are

(E) are established by carbon-14 dating, but that which is much more difficult to determine is

two parts of SVA: Two ways to locate the subject of the verb: 1. Eliminate intervening modifier so when the great.people is a modifier 2. Context so here, exactly what was established? Period - people and caves cant be estd by Carbon dating! so all with have been are eliminated: C and D wrong What is the subj of the are/ is that options end with? 1. If you have a list you cannot split the parts, the entire list is considered together. It has to be treated as one piece.you cant treat reason as subj by itself Rule is that : 1 Things that cant be subject: Objects of verbs, objects of prepositions, subordinate clauses (in fact they have their own subject in them) so exam cant be subject here 2 If you have doubt what is subject n X is Y kind of construction: IF ANYTHING BEFORE THE VERB CAN BE THE SUBJECT, THEN THAT IS THE SUBJECT IF NOTHING BEFORE THE VERB CAN BE THE SUBJECT THEN YOU HAVE A BACKWARD CONSTRUCTION - SUBJ FOLLOWS VERB on the table is/are 2 cell phones cell phones is subject. Are. on the table is prep phrase. Cant be subj 2. Look at below 3 statements: The hardest part of the exam was/were the 3 questions at end prt can be subj: was of the exam prep phrase, hardest adj the three questions at the end was/were the hardest part of the exam 3 ques can be the subj: were Harder than anything else on the exam wa/were the 3 questions at the end Harder not a noun, than--exam is a modifier: BW construction. subject is 3 questions, were will be used Here the pronoun 'what' can be the subject so is will be chosen If you have a compound subject, X and Y, or X,Y and Z (a list) then you should treat this as you will treat a single PLURAL NOUN James and Stephanie met to discuss her homework This is worng. James and Stephanie is to be treated as a single plural subject it should be their, or you should say J met S to discuss her/Stephanie's homework using her is like using a pronoun to refer to half a word! if there was an option: more difficult to determine ARE will be correct This becomes a backward construction as there is no pronoun now! No eligible subject: only then use BW construction

To fix:

Prof X won a noble prize and prf X and Y are standing on stage On the stage are prof y and prof x who recently won a noble prize for his work wrong prof y didnt win!! prof y and prof x has to be treated as one word. Who modifier is automatically applied to both. Thus wrong. On the stage with Prof Y is prof x who recently won a nobel prize for his work subj is prof x

On the stage are prof x who recently won a noble prize for his work , and prof y who.. Is a modifier, subj is still X and Y On the stage is prof Y, along with prof x, who recently won a nobel prize for his work subj is just prod Y - along with just a modifier On the stage are Prof Y and Prof X , the latter of whom recently won a nobel prize for his work both are subj you cant put X - comma splice, run on sentence, the latter by itself still creates a run on sentence. So COMPOUND NOUNS (X and Y) and LISTS (X, Y and Z) should be treated as SINGLE WORDS, unless you have a contruction like latter that explicitly SPLITS them Although no proof yet exists of electromagnetic fields generated by household appliances posing any health threat, mounting scientific evidence has convinced many experts that there is cause for concern. (A) of electromagnetic fields generated by household appliances posing any health threat (B) of electromagnetic fields generated by household appliances that pose any threat to health (C) that electromagnetic fields generated by household appliances pose any threat to health (D) that poses any threat to health from electromagnetic fields generated by household appliances (E) for any health threat posed by electromagnetic fields generated by household appliances of what is there no proof? of the health threats context: that the household appliances generate health threat is not under dispute. The health threat is. In B proof of electromagnetic fiedls: Wrong! D means that the proof itself poses health threat! worng again E is not idiomatic: no PROOF FOR proof is of , not for A vs C: You should be EXTREMELY SUSPICIOUS of the following constructions: PREP + NOUN + VERB ING of rats eating because if the action is what we are talking of, this is wrong There is no evidence of my brother stealing the cake We are not looking for evidence of my brother, but of stealing! This is incorrect, this implies that there is no evidence of my brother. Youc ant talk of the action stealing in this form! There is no evidence of my brother's stealing the cake Technically correct, but very awckward! IF THE ACTION IS THE INTENDED OBJECT OF THE PREPOSITION THEN THIS CONSTRUCTION IS INCORRECT proof of fields posing threats we want proof of posing threats, not of foelds! wrong correct only in some instances: ONLY IF THE NOUN IS THE INTENDED OBJECT OF THE PREOPOSITION I gave 5 $ to the beggar walking on the street. object of preposition to is the beggar, not walking! Of + Noun + Verb ing is otherwise NEVER CORRECT So A is rules out, And C is correct. proof that..

PARALLELISM Comparable sentence parts As indicated by parallel markers, and/or Logic/meaning of the sentence

must be structurally Should be in similar grammar form Can be any form Noun She showed BOTH anger AND relief NEITHER pretty NOR lovable BOTH second and third grade books I cleaned the house and washed the utensils verb forms which have more than one word: was going, have eaten, can lose, to increase * can split - first word to apply to all elements Verbs I WAS cleaning, cooking and waiting

and logically similar as implied by meaning of the sentence Not always parallel through parallel markers She argues that the agency acted with disregard for human life and property and Reckless abandon and it should be shut down Hierachy:Parallelism at three levels through AND Human life and property Disregard and reckless abandon the agency acted ..and it should be shut down Correct form is: She argues that the agency acted with reckless abandon and disregard for human life and property, and THAT it should therefore be shut down Superficial parlallelism must be logically parallel before making them structurally parallel I applied myself in new job, arriving early, working late and skipping meals

Parallel Markers: Words that link or contrast items and force them to be parallel 1. CONJUNCTIONS
and, both--and, or, either or/neither nor, Not..But, Not only..But also, rather than, from..to

Adjectives

And most common parallel marker. Must follow following rules: In a list of items, last item will ALWAYS have an and : enough to distinguish right answer in GMAT In 3-4 items list, last item will have a comma and AND Joining two clauses, optional comma 2. LINKING VERBS

Infinitives SUBJECT AND OBJECT AROUND A LINKING this is correct - ings describe how I applied VERB HAVE TO BE PARALLEL Participles I left, thinking about yesterday and smiling. Vebrs which dont denote actions, i.e Dont denote what a subject does, but what it IS, DONT ASSUME ALL VERBS AND VERBAL FORMS HAVE TO or what condition it is in put the book on the table RATHER THAN in the box BE PARALLEL. GO BY LOGIC OF SENTENCE Prepositional examples: to be (is, are, was, were, am, phrases prepositions dont have to be same been, be ,being), appear, become, feel, grow, Subordinate I agree that it was wrong AND that it should be look, remain, represent, resemble deleted clauses Should start with same words, regardless of seem, smell, sound, stay, taste, turn concision bouquet of flowers was a giving of love: I want to go to a place where I can relax and that wrong has a theatre: wrong bouquet of flowers was a gift of love: right where I can relax and where there is a theatre

He CAN either lose money or solve his issues To increase awareness, spark interest AND motivate adoption We would like NOT ONLY to come BUT ALSO to stay

Also to be parallel in meaning Upon being nominated, I represent a step forward: wrong my nomination REPRESENTS a step forward verb to be can also be part of a normal progressive tense usage e.g. was going. No need to be parallel here

I like both those who are popular and who are not: wrong those who are popular and those who are not no need to repeat popular- only the beginning of Subordinate clause clauses like who are not doesnt make sense as it is not parallel Past and Present participle when being used as adjective are || born in an instant and brightening the galaxy

Idioms with built-in parallel structure both X and Y/ X acts as Y/ As x, as y/ between x and y/compared to x, y/cosider x y in contratst to x, y/declare x y/ x develops into y/ x differs from y/ make x y distinguish x from y/ whether x or y/ x such as y/ view x as y/regard x as y etc more because X than because Y; not x.but y; not just because of x, but because of y NOT X BUT RATHER Y IS A CORRECT AND || IDIOM Use both to X and to Y, or to both x and y. Both to x and y is wrong when different verb forms, repeat companies which have been shaken..,but WHICH retain have not been published.or agreed to, but HAVE sparked a debate Other ||ism concepts Concrete Nouns And Action Nouns 1. Concrete Nouns : things, people, place, time periods, events 2. Action Nouns: eruption, development, pollotion, nomination, withdrawal, change, growth (often formed from verbs) Gerunds to indicate action : ing form of the verb - two types: Simple Gerund Phrases: Nouns on the outside, verbs on the inside Tracking satellites accurately is important Tracking acts as a noun in the sentence, though it is formed from verb Also, use of ing form as noun in possessive is wrong : organism's trying is wrong, organismm's attempt correct Complex gerund phrases: Nouns Through and Through often preceded by articles a an the, and in an of prepositional phrase e.g. the accurate tracking of satellites Simple Gerund phrases are never || to complex gerund phrases I enjoyed drinking the water and the wine tasting: wrong I enjoyed drinking the water and tasting the wine: right Simple Gerund phrases are never || to action nouns The rebels demanded the withdrawal of army forces, and releasing prisioners: wrong in a list of action nouns, it might get mistaken as a modifier! The rebels demanded the withdrawal of army forces, and the release of prisioners: right Complex gerund phrases can be || to action nouns Include the and of in a simple gerund phrase in any list of action nouns always choose the complex gerund phrase over simple gerund phrase also, see if there is a preexisting action noun the releasing of < the release of Therefore, dont Mix 1. concrete nouns, 2. complex gerunds and action noun, 3. simple gerund

Other parallel categories 1. Working Verbs: only working verbs || to other wvs 2.Infinitives

the plant both exceeded targets and ran full year it is critical to suspend activities, to notify investors and say nothing: wrong it is critical to suspend activities, to notify investors and to say nothing: right it is critical to suspend activities, notify investors and say nothing: right 3. Adjectives. Past/present participles (used as adjectives) Only a feet wide but spanning a continent, the railroad changed history even thouse past participle end with ed and present participles end with ing they are parallel fucntionally acting as adjective 4. Clauses Only clauses starting with the same word should be made parallel A beautiful painting, washed only once and which is still new, is on display wrong! A beautiful painting, which has been washed only once and which is still new, is on display Right, clauses have to start similarly, not have exact similar structure inside Thus, common parallelism categories are: Concrete nouns Working verbs simple gerunds infinitives complex gerunds and action nouns adjectives and participles clauses to go home or be confined is correct and parallel - to is assumed (to) be confined, and since confining is done by someone else, passive form is used, and it doesnt violate ||ism
Most of the purported health benefits of tea comes from antioxidantscompounds also found in beta carotene, vitamin E, and vitamin C that inhibit the formation of plaque along the bodys blood vessels. A. comes from antioxidantscompounds also found in beta carotene, vitamin E, and vitamin C that B. comes from antioxidantscompounds that are also found in beta carotene, vitamin E, and vitamin C, and they C. come from antioxidantscompounds also found in beta carotene, vitamin E, and vitamin C, and D. come from antioxidantscompounds that are also found in beta carotene, vitamin E, and vitamin C and that E. come from antioxidantscompounds also found in beta carotene, vitamin E, and vitamin C, and they A/. Has no ||ism issue, as it is a modifier. But benefits comeS is wrong B/ and is || marker - they and that is not ||

C/ also found in.. Is a modifier and inhibit the formation is not a modifier but a verb D/ || ism is fine: that and that. number agreement E/ again because of they - subject and verb - not || Parallelism The animal lives both in grass and in trees

not ||

||sm is marked by SIGNALS (words ,but sometimes punctuation) The words that FOLLOW these signals must be || both and add are || markers. The words that follow these || markers must be ||

The animal lives in both grass and in trees The animal lives both in grass and in trees The animal lives in both grass and in trees The animal lives both in grass and trees The animal lives in both grass and trees The animal lives in grass and trees The animal lives in grass and in trees The animal lives in grass and forages in trees

X X X

grass not parallel to in trees

here only and is || marker, so right is bounded, but left is open. As long as you can find anything towards the left which can be || to what is after and, the sentence is correct 1st:trees|| grass, 2nd:in grass||in trees; 3rd: forages in trees|| lives in grass

The largest trade-book publisher in the US has announced the creation of a new digital imprint division, under which it will publish about 20 purely digital works to be sold online as either electronic books or downloadable copies that can be printed upon purchase. A) works to be sold online as either electronic books or B) works to sell them online, either as electronic books or C) works and it will sell them online as either electronic books or as D) works, and selling them online as either electronic books or as E) works, and it will sell them online as either electronic books or either or are signals- words that folwo them must be exactly ||

B C D are rejected because they are not || between a and e: and in e is an improper connector. if you connect 2 sentences/ clauses with and you are implying that the two sentences are independent of each othe r(unless other transtion words are present) There was a great deal of traffic and I was late for work This actually shows that traffic is not the cause, or you would have said so I was lated for traffic There was a great deal of traffic and thus I transition was late for work word thus now it is okay! therefore, e is wrong nouns + no comma + to be verbed: this is going to happen to noun ||sm of Meaning The student cheats on exams by copying others' answers and writing hints on hidden slips of paper Yes, writing hints ||copying others' The student cheats on exams by copying others' answers and writes hints on hidden slips of paper No, what should be || by meaning are not! No, what should not be || are. Stealing not a method of The student cheats on exams by copying others' answers andstealing food from caf cheating Yes, cheats on .. || steals food. Examples of 2 The student cheats on exams by copying others' answers and steals food from caf misdemenors - must be || I like reading and to lift weights NOT || why do we want reading and lifting to be || With signal word, we must also have two IDEAS which are || DONT BE MECHANICAL ABOUT ||SM-- || only when REQUIRED by the CONTEXT IF YOU PUT WORDS IN || YOU ARE GIVING THEM || MEANINGS Because they are both || by meaning - I like both!

Scientists at the Los Alamos National Laboratory have succeeded for the first time in mining heat from the Earths interior and producing energy on a commercial

scale, enough for efficient generation of electricity and heating factories and homes. A. and producing energy on a commercial scale, enough for efficient generation of electricity and heating B. and producing enough energy on a commercial scale for electricity to be generated efficiently and to heat C. for energy production on a commercial scale, enough for generating electricity efficiently and to heat D. to produce energy on a commercial scale, enough for generating electricity efficiently and for heating E. to produce enough energy on a commercial scale for efficient generation of electricity and heat

And implies || structure in A and B . For and To are not || structures generation of electrictiy and heating of factories must also be ||- || in meaning too. 2 results. and is followed by heating/ to eat/ for heating / heat A. heating not || to generation ( should be heating of ) B. heat not || ro be generate C. to heat not || generating D. foe heating || for generating E. heat not || to generation Only D remains, just on the basis of 2nd and Evaluating ||sm is a mechanical procedure, but you should not use it unitl you know where should we use it. Mining and producing ar not separate actions of equal priority. We shouldnt connect them with and they shouldnt be || Alsp. Scientists have not succedeed for 1st time in producing energy .. I can run faster than my brother correct - no ambiguity i can run faster than my brother can correct - no ambiguity I know more about Shakespeare than my brother ambiguity - my knowledge about S and brother compared? Or my and brother's knowledge compared? I know more about Shakespeare than my brother does correct - no ambiguity WHEN DO I NEED HELPING VERBS IN THE 2ND HALF OF A || STRUCTURE? 1. If they are required by two part ||signals - either.. Or.., both ..and.. 2. If they are required to resolve ambiguity i.e. reducing a sentence with 2 possible meanings to one meaning WHERE do we put the helping verb? I know more about Shakespeare than my brother wrong - ambiguous I know more about shakespeare than my brother does correct - does removes ambiguity I know more about shakespeare than does my brother Correct Helping verb often precede the subject, esp in || lines I know more about shakespeare than my highly educated brother Correct does - Adjectives/ modifiers before the noun dont change anything I know more about shakespeare than does my highly educated Correct brother - Adjectives/ modifiers before the noun dont change anything I know more about shakespeare than my brother does, who has not studied literature Wrong - cant place a verb b/w a noun n its modifier noun followed by mod, hv should be placed before the I know more about shakespeare than does my brother, who has not studied literature. noun + modifier Extremely important: We are only talking about helping verbs, not verbs! I know more abt S than knows my brother: WRONG

I know more about shakespeare than my brother, who has not studied literature, does Notice this is how verb will be put I know more about shakespeare than my brother, who has not studied literature, knows

Awckward

PRONOUNS A word that takes place of a noun so that we dont have to repeat the noun (which is called the ANTECEDENT of the pronoun) 4 RULES OF pronoun SC I. Antecedent MUST EXIST In an SC, whenever you see a pronoun ask yourself- what is the antecedent? Two, does it follow the 4 rules? Antecedent must actually exist in the sentence, not just be implied. And it must function as a NOUN Park rangers Park is an adjective not noun, cant have a pronoun referring to it II. Antecedent and pronoun MUST MAKE SENSE TOGETHER Logical Sense If pronoun is replaced by antecedent noun, the sentence should make logical sense Although the term supercomputer sounds exaggerated, it is actually a mainframe: wrong term supercomputer is not a mainframe! It actually refers to a mainframe is correct usage. Based on meaning principle. Never assume away little wrinkles in meaning. These are GMAT TRAPS. III. Antecedent MUST BE UNAMBIGUOUS Every pronoun should refer to ONE AND ONLY ONE ANTECEDENT Not Essentially a make or break error sentence must be rewritten if this is not the case Only when other answer choices replace IV. Antecedent and Pronoun MUST AGREE IN NUMBER pronoun with noun Singular antecedent must have singular pronoun. Antecedent will be disguised. Be sure to identify.

see SO2 example

PRONOUN CASE grammatical role or function subject I you he she it we they who object me you him her it us them whom possessive my mine your/yours his her/hers our/ours their/theirs whose In case a sentence has more than one possible antecedent for a pronoun, mostly pronouns can be assumed to refer to noun in the same case Possessive case nouns are poor antedents. several executives' packages are being investigated, to determine how much has been improperly awarded to them GMAT almost never uses them in correct option antecedent: packages or executives? Poor construction, wrong in GMAT take the possession out: investigating packages of several executives to determine how much these executives have been improperly awarded Most common error: third person pronouns IT, ITS, THEY, THEM, THEIR whenever you see them, stop and do the 4points checklist Does everyone have their book? is incorrect. Correct would be does everyone have his or her book?

DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS THIS, THAT, THESE, THOSE used normally as adjective: new books give these students reason to study/ here these is an adjective Never use THIS/THAT THESE/THOSE in place of NOUNS When used to denote a noun: it indicates a NEW COPY of the antecedent Use IT/THEY/THEM e.g. the money spent by her parents is more than that spent by her Her products are unusual; many consider these unique: wrong. here that stands for the money spent by her- a copy of the noun THE MONEY them unique: Right two pots are not the same e.g. the money spent by her parents is more than it was expected when we use it, they - we mean the ACTUAL THING NEW COPY should always be MODIFIED ( to indicate difference) Spent by her is modifier Her company is better than those of rivals: wrong NEW COPY should agree in NUMBER to original Her company is better than the companies of her rivals Other Pronouns There technically an adverb, means in that place antecedent place a noun, referred to in a prep phrase If there means a specific place in a sentence, than that place must be indicated clearly Antarctic oil may be worth drilling for, if wells could be dug there: wrong oil in Antarctica may be worth drilling for, if wells could be dug there: right In case of there being used as a dummy pronoun :there is a cat on the tree, no antecedent reqd Itself/ Themselves Reflexive pronouns : used to refer back to the subject sometimes help remove ambiguity of another pronoun after the contract surfaced, the commission dissolved IT IT here has to refer to contract, to refer to commission it will have to be itself used to intensify a noun : the president himself was wrong Reciprocal pronouns- used to indicate interaction between parties not interchangeable with themselves the guests interacted with themselves wrong the guests interacted with one another means 'like an antecedent' after the X contract, commission decided to ban such agreements such/other/another indicate additional of the same type- not necessarily exactly alike

One another/ each other

Such/ Other/ Another

One

indefinite copy/single indefinite part of a collection after walking by the chocolates so many times, I had to eat one! the chocolate eaten is indefinite- not delineated before. it/them indicate a particular, definite part after walking by the chocolates so many times, I had to eat them! means I ate all after walking by the chocolates so many times, I had to eat one! it was delicious once I ate one- it becomes selected - definite- and 'it' is used as a pronoun do so can refer to an entire action, including a verb, its objects, and modifiers Ram didnt eat dinner quickly, but his brother did so do so functions like pronoun to refer to earlier part of sentence Ram didnt eat dinner quickly, but his brother did also right when we use do it, the it refers to an actual noun antecedent! Ram didnt eat the soup, but his brother ate it it refers to the noun soup Ram didnt do his homework, but his brother did it

Do so vs. Do it

Placeholder pronouns: common in GMAT used to move an awkward subj/obj to the back of the sentence- put 'it' in the place of subj/obj DONT look for an antecedent for this it - it is just a placeholder! postpone infinitive subjects (to resist is subject here) postpone that-clause subjects (that I go is subject here) postpone infinitive or that-clause objects to resist temptation is futile it is futile to resist temptation that I go is my dad's wish It is my dad's wish that I go She made it possible for us to attend the movie She made our attendance at the movie possible wrong right wrong right right right

choosing Noun as antecedents number pronoun and noun must agree in number gender pronoun and noun must agree in gender repeats repeated pronoun normally refer to a single noun all it, its point to same noun proximity closest eligible antecedent not too close too antecedent normally occurs earlier in the sentence rarely, antecedent comes shortly after after drying his tears, ram made a vow case should agree in case if in || structure subject nouns make strong antecedents Possessive Of X's on GMAT is wrong - either use of X, or use X's plural possessive is mostly wrong certain humans' parasites wrong certain humans or certain parasites Sub group Modifiers to describe a part of a larger group with a modifier this model explains all known particles, some of which were only recently discovered this model explains all known particles, some of them only recently discovered this model explains all known particles, some only recently discovered only the which condition allows for a working verb (which were) wrong choices: this model explains all known particles, of which some were only recently discovered this model explains all known particles, some of them which were only recently discovered this model explains all known particles, some of which only recently discovered some can have any SANAM pronouns, or many, each , either, neither, half, one (any pronoun that picks out a subgroup) Avoiding Pronouns Altogether eliminate pronouns e.g. it or them in the end of a long sentence are often ambiguous after cutting the fruits, mom cleaned the knives, and put them on shelf wrong them = fruits or knives? after cutting the fruits, mom cleaned the knives, and put the fruits on shelf right

last 3 principles less absolute

certain parasites in human

use generic synonyms for antecedent rather than repeat the exact noun, a more general category is used new nano papers incorporate fibers that give these materials special strength these materials is a s generic synonym for nano papers

Sulfur dioxide, a major contributor to acid rain, is an especially serious pollutant because it diminishes the respiratory systems ability to deal with all other pollutants. A. an especially serious pollutant because it diminishes the respiratory systems ability to deal B. an especially serious pollutant because of diminishing the respiratory systems capability of dealing C. an especially serious pollutant because it diminishes the capability of the respiratory system in dealing D. a specially serious pollutant because it diminishes the capability of the respiratory system to deal E. a specially serious pollutant because of diminishing the respiratory systems ability to deal especially vs specially - specially means in a special was, especially is more than other so d and e are eliminated of diminishing: because of VERB-ing is always incorrect to deal is preferred to in dealing Here, it can technically refer to both SO2 and acid rain. Is it an ambiguous pronoun? PRONOUN AMBIGUITY is not NECESSARILY an error. Ambiguous pronouns can be ignored mostly! unless in other answer choices, it is replaced by a noun All that matters with most pronoun is for it to have a noun, and to match that noun in terms of sinular/plural If these are satisifed amboguity is not such an issue! ONLY time when you want to pay attention to pronoun ambiguity is when the pronoun is replaced with actual noun in other answer choices Lot of times correct answer will contain an ambiguous pronoun Take the pizza out of the box and put it.. Here it can refer to both the box and the pizza. Grammatical roles playes by different words: Take - aCtion, pizza - direct object, out of - preoposition, the box - object of the preposition, put -another action verb, it - direct object pizza and it are ||, box and it are not. GMAT WILL tolearte pronoun ambiguity: CONTEXT is obvious e.g. take the pizza out of the box and put it in the oven: now we know by context that it means pizza PRONOUN is || to the intended noun og vr 68 not ok 21 ok PRONOUN is not || to the other noun In the SO2 question - context is obvious, SO2 is the subject and so is it the subj of it diminisahes, while acid rain is object of preposition GMAT is inconsistent, so depend on answer choices

If you just see an ambiguous pronoun, DONT care If you see an ambiguous pronoun vs specific noun ELIMINATE

Like any star of similar mass would do, once the Sun has exhausted the hydrogen in its store, it expands into a red giant, eventually ejecting its outer envelope of gases to become a white dwarf. A. Like any star of similar mass would do, once the Sun has exhausted the hydrogen in its store, it expands into a red giant, eventually ejecting B. Like any star of similar mass, once the hydrogen in the Suns core is exhausted, then it expands into a red giant and eventually ejects C. As in the case of any star of similar mass, once the hydrogen in the Suns core is exhausted, it will expand into a red giant, and eventually ejecting D. As any star of similar mass would, once the hydrogen in the Suns core is exhausted it will expand into a red giant and will eventually eject E. As would be the case with any star of similar mass, once the Sun exhausts the hydrogen in its core, it will expand into a red giant and eventually eject Like must be followed by a noun or noun + prep phrase and never a clause. So A is wrong, As can be followed by clause, C D E can be correct Choice between expands and will expand: will expand is better because this is to happen in future ||ism: and is || indicator ejecting in C is wrong What is it intended to refer to? It refers to sun ambiguity not a problem - in all options B C D are wrong - Sun's core and not sun - what I the noun antecedent for pronoun it? not ambiguous! The antecedent itself is missing! Possessives are not nouns, they are adjective Only exception where possessive can function as nouns is in || structures my brother's house is as big as Joe's IF THE INTENDED ANTECEDENT IS NOT THERE, DONT BOTHER TO ASSIGN A PRONOUN

Comparison: Special form of parallelism compare two or more parts of a sentence two sides of comparison MUST be structurally, logically parallel Comparison indicator: like unlike more than less than faster than different from in contrast to/with

as as (adj) as as much as as little as as fast as the same as (as contrasted with x, y) is wrong

LOGICAL PARALLELISM two items being compared must be logically comparable! His build is better than his brother wrong His build is better than his brother's right His build is better than that of his brother right His clothes are cleaner than THOSE of his brother right He has a better build than his brother right STRUCTURAL PARALLELISM I like to run through forests as much as I like swimming I like to run through forests as much as I like to swim I like running through forests as much as I like swimming

unparallel possessive use of that use of those change structure

wrong right right

COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE Dont make comaprative of an adverb ending with ly as er: quickly should not be quicker, but more quickly dont use comaparative with sentences where comaprison is not explicit with winters coming, my bills will be higher wrong with winters coming, my bills will be higher than now right with winters coming, my bills will increase right Always use THAN with a comparative form I will have higher bills over last year wrong I will have higher bills than last year right OMITTING WORDS can omit from the second half of the comparison units, verbs, whole clauses, as long as there is no ambiguity I run as fast as brian (does) I drink 3 quarters while john drinks 5 (quarters) Use clauses or helping verbs only if without them there is ambiguity He likes video games more than his girlfriend Ambiguous He likes video games more than his girlfriend does right He likes video games more than he likes his girlfriend right not a madate though, dont throw out an answer only because such extra words make them wordier

>

Important : Comparision Indicators - Like vs As Like is a preposition, therefore, must have a noun! HAS TO BE followed by NOUNS/ PRONOUNS/ NOUN PHRASES never put a clause/ prepositional phrase after like! Like can be used to comapre two nouns Like her brother, she too is brilliant! Like can be followed by gerunds (ing form used as a noun) like swimming, hopping burns calories Like can modify a noun, or a verb means: similar to, in a manner similar to A person like me never loses modify noun he ran like the wind modify verb like you, I danced all night modify noun I danced like you all night modify verb position of like changes meaning Ambiguity with Like phrases at the end I want to train dancers like Greg like Greg trains, or train a dancer who is like greg? I want to train dancers, like Greg like Greg trains comma Unlike have to be ||, even though unlike means not similar Never use like to mean for example. Very common in speech I enjoy fastfood items like burgers X I enjoy fastfood items such as burgers right

As a preposition or conjunction Followed by nouns or clauses! Conjunction as may introduce a clause but not a phrase she won the tournament as her brother did comparing clauses - what nouns did she won the tournament like her brother did X contains did, a working verb- a clause like her brother, she won the tournament comparing two nouns

Conjunction As Duration - while, during As I walked towards the hill, my eyes opened Causation - since, because I wont tell you, as you already know COMPARISON - in same way You should do as she wants you to. also with just, so, so too Just as they were late yday, so too are they today can come with a phrase too As in the last cases, judgement was wrong here too Preposition As- used with a noun or noun phrase function as - as your wife,I should take care of you in the role of equation as - I think of you as my friend you are my friend stage as - as a student, I was brilliant when I was Preposition as cannot be used to indicate comparison I will jump like a clown in a manner similar to I will jump as a clown in a clown suit if you want to make it into comarison , make a clause I will jump as a clown does/might (actual clown/hypothetical clown) Comparison with as heavy as- first as is followed by adjective, second as by noun, phrase, clause I am as angry as I was last night (clause)

Numbers in comaprison To compare X and Y in multiplication 1. times +asas I am ten times as old as you are I am ten times older than you this actually means 11 times! 2. use times without as price of milk is 50 now, 10 times more that some years back To compare X and Y in addition 1. more than/less than I am ten years older than you my age = your age +10 I am ten years as old as you wrong

> Use of more and less can be used as : noun, adverb, adjective I own more than I should noun I love you more adverb You have more shirts than I do adjective Position of More/Less We have even more efficient engines than before more in mumber, or more in efficiency? we have engines even more efficient than before we have even more engines that are efficient than before > Use of high and low can only be used as adjective My bills are lower than last year I spend lower than last year wrong, as lower is in place of an adverb I spend less than I did last year

Exceed/Surpass or other such comparison signals use parallel structure the incidence of this disease among men exceeds women wrong the incidence of this disease among men exceeds that among women In addition to used in beginning to add another example In addition to taxes, death is inevitable As much because..as because.. To give two equally plausible reasons for a situation, two reasons are introduced with a formula that requires parallel structure: As much because x as because y. The clearest, most efficient way to fill this formula is to follow because with clauses with active verbs, thereby eliminating the wordiness that accompanies positional phrases (because of ) followed by participial phrases (e.g., being so bad or having been as bad). Mango Tree's bark is stronger than any tree's wrong - any tree includes mango tree also- change it to any OTHER tree's Equivalent to Does not indicate equivalent to in what regard Equal Generally used for UNCOUNTABLE Nouns - like equal opportunity/justice- rather than equal apples (as many apples as) Numerical Comparisons faster than/slower tha/ higher/lower/as much as/ equal to/ twice/ half etc.
Shrinking faster than any other nation's, the projected decline of Japan's population is 17 percent during the next half century A)Shrinking faster than any other nation's, the projected decline of Japan's population is B) Shrinking faster than any other nation, Japan's population has a projected decline of C) The population of Japan is shrinking faster than that of any other nation and is projected to decline by D) The Japanese population is shrinking faster than any other reason, and it has a projected decline at

E) Japan's population is shrinking faster than that of any other nation, with a projected decline at This sentence makes a comparison- comapring population of japan with that of other nations

Comparisoni.e. must be || Parallel Grammar

Parallel CONTEXTS

Japan cant be compared to nation's populations: B and D eliminated Shrinking must modify following subject: In A it doesnt Decline : Wrong is not shrinking has a/ with a projected decline at : BAD idiom thus, C
Employment costs rose 2.8 percent in the 12 months that ended in September, slightly less than they did in the year that ended in the previous quarter. A. less than they did B. less than it did C. less than they were D. lower than E. lower than they were

Costs are not what are being talked of. Meaning is unambiguously that cost rose by a smaller % than they did last year. options with were are wrong therefore B has pronoun error - it for plural Did vs Were

Lower can only describe STATIC CONSTANT VALUES, They CANT describe action! Costs rising cannot be described by lower but by less
Officials at the United States Mint believe that the Sacagawea dollar coin will be used more as a substitute for four quarters rather than for the dollar bill because its weight, only 8.1 grams, is far less than four quarters, which weigh 5.67 grams each. A) more as a substitute for four quarters rather than for the dollar bill because its weight, only 8.1 grams, is far less than B) more as a substitute for four quarters than the dollar bill because it weighs only 8.1 grams, far lighter than C) as a substitute for four quarters more than for the dollar bill because it weighs only 8.1 grams, far less than D) as a substitute for four quarters more than the dollar bill because its weight of only 8.1 grams is far lighter than it is for E) as a substitute more for four quarters rather than for the dollar bill because its weight, only 8.1 grams, is far less than it is for

What is substituting for what? sac dollar for 4 quarters more than sac dollar for dollar bill b and d have ambiguity: sac dollar for 4 quarters, dollar bill for 4 dollars I have an easier time talking to steve than joe ambiguous meaning - I vs joe or steve vs joe A. Redundancy problem - more rather than: you DONT use BOTH. A and E redundant If you see little words missing from some of the comparisons, there is high chance that some options would be ambiguous Comparisons must be PARALLEL Think about MEANING Look out for missing words to look for AMBIGUITY Watch out for redundancy. Dont use 2 comparison signals. more..rather than, more/lesscompared to, twice as much in comparison to Dont use units + physical description i.e. dont say weight is lighter, height is taller. Weight is less, height is more/greater speed is faster wrong speed is more! size is bigger wrong! size is more/ larger
In the 1980s, the rate of increase of the minority population of the United States was nearly twice as fast as the 1970s. A. twice as fast as B. twice as fast as it was in C. twice what it was in D. two times faster than that of E. two times greater than

Redundancy: rate and fast

||: rate compared with years

MODIFIERS A word/collection of words which modifies someone or something single word adjective, adverb Tired from all the dancing , I sat down. Complex modifier the phrase modifies the noun 'I' Opening modifier -which opens the sentence Modifiers are mostly separated by commas from rest of the sentence NOUN MODIFIERS modify noun/pronoun: act like long adjectives can be of various types acc to their first words Adjective Lazy cat slept The cat, lazy from eating, slept Preposition On the couch, cat slept The cat on the couch slept Past participle Tired cat slept Tired from all the running, the cat slept Opening mod unusual in speech - favorite GMAT trick The cat, tired from all the running, slept Dancing girl laughed Present participle The cat sleeping on the couch is mine Relative pronoun The cat, which drinks milk, slept The man who lives upstairs is a crook The city where I live is beautiful Another Noun A lover of mice, the cat hunts all the time The cat, a tabby raised on farm , hunts all the time A noun used to modify another noun is called APPOSITIVE a tabby' noun modifier - Appositive -itself modified by 'raised on farm' Resigned to..is a noun modifier which should modify someone/some people Resigned to the bad news, the employees created no commotion in the office A present participle at the beginning often made a dangling modifier Using the latest technology, the problem was identified. or, The problem was identified, using the latest technology

One word modifiers Adjective Modifies ONLY a NOUN or a PRONOUN Adverb Modifies anything but a NOUN or a PRONOUN Modifies verb, adjective, adverb, preposition, phrase, clause Mostly formed by adding -ly to the adjective Be careful to not use adjective where adverb is required or vice versa VERBS like FEEL are followed by ADJECTIVE NOT ADVERB I feel good Adj modifying 'I' - by adding a quality to the noun subject I write well Here well is an adverb, modifying verb write. Adj + Adv+ Noun or Adv+ Adj + Noun both correct, diff meanings. James Joyce is his supposedly Irish ancestor This is wrong - here adverb supposedly is modifying adj Irish James Joyce is his supposed Irish ancestor Correct - here supposed is adj modifying ancestor, Dont get confused b/w adjectives and adverbs. Use rightly at right place GMAT traps: adding ly to adj makes them adverb; ly might get overlooked
Corresponding, rare, recent, independent, frequent, seeming, separate, supposed, actual

Important rules about noun modifiers 1. Position of Noun Modifiers Touch Rule: A noun and its modifier MUST always TOUCH each other Errors of 2 kinds: Misplaced Modifier: where modifier is separated from the noun it modifies Jim biked along a dirty road to go to his house, which cut through the woods which ...road' is a noun modifier modifying road -here it is modifying house! To go to his house, Jim biked along a dirty road, which cut through the woods Dangling Modifier: where the modifier is not even there in the sentence Resigned to the bad news, there was no commotion in the office

2 long noun modifiers, even placing 1 on either side may result in awkward construction wrong Using the latest technology, the engineer identified the problem. wrong Here using needs a reasonable noun who used!

Exceptions to Touch Rule 1. mission critical modifier falls between he had a way of charming girls that stood him apart of charming girls describes the noun way that is not modifying girls here, but way without it, the noun is meaningless best is to avoid: his way of charming girls stood him apart forest covers 80% of the surface of the city, an area roughly the size of Alaska an area.. Modifies not the city, but the whole phrase 2. A very short predicate pushes a very long modifier back 3. a short non essential phrase intervenes (between commas) A new CEO has been hired who will transform the company by. our system of elections favors states, such as X, that are by population over represented has been hired shouldnt be placed at the back! short insertion acceptable! 4. a part of a series of || modifiers, one of which touches the noun In Literature, term romantic refers to poetry written during a specific period and created on special topics second modifier is not right next to poetry, but because another || modifier is in between Rule 2: POSSESIVES: Beware of possessive nouns here too , just as in pronoun antecedents A modifier cannot reach inside a possessive phrase and modify the noun Unskilled in advanced topics, Bills' maths score was really bad Here unskilled in advanced topics is modifying Bill's maths score, instead of Bill Unskilled in advanced topics, Bill could not score well in Maths : Correct Types of Noun Modifiers: RELATIVE CLAUSES: NOUN MODIFIER CLAUSES WHICH START WITH RELATIVE PRONOUNS noun Modifiers which start with relative pronouns - who, whom, whose, which, where, when, that several restrictions, e.g.: which Can Modify Things only Can sometimes follow prepositions- the canal through which water flows who Can modify people only Used as a subject of the verb in relative clause whom Can modify people only Object of the verb or of a preposition The guard whom (not who) we met was nice Can sometimes follow prepositions- the man for whom I worked Can be dropped when the modifying noun is the object of the modifying clause whose Can modify BOTH people and things The town whose skyline could be seen from the roof was built in 1800s that Can Modify Things only The girl that was here is my friend: wrong Can NOT modify people The girl who was here is my friend: correct Can be dropped when the modifying noun is the object of the modifying clause The movie that we watched yesterday was bad correct The movie we watched yesterday was bad correct

where

can be used to modify a noun place - area, site, country CANNOT modify a METAPHORICAL PLACE such as condition, situation case, circumstances, arrangement USE IN WHICH INSTEAD OF WHERE We had an arrangement where I cooked and he cleaned Wrong We had an arrangement in which I cooked and he cleaned Correct when modify a noun event or time can also use in which The period when Michael Jackson sang/ the period in which .. Both correct Relative clauses vs. Participles relative clause and present participle (ing) modifier are interchangeable the man who is cleaning the steps is my uncle the man cleaning the steps is my uncle inflation is increasing, a tendency ultimately culminating in revolution wrong inflation is increasing, a tendency that will ultimately culminate in revolution right culminating indicates present, as it parallel to is increasing, but ultimately indicates future Present participle get their tense from the main verb in the sentence I saw a man cleaning the steps I saw the man who is cleaning the steps if cleaning is to happen at a diff time than seeing, use relative clause, not present participle I see the man cleaning the steps yday wrong I see the man who cleaned the steps yday Types of Noun Modifiers: ESSENTIAL VS. NON ESSENTIAL MODIFEIRS Noun Modifiers can be essential or non essential ESSENTIAL NON ESSENTIAL MODIFEIRS provide necessary information Provide extra information used to point to particular unit from amongst a choice of many possible not absolutely integral to the implication of the sentence the house that is red in color is mine this house, that is recently painted red, is mine here 'that is red in color' is the modifier which is telling which house. here, this is already pointing to which house sentence loses meaning if an essential modifier is removed modifier 'that is recently painted red' can be removed Punctuation: Strict rule Comas are NOT used between an essential modifier and its noun Commas are always used b/w a Non essential modifier and its noun Normally 'that' is used not a strict rule Normally 'which' is used , with comma In cases where which has to be used comma is NEVER used with essential modifier comma is used with non essential modifier the house for which I yearn belongs to the king this house, for which I yearn, belongs to the king Other relative pronouns can be used in both essential and non essential modifiers but always follow comma rule

Types of Noun Modifiers: Absolute Phrases A group of words that modifies an independent clause as a whole sophisticated modifier: made up of a noun and its modifiers. It may precede, follow, or interrupt the main clause separated by comma, dash dont modify what they touch, but the main clause his head held high, ram walks out of the store acts as verb modifier (how he walked) not a noun modifier - can be moved to end, not in touch Scientists have found high levels of iridium in rocks around the world, results that suggest a huge meteor strike millions of years ago. right Scientists have found high levels of iridium in rocks around the world, which suggests a huge meteor strike millions of years ago. wrong: which to modify nearest noun Scientists have found high levels of iridium in rocks around the world, and this suggests a huge meteor strike millions of years ago. wrong GMAT doesnt like this Scientists have found high levels of iridium in rocks around the world, suggesting a huge meteor strike millions of years ago. right An absolute allows to move from a description of a whole person, place, or thing to one aspect or part. ing form with comma in place of abs phrase can be used Which as Modifier The basic rule of which modifier is that it modifies the noun that precedes the comma But, it can also correctly modify the noun + PREP PHRASE which immediately precede the comma
Emily Dickinsons letters to Susan Huntington Dickinson were written over a period beginning a few years before Susans marriage to Emilys brother and ending shortly before

Emilys death in 1886, outnumbering her letters to anyone else.


A. Dickinson were written over a period beginning a few years before Susans marriage to Emilys brother and ending shortly before Emilys death in 1886, outnumbering B. Dickinson were written over a period that begins a few years before Susans marriage to Emilys brother and ended shortly before Emilys death in 1886, outnumber C. Dickinson, written over a period beginning a few years before Susans marriage to Emilys brother and that ends shortly before Emilys death in 1886 and outnumbering
D. Dickinson, which were written over a period beginning a few years before Susans marriage to Emilys brother, ending shortly before Emilys death in 1886, and outnumbering

E. Dickinson, which were written over a period beginning a few years before Susans marriage to Emilys brother and ending shortly before Emilys death in 1886, outnumber Here which modifier can modify either preceding noun (which is Dickinson) or prepositional phrase+ noun (letters to Dickinson) We will depend on grammar and meaning to know what is which modifying here. Also, grammar: dickinson can not go with were, or even which (has to be who) Parallelism error: begin and end should be || What's wrong with A?

Meaning: Dickinson cant be written, must be letters

so, B, C are wrong

In D though begin - end are not written in || structure, they should be - ING modifier is not correct here. Makes the statement a fragment

Grammar is fine. Valid Not Valid

My cousin took extra classes every day, graduating in an year My cousin ate frozen food, graduating in an year should make sense togetger. In A, letters were written over a time period, outnumbering.. Letters were written 4 times a day, outnumbering

Susan's letters to Amie, which were written..

These are unrealted, period has nothing to do with numbers correct:ING modifier should have some relation, always. noun modifier, for things only Here which modified the letters, not Amie! This is allowed. Can sometimes follow prepositions correct - which modifies building the canal through which water flows

The old capitol building in Delhi, which was built in year 1890

the old capitol building in Delhi, which was the capital city of India correct - which modifies Delhi IN WHICH used INSTEAD OF WHERE to denote Depend on the context to decide what is which modifying! metaphorical places - situations How NOT to use which modifiers: Used in non essential modifier I havent finished my homework yet, which means I am going to have no sleep tonight On table is a box, which contains my work correct Crime has recently increased here, which has led to a decline in land values On table is a box which contains my work wrong - use that These are wrong! Which can never modify an entire clause very frequent incorrect answer On table is a box in which I keep my work correct It will never modify anything but a NOUN + PREP PHRASE ok with preposition Also cant modify noun + modifier ( If the modifier is any other but a prepositional phrase!) Old capitol building that was built in 1980, which : wrong Ing form used to modify nouns directly changing season or, to modify verbs whistling, I stood up entire clause (which functions as noun) crime has recently increased here, leading to a decline in prop values Best when you use it to express result of the main clause in comma + ing modifier: there has to be some sense! Modification has to actually happen. My cousin took extra classes in college, graduating in 3 years Correct My cousin ate frozen food in college, graduating in 3 years Incorrect No logical modification - no link!

VERB MODIFIERS These are words/phrases which modify a verb answer questions about the verb (action) like how, when , why, where etc single word: Adverb Frequently, I go to market I go to market frequently Prepositional phrases I go to market on Mondays When it rains, I go to market fastly in a car Subordinate clauses SC Adv Prep include words such as because, although, unless, if, while, so that Present Participle Whistling, I lifted the weight Preposition + Gerund By concentrating, I lifted the weight Infinitive of purpose To free my leg, I lifted the weight may apply to both the verb and the verb's subject make sure the subject makes sense The weight was lifted by concentrating Wrong, no subject

Position of Verb Modifiers: More freely, even little away from the verb being modified But ensure no ambiguity is there The song was at last performed, decades after it was composed, yesterday. wrong, ambiguous verb : composed yesterday or performes yday? The song was at last performed yesterday, decades after it was composed. Opening Modifiers or Initial Modifiers at the start of the sentence 3 kinds: 1. Modifiiers starting with ing or prep + ING og 12 135 79 Coming home from school, the wind blew me off. This is wrong, but not gramatically. Gramatically correct, but Wrong Meaning! An ING initial modifier has to modify the immediately FOLLOWING subject. Here, the modifier is modifying wind instead of I COming home from school, I was blown off by the wind. 2. Past participle modifiers Thrown from a passing car, the blaze was ignited by a cigarette stub. Wrong again, the initial modifier is modifying the blaze instead of cigarette An initial modifier starting with past participle must describe the immediately following subjects 3. Initial modifier consisting of nouns and modifier og 12 58 A survivor of the holocaust, X's stories demonstarte a reolute determination X's here is functioning as adjective (possessive is simply an adjective) The modifer is describing the stories, which is wrong! 4. Initial modifier consisting of adjective + modifiers Fresh from the tree, it was difficult to eat the mangoes it is placeholder pronoun- cant be modified. Mangoes has to be modified 5.Initial modifier with Like/ Unlike Unlike Indian food, large amount of spices are there in columbian food. wrong! Columbian food should be modified
Performing a risky maneuver that required precision flying, not only did space shuttle astronauts retrieve an orbiting satellite, it was done simultaneously while avoiding being rear-ended by a passing ultraviolet telescope. A. not only did space shuttle astronauts retrieve an orbiting satellite, it was done simultaneously while avoiding B. not only was an orbiting satellite retrieved by space shuttle astronauts, but they also simultaneously avoided C. an orbiting satellite was retrieved by space shuttle astronauts who also avoided simultaneously D. space shuttle astronauts retrieved an orbiting satellite, simultaneously while avoiding E. space shuttle astronauts retrieved an orbiting satellite and simultaneously avoided

Ing modifier: will modify the following subject astro were performing, so the following subj must be astro A, B and C are eliminated Redundancy in D: Simulateously , while indicate same thing! retrieved and avoided are in ||

. Exceeding even the figures predicted by the most optimistic financial analysts, the automobile company had earnings in the first quarter that more than doubled the previous quarter.

. Exceeding even the figures predicted by the most optimistic financial analysts, the automobile company had earnings in the first quarter that more than doubled the previous quarter. A. company had earnings in the first quarter that more than doubled B. company earned more than double in the first quarter what they were in C. company had first quarter earnings that more than doubled those in D. company's earnings in the first quarter were more than double E. company's earnings in the first quarter were more than double those of
Blaming its recent troubles on a widening recession and slow rate of technology spending, the computer company announced that it would cut 10 percent of its workforcemore than 2.000 jobsand expected to report a loss in its third quarter. A. company announced that it would cut 10 percent of its workforcemore than 2,000 jobsand expected to report a B. company announced that there would be a cut10 percent of its workforce, which was more than 2,000 jobsand expected a reported C. company announced the cutting of its workforce by 10 percent, more than 2,000 jobs, and it expected a reported D. company's announcement included the cutting of its workforce by 10 percent, or more than 2,000 jobs, and expecting to report a E. company's announcement included cutting its workforcewhich is more than 2,000 jobsand expecting there to be a reported

starts with ing, so should modify following subject. Should be earnings as only a figure can exceed other figures. A B C wrong! those pronoun refers to the earnings: correct D says more than double the last quarter: wrong More than double those of the last quarter

ING Modifier: should modify follwing subject: company correct, announcement wrong company announced 2 things: it'll cut jobs and it expects to report a loss.These 2 things should be ||. A has would cut || expected, and || marker B has announced and expected in || Wrong:company announced, & expected by magic? expectation is also announced C illogical meaning: company seems to be announcing only one thing Also, expected a reported loss is not the right meaning either. Who is reporting? Reported loss suggests it will be reported by someone else e.g. I have a hand made item is wrong - indicates that someone else made it

mostto severance passages Unlike most severance packages, which require workers to stay until the last dayUnlike scheduled collect, workers at the automobile company are eligible for its severance package even if they find a new job before they are terminated. A. the last day scheduled to collect, workers at the automobile company are eligible for its severance package B. the last day they are scheduled to collect, workers are eligible for the automobile company's severance package C. their last scheduled day to collect, the automobile company offers its severance package to workers D. their last scheduled day in order to collect, the automobile company's severance package is available to workers

Unlike..collect is the initial modifier: and it has one modifier within it unlike most passages, is other severance package - eliminates everything except D and E problem with E is it sounds like they are trying to collect days The next book that the class is required to read is available now this is correct - it is actually that class is require to read the book one exception to this is that if you have an idea/ concept etc.,e.g. But, E is wrong. As day is not what they are collecting.

The idea that students are supposed to clean is common in India his works. Idea/ notion is okay - people are not cleaning the idea! But a concrete word like book that.. The date that.. These are worng
89. Unlike the other major planets, Pluto has a highly eccentric orbit, which is thus closer to the Sun than Neptune is for 20 years out of every 230-year cycle, even though it is commonly described as the remotest planet in the solar system. A. Pluto has a highly eccentric orbit, which is thus closer to the Sun than Neptune is B. Pluto has a highly eccentric orbit and is thus closer to the Sun than Neptune is C. Plutos orbit is highly eccentric and is thus closer to the Sun than Neptune D. the orbit of Pluto is highly eccentric and thus closer to the Sun than Neptune E. the orbit of Pluto is highly eccentric, thus closer to the Sun than Neptune is

pluto can be compared only to planets- other planets all options with orbits are wrong A and B: which is modifying orbit - that is wrong. Orbit is not closer to sun! is is important otherwise it seems comparison is between pluto's closeness to sun vs pluto's closeness to neptune

Unlike other Mayan cities, Cancun's commercial power throughout the lowlands seems to be from using its strategic position at the foot of the highlands, which were a source of jade, obsidian, and other valuable commodities. A. Cancun's commercial power throughout the lowlands seems to be from using its strategic position at the foot of the highlands, which were a source of jade, obsidian, and other valuable commodities B. Cancun's commercial power throughout the lowlands seems to have come from using its strategic position at the foot of the highlands, a source of jade, obsidian, and other valuable commodities C. the commercial power of Cancun throughout the lowlands seemed to have come from using its strategic position at the foot of the highlands, a source of jade, obsidian, and other valuable commodities D. Cancun seemed to be using its strategic position at the foot of the highlands, which was a source of jade, obsidian, and other valuable commodities, in becoming a commercial power throughout the lowlands

cities to be compared to other cities. A B C eliminated D and E: seemed is not realistic: the meaning is that this is the way its seems now, and we are talking of what happened then in the past we need a reconstruction that recognizes both timeframes ss seemed means seemed in past, intent is that it seems now that the city used.. Seems to have used is correct. seems present, have used, one foot in past- correct to have used an infinitve referring to previous action Use of WHICH: what is the source? Highlands, not the strategic position that Which modifies (prepositional phrase noun) E uses an appositive and avoids use of which in becoming /To become are both acceptable - in becoming means they used during the process of becoming. To become means goal. Dpepends on the intent, both ok

A decade after initiating the nation's most comprehensive and aggressive antismoking program, per capita consumption of cigarettes in California declined from over 125 packs annually per person to about 60, a drop more than twice as great as in the nation as a whole. A) per capita consumption of cigarettes in California declined from over 125 packs annually per person to about 60, a drop more than twice as great as B) annual per capita consumption of cigarettes in California declined from over 125 packs to about 60, more than twice as great as that C) California's annual per capita consumption of cigarettes declined from over 125 packs per person to about 60, more than twice as great as the drop D) California has seen per capita consumption of cigarettes decline from over 125 packs annually to about 60, a drop more than twice as great as that

decade is modifying after- still a prep + ING ING with modifier (a decade after) who intitiated? California. Only D and E remember that appostophe s is not NOUN, only ADJECTIVE E has redundancy - per capita per person wrong also decline is a drop/a reduction more than double.. E has meaning problem: meaning should be that the drop is twice as great. In E it is more like 60 is more than twice as great APPOSITIVES set off by commas consists of just a noun or a noun + modifiers My cousin, a model, is very rich. A model is an appositive I went to the bar with Mr. Smith, a consultant from Fresno consultant modifies mr smith plover gets its food by cleaning the mouth of a crocodile, a reptile that could eat the bird any time a reptile ..is an appsitive modifying the noun crocodile I went to the bar with Mr. Smith, an outing that was more fun than work an outing modifies the whole clasue - I went to the bar plover gets its food by cleaning the mouth of a crocodile, a relaionship which is mutually beneficial. here a rleationship modifies the whole clause preceding it consultant and reptile are concrete nouns, whicle an outing and relationship are abstract nouns. concrete are those nouns which can be detected through senses- consultant, reptile, a sunset abstract are those which cant be detected through senses- outing, rleationship, phenomenon If the appositive is concrete, it MUST modify the PRECEDING NOUN a concrete noun cant be a clause! If the appositive is abstract, it CAN modify the whole idea of the precedig clause can means it can also modify the preceding noun On Sunday our company will hold ts annual field day, an outing at which employees drink beer and play appositive outing is modifying the preceding noun here - field day. Both are abstract. Today's lesson talks of proportion, a rleationship between two values. direct proportion is being modified, both are abstract. og 83, 118 : abstarct appositives og 103, cocrete appositives

Verbs Three features: Tense, Mood, Voice Tense Three kinds Simple three basic times: simple present plays eternal state, frequent events, universal truth simple past played simple future will play

Tense Mood Voice

indicates when the action of the verb takes place what the write believes about, or wants to do with the action who or what is doing the action Progressive Dont use progressive for general definitions X are particles that light is emitting while travelling X are particles that light emits when it travels Dont use progressive for future action I am meeting him tomorrow I will meet him tomorrow Dont use progressive form for a state verb verb that express general states- know, signify this monument is signifying their love this monument signifies their love

Ongoing Nature of action to be + present participle (ing form) Present progressive is playing action happening right now Past Progressive was playing Future Progressive will be playing

X X

Perfect For more complex time sequences Present Perfect one foot in the past, one in the present formed by has/have + Past participle Action which started in the past but is CONTNUING in the present, or HAS EFFECT in the present we have lived here for 3 years implies we live here still we lived here for 3 days implies action in past, we dont live here anymore Whether the action continues or its result, Present Perfect makes a statement about PRESENT They have known each other since 1987 implies they still know each other The child has drawn a square in the sand implies that action (drawing) is complete, but the square still exists The child drew a square in the sand, but the ocean erased it implies that action was completed, and the square is no more The child drew a square in the sand, but the ocean has erased it implies the square-less state of the sand, since the action's (Erasing) effect still continues USES Always used with since Always use with WITHIN phrases since 1983 no one has broken that world record No one has visited us within last 5 years Dont use if you want to talk about a specific, completed time period I have travelled all over the world in 2007 wrong I travelled all over the world in 2007 right I have travelled all over the world Right indicates continued effect of the action - the kind of person I am or my experience Use to place a continued action earlier than another action in -ing, infinitive, subordinate clauses she will pay when you have painted the house will pay later than future time of have painted she will pay when you ask her will pay same time as ask

2 Past Perfect past of the past, past twice removed from present had +past participle earlier past moment later past moment present past perfect simple past now > two actions in a sentence occurred in diff times in past The film had started by the time I arrived Uses Dont use to indicate long ago UNLESS there is a later (more recent) past moment An asteroid struck the earth millions of years ago right An asteroid had struck the earth millions of years ago wrong > Not always used to indicate earlier past action - only when there is a need to emphasize or clarify the sequence of past event earlier event should have a bearing on the context of the later event if sequence is obvious, no need I drove to the store and bought ice cream sequence is obvious - same subject - no need for past perfect I drove to the store and he bought ice-cream even diff subjects, but sequence not important I locked the door before I left before indicates the sequence, no need for perfect > later action not always in past form- just use another time reference by 1945, the US had been at war for several years first clause (by 1945) expresses an early action in simple past second clause expresses a later action with continued effect Use of Tenses: Use of perfect only when absolutely necessary GMAT prefers simple>progressive>perfect I learned about a time when dinosaurs had walked the earth sequence doesnt require to be clarified or emphasized

wrong, drop had

walked happens before learned, but there is no bearing on context

TENSE RULES simplcity is best - only use perfect tenses if you have to consistency is best - only change tenses when you have to no verb tense is inherently wrong, use context- other words- to figure out correct tenses Tense Sequence If a sentence is reported using a past verb , change all the tenses back in time one step The device is ready, it did not cost much and it will provide new insights scientist announced that the device was ready, it had not costed much and that it would provide simple present to simple past, past to past perfect and future to conditional tense (future as seen from past) present with conditional, past with future are wrong I believe he would go wrong I believed he will go I believe he will go right I believed he would go

VERB MOOD what the writer believes about, or wants to do with the action - writer's attitude Indicative Mood facts Most verbs, used to describe knowledge, facts or beliefs I went and met him Imperative Mood commands expresses direct commands identical to bare form of the verb go to the store and get ice-cream Subjunctive Mood desires two kinds: hypothetical subjunctive and command subjunctive Hypothetical Subjunctive Command Subjunctive proposals, requests, desires certain words + that unlikely/unreal events hypothetical indicates command - used with BOSSY VERBS Bossy verbs tell people to do things usually after 'if', 'as if', 'as though' require, propose the agency require that I be ready by afternoon Treat the disease as though it were harmless we propose that the committee dissolve It's not in reality harmless - hypothetical verbs be, dissolve are in command subjunctive mood, which will be used to command: past form of verb is used (to be- Were) be ready by afternoon! Dissolve, committee! He is revered as though he came from heaven! this form of verb is also the BARE form: INFINITIVE without the to as if I was is wrong - as if I were like simple present, but - no s at the end of third person singular (dissolves), be is be (not is, are, am) If doesnt always use hypothetical subjunctive bossy verb +that + subject + command subjunctive general rule with no uncertainty Propose that committee dissolve if she dances, (then) her feet pain propose that the committee dissolves wrong Pattern is equivalent to whenever: should dissolve wrong whenever she dances, her feet pain will dissolve wrong if present, then present is to dissolve wrong general rule with some uncertainty some bossy verbs take infinitive and not command subjunctive I want you to go If she dances, then her feet may pain Verbs which take: If present, then can/may command subjunctive demand, dictate, insist, mandate, propose, recommend, request, stipulate, suggest allow for a somewhat uncertain outcome infinitive advise, allow, forbid, persuade, want Particular case in future with no uncertainty verbs which take either ask, beg, intend, order, prefer, urge, require IF If she dances tomorrow, her feet will pain we require that he be here right If present, then future we require him to be here right unlikely case in future verbs which take neither prohibit (from) if she danced tomorrow, her feet would pain if hypothetical subjunctive, then conditional Other uses of command subjunctive author doesnt think that she will dance tomorrow Command Subjunctive used directly with nouns from the bossy verbs would indicates the unlikely nature of result too His demand that he be paid was not met instead of would could could be used Command Subjunctive used without bossy verbs but adjectives implying urgency case that never happened in past It is essential that you be ready before afternoon If she had danced, her feet would have pained important, advisable, preferable, mandatory, urgent, vital, critical, crucial, desirable, fitting, imperative if past perfect, then conditional perfect can also use infinitive: It is essential for you to be ready before afternoon avoid use after whether: I like ice-cream, whether it be vanilla, chocolate, or plain Would and Should must never be used replace by is: whether it is vanilla, chocolate, plain in the IF part of the sentence

VERB VOICE Active voice subject performs action hungry students ate pizza Passive voice subject has an action performed on it by someone/something else pizza was eaten by hungry students (to be + past participle) was eaten/is eaten/will be eaten * Never use any other verb in place of to be - get eaten is wrong to indicate means/instrument use other words like through/because of * Use by only to indicate the doer of the action the pizza was eaten by a quirk of fate : wrong through a quirk of fate, pizza was eaten right Not all verbs can be written in passive voice - only transitive- verbs which can take direct objects guests were arrived here wrong! Passive voice is mostly longer, more complex Active and Passive are equally preferred! Only if passive doesnt make sense to use at all, then it will be error when is it preferred? Use the meaning of the sentence! if the subject is not important stress on action 5 drops of water are added (no one cares by whom!) if the non underlined portion has by.. Who is the agent? Time is moved by an hour time moves by an hour - incorrect Passive voice doesnt HAVE to be necessarily made parallel, but if all other issues are solved, then choose || REMEMBER THAT PASSIVE VOICE IS NOT AN ERROR Infact there is NO DEAFAULT PREFERENCE also between active and passive! Active = subject is the agent/doer of action Passive= Subject is recipient or target of action Mike moved to Atlanta Mike was moved to Atlanta Use the meaning of the sentence to decide e.g. time moves by hour is wrong,it cant get up and moved by on Using a machine, a hole is drilled Using a machine, the meachanic drills a whole 1st is wrong. Using is ING modifier, has to be followe by subject who completes the action. Here passive cant be used

Helping Verbs three primary: BE, DO, HAVE Be: Progressive tense, and passive voice Do: used with simple present/past to NEGATE Helping verbs standing for adverb phrase I have never eaten a cheescake, but anu has the tenses of these instances should match rarely, not reqd. e.g. I have never eaten a cheescake, but last year anu did Our cars were designed to inspire envy, and they are I have never eaten a cheesecake, but last year anu ate one Our cars were designed to inspire envy, and they do Helping verbs can stand for a positive form of a verb phrase, even if the sentence is negative itself! Some people dont eat soup, but others do

Have:

perfect tenses

Modal Helping Verb can coluld may might must shall should will would watch out for redundant use of have to/ must this plan ensures action must be taken this plan ensures action will be taken our division spent so much money having to build processes our division had to spend so much money to build processes dont use be to (are to/is to) to indicate obligation or future we are to receive an invitation we will receive an invitation dont use should to express condition by inverting subjects should he pass the exam, he will graduate VERBALS Words/phrases formed for verbs which act as nouns, adjectives or adverbs Three kind of verbals: Infinitive, Gerund, Participle Infinitive dicitionary form of verbs can serve as noun, adj, adv noun I love to swim to swim is object of verb noun adj The person to meet is here to meet modifies the noun person adv She paused to eat lunch to eat modifies the verb pause exprsses purpose: why she paused, to what end can also use in order to The contractors demolished the building to keep it from falling accidentally. subject of main verb demolish is contractors, also implied subj of infinitive The building was demolished to avoid from falling down accidentally. building, subject of was demolished, cant be subject of avoid! The building was demolished to keep it from falling down accidentally. building, subject of was demolished, is the object of the infinitive to keep it

dont use interchangeably!

Gerunds ing form used as nouns objects of verb, sub of verb, obj of prep Simple gerund - verb like eating apples complex gerund - noun like the eating of apples a noun preceding the gerund must be in possessive if noun does action mike's swimming is beautiful ensure before that the ing is working as a noun, not modifier mallika sherawat likes amitabh running! MODIFIER mallika sherawat likes amitabh's running normally, avoid possessing gerunds! if you must, use pronoun like its, their, his, her

Infinitives as subject postpone by placeholder it to err is human > it is human to err infinitives are often used as objects of verbs, but not as objects of preposition Participle Present ing Past V (progressive tense) I was walking Verb (perfect) Noun (Gerund) Walking is good for health Adjective Adjective the person walking so fast is my dad adverb I reached there first, walking fast participle ing would normally be expected to modify the first clause, describing or extending its meaning - an extension.

She has broken the lamp The broken lamp is lying there

When to use which verbal? Present participle vs inifinitive PP investors sold the stock rapidly, causing panic expresses result, nothing abt intention Infinitive Investors sold the stock rapidly, to cause panic expresses intention, nothing abt result not a must though, water droplets freeze to form snow is acceptable Present participle vs relative cause PP A technique alleviating pain is popular RC A technique that alleviates pain is popular Inf A technique to allevaite pain is popular

technique is subject it alleviates pain technique is subject it alleviates pain technique is not doer, someone uses it to alleviate pain (noun is not the implied subject of the infinitive

A plan conquering the world is in his mind A plan that will conquer the world is in his mind A plan to conquer the world is in his mind

If a sentence explains a hypothetical situation and therefore calls for a conditionalor contrary to- factconstruction Conditional constructions require specific verb tenses. For a past condition, the subordinate clause introduced by if uses the past indicative And the main clause uses the conditional if x happened, then y would happen The tense of a sentence is 100 % determined by MEANING of the sentence- gramatically all tenses can be correct ing by themselves are not verbs- they are modifiers. (or gerunds) highlight all the verbs of the sentence if there is Tense Split Present tense is not necessarily something that happens in the past It is used to present general actions states that are not fixed in any particular time. Blood circulates through the veins In the year 1550, Doctor XX discovered that blood circulates through veins. even though this is past (discovery) for circulate present is used, as it is still TRUE Today In 1973, Rakjye observed that the river was full of pollution/ is full of pollution Both are correct - depending on the meaning.. Was is correct if the river is no longer fullof pollution if it is still full of pollution, then you will use is - as it is even now generally true.

Major Verb Tense Rules: Simplicity is the best (use perfect etnses only when you have to) consistencey is best (only change tenses when you have to) No verb is inherently wrong, so you must use context to figure out the correct sequence. Timmy is learning about the war in which most of Eurpoe was reduced/had been reduced to rubble Here, was is okay because the sequence is obvious without having to use perfect. If you look at future from the past use WOULD

Though he had had success broadcasting his controversial radio program on highly regulated terrestrial airwaves, Howard Stern opted out of terrestrial broadcasting in favor of the less regulated satellite radio medium. A. Though he had had B. Though he has had C. Even though he had D. Having had E. Having achieved

You know from options that there are verb tense issuesso first we look at other words. opted - simple past we prefer to maintain sense, but do they happen at same time, or we need to establish it happens 1st Had + past participle= Had had option A

he opted out EVEN THOUGH he had success ( back from now)

we have to go back from the past - past perfect D. Having had doesnt have though - hence wrong

Timmy is learning about the war in which most of eurpe will be reduced to rubble X not a future war! Timmy had learned about the war in which most of eurpe was reduced to rubble reverse tenses- he learned before the war happened! Timmy has learned about the war in which most of eurpemust have been reduced to rubble awckward Timmy learned about the war in which most of eurpe was reduced to rubble though the war happened before learning, there is no confusion Timmy learned about the war in which most of eurpe had been reduced to rubble over the time issue! If there is no NEED to establish the order of events then DONT use Perfect!
In 1860, the Philological Society launched its effort to create a dictionary more comprehensive than the world had ever seen; although the project would take more than 60 years to complete, the Oxford English Dictionary had been born. would take more than 60 years to complete, the Oxford English Dictionary had been took more than 60 years to complete, the Oxford English Dictionary was would take more than 60 years to complete, the Oxford English Dictionary was being would take more than 60 years to complete, the Oxford English Dictionary was took more than 60 years to complete, the Oxford English Dictionary was about to be

Until Antoine Lavoisier proved otherwise in the eighteenth century, many scientists had believed that combustion released phlogiston, an imaginary substance whose properties were not fully understood. a) many scientists had believed that combustion released phlogiston, an imaginary substance whose properties were not fully understood b) many scientists believed that phlogiston was an imaginary substance released by combustion and its properties were not fully understood c) phlogiston was an imaginary substance whose properties were not fully understood and which many scientists had believed was released by combustion d) phlogiston, an imaginary substance whose properties were not fully understood, was believed by scientists to be released by combustion

would is used when you want to talk of future from the view of past use launched for context here we are looking at future from past - launched means we are in past, and the project will complete in future thus use of would is correct Why was and not had been or being being means progressive, had been means further away in past when lauched happened, birth happened! we dont have to go back in the past

e) many scientists had believed that phlogiston was released by combustion and was an imaginary substance whose properties were not fully understood

verb tense issue - had believed - believed context verb : proved the scientists believed before it, so past perfect you may say that until establishes the order, so why past perfect? a past perfect, imaginary substance modifier correct b did scientists believe that phlogiston was IMAGINARY? No, they believed in existence c did phlogiston become real when antoine prove otherwise? It still remained imaginary. d do we need to go passive here? by scientists, by combustion - making structure more awkward e did scientists believe that phlogiston was IMAGINARY? The health commissioner said that the government had implemented strict measures to eradicate the contaminated food and, despite the recent illnesses, it will try to prevent the outbreak from recurring in the future. A. it will try commissioner said in the past about future- would should be used B. that it tried how can tried happen in future C. it had tried had tried in the future is wrong! D. it would have tried again , perfect in future E. that it would try future from past - so would should be used also it is conditional Rust can deteriorate a steel pipe to such an extent that it will snap easily, as though it was a twig . A) will snap easily, as though it was a twig B) will snap easily, like a twig does C) will snap easily, as though it is a twig D) might snap easily, as though it was a twig E) will snap easily, as though it were a twig all choices have will except might correct form - use of were subjunctive Multiple verb tenses in a single sentence unless the meaning/implication of the sentence requires otherwise, keep all the tenses same in a sentence He IS thinner now because he SPENT 6 months dieting IS - Simple Present current action happened after the past event SPENT - Simple Past She WAS PLAYING when her mother ARRIVED was playing - past progressive arrived - simple past Use of Past Progressive and Simple Past Background- foreground One of the action happens in background - Past progressive was playing The other action is more important - Simple Past arrived She played when her mother arrived Both actions have equal importance. played' happens after 'arrived', not in background Tense of a verb is ZERO % determined by grammar, and 100 % determined by MEANING. once you have determined that you need a verb. Sole determinant of tense is the meaning of the sentence

In a blow to those who still harbored the illusion that E-mail exchanges are private, a watchdog group recently uncovered a trick for enabling an interloper to rig an E-mail message so that this person will be privy to any comments that a recipient had added as the message is forwarded to others or sent back and forth. A: who still harbored the illusion that E-mail exchanges are private, a watchdog group recently uncovered a trick for enabling an interloper to rig an E-mail message so that this person will be privy to any comments that a recipient had added B: who had still been harboring the illusion that E-mail exchanges are private, a watchdog group recently uncovered a trick for enabling an interloper to rig an E-mail message so that this person was privy to any comments that a recipient might have added C: who still were harboring the illusion that E-mail exchanges are private, a watchdog group recently uncovered a trick enabling an interloper to rig an E-mail message so that this person is privy to any comments that a recipient would add D: still harboring the illusion that E-mail exchanges are private, a watchdog group recently uncovered a trick that enable an interloper to rig an E-mail message so that this person will be privy to any comments that a recipient might add E: still harboring the illusion that E-mail exchanges had been private, a watchdog group recently uncovered a trick that will enable an interloper to rig an E-mail message so that this person was privy to any comments that a recipient might add

In D and E : ING are modifiers ING BY THEMSELVES ARE NOT VERBS> THEY ARE MODIFIERS ing can also be noun (gerunds) those still harboring - modifies those verbs: harbor, enable, are private, be privy email exchanges are private/had been private? All this is happening in the past -uncovered What does Present tense mean? It doesnt necessarily refer to the present. emails are not private in present. Then why is present tense use? Present tense is used to state: General Truths General actions or states not fixed in any timeframe General states currently true In the year 1550 the doctor discovered that blood circulates through the arteries and veins discovery in the past - but blood circulates is a general truth that is STILL true today Use the present tense In 1857, X observed that the ganga river was/is full of pollution both are correct - was to be used if it is no more polluted. Is if it is polluted even now Thus here present tense is correct. People believe that email exchanges are generally private- general truth had been - that people believed that email exchanges at one time previosuly -then why will now be a blow? will be privy/was privy:was - past tense means not any more. That is they are not privy anymore will be means in the future: people add comments and then this person will be privy is privy:makes sense in general truth sense. Not as good as will be but not wrong had added/ might have added etc. had added doesnt make sense- he cant see comments that were added previously would: doesnt work - sentence is not hypothetical , nor is the sentence written in the past ( as the message IS forwarded - in non underlined portion) Still harbored: works, simultaneous with uncovering, even had been harboring is ok - as it means harboring upto that point WOULD AND COLULD 2 different incarnations would is past tense of will and could is past tense of can Only works if the sentence is written in PAST tense

I can predict which team will win he said he could predict which team would win usage 2: HYPOTHETICAL situations - which are not true If I had million dollars, I could buy kohinoor/would donate to charity

Only works if the sentence is written in PAST tense

The first detailed study of magpie attacks in Australia indicates that by the time they had reached adulthood, 98 percent of men and 75 percent of women born in country have been attacked by the birds. a) by the time they had reached adulthood, 98 percent of men and 75 percent of women born in country have been attacked by the birds b) by the time they reach adulthood, 98 percent of men and 75 percent of women, who were born in the country, had been attacked by birds. c) by the time they reach adulthood, 98 percent of men and 75 percent of the women born in the country had been attacked by the birds. d) 98 percent of the men and 75 percent of the women that were born in the country were attacked by the birds by the time they reach adulthood. e) 98 percent of men and 75 percent of women who were born in the country, by the time they reached adulthood had been attacked by birds People in the study are adults i.e. they have reached adulthood present cant be used by the time they reach adulthood by the time they reached adulthood they have been attacked they had been attacked correct: ongoing action correct- attack- reach aduthood - present here present tense is used in general truth sense people who were studied had been attacked by the time they reached adulthood not the sort of thing that can not be shown by 1 study! were born is fine, using born as a modifier is also fine

Other Errors Most GMAT SC questions will have errors pertaining to: Subj verb agreement parallelism pronouns modifiers comparisons verbs idioms If you have checked for all these and still are stuck between two options, check for these possible errors: Connecting Words A correct sentence always has at least one main clause Can have more than one main clauses too, should be joined by appropriate connecting words/punctutaion If not, Run On Sentence I need to relax, I have so many things to do! wrong, comma not sufficient correct: I need to relax, but I have so many things to do! Coorodinating conjunctions: and, but, or, for, nor, yet, so can be used with a comma to link two main clauses into a sentence correctly most common: and whenever you see and with a comma, check for: a list of objects, or two main clauses: I like apples, and she likes grapes maintains both the main clauses as main clauses independent GMAT Trap: Mixed sentence, a main clause and a fragment joined by an and and a comma Subordinators: another kind of connecting words because, although, if, since, when, after, before, unless, that, though, while, whereas reduces the second clause to subordinate clause has some relationship to main clause Use only one connecting word at once Use a sensible connecting word, which fits in the meaning Dont use and in case of opposition Connecting Punctutation , comma Four major marks that can connect senetence parts: important signals of modifiers and separators, items in a list: Non essential modifiers cant connect two main clauses by itself Dont use comma before and to separate two verbs with same subject Either eliminate comma, or add a subject to 2nd clause making it main He walked to school, and ate his lunch wrong He walked to school and ate his lunch / he walked to school, and he later ate his lunch connects two closely related statements: shows that the two statements are more closely related than does a period each statement can stand alone as a separate, independent statement - balanced He walked to school; and later he ate his lunch The dam has created zones; fish have disappeared wrong The dam has created zones where fish have disappeared right (meaning intends second clause to be sub ordinate) Conjunctive Adverbs often used after a semicolon to connect two main clauses and imply some relationship therefore, thus, consequently, however, nonetheless, nevertheless, furthermore in addition not true conjunctions: hence, use a semi colon not a comma Semi colon can also be used to separate items that themselves contain commas provides further explanation for what comes before it what comes before a colon is a complete sentence; what comes after it may or may not I love listening to various kinds of music: classical, rock , rap and pop basically, you should be able to put a 'namely' or 'that is' after colon and it should make sense you can also put a main clause after a colon as well. The key is that it must explain what precedes the colon

; semi colon

: colon

-dash

emphatic comma, semicolon or comma My three friends - a,b and c- went shopping can also be used to explain

use of commas will make six people!

Quantity Countable vs Uncountable Countable Modifiers: Many, not many, few, fewer, number of, more numerous Uncountable Modifiers: Much, little, less, least, amount of, great More, most, enough and all work for both countable and uncountable Dont use less with countable items less cant be used for countable "10 items or less" wrong Number of 10 items or fewer right The number of Singular Unit nouns Dollars, gallons A number of Plural units are countable, things they indicate (money volume etc) are not The numbers of Mostly wrong when you want to indicate about the quantity: Numbers I have less than 20 dollars with me use uncountable (less) used when you want compare actual numbers when you want to indicate actual coins/notes: sparrow is almost extinct, its numbers r much less than before I have fewer than 20 dollars with me Use countable (fewer) 2 or more than 2 things between for 2, among for more than 2 comaprative for 2, superlative for more than 2 Increase/Decrease vs Greater/Less Increase and Decrease indicate change in quantity of one thing Greater less indicate comparion b/w 2 diff things watch out for redundancy: prices fell by a 25 % decrease!

wrong

BASED ON Based on your behavior last night, I think you are crazy commonly used in spoken english, but incorrect in written In written English, BASED on MUST be assigned to a NOUN The noun is what is based on Only 3 right usages in GMAT: 1. Based on xxxxxxx, subject + Verb Based on must modify this subject only (subject of the follwing clause) In given sentence, I am based on your behavior - wrong! 2. Subject + Verb + Object Based on xxxx That is correct I am going to make slides based on student submissions correct 3. NOUN is/was/ are/ were based on xxxx Based on account of ancient observers, historians have pieced together a chronology This is wrong! Historians are not based on accounts As a child I invented my own secret code based on anagrams and logic correct, example of type 2 usage Based on strongly cultural jokes, british humor is often incomprehensible to immigrants correct, british humor is being modifed Use of bright red in birdal is based on belief that red brings happiness correct, example of usage 3 - noun is based on use is the noun - of bright redis a prepositional phrase modifying the noun use which is based on xxxx og 25 28 126

DUE TO I have to stay up all night due to the presentation due tomorrow Similar to based on this modifier must also always MODIFY only a noun Here it is modifying a clause - I have to stay up all night due to presentation modifies night!

which is wrong.

you can also use a shortcut: Due to = caused by you should be able to use this substitution I have to stay up all night caused by the presentation wrong! the shops were closed due to the declared curfew wrong! shops were closed caused by curfew?? no noun next to due to here wrong! due to a six mile long traffic jam, I was two hours late for my date wrong! caused by jam..i was..?? Because of vs, due to DUE TO MODIFIES A NOUN from the plane I saw a six mile long jam due to an overturned truck correct due to is modifying noun jam BECAUSE OF MODIFIES A CLAUSE I was late to the meeting because of traffic Correct It is impossible to write a sentence in which both because of and due to can be used correctly. I was 2 hours late for a meeting due to rains, which were due to monsoon 1st is wrong - is the meeting being caused by the rain? og 6 33 2nd is correct, rains can be caused by monsoons INCLUDING The way including works is as follows: 1. modifies the preceding noun 2. and it should give a list of some BUT NOT ALL of that noun

looks like comma + ing modifier but doesnt work like that John scored 720, bringing his average to 800. here bringing modifies the whole clause Including doesnt. It modifies the preceding noun ONLY

National fitness test consists mostly of body weight exercises, including sit ups, push ups, and chin ups modifies exercises, and gives a few examples, not all There are three ingredients to this cake, including flour, sugar an eggs Wrong - you cant list the complete list! There are a lot of ingredients to this cake, including flour, sugar an eggs Correct - we dont know how many total

Such as vs Like Prefer Everyone and Their 10 items or less Company

In GMAT SC, such as is used to introduce examples, while "like" indicates only similarity and cannot be used for examples at all "to prefer A to B" is correct while "to prefer A over B" is not is wrong! wrong - 10 itmes or fewer Company X manages monthly payroll for us and we are pretty happy with them wrong: happy with it Manages is singular, but common usage faults in using them with company Which vs. That Both relative pronouns Walk on the left side of the street until you reach the third house that is red. third RED house on the left side of the street which may or may not be the third house! Walk on the left side of the street until you reach the third house, which is red. Always leads to the third house in the street,and this house happens to be red That : introduces a clause which is essential for identifying Which: just extra information, not indispensable for identifying So, you use "that" when the information that follows is needed to identify the subject of the main clause and you use "which" when the information that follows is NOT needed to identify the subject of the main clause Apprenticeship as: correct/ Apprenticeship of being: wrong Due To Due to is used only in situation where it can replace "CAUSED BY" The flight was late due to air traffic Can you say the flight was late caused by air traffic?? Flight's delay was due to air traffic correct - flight's delay was caused by air traffic Rising The rising of costs is incorrect correct concise idiom is the rising cost Probably probably not x is balanced by but more than likely y. parallelism required Estimate The verb estimated should be followed by the infinitive to be, not the preposition at unless the writer intends to indicate a location at which someone made the estimate Means Means to or Means of The idiom as a means to correctly communicates that x is a method for achieving y. Th e idiom as a means of would suggest that x is a kind of y Aid Noun AID is followed by in Healing rather than infinitive to heal Persuade Should only be used with a person not a clause I presuaded him to go is correct I prersuaded that a bill is passed incorrect Infinitive Infinitive form is best to express purpose/intent Aim correct idioms are Aimed at/ With the aim of verb-ing with the aim to decrease is wrong in that there the usage "in that there" (used for because) is mostly incorrect to a 2 year low level to a 2 year low level wrong and unidiomatic to a two year low is ok but informal - best is to say to the lowest level in 2 years owe restitution to X for Y owe restitution to X for Y is correct idiom owe restitution to X because of Y is wrong greater than/more than wild salmon's numbers greater than correct - numbers have increases wild salmon's numbers fivefold incorrect - seems numbers are more not wild salmons wild salmon's numbers more than incorrect - seems numbers are more not wild salmons Ability Ability to develop is correct, ability of developing is wrong! especially to a greater extent than others This chemical is ESPECIALLY DANGEROUS specially in a special way I prepared food specially for you

Possessives (using apostrophe + s) If

Though awckward, never enough to make an option wrong


The word if in the sentence signals a conditional tense that requires a future-tense form in the underlined portion:

If he is unable to pay, you are responsible is wrong . Correct form is if he is unable to pay you will be responsible to pay. in sentences expressing a conditional result (x will happen ify happens), the verb of the main clause should be in the future tense and the verb of the if clause should be in the present indicative Approach From is the correct preposition to use with approach when referring to a specific direction. Toward is wrong in vs among X is called different names among different cultures is wrong - as the names are called INSIDE the different culltures More thegreater the.. The phrase the more the children should be completed by a parallel phrase that begins with a comparative adjective and a noun phrase, as in the greater their... advantage. evolve cannot be made passive whether used when the sentence possess alternative possibilities- preferred to if admit I admit my lack of understanding: wrong- I admit to my lack of understanding

Clauses are groups of words with a subject and a verb opposed to phrases, which do not h 2 Main types: Independent They can stand alone. They express a complete thought Dependent/subordinate They can NOT stand alone. They DONT express a complete thought How are they made? words which are added to make an independent clause a dependent one 2 kinds: subordinating conjunctions unless, whenever, since, because I will bring my cat unless you are all Whenever I see your cat, I sneeze. Since you are coming, I won't bring Whenever I eat spinach, I feel like I relative pronouns takes the place of or refers to a no There are only five relative pronouns: who, whom, whose, that, which

This is the cookie that I want to eat

The book that is on the shelf is my f

functionally 3 Types: Adjective Clause the whole clause does the job of an adjective - describe nouns and pronoun also called relative clauses The woman, who looks happy, is da start with relative pronouns only five relative pronouns: who, whom, whose, that, which The person who made the mess needs to clean it. (modifying person) The girl whom you teach is my sister. (modifying girl) People whose cats shed need to vacuum often. (modifying people) This is the house that Jack built. (modifying house) The book which I had not read fell on my head. (modifying book)

Relative pronouns link the clause with the word that the clause is modifyin the noun that comes directly before the clause is the noun that the clause

Sometimes the relative pronoun is missing from the relative clause The instrument that I love is the piano = The instrument I love is the piano sometimes they are introduced by relative adverbs (where, when, why, be where, when, why, before, since This is the park where we played. Tuesday is the day when we have pizza for dinner. Our teacher told us the reason why we study grammar

Adverbs Clause

I read because I love stories. The whole subordinate clause is used as one adverb modifying the verb of th introduced by subordinating conjunctions after, if, whenever, until How? When? Where? Why? To what extent? Under what condition?

Nouns Clause

a dependent clause that acts as a noun

My mother knows that I love the library. That noun clause is acting as the direct object in the sentence. It is the direc introduced by pronouns and subordinating conjunctions most often find them as the whatever you want is fine with me subject direct object can you tell me when it is time to g object of the preposition I asked about why Tom ate those h predicate noun Happiness is whatever just came o come after linking verbs and renam

opposed to phrases, which do not have a subject and a verb.

omplete thought

are sentence fragments

ause a dependent one I will bring my cat unless you are allergic. Whenever I see your cat, I sneeze. Since you are coming, I won't bring my cat Whenever I eat spinach, I feel like I can conquer the world takes the place of or refers to a noun This is the cookie that I want to eat. The book that is on the shelf is my favorite novel (that is on the shelf is a subord clause)

ective - describe nouns and pronouns The woman, who looks happy, is dancing on the street

which woman?

who looks happy adjective clause

m, whose, that, which to clean it. (modifying person) modifying girl) m often. (modifying people)

my head. (modifying book)

Relative pronouns act as the subject, object, or some kind of modifier within the adjective clau This is the house that Jack built. (modifying house) that is relative pronoun, that jack built is adjective clause (relative clause) that jack built: that here is object within the clause

the word that the clause is modifying he clause is the noun that the clause is modifying

ssing from the relative clause o = The instrument I love is the piano ative adverbs (where, when, why, before, since

study grammar

modifies verb read s one adverb modifying the verb of the independent clause (read).

I walk faster than David walks. I walk before the sun goes down. I walk wherever the trail is paved. I walk because it makes me feel good. I walk more now than I walked one month ago. I walk if it's not raining.

object in the sentence. It is the direct object of the verb knows. It is acting as a noun. ating conjunctions whatever you want is fine with me can you tell me when it is time to go? I asked about why Tom ate those hot peppers. Happiness is whatever just came out of the oven come after linking verbs and rename the noun

object of preposition about

f modifier within the adjective clause

elative clause)