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Archives and Records Management Education and Training: what can Africa learn from Europe and North America?
Shadrack Katuu Information Development 2009 25: 133 DOI: 10.1177/0266666909104714 The online version of this article can be found at: http://idv.sagepub.com/content/25/2/133

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ARCHIVES & RECORDS MANAGEMENT EDUCATION & TRAINING

Archives and Records Management Education and Training: what can Africa learn from Europe and North America?
While archivists in the developed world face up to the challenges of digital media, Africa is still struggling to prop up dilapidated record keeping systems for paper records. Shadrack Katuu
INTRODUCTION

During the educators working session of the Global Forum on Evidence Based Governance in the Electronic Age hosted by the International Records Management Trust (IRMT) in Johannesburg, South Africa in 2002, participants from various Commonwealth countries identied various key issues in the development of archives and records professionals globally. One of the issues discussed was the fundamental importance of education and training in developing professionals to tackle the challenge of governance in the electronic age. The educators discussed several worrying trends in the public sector including the loss of educated or trained staff to the private sector and the need to balance skills and knowledge as well as between theory and practice (International Records Management Trust 2002: 67). There was also extensive discussion of the different types of educational programmes available in different parts of the world including pre-appointment education on-the-job introductory education and training post-appointment continuing education graduate-level advanced education awareness raising for non-records personnel short course training for skills development (International Records Management Trust 2002: 6).

each of the different education and training programs was an important topic, they would have to return to this discussion at subsequent meetings (International Records Management Trust 2002: 6). To the best of the authors knowledge, no such meeting has since been convened, but an interest in the various components of the programs around the world and their relative success or failure still remains an area of interest among educators worldwide. Nayani Samarasinghe, in her thesis, identies four patterns of archival and records management education and training globally (Samarasinghe 1994: 27). This article is an attempt at examining these patterns by outlining developments at the cradle of the profession in Europe as well as the situation in North America, which has, for the last two decades, been the global epicentre of contemporary research and scholarship. This brief examination aims to draw pointers and lessons in order to inform the situation in Africa.
BRIEF HISTORY IN EUROPE AND NORTH AMERICA

Different types of public and private agencies including national archives, universities, colleges, technical schools and public administration training institutes around the world offer these differing types of educational and training programmes. Participants in the Global Forum noted that while the specic nature of

Although North American archivists and records professionals have long looked to European education, in 1981 William Orr suggested to his generation that Europe could offer certain fresh perspective(s) on what have been generally unresolved issues (Orr 1981: 27). Europe undoubtedly has a very rich and diverse professional history. While there is no single European perspective on education, it is evident that there are patterns which may have different variations in different countries. According to Samarasinghe, three of the four models of archival and records management education found globally could be used to characterize certain European countries education traditions (Samarasinghe 1994: 27). In the Italo-Hispanic model, Italy and Spain have a well-developed archives system that supports the education and training and recruitment into the profession precedes actual training. This model has greatly inuenced the pattern of education found in Latin America.
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Although both Italy and Spain have had a rich history of education, they face the perennial dilemma of distinguishing between archivists on one hand and librarians and documentalists on the other (Alonso 1988: 334; Bucci 1992: 37). While this debate is certainly common in discussions around the world, its existence in such a rich environment, and particularly Italy, raises questions about the professions continued legacy. The second model of archival and records management education is found in France, Germany and the Netherlands (Samarasinghe: 1994: 31). Michael Cook notes that the training schools of [this] tradition are usually either autonomous institutes. or are attached to principal archives services, or associated with a historical faculty of a university (Cook: 1993: 78). Samarasinghe adds that there is often more than one grade of archivist, which is determined by the level of education before appointment. Therefore, different levels of instruction of professional knowledge are provided, depending upon the professional responsibilities the student is expected to assumes (Samarasinghe 1994: 32). The French system of archival education is differentiated from the German and Dutch systems by its rigidity and exaggerated historicism and consequently fails to deal adequately with archives administration (Orr 1981: 31). In the Netherlands and Germany, two grades of personnel have distinct functions, educational attainments, and professional training. This distinction reects the need to distinguish levels of competence in dealing with the different activities in an archive. The model offers strong prospects of achieving a certain level of autonomy and professional condence due to the fact that education and training are is carried out independently, rather than being afliated to a university. However, its excessive devotion to the historically oriented tradition leads to certain inexibility in the curriculum. The third model of archival and records education programs is exemplied by the United Kingdom and characterized by in-service programs for the staffs of the national archives and some of the larger institutions (Samarasinghe 1994: 37). What is apparent with this model is the lack of the scholastic and research oriented traits found in the other models. It is in this model that the majority of professional archivists in English-speaking African countries were and are still being trained. The apparent weakness of this model may arise out of the dearth of a sturdy foundation in theoretical and methodological aspects of archival and records management knowledge similar to what is
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found in other European nations. The consequence is a lifting and copying of institutional archival practice without critical re-examination. However, recent developments in various universities such as University College London, Aberystwyth and Liverpool as well as efforts in Scotland are addressing this apparent weakness. (Shepherd 1998; Ellis and Greening 2002; Westood 1998; Rankin 2003) This brief review of the traditions of archival and records management education in Europe reveals several things. First, that there needs to be a deliberate attempt to balance theory and practice, so avoiding the dangers of adopting the excesses of either. Secondly, that there should be deliberate attempts, on a regular basis, to change the curriculum whenever that change is necessary. For example, the rigidity of the French system may have caused it to lag behind in addressing essential issues associated with the management of modern documentation. Thirdly, as Orr put it, that autonomous and self-contained programs can and do thrive (Orr 1981: 38). One point worth noting is the obvious connection with the historical discipline. While Bucci notes that tending towards a historical discipline has been a cause of weakness, one cannot ignore the fact that, with that strong afliation, the archives and records management discipline has developed in a very scholarly way. (Bucci 1992: 17) According to Richard Cox, in North America there are two schools of thought when it comes to the issue of archival education. There are those who believe in the pragmatic way of learning and are workshop oriented, while others are more focused on education in archival theory and methodology (Cox 1992: 526). Also, the patterns of development of archival and records management and training in the US and Canada are quite different. Lastly, archivists and records managers in North America have viewed themselves as belonging to separate professions, a ssure that is very apparent in the education programs. From the outset the pragmatic school of thought dominated professional discussions on archival education and training strategies. For example, a report by the education committee of the Society of American Archivists in the 1970s stated that the committee was not convinced that the discipline could be served sufciently through the development of separate degree programs nor did it have sufcient intellectual substance to merit one (Mason 1972). What seems to be at the core of the pragmatic school of thought is the premise that perhaps good archivists

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are born, not made and that because of the changing nature of the discipline, education would rather be a life-long process rather than a one time isolated education program (Helmuth 1981: 298301). While these concerns are understandable and not without basis, the lack of understanding of what part theory and methodological instruction could play in this process may be due to ignorance that such theory and methodology exist at all, or that, even if it does, that it could constitute sufcient substance for any relevance to the profession (Burke 1981; Cappon 1982; Kimball 1985; Roberts 1987; Roberts 1990). The educational theorists and methodologists have disputed this overly pragmatic perspective and have embraced the European dream and tried to fashion it within the North American context. At the base of the necessity for this is the argument that, in Terry Eastwoods words: professionals think their way through everyday problems on the basis of a well-constructed mindset open to both the variety and anomaly of life. It is impossible to build real skills without building the basis of thinking, for them. Education is about thinking, not about skill building directly. People are no doubt comforted to think of education in terms of skill building, but a person who cannot think his or her way through the thicket of variety and anomaly cannot apply a skill. Indeed one suspects that many archivists have been so overwhelmed by the variety and anomaly of their world that they do not believe there is or could be a common body of universally applicable concepts to order and direct their thinking, no matter the situation. (Eastwood 1993: 458466) The contention has been that distinctions need to be made between the modes in which the professional can gain knowledge and skills. Duranti notes that there are three avenues: professional education, training and continuing education. Education forms the professional mind-set and drawing out from the students intellect to see the whole of the ideas that are at the root of the profession and engage in their developments (Duranti 1993: 19). Training, on the contrary, aims to introduce something into the students intellect rather than draw it out... a moulding according to a replicable pattern (Eastwood 1988: 250). To distinguish between professional education and continuing education, Duranti writes that education makes students think like archivists, and this enables them to act like archivists once the formation of intellectual capacities is associated with specic experiences and aimed at specic objectives. Continuing education, on the other hand, builds on the body of knowledge conveyed through education and training, provides new knowledge, and creates new skills. Its purpose is to keep abreast of developments and changes in their eld and to provide specialized knowledge in circumscribed areas of archival endeavour to those who have never been exposed to it in their professional career (Duranti 1993: 19). Continuing education is, of necessity, meant to be almost remedial after the bulk of the foundation has been placed, and instructive, highlighting how new realities are dealt with using the existing body of knowledge. Duranti adds that these three issues are not dealt with separately but rather, while education and continuing education are different, training is a component of both. North America paints a contrasting picture of two nations that started guidelines for education in 1977 with a common purpose, but show signicantly different results in their present versions. While Canada has had almost two decades within which it has developed multiple programs, the US is yet to develop an entirely autonomous self-contained program. However, the US has, in its most current guidelines, developed policy guidelines to achieve similar outcomes to those in Canada (Cox et al 2001; Society of American Archivists 2002). Lastly, in North America, records managers and archivists consider themselves as two very separate, yet related, professions (Cox 2004). In the US, the Association of Records Managers and Administrators (ARMA) boasts a membership of more than 10,000 records managers while the Society of American Archivists (SAA) has a membership of more than 3500 archivists and more than 500 archival institutions. In Canada, ARMA has regional branches for records managers while archivists are served by the Association of Canadian Archivists that has a membership of almost 1000 and the Canadian Council on Archives that provides for only institutional membership. For the most part, these associations set the educational and training agenda of the continent. These associations, and particularly the archival ones, have been involved in consistent concerted efforts over the years to establish
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curriculum guidelines for the improvement of education and training.
ARCHIVAL AND RECORDS MANAGEMENT EDUCATION AND TRAINING IN AFRICA

After examining the European tradition, and highlighting signicant aspects of the North American experience, the question is whether these can be used to present fresh perspectives to the archival and records management programs in Africa. As a precursor, it is important to outline what major developments have taken place in Africa. S Mwiyeriwa traces the early archival training in Africa to courses designed in North Africa (Mwiyeriwa 1988). Information on these programs is not commonly available in the literature. Therefore, this discussion is limited to archival and records management and training in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The most signicant period in the establishment of archival and records management in SSA started in the 1970s. The International Council of Archives (ICA) and UNESCO were involved in establishing regional training centers to cater for the training needs of archivists in SSA. They established two centers, one for Francophone countries in Senegal in 1971 and another for Anglophone countries in Ghana in 1975 (Mwiyeriwa 1988; Evans 1988). The centers were seen as a more cost-effective way of instructing archivists and records professionals rather than sending them overseas. At that time, newly independent states were in great need of skilled human resources to manage public and private institutions (Saint 1999). According to Mwiyeriwa, by 1988, these centers had met more than 30 percent of the training needs in SSA (Mwiyeriwa 1988: 171). However due to lack of continued funding these centers have since degenerated into national programs. The need for skilled labor did not recede, and consequently individual nations set up their own programs to cater for the increasing demand for trained personnel. Kenya started a program for the paraprofessional in the national polytechnic in 1979 (Mwiyeriwa 1988: 171). A study published in 1982 revealed that while the Kenya National Archives had 141 staff members, only 25 were graduates and 34 held para-professional qualications (Waltford 1982: 6). During the 1970s and 1980s other countries such as Botswana, Tanzania and Zimbabwe followed Kenyas example by establishing national courses and training
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workshops as well as university programs (International Council on Archives 1992). Most recent research shows that there are over 30 programmes in tertiary institutions in SSA and Appendix A provides a listing. Evident in this quest to satisfy national needs is the lack of a professional consensus on the design and implementation of the various education programs. For example, should para-professionals receive certicate education like in Harare Polytechnic in Zimbabwe, or diploma education like the School of Library, Archives and Documentation Studies in Tanzania? Is the Bachelor of Information Sciences from Moi University in Kenya comparable to the Bachelor of Library and Information Science from the East African School of Librarianship in Uganda? How do these programs compare to the postgraduate diploma that is offered in the University of Ghana? Added to this peculiarity is the realization that training rather than education is the term or concept that is generally addressed in these programs. Several regional commentators have, through their publications, demonstrated the tendency towards skill building rather than the development of a professional mindset (Njovana 1992; Wamukoya 1992; Zulu 1992; Mwinyimvua and Makando 1992). This suggests that the programs have followed a trend very similar to the pragmatic school of thought in North America, which unconsciously ignored the role theoretical and methodological processes play in informing professional practices. The philosophy that emerges indicates that there are inadequate educational and inquiry processes to effectively address the training and skill building requirements. By taking this premise through a reverse extrapolation, one could provisionally conclude that this trend towards practice rather than theory may have been established during the era when regional centers were in a rush to produce a much-needed work force in newly established archival institutions (Mwiyeriwa 1988: 168). Further, one could conclude that, based on the changes in both Europe and North America, the singular mandate for skill building needs reassessment. Eastwood asserts that training without education is arid and rigid (Eastwood 1988: 251). This calls for action against a trend that would otherwise cause the demise of a profession that is still in its infancy. Indeed the signs are already evident. Peter Mazikana, asserted in a report for UNESCO that: most African archivists feel that it is inevitable that the discipline of archives, records management and

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library science, hitherto seen as separate and distinct, will merge. In the rst instance, the usage and manipulation of information technology makes it mandatory to acquire a common core of skill. In the second instance, the ability of the new media to store, process and manipulate information in hitherto unimaginable ways means that the distinction that used to exist among the disciplines will eventually become irrelevant (Mazikana 1997: 10). While various models of education and training are in place within the continent, harmonization has been considered as most cutting edge. One of the most celebrated examples is Moi University in Kenya where the Archives and Records Management department is located within the School of Information Sciences, which aims at producing a broad based information professional with the archivists only having one last year of specialization in their discipline (Wamukoya 1992). This is known as the harmonized approach, rst broached by UNESCO in 1979, and is not unique to Kenya. Wamukoya identies other institutions that have implemented it, including Spains School of Documentalists, Archivists and Librarians in Madrid, Englands University College of London School of Library, Archives and Information Studies and Canadas School of Library, Archival and Information Studies at the University of British Columbia, as well as the School of Librarianship and Information Science at the University of Montreal (Wamukoya 1992: 134). What is not apparent in these general examples is that harmonization, as a concept or philosophy, exists in at least two models. Walters notes that in the rst model an independent program would offer disciplines as separate qualications. The archival studies program would not require information sciences core courses, and topics offered by the other disciplines would be offered as they became relevant, for example at the University of British Columbia (Walters 1992: 92). The second model most closely resembles many of the programs in SSA that have adopted harmonization, including the School of Librarians, Archivists and Documentalists (EBAD) at the University of Dakar in Senegal; the Department of Library, Archival and Information Studies at the University of Ibadan in Nigeria; the Department of Library and Archival Studies at the University of Ghana and the School of Information Sciences at Moi University in Kenya (Wamukoya 1992: 134). The core curriculum in this model is based on information science and offers specialization in elds such as library science, archival science and information resource management. In this scenario, archival and records management would be relegated to a minor position. This scenario is problematic because it does not provide enough space in the curriculum to address the distinct and substantial body of professional knowledge and addresses only the relationship between information science, library science and archival science (Walters 1992: 92). This apparent call for harmonization has deected attention from a need to rene and enhance the content spectrum of instruction, and by extension, the basis of claims to professional status (Schaeffer 1997: 72). This content spectrum is critical to develop the professional mindset. According to Eric Ketelaar, there is no doubt that professionals not only deal with records as they are generated but also the organizational culture and the people in the organizations who create records; and all this in their social, religious, cultural, political contexts and it is for this reason that education must be comparative and multi-disciplinary (Ketelaar 2000). However, any kind of foreign knowledge has to be appropriately synthesized and integrated into the professions understanding (Schaeffer 1997: 75). Commentators associated with the education and theory perspective in North America insist that while information science education is a critical component in the education of records professionals in terms of the use of technology, it must fall upon archives and records management theory to inform the methods that professionals use (Cox 1993; Eastwood 1988; Eastwood 1993; Duranti 1993; Schaeffer 1997). While one may argue that the European schools and institutions are moving into harmonization, it is important to note that they have had a strong tradition where the professions core knowledge and its related disciplines are provided, therefore maintaining a strong professional distinction from librarians and information scientists. Another sign of the ambiguous future of a strong profession in SSA is the apparent paucity of graduate level education, which is the recommended path in the development of the profession in both Europe and North America. Except for the three fully-edged programs at the Universities of Botswana, Ibadan and South Africa, and one proposed program at Moi University, there are no other graduate programs dedicated to archives and/or records management. A few other programs offer specializations in a harmonized manner including the University of KwaZulu Natal, the University of Witwatersrand, Kenyatta University,
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Universit Cheikh Anta Diop de Dakar and the University of Johannesburg. Schaeffer contends that education provided in a graduate setting is essential to develop a compelling and coherent body of theory and to make education in this theory relevant to the profession (Schaeffer 1997: 73). This is possible by introduction to the rigors of scholarly research (Eastwood 1988: 250). According to education commentators, the scenario in African universities at graduate level is plagued by low numbers of qualied staff, virtually non-existent research, poor quality of educational materials and outmoded programs, educational methodologies based on the model of rote memorization that does not encourage critical thinking, problem solving and creativity (Association of African Universities 2004; Amutabi and Oketh 2003; Heyns 2006; Okwakol 2005). This scenario cannot be expected to produce graduates that will face the challenges of a profession that is elsewhere redening itself with much success. The danger in this type of academic environment is to view students as embryonic professionals rather than as academic creatures who primarily assimilate and analyze concepts and by extension are competent to determine the connections between theory and practice. According to Schaeffer, students should be seen as participants in the denition and expansion of the discipline, and should be encouraged to view their work, particularly in this stage of the professions evolution, as critical to the emergence of stimulating and signicant ideas (Schaeffer 1997: 77). This is best achieved at graduate level. This challenge may seem too big to be tackled by regular educators in any of the different African programs, who are already over-stretched by their teaching responsibilities, bewildered by the challenges brought about by new information technologies and substantially weakened by the harmonized nature within which their programs are located. The one proven way of addressing this challenge is the formation of regional task teams among educators, as has been done, for example, in North America. These task teams could be charged with the duty of studying the educational tradition in Europe, curriculum guidelines that have been designed in North America and the educational experiences of Latin America and Australia. Additionally, the teams could then assess the weakness of their own programs and propose draft guidelines that may be adopted by regional associations. If well prepared, these guidelines could signicantly aid the
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evolution of professional education and training in the region. In a very general sense, the guidelines should adopt a four-pronged approach: (a) identifying the knowledge areas that have been associated with the eld (b) developing a strategy to deliver appropriate and adequate instruction programs to cover these areas of knowledge (c) identication of the right potpourri of resources necessary to support these programs while considering the unique constraints that plagues the profession in the continent (d) and nally identifying the means to sustain the programs into maturation (Walters 1992: 85) Of the four prongs, the rst requires further elaboration because it deals with the question of what, with the others being more self-explanatory because they deal with the question of how. In order to assist in identifying knowledge areas, the regional task teams need to examine two distinct knowledge areas, core knowledge and interdisciplinary knowledge (Society of American Archivists 2002; Association of Canadian Archivists 1990). The rst major area of core or substantive knowledge should cover three thematic divisions; knowledge of records and archival functions, knowledge of the profession and contextual knowledge. Each of these divisions could be further broken down: Knowledge of records and archival functions management of current and semi-current records (classication, retention scheduling, record protection), appraisal, archival processing (accessioning, arrangement and description). Knowledge of the profession history of the profession, records and cultural memory, ethics and value. Contextual knowledge administrative history and elements of law for the profession, social and cultural systems, legal and nancial systems, information management, managing digital records. The second major area should be interdisciplinary knowledge that should include information technology, preservation and conservation, research design and execution, management and organizational theory. Additionally there is a need to address the unique socio-cultural context within the continent. Harris and Hatang argue that the discourse in Africa has not questioned, less contested, what are essentially

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Western foundations (Harris and Hatang 2000: 45). If professional discourse and activity are to be erroneously thought of as a means of survival in a global society dominated by Western goals and interests [then it would be] sufcient for African archival teaching, for example, to base itself on European classics (Alexander 1993). It is prudent at this point to avoid over-prescribing an outcome because this is only a suggested course of action that is yet to undergo critical analysis and further rening. However, it is important to accentuate the importance of two factors in this complex reassessment process. First is the issue of human resources. Paul Conway has pointed out that there are three complementary components in a healthy education system: professional associations, practitioners in the eld and faculty in academic settings (Conway 1983: 255). However, he demonstrates that the lack of faculty contribution into this system has resulted in educational malady. He quotes Lawrence MacCrank who states that this reliance on practicing professionals overemphasizes practice at the expense of theoretical research and retards the profession by not providing the pool of research scholars available to other professions (Conway 1983: 256). In the African context, it is crucial to register this observation. In Conways words, there is need of a critical mass of full-time academic faculty to complement and counter balance the important contribution of practical knowledge now dominating the profession. The unique combination of research, teaching, and service endows faculty with an essential professional function a role that is diluted by the small number of full-time faculty and wide array of educational programs that exist today (Conway 1983: 256). The other aspect that would be crucial to any attempt at reversing the trend of the discipline is research. In its quest to mature, the disciplines challenge globally has been to develop a compelling and coherent body of knowledge and to make education in this theory relevant to the practice of archives (Schaeffer 1997: 73). This development of a body of knowledge has not been a mere abstraction manufactured in a desperate drive for intellectual credibility (Roberts 1990: 111). Rather it has been the analysis and synthesis of professional knowledge and proceeding to separate overwhelming problems into manageable parts and solving them (Eastwood 1988: 244). As Ketelaar has eloquently argued, teaching a student how to think as a professional is more important than to teach practical knowledge, all the more since that practical knowledge will soon be outdated. For professional education, this means shifting the focus from skills and knowledge to understanding and attitudes. It is therefore critical to bring students into close contact with research undertaken globally in the profession (Ketelaar 2000: 333). The apparent lack of African contribution to this process has resulted in a lop-sided professional development process. While an argument may be made that African professionals have been exposed to international developments, it may be that their own informed contributions have been hampered by the lack of constant and long exposure that can be made possible through research activities (Onyango 2000).
CONCLUSION

While Europe has served as the cradle of the profession and North America its epicentre of contemporary research and scholarship, Africa has the potential of being a hub of ingenuity and innovation in the face of diminished resources and dire need. As has been observed, while North America and Europe battle to adequately manage and provide access to their rich collections, and as they simultaneously deal with the challenges of digital media, Africa is still struggling to prop up dilapidated record keeping systems for current records. It is in this area that the potential for innovation lies and one that could still be useful to the industrial world, especially in institutions that are poorly resourced and often in remote areas. The profession on the African continent is faced with a double challenge. First and very evident is the challenge of addressing ineffectual record keeping systems in both the public and private sector. There is urgency, not only to manage paper records, but also to address the increasing danger of losing electronic memory. Harris, referring to the recordkeeping reality in South Africa, a country that is considered ahead of others in SSA, states that electronic memory resources are being lost in huge quantities (Harris 2000: 93). Secondly, and possibly less obvious, is the fact that memory institutions in Africa are failing to incorporate the tapestry of the peoples memories, stories, myths and traditions (Harris 2001: 5; Keakopa 1998: 98). It may seem that what is lacking is a systematic strategy to engage indigenous ways of knowing in the archive
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of society. In the places where efforts have been made, they have not been well coordinated or planned and in places where they have not been done, professionals do not seem able to provide any explanations (Keakopa 1998: 93). In order to address this inadequacy, education and training systems that nurture professionals should be comprehensively reviewed. Professor L.O. Aina, while discussing information workers in general, noted as early as 1994 that the generalist approach taken by education programs alienates them from meeting the larger societal needs of the people they serve (Aina 1994). In North America, for example, orality has been considered a fringe interest, yet aboriginal peoples there have a lot of their histories preserved and perpetuated in this form. In order to demonstrate this point, Heather MacNeil cites a recent case in which the Supreme Court of Canada overturned the decision of a trial court that had rejected the oral histories of aboriginal peoples on the grounds that they there inherently unreliable. In its decision, the Supreme Court recognized the need for the legal system to adapt the laws of evidence so that the aboriginal perspective on their practices, customs and traditions on their relationship with the land, are given due weight by the courts (Delgamuukw v. British Columbia, quoted in MacNeil 2000: 115) While orality remains a dominant form of human interaction (Goody 2000: 23). Harris argues that few graduates are adequately prepared with skills to document orality (Harris 1999: 4). As a subject for archivists and records managers, orality has received meagre attention though there are attempts to revive scholarly analysis and discussion (Katuu 2003).
APPENDIX A

This review process, whether aimed at redressing recordkeeping challenges in the paper and electronic environment or in incorporating orality, should not only look at decolonizing the curriculum but also be proactively informed by product and market analysis of the graduates produced. Dennis Ocholla states that product analysis entails tracing graduates to their current places of employment and interviewing them together with their employers in order to determine whether the knowledge, skills and attitudes gained during training were adequate for their current job requirements. He denes market analysis as details regarding date and location of advertisement, type of employer, job details and job specications and requirements in terms of qualications, experience, knowledge, skills and attitudes were captured from this source and analyzed (Ocholla 2000). While universities around the world have been engaged in such studies (Pember 2003) few in Africa have been conducted in the general information studies eld and none has been published in the archives and records management eld (Aina and Moahi 1999; Lutwama and Kigongo-Bukenya 2004; Rugambwa 1998, Tiamiyu and Aiyepeku 2004). Without such studies, it is difcult to empirically determine how professional theoretical knowledge and practical activities feed into each other. If African professionals have to address challenges that are real within their locality, they need to have full cognizance and engage with accurate realities of their world. This would ensure that they stay relevant to societal needs rather than remain defensively inside the professional cloister that is based on the realities of either Europe or North America (Cook 2001: 22).

Archival Programs in Different Parts of Africa


(Wise, 1999; International Council on Archives 1992; Minishi-Majanja 2004) Country Botswana Institution Institute of Development Management1 University of Botswana Department of Library and Information Studies2 Ghana African Regional Training Center for Archivists University of Ghana Department of Information Studies3 Kenya Eldoret Polytechnic Department of Business Studies4 Kenya Polytechnic Department of Information and Liberal Studies5 Moi University School of Information Science6 Date founded 1974 1979 19761982 1976 1990 1987 1988 Program* C C/D/M/P C/PGD D/PGD/M C C/D/HD B/M (Continued)
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(Appendix A Continued) Country Institution Kenya School of Professional Studies Department of Information Science7 Kenyatta University Department of Library and Information Science8 Lesotho Malawi Mozambique Institute of Development Management 9 Mzuni University Department of Library and Information Science2 8 Arquivo Histrico de Moambique1 0 Center for Professional Training Namibia Nigeria Senegal South Africa University of Namibia Department of Information and Communication1 1 University of Ibadan Department of Library, Archival and Information Studies1 2 Universit Cheikh Anta Diop de Dakar School of Librarians, Archivists and Documentalists 1 3 University of Johannesburg Department of Information and Knowledge Management1 4 University of KwaZulu Natal Department of Information Studies1 5 University of South Africa Center for Applied Communication University of South Africa Department of Information Science
16 17

Date founded 1993

Program* C/D/ B/M/P

1974 N/A 1934 19831985 1995 1948 1967 2005 2004 1999 1955 1922 1966 1974
21

C B, D C C B M B/PGD B/PGD/M/P B/PGD/M/P PDC C/HC/D/ PDC/B/M/P PGD/P B C D M D D/B/M/P D/B C/D C/D

University of Witwatersrand Graduate School of Humanities and Social Sciences1 8 Sudan Swaziland Tanzania Omdurman Islamic University Department of Archives and Librarianship1 9 Institute of Development Management2 0 Bagamoyo School of Library, Archives and Documentation studies University of Dar es Salaam Department of Information Studies Uganda
24 25 22 23

1989 1970 1965 1962 1966 1987


26

Uganda Institute of Information and Communication Technology Makerere University East African School of Librarianship

Zambia Zimbabwe Zimbabwe

University of Zambia Department of Library and Information Studies Harare Polytechnic Department of Library and Information Science

National University of Science and Technology Department of Library and Archives2 7

Legend : B = bachelor degree; C = certicate; D = diploma; HC = higher certicate; M = masters degree; P = PhD; PDC = post diploma certicate; PGD = post graduate diploma.

Appendix A: Sources
1. Institute of Development Management (2008) Human and General Resource Management Records and Information Management http://www.idmbls.com/crs/ crsdet.php?cod=REC Accessed 27 July 2008. 2. University of Botswana (2008) Faculty of Humanities Department of Library and Information Studies http:// www.ub.bw/learning_faculties.cfm?pid=583andf=4and d=31andrf=326 Accessed 27 July 2008.

3. University of Ghana (2008) Department of Information Studies http://www.ug.edu.gh/deptdetails. php?recordID=25 Accessed 27 July 2008. 4. Eldoret Polytechnic (2008) Course details http:// www.eldoretpolytechnic.ac.ke/Courses%20page.htm Accessed 26 October 2008. 5. Kenya Polytechnic (2008) Information and Liberal Studies http://www.kenyapolytechnic.ac.ke/ILS/ILS. htm Accessed 26 October 2008.
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6. Moi University (2008) School of Information Science http://www.mu.ac.ke/academic/schools/is/index.html Accessed 27 July 2008. 7. Kenya School of Professional Studies (2008) Faculty of Information Science and Technology http://www. ksps.ac.ke/faculties.asp?FacultyID=10 Accessed 27 July 2008. 8. Kenyatta University (2008) Department of Library Studies http://www.ku.ac.ke/sed.htm Accessed 27 October 2008. 9. Institute of Development Management (2008) Human and General Resource Management Records and Information Management http://www.idmbls.com/crs/ crsdet.php?cod=REC Accessed 27 July 2008. 10. Arquivo Histrico de Moambique (2008) Curso de Gesto de Documentos em Arquivos, Bibliotecas e Centros de Documentao e Informao e Servios Administrativos http://www.ahm.uem.mz/servicos/ cursos.htm Accessed 27 July 2008. 11. University of Namibia (2008) Department of Information and Communication Studies http://www.unam. na/faculties/humanities/departments.html Accessed 27 July 2008. 12. University of Ibadan (2008) Department of Library, Archival and Information Studies http://www.ui.edu. ng/?q=historyoibrary Accessed 27 July 2008. 13. Two sources were used and the article by Antoinette Fall Corra and Olivier Sagna was used rather than ICA directory, which has its course in French. See Antoinette Fall Corra and Olivier Sagna, Education for librarianship and information science: Senegal Education for librarianship and information science in Africa Uppsala University Library, 1999 p. 169178. See also Universit Cheikh Anta Diop de Dakar (2008) Ecole de Bibliothcaires, Archivistes et Documentalistes http://www.ebad.ucad.sn Accessed 27 July 2008. 14. University of Johannesburg (2008) Department of Information and Knowledge Management http://www. uj.ac.za/infoman Accessed 27 July 2008. 15. University of KwaZulu Natal (2008), Post-graduate Diploma in Records and Archives Management http:// www.infs.ukzn.ac.za/course5.htm Accessed 27 July 2008. 16. University of South Africa (2008) Center for Applied Communication http://www.unisa.ac.za/Default. asp?Cmd=ViewContentandContentID=17563 Accessed 7 March 2006. 17. University of South Africa (2008), Department of Information Science modules offered http://www. unisa.ac.za/Default.asp?Cmd=ViewContentandConte ntID=2003 Accessed 7 March 2006. 18. University of Witwatersrand (2008), Reading the trace: memory and archives http://web.wits.ac.za/Academic/ Humanities/GSH/ModularCourses/Readingthetrace/ Accessed 27 July 2008.
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19. Omdurman Islamic University (2008) Omdurman Islamic University http://www.oiu.edu.sd/ Accessed 26 October 2008. 20. Institute of Development Management (2008) Human and General Resource Management Records and Information Management http://www.idmbls.com/crs/ crsdet.php?cod=REC Accessed 27 July 2008. 21. Tanzania Library Services Board (2008) School of Library, Archives and Documentation Studies http:// www.tlsb.or.tz/slads.asp Accessed 26 October 2008. 22. University of Dar es Salaam (2008) Information Studies Programme http://www.udsm.ac.tz/department_s/is/ content.html Accessed 27 July 2008. 23. Uganda Institute of Information and Communication Technology (2008) Diploma in Records and Archives Management http://www.uict.ac.ug/academics/ management/diploma_in_records_&_archives_ management.htm Accessed 26 October 2008. 24. Makerere University (2008) East African School of Librarianship http://easlis.mak.ac.ug/ Accessed 27 July 2008. 25. University of Zambia (2008) Department of Library and Information Studies http://www.unza.zm/schools/ education/index.php?option=com_contentandtask=vie wandid=16andItemid=48 Accessed 27 July 2008. 26. Harare Polytechnic (2008) Department of Library and Information Science http://www.hrepoly.ac.zw/library_ and_info_scie.htm Accessed 27 July 2008. 27. National University of Science and Technology (2008) Department of Records and Archives Management http://www.nust.ac.zw/departments/ram/index.htm Accessed 7 March 2008. 28. Mzuni University (2009) Department of Library and Information Science http://www.mzuni.ac.mw/ BSc%20LIS.htm Accessed 17 February 2009.

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Acknowledgment I am indebted to Prof. Terry Eastwood, Dr. Nathan Mnjama, Ms Lilian Nduta and Dr. M MinishiMajanjafor their valuable advice during the preparation of this article. I take responsibility for any faults. Abstract While education and training of archives and records professionals within Sub Saharan Africa has a history of about ve decades, elsewhere professional development has a history lasting several centuries. In Europe, archivists have been in existence since

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the 17th century while in North America, while the history is just about one century old, within that time a lot of innovation has been evident. This article provides a summary of developments in the two continents, drawing lessons that could be useful in reinvigorating discussion within the African continent. Shadrack Katuu is a doctoral student at the Department of Information Sciences, University of South Africa. He may be contacted at PO Box 291569 Melville 2109 South Africa. Tel. +27723411172. E-mail: skatuu@gmail.com

MORE ON ARCHIVES EDUCATION IN AFRICA

Towards an ideal library and information studies (LIS) curriculum for Africa: Some preliminary thoughts Aina, L O. Education for Information; 23 (3) Sep 2005, pp. 165185. The paper traces the inability of the curricula of LIS schools in Africa to respond to the immediate job environment in Africa. The main weakness of the curricula is that they reect essentially the curricula of LIS schools in the Western World. Thus, while most of the LIS curricula are relevant to the traditional library setting, the curricula fail to address positively the emerging information market in Africa and the untapped information job openings in the rural areas. The paper proposes an ideal curriculum that would cater for the traditional library setting, the emerging information market and the job openings in the rural community. It caters for both global and local needs. This curriculum consists essentially of eight modules. These are library concepts, information and communication technology, archives and records management and rural information service. These four modules constitute the core of the ideal curriculum. Other relevant modules in the curriculum are research, management, publishing and public relations. The ideal curriculum was compared with the existing curricula of three library and information science schools in Africa, with a viewing to establishing the divergence between these existing curricula in Africa and the ideal curriculum proposed. (Original abstract) (Selected by the Editor from Library and Information Science Abstracts)

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