Preface Lewis Carroll eet id autornam os Charles Lutwidge Dodgson, mathematique docent in Christ Church, Oxford.

Eys maschourst narno gnahsit unte un eremsayr ep id Tems in Oxford dien !ul "#$%. Dodgson eet hamrahn unte tod excursion a& 'e(erend 'o&inson Duc)worth ed tri yun piegs * +lice Liddell, iam decatu dugter ios Decan os Christ Church, ed +lices dwo swesters, Lorina ed Edith, quas eent tridemat ed octat. ,am deict id introductor poem, ias tri piegs is)weer un storia ud Dodgson, quige ia&s &inarrit, preter protie(ol-ye, un auwal (ersion ios storia quod (ahsit &ihe +lices +(entures in Daumsenland. .ta) sont pelu pwol)ohlen references ad i pen)we nau)mussafers eni idpet texte ios &u), quod &uit (ipu&lien in "#$/. .o hie& starten 0am&ahsa )am un ho&&y, &et uno neis)wn periode os &eghsor&atia mi hat dahn id necessar wa)to )ay &uwes id un plen-ye antplohcen plan&ahsa. 1aung 2 auxlangers 3 4yani creators om plan&ahsas &estohmt pro international communication5 se focuse extreme-ye ep simplicitat quando concepent ir &ahsas. Planent ir &ahsas )hali&an pro &asic situations, )am, mathalan, quando semanghen safert in )hari6 ed sprehct de id itner )yid airport, we )aups)wt cadadien items &ei local du)an. 7e mieno mayn, quayque un plan&ahsa ghehdt ses mu)hsen in un tolg situation, tod naudh est nundiens 6a pleht a& pau Englisch au a& pau) gnohsas de id local &ahsa. Daydey, sei smos parat ad hehlpe un gospoti forgwaht in nies land, ne &lamems el sei els grammatic au lexical gnohsa est imperfect. 8ormeller matiers naudhe un perfect au quasi perfect ilm ios nudt &ahsa. .n talga xeimens, sessiet semper un difference 4ed, schowi, un discrimination5 inter i mater&ahtors, qui pancsient ia reuls )ay )ehnse cada 2 doh&ro usage 3 irs &ahsa, ed alters. ,a recent exempel, id Tar6em 0ection ios E9 Commission hat tohrpt mehmihes sien personel od documents oiscript in Englisch sont &estohmt pro leuds in id 9niet 'oydem ed Erin, ed ne pro id interne folossien im E9 )wehrants, o& senters hie& antplohcen ir wi (ersion os Englisch, quod (iduxit do mispretens con 2 realens leuds 3, yani i E9 ci(s qui sont mater&ahtors os Englisch. 0amt solga conditions, un plen-ye antplohct plan&ahsa ghehdt ses un solution, o& id ne creet difference inter mater&ahtors ed ne-mater&ahtors. ,a artificial &ahsa, id est maflou) ud ia idiomes qua remane complexe hatta pro unem ne-mater&ahtor samt un )emall-ye gohd gnohni(ell. :uayque hatta io hie& nudt id tien6ien (ersion os Alice gon-ye nie& ;u<s 8ranceois tar6em, dar lipsim pelu 6inas L.Carroll hie& s)edht unte ia pages ios &u). ,ad ha&iem naiwo )aun ia sei 1ichael E(erson ne hie& patient-ye chehxlist mien uperwehrten do 0am&ahsa. Proghi 0am&ahsa, simplicitat est ti) oin o&6ecti(e &ayna naturalitat 4quod impliet internationalitat5, briegve ed precision. Naturalitat =o pit &ase 0am&ahsa ep preexistend &ahsas ed retehxe to tem logic-ye quem io ghohd. =ois, (olim neid 2 )enten 3 au 2 Tor os ;a&el 3 &ahsa random-ye construgen med ein schtu) ex cada &ahsa tienxia, ni un &ahsa 2 ex id space 3, total-ye a priori, aun (isi&le connexion con sem6ect. 1ayno od un plan&ahsa est su&6ecti(e-ye attracti(er 4ed ghehdt daughe pro un talimat>iel5 sei id familiareiht sien eucers con reuls au werds trohft in maunga natural &ahsas. Ciois, ego regreto od ia ma6or 4taiper maschourst5 plan&ahsas sont pior gwaur-ye centret ep romanc &ahsas 4samt un wolga om germanic influences5. 7a, ?esteuropay &ahsas sont extreme-ye importanta tienxia, &et ne sont ia wahid surces pro international launwerds 4yani

werds troh(en in uno mier numer om &ahsas, esdi ta &ayghe different linguistic familias5. .ta) ho chust un no(atoro proschgumt. 0ontghi maung lexical camps ghyant ad inter&ahsa exchange. 1athalan, id technic ed scientific werds)aut maungen &ahsas gwehmt ex Latin au =ellen. .t, id meist facil ed practic pro un plan&ahsa est simple-ye inghende tod (oca&ular. ;et quod de ia meist &asic components, grammatical au lexical, qua cada &ahsa mathmount @ 1ien dayi &uit chehxe Orhindeuropay 4oraryo5, un reconstruct lingua quod &uit &aht, se)went recent paurs)en ", meis quem /AAA yars pre(er in 0udrussia. Oraryios descendants 4pati Englisch5 sont &aht nundiens a& id dwidel os menscgenos. +nghen ghehdiet argue od alter dwidel est des(antaget, &et un talg (id est pra&h ti) unte uno meg limiten meid. 1aung &ahtors nearyen &ahsas euce un aryo &ahsa &i quodg(onc sa&a& unte ir 6umiungB un aryo ClogicD &ahsa sollt ses im minter onost quem un aryo natural &ahsa. Ed moderne arya &ahsas ghehde a&(ices drastic-ye ud oraryum in maunga xeimens. .d men cheus oraryios hat est )hali&an-ye moti(et a& id nieudhe os dadwe ad 0am&ahsa un sta&le &ase ep quod id ghehdiet confident-ye se nastrugeB ne de is)wim oiscrisces un aysaiwo &ahsa quod )ha)iet satisface ia )eupens om auser >amans. .d reconstrugen aysaiwo (oca&ular est weidwos rhayr )afi, ed her io dohlg recurre alya pra&hils. Oin solution ha&iet ghohden ses eme id demographic importance iom moderne &ahsas, ed nudes ta procentages )ay hissa&e id smyehr ielgios in id (oca&ular ios plan&ahsa. O)wi(id-ye ta hoydic procentages differnt significant-ye ud ta ios tid )un L.Carroll scripsit Alice. 1ien wi solution hat esto chehxe ia launwerds trohft in (ariat &ahsas o& sont minter changil, chun)e id international position os uno CmundlinguaD ghehdt &ihe alteren dramatic-ye af historic wa)yas. 1athalan, Parsi dieughit )a lingua franca in pleisto 0udasia, hin ids prestige sohn) o& id decline ios Ottoman Empire ed id ;ritisch )rig os =ind. :uayque Englisch ghehdt ses meis util quem Parsi pro semanghen safernd in pleista 0udasiat lands nundiens, id awo (yige os Parsi ghehdt dar ses midt med id quantitat om Parsi launwerds in ia linguas &aht in ta regions. .aghi launwerds ex Englisch do ta &ahsas maghe ses restrict ad meg specialiset topics, )am sports ed computer programmation, au gou(ernemental res in pre(er ;ritisch colonias. 'esultat-ye, 0am&ahsa dar includt uno ma6oritat CEuropayenD werds &et ghyant sien dwers alyims continents, &esonters ad +ra&-Parsi isoglosses quom tienxia impact hat esen pior frequent-ye mis(ohrten a& auxlangers 4(ide id exempel infra os chay5. 8ulan tol)mon in plur ma6or &ahsas ghehdt desciffer 0am&ahsa. Talg &uit id fall os 1ichael E(erson, pepermen linguiste samt neid pre(er training in 0am&ahsa, qui hat ghohden detege ia defects qua mathmounit id presto draft miens tar6em. E6uchiene ielgo lyegher os 0am&ahsa (oca&ular leitiet trans id >iel tos Preface, ita) siem limite-me i&s werds troh(en in id titule * Alice : :uer tar est internationalitat @ .n fact, id internationalitat tos ster namios nei>dt in ids orthograph, ne in )am &ahtors os Englisch oiswehre id. Fimen recogneihiet GElis, menxu Alice est commun ad Englisch, 8ranceois ed .talian. .t, ays nam remant C+liceD &et swohrt se)went 0am&ahsa phonetic reuls. Pleist werds commun ad Englisch ed 8ranceois, dwo ma6or mundlinguas, smyehre un similar orthograph, &et neid similar swehrmen H In : Est un werd commun ad romanc ed germanic &ahsas, ita) id tohr& ses includen do 0am&ahsa. Daumsen : est id geniti(e plural os daumos. ,eiht ep id (er& daum. Tod raudh &uit leur-ye inspiret a& id hellen werd θαῦμα, su& id influence alyios 0am&ahsa (er&

"

Iide Da(id ?. +nthony, The Horse, the Wheel and Language, Princeton 9ni(ersity Press, %AAJ.

-

staun, quod &ehrt un phonetic connexion con Englisch astonish, astound, 8ranceois tonner ed Deutsch erstaunen. Fe est wa6i& decline nomens in 0am&ahsa, men declination ghehdt ses mu)hsen pro literar matiers. Land : Tod germanic werd est preten tienxia, o& landnams )am England, Deutschland, etc.

Briegve Ego regreto od hoydic ma6or plan&ahsas trende ha&e forlonct werds, samt empedisant endens au affixes. 7a, grammatical mar)en ed composen hant ir (antages 46ust (ide CDaumsenlandD5, &et ir forneuden creet formes qua tehr&e wa)to )ay &ihe analysen, ed id holo lexical construct maght ya (icolla&e ed lipses sien final o&6ecti(e os clartat. 0mad chehxe Englisch * nemater&ahtors ghehdent daydey te)hnasse med ids &asicst werds ed )heissent yower dia ids cort synthetic werds quem dia meis-ye transparent &et longer constructs trohft in alya natural au artificial &ahsas. Tant su&6ecti(e quem to maght )weh)e, CcortD tengiesiet semper meis facil ed ghesorim quem un composit )am Cne-longe-wentD. .d resultat est od Englisch, speit sien quant idiosyncrasias, )wehct meis practic )a mundlingua quem hoydic maschourst plan&ahsas. Pro 0am&ahsa, ho piten treh(e un tula inter analytic ed synthetic formes. Pro id scri&en &ahmen, oin om mien surces os inspiration hat esen +ra&. .n id moderne standardo tos &ahsa, sem declinational endens sont optional, nudt &i-sa&a& euphonia au poesis. To est id itner ho soh)wt pro 0am&ahsa ed tod )weit hat o&)wohct util quando io tohr& adapte L.Carrolls poems do 0am&ahsa. Precision .d hat esen ye alter &ors ios waga quan id ed simplicitat &uir com(yict. Dat tod matier est &o extreme-ye technic ed theoric, )ha)o explie id alnos eni id quader tos Preface, &et id sessiet part-ye illustret infra dan) oi) hadthas ho ha&t unte id tar6emor&at. ,ay dahe 6ust un general exempel, 0am&ahsa wehrct med quar declinational falls, menxu oraryo hie& sept %. =o gwupt quar preters 4nominati(e, accusati(e, dati(e, geniti(e5 o& sont intensi(e-ye nudt, menxu tri alters ghehde ses tayt med prepositions 4)amghi sont in maunga moderne &ahsas5. Oraryo hie& declinational endens, &et nia articles. Punor, 0am&ahsa hat neid i6&aric declination pro nomens ed ad6ecti(es o& solg endens trendent dleghihes werds, )lom&hihes iro recogni&ilitat, ed o& alya wassilas 4)am declinen compact articles, werdaurdhen5 dadwnt meis precision, &rieg(e edKau simplicitat. .d neud om monosylla&ic compact pronomens samt parallel declinations sammel &rag(ent 0am&ahsa 6umlas ed deict )weiter-ye id syntactic rol ielgs iren components. ,athali)a, Orarya (er&al )weits hant est gwupt quan ia &righ meis &rieg(e edKau precision. .ta) id medio-passi(e, mathalan, hat esen ar)en. Dyeite ia seh)wnda mustras * !"raryo# $gh%ent H&eg%im ' !(ambahsa# gvehnt iom ogvi ' !Englisch# he slays the serpent) Englisch est longer &et &ringht un precision de id genos ios Cg(ehnerD. 0am&ahsa CiomD deict od is Og(i est ner, ed est is o&6ect ios action, menxu Englisch CtheD )wehrt neuter. !"raryo# H&eg%is ghuno ' !(ambahsa# Is ogvi biht gvohnt ' !Englisch# The serpent gets slain) 0ei 0am&ahsa ha&iet un synthetic forme )am oraryo GghunoL, tod ne esiet corter quem biht gvohnt, ni meis facil ni preciser. .ta) 0am&ahsa seh)wt her id analytic (ia.
% L

Omittend-ye id (ocati(e, quos neud eet &aygh limitet. Tod est weidwos un hypothetic forme. +lyo possi&ilitat ghehdt ses GghwMnto, &et tod est dar dwo-sylla&s long.

,e (olgo nun )ya hadtha ho incontren unte id tar6em os Alice. .n id druna iom yars, id precis (oca&ular os 0am&ahsa hat crohscen tiel meis quem " AAA lignes in id tri&ahsa edition ios )amus. ;i tod sa&a& io hie& 6a ghohden pu&lie 0am&ahsa (ersions ma6oren literar wehrgs )am 0aint Exup<rys Le *etit *rince, Camus s&ei L+Etranger ed =ermann =esses DemianB idghi mege os Lewis Carrolls wehrg ne s)ip un challenge pro me quan io decis tar6mes tod &u). .n fact, sei dehm &igon ia teiperrors qua un solgo long texte mathmounsiet ne(ergi&le-ye, ia difficultats ho facet hant est uns inexspectet &uhsa. 1athalan, se)went id precisionspra&hil am&hrissto supra, 0am&ahsa men hat quar different gensa * masculin, feminin, neutral, indeterminat, qua sont apparent in ia pronomens ed definiht articles, menxu de Englisch neudt ti) aunmar) NtheD. O& tod )weit os L.Carrolls mater&ahsa, io )hie) fauran tar)e qualg genos is autor hie& tri&uen ad cada creature is hie& exmohnen, ed io dohlg ops-ye perilises un hol capitel pre treh(e id solution... 9n goil consequence &righen a& 0am&ahsas precision est od id Cautomatic-yeD deuysih sem imprecisions os Englisch nuden a& L.Carroll )ay cree humoristic mispretens. 1athalan, quan is =atar sayct Cit &egan with a teaD ei 'oy, so mehnt od CitD se refert uni singule nomen 4Cthe twin)lingD5 menxu is =atar maynt CitD )a un resumen iom wa)yen is hat 6ust descri&en ant id Curt. .n 0am&ahsa, sont dwo different werds, id pro un singule 4neutral5 nomen &et to pro un general situation. Dat tod mispreten neti ghohd wehrge, tohr&im rescri&e tod passage. Chun)e Englisch remant pro me un gospoti &ahsa, ho dohlgen or&ate med &o id tien6ien (ersion ed =enri ;u<s 8ranceois tar6em, quod est saygen esus CautorisenD a& iomswo L.Carroll. ?ay, )am ho 6a saygen supra, tod precaution ne me hat &ohrct ud lipses maung 6inas gohnt a& id prolific imagination ios Englisch autor. .ter her, dehlgo plen)erdtos dan)e 1ichael E(erson qui perilis id 0am&ahsa texte ed me &ud ad quo ha&iet sonst remanto ne)aun a& me. .d opnos ios werds)aut os 0am&ahsa ed ids grammatical flexi&ilitat o&)woh) ses uno megil hehlp quan io tohr&, mathalan, treh(e alyo werd eni id sam lexical categoria )ay uperwehrte id dou&le maynen os un 6inas, we )ay conser(e id tula stichen eni un poem. ,am ho 6a dict supra, 0am&ahsa includt werds ois exter ?esteurope sei est un general samstehmen de un different forme. Est id fall ios 0am&ahsa werd chay quod seh)wt id general forme troh(en in pleist +siat ed Eusteuropay &ahsas. .d sa&a&o pro to est od 0am&ahsa ed id Eurasiat megerstrohm hant launen tod werd ex 1andarin, menxu ?esteuropay nations gnohr chay per martorgo con 0udchina, quer )han6i 茶 est oiswohrno meis au minter )am &u)stei( CTD. L.Carroll nud tod coincidence pro un 6inas unte id schahidia ios =atar, quando so sayct CteaD menxu is 'oy pretet &u)stei( CTD. 9n talg 6inas suawehrct in ?esteuropay &ahsas chun)e CTD ed id werdo pro CchayD swehne li)a. ;et to eet impossi&le pro 0am&ahsaB ita) io tohr& exmehne un no( 6inas &asen ep id phonetic pro)witat inter chay ed chald) Conlanging 4yani id creation artificialen &ahsas5 est uns hy&rid &uhsa, chun)e dehlgmos com&ine meg logic reuls 4)am ta iom declinations ed con6ugations5 con concepts uns alnos su&6ecti(e &uhsa, quo 8erdinand de 0aussure eenamt l+arbitraire du signe linguisti,ue. Pro maung leuds, L.Carrolls Alice est 6ust sem fantasia narn &ayna alya, &et tod tar6em hat (igha&iht me )ad sont ia imperfections iom natural &ahsas qua hant &uwto Ch.L.Dodgsons liu&h dia non-sense. :uando facems ia defects niesen mater&ahsas, &ihms in(oluntar-ye dri&hen ex nies logic adulten mund do uno mieg(eli) daumsenland )am aunhehlp mag(i do alyo dimension. 1aghtu tod menos encourage el leiser ad prihes +lices mund per 0am&ahsas deuspont prisma.