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4.

CONNECTING DEVICES

Chapter 4 CONNECTING DEVICES

4.1. GENERAL Connecting devices for steel structures are: Welds are largely used in fabrication of structural members in shops; Bolts are largely used in assembling structural members on the field; Rivets at present they are practically abandoned due to their complicate technology and high cost.

4.2. WELDING 4.2.1. General Welding is a technological process that realizes the junction of the members of a structure into a monolithic elastic network. To execute a weld, one needs: a heat source; some adequate additional material.

The weld seam results after local melting in the area of welding (Fig. 4.1). A number of welding passes, called weld layers, are necessary. heat source parent metal additional material weld layer (seam)

solidified weld Fig. 4.1. Scheme of a welding process

molten pool

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4. CONNECTING DEVICES The integrity of the welded structure depends on its ability to deform plastically during fabrication, erection and service. The ability of the welded structure to deform plastically, avoiding brittle failure primary depends upon: 1. weldability of steel; 2. welding procedure selection; 3. avoidance of notches both in design and fabrication; 4. adequate quality control and inspection.

4.2.2. Weldability Weldability is defined as the capacity of a metal to be welded under fabrication conditions imposed into a specific suitably designed structure and to perform satisfactorily in the intended service life. Weldability is largely depending on the reaction of steel to the drastic heating and cooling cycle of arc welding. Three of the most important steel properties that influence weldability are: the chemical composition; the structural grain size; the thickness of the material.

Chemical composition. The brittleness that steel may reach after rapid cooling from high temperature is directly proportional to the carbon content. In order to avoid brittle failure of the welded structure it is necessary: to limit the content in carbon to 0,20 0,22%; to limit the content in carbon of the additional material to 0,08,..., 0,12%.

Structural grain size. There is a linear relationship between the ferrite grain size and the Charpy transition temperature between ductile and brittle behaviour; the greater the grain size is the greater the transition temperature is. Weldability also varies with grain size meaning it is favoured by a reduced grain size. High heat input welds show a larger grain size than the same process at a lower heat input, because they provide a slower cooling rate. That is why recommendations usually limit the thickness of a weld layer at about 6mm. A subsequent pass will refine the grains of a previous pass.

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4. CONNECTING DEVICES Thickness. Because of their greater mass, thick plates extract heat from the weld area and cool the weld more rapidly than the same weld on thin plates. As a result, weldability is affected. There are two possibilities to avoid a tendency to brittle fracture: to limit the thickness of plates; to pre-heat the pieces and to hold them at a temperature of a few hundred degrees before the welding operation. Conclusions: Weldability is increased by: low carbon content; fine grain size; restricted low thickness; high carbon content; coarse grain; big thickness.

and, conversely, is reduced by:

4.2.3. Structural welding process and materials Fusion welding processes vary largely, according to the applied heat source and to how the molten pool is protected against atmosphere. The most common welding processes used in commercial structural steel fabrication are: 1. Manual shielded metal arc process (Fig.4.2) The heat source is the electric arc formed between the electrode and the parent metal. The developed heat produces a quick melting of the external coatings of electrodes containing aluminium, silicon and other deoxidizers, which protect the area surrounding the arc and the weld pool. This process is widely applicable to any kind of welds. 2. Submerged arc process (Fig.4.3) The heat source is the electric arc formed between the electrode and the parent metal. The protection of the weld pool, better as in the shielded arc process, is provided by a granulated deoxidizer flux automatically thrown in

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4. CONNECTING DEVICES advance and at the same speed of the welding process. This procedure is highly productive for long weld seams. electrode protective gas protecting slag solidified weld (weld deposit) additional material coating direction of travel metal arc

parent metal

weld pool (molten pool)

Fig. 4.2. Scheme of the manual shielded metal arc process recovered flux bar electrode (continuous wire) direction of travel metal arc molten pool flux feed line granular flux parent metal slag solidified weld (weld deposit)

Fig. 4.3. Scheme of the submerged arc process 3. Gas shielded metal arc process (GMAW - Gas Metal Arc Welding) with consumable electrode (MIG and MAG). The arc protection is provided by an inert gas (MIG) or by a chemically active gas (MAG). This procedure is used in welding mild steel and low alloy steel. 4. Gas shielded metal arc process with non-consumable electrode. The arc is produced between a tungsten element and the parent metal. The protection is provided by argon. This procedure is used especially for welding stainless steel or aluminium alloys.

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4. CONNECTING DEVICES 5. Electro-slag welding is a special procedure to weld very thick steel parts with only one pass in a vertical position.
7.3 Welding processes (EN 1090 2) [20]
Welding may be performed by the following welding processes defined in EN ISO 4063: 111: Manual metal-arc welding (metal-arc welding with covered electrode); 114: Self-shielded tubular cored arc welding; 121: Submerged arc welding with one wire electrode; 122: Submerged arc welding with strip electrode; 123: Submerged arc welding with multiple wire electrodes; 124: Submerged arc welding with metallic powder addition; 125: Submerged arc welding with tubular electrodes; 131: Metal inert gas welding; MIG-welding; 135: Metal active gas welding; MAG-welding; 136: Tubular-cored arc welding with active gas shield; 137 Tubular-cored arc welding with inert gas shield; 141: Tungsten inert gas welding TIG welding; 21: Spot welding; 22: Seam welding; 23: Projection welding; 24: Flash welding; 42: Friction welding; 52: Laser welding; 783: Drawn arc stud welding with ceramic ferrule or shielding gas; 784: Short-cycle drawn arc stud welding. Resistance welding processes 21, 22 and 23 shall only be used to execute welding of thin gauge steel components. Additional information is given: in EN ISO 14373 for process 21(spot welding); in EN ISO 16433 for process 22 (seam welding; in EN ISO 16432 for process 23 (projection welding). The diameter of spot and projection welds shall be checked during production by means of peel or chisel testing according to EN ISO 10447. Other welding processes shall only be used if explicitly specified.

4.2.4. Metallurgic phenomena in the welding process Essentially, there are three metallurgic phenomena: 1. A hard zone appears in the parent metal near the weld seam, which can lead to so-called cold cracking (Fig. 4.4). The origin of this phenomenon is assigned to the hydrogen absorbed by the weld material in the molten state. The tendency to brittle cracks may be moderated by pre-heating the part to be welded and by using electrodes with basic coating.

85

4. CONNECTING DEVICES hardness

cracks

2 6mm Fig. 4.4. Scheme of the material structure near a weld seam 2. Lamellar tearing is a separation or a crack in the base metal, caused by through-thickness weld shrinkage stairs (Fig. 4.5). It is a result of the reducing of ductility in the through-thickness direction, which can be lower than in the conventional longitudinal tests.

lamellar tearing

Fig. 4.5. Lamellar tearing 3. Hot cracking can occur in the molten area. These cracks form during the solidification process and they are explained by the presence of some impurities solidifying at a lower temperature than steel (Fig. 4.6).

Fig. 4.6. Hot cracks

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4. CONNECTING DEVICES 4.2.5. Thermal phenomena in welding process The heating-cooling cycles during welding produce (Fig. 4.7): internal stresses (residual stresses); deformations (Fig. 4.8). res = (0,5 1,0) fy

The greater deformations are the lower stresses are. steel plate

longitudinal shrinkage

weld seam

Fig. 4.7. Residual stresses and residual deformations

Fig. 4.8. Example of residual deformations after welding (angular distortion) 4.2.6. Welding positions The most common welding positions are shown in figure 4.9. 1. Flat position

butt welds 2. Horizontal position

fillet welds

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4. CONNECTING DEVICES

3. Vertical position

4. Overhead position

Fig. 4.9. Welding positions Flat position requires the simplest technology. The overhead position is the most complicated one. 4.2.7. Weld details In order to avoid unfavourable weld details, the following are recommended: 1. Avoid overwelding (Fig. 4.10). This requires the use of an appropriate weld size, not larger than the one given by calculation. OK oversized weld (too much heating) NO

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4. CONNECTING DEVICES Fig. 4.10. Example of oversized weld seam 2. Avoid asymmetry (Fig. 4.11). desirable notch effect

Fig. 4.11. Example of asymmetric weld seams 3. Avoid lamellar tearing (Fig. 4.12). Lamellar tearing means failure of a hot rolled plate or of a hot rolled shape because of cracks formed along the rolling direction. These cracks create separation plans among longitudinal fibres. lamellar tearing desirable

Fig. 4.12. Example of details that may favour lamellar tearing 4. Avoid susceptible details (Fig. 4.13). Some details might favour lamellar tearing or brittle fractures.

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4. CONNECTING DEVICES

susceptible details

improved details

Fig. 4.13. Examples of susceptible details and improved ones 5. Avoid weld fatigue (Fig. 4.14). Any change in section should be stream-lined. stream line

NO

YES

stream line

Fig. 4.14. Example of stream-lined details to avoid fatigue and brittle fractures

4.2.8. Welding defects Welding defects are: cracks the worse defect; blow holes metallurgic defect; lack of penetration; porosity; slag inclusions.

90

4. CONNECTING DEVICES 4.2.9. Weld inspection methods 1. Visual Test (VT) It is the most economical test. The magnifying glass detects surface imperfections, porosity, slag, cracks, irregularities, etc. 2. Dye (Liquid) Penetrant Test (DPT) (Fig. 4.15) This test uses a red dye penetrant applied to the work from a pressure spray can. subvisible crack red penetrant applied in excess excess removed visible indication

white developer applied Fig. 4.15. Dye penetrant test 3. Magnetic Particle Test (MPT) (Fig. 4.16) A magnetizing current is introduced over a dry red magnetic powder. This induces a magnetic field in the work that will be distorted by any cracks or inclusions, located on or near the surface.

current red dry powder

Fig. 4.16. Magnetic particle test This method will indicate surface defects, like fine cracks not to be observed by liquid penetration (cracks filled with slag, difficult for liquid to penetrate). 4. Radiographic Test (RT.) Radiographic testing is basically an X-ray film process. Internal defects may be put in evidence (porosity, blow holes, slag inclusions, cracks appear as darker stains (spots) on the film). 91

4. CONNECTING DEVICES 5. Ultrasonic Test (UT) The ultrasonic inspection process is analogous to radar. The method is based on the variations in reflections due to differences in acoustic properties (pulse echo) caused by defects (at the boundary).
EN 1090-2:2008 [20]
Inspection before and during welding shall be included in the inspection plan according to the requirements given in the relevant part of EN ISO 3834. Non destructive testing (NDT) methods shall be selected in accordance with EN 12062 by personnel qualified according to Level 3 as defined in EN 473. Generally ultrasonic testing or radiographic testing applies to butt welds and penetrant testing or magnetic particle inspection applies to fillet welds. NDT, with the exception of visual inspection, shall be performed by personnel qualified according to Level 2 as defined in EN 473. 12.4.2.4 Additional NDT methods The following NDT methods shall be carried out in accordance with the general principles given in EN 12062 and with the requirements of the standard particular to each method: a) penetrant testing (PT) according to EN 571-1; b) magnetic particle inspection (MT) according to EN 1290; c) ultrasonic testing (UT) according to EN 1714, EN 1713; d) radiographic testing (RT) according to EN 1435. The field of application of NDT methods is specified in their relevant standards.

4.2.10. Strength of welded joints In the Romanian code STAS 10108/078 [7] there are two important types of weld seams, with respect to their behaviour and to their design models: butt welds; fillet welds.

The main difference is that in this model butt welds behave like parent material, while fillet welds resist always by shear stresses . end lap weld seams T joints overlapping weld seams

butt weld seams Fig. 4.17. Classification of weld seams 92

fillet weld seams

4. CONNECTING DEVICES

All important steel design codes distinguish between two types of weld seams: butt welds; fillet welds.

In the case of butt welds, the weld seam is placed in the thickness of a connected part, whilst fillet welds are always placed in the angle between the connected parts. Checking a welded connection generally consists of the following steps: 1. Establishing the design cross-section and its geometrical characteristics; 2. Reducing loads in the centre of gravity of the cross-section; 3. Establishing the stress distribution on the cross-section; 4. Checking the seam in the most loaded points. The beginning and the end of a weld seam are generally weak zones; many defects are found there. That is why these weak parts are neglected when establishing the strength of the joint. In order to avoid losing a part of the seam, it is possible to use some additional pieces from where to start and to end welding. These pieces are made of copper (Fig. 4.18). In the end they are cut down and the entire seam is reliable. The use of additional pieces (run on and run off plates) is strongly recommended for butt welds. cutting line run on plate

Fig. 4.18. Example of using run on and run off plates Weld seams are noted on drawings according to SR EN 22553 (ISO 2553).

4.2.10.1. Butt welds The European standard EN 1993-1-8 [14] accepts two types of butt weld seams:

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4. CONNECTING DEVICES full penetration butt welds; partial penetration butt welds.

The full penetration butt welds can be checked similarly to the parent material, whilst the partial penetration butt welds are checked like fillet weld seams. The design cross-section of the weld seam must be established before any design procedure. a a L a Fig. 4.19. Dimensions of a butt weld seam A s = a Ld L d = L (2 a) a joined member (Fig. 4.19); Ld the design length of the seam; it is obtained by deducing the bad parts of the seam from the actual length L (4.2); if run on and run off plates are used, it is equal to the actual length of the seam (Fig. 4.19). 1. Butt weld subjected to axial force (NEd) (Fig. 4.20) z NEd NEd Ld y y z Fig. 4.20. Butt weld seam subjected to axial force The stress distribution is constant on the cross-section: = N Ed Aw ( 4.3 ) ( 4.1 ) ( 4.2 ) a

the throat (effective thickness); it is equal to the thickness of the thinner

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4. CONNECTING DEVICES 2. Butt weld subjected to shear force (VEd) (Fig. 4.21) VEd z Ld y z VEd (a) Fig. 4.21. Butt weld seam subjected to shear force Generally, the stress distribution is a parabola described by Juravskis relation: y a VEd VEd

t hw y

z y tw bz

t (b)

=
where: Sy w Iy

VEd S y w Iy

( 4.4 )

static moment of the area of the part of the cross-section that tends to slide in the point where is calculated; width of the cross-section in the point where is calculated; second moment of the area (moment of inertia) of the cross-section about y-axis (axis normal to the shear force).

The maximum shear stress is obtained in the neutral axis (Fig. 4.21a), where the static moment Sy has the maximum value:

max =

VEd S y ,max w Iy

( 4.5 )

In cases where there is an important variation in the value of the width w of the cross-section, Juravskis relation describes a leap in the diagram and the parabola is flattened. In these cases, a simplified distribution is accepted (Fig. 4.21b), considering that the entire shear force is resisted only by the web.

VEd A vw

( 4.6 ) ( 4.7 )

A vw = a w h w shear area of the weld seam

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4. CONNECTING DEVICES 3. Butt weld subjected to bending moment (MEd) (Fig. 4.22) z MEd MEd Ld y y

Fig. 4.22. Butt weld seam subjected to bending moment Generally, the linear stress distribution is described by Naviers relation:
= M Ed z Iy

( 4.8 )

where: Iy z second moment of the area (moment of inertia) of the cross-section about y-axis (axis normal to the plane of the bending moment). the distance from the considered point to the neutral axis (in the plane of the bending moment). The maximum stress is obtained when z takes the greatest value:
max = M M Ed z max = Ed Wy Iy

( 4.9 )

where: Wy cross-section modulus about y-axis (axis normal to the plane of the bending moment). 4. Butt weld connection subjected to axial force, shear force and bending moment (NEd, VEd, MEd) (Fig. 4.23) t VEd NEd MEd t bz hw y z

* N
z* y tw

* M

Fig. 4.23. Butt weld seam subjected to axial force, shear force and bending moment

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4. CONNECTING DEVICES

Solving the general problem given in figure 4.23 means using linear superposition of relations (4.3) (4.9) and checking the stress state in the most loaded points by means of relations (4.10) (4.12).

max = N M =
V eq = fy 3 M0

fy N Ed M Ed z AW Iy M0

( 4.10 )

( 4.11 )
2

* N

2 * M ) + 3 V

fy M0

* ; * N = N ; M =

M Ed * z Iy

( 4.12 )

When using relation (4.12), and must be calculated in the same point (z*) and in the same loading situation. The values of the normal design strength R s and of the shear design strength R s f according to the Romanian code STAS 10108/078 [7] may be found in table 4.1. The values of the yielding limit fy are given in table 3.4 and the values of the safety factor M0 may be found in title 3.11.

4.2.10.2. Fillet welds

The profile of a fillet weld can have different shapes:

flat

convex

concave

concave with unequal legs

Fig. 4.24. Possible profiles of a fillet weld

In the model used in the Romanian code STAS 10108/078 [7] the design thickness of the cross-section of the seam is defined by the height of the greatest isosceles triangle that can be inscribed in the cross-section of the weld seam (Fig. 4.25). In the model used in EN 1993-1-8 [14] the effective throat thickness of the seam is defined by the height of the largest triangle (with equal or unequal legs) that can be
inscribed within the fusion faces and the weld surface, measured perpendicular to the outer side of this triangle (Fig. 4.25bis (EN 1993-1-8 [14] Fig. 4.3)):

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4. CONNECTING DEVICES

Fig. 4.25. Design cross-section of a fillet weld seam

Fig. 4.25bis. Throat thickness of a fillet weld (EN 1993-1-8 [14] Fig. 4.3)

Once the thickness of the design cross-section (throat) established, the design section of the weld seam is obtained by bringing the rectangles defined by relations (4.13) and (4.14) in the plane of the connection.
A w = a Ld

( 4.13 ) ( 4.14 )

L d = L (2 a) a section of the seam);

the effective throat thickness (Fig. 4.25) (design thickness of the cross-

Ld the design length of the seam; it is obtained by deducing the bad parts of the seam from the actual length L (4.14); these parts are situated at each end. The effective throat thickness a can be 25, 3, 35, 4, 5, 6, 7 ... mm and it generally shall satisfy the following requirements (Fig. 4.25), (Fig.4.26a): 0,3 t max a 0,7 t min a1 a a1 tp tg (a) t2 (b) (c) a2 a2 tg ( 4.15 )

t1

tp

Fig. 4.26. Geometric requirements for the effective throat thickness of fillet welds

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4. CONNECTING DEVICES

For shapes like angles (Fig.4.26b) or channels (Fig.4.26c):


0,3 t max a2 0,7 t min

( 4.16 )

0,3 t max a1 min(0,7 t g; 0,85 t p ) where: tg tp thickness of the gusset; thickness of the shape (profile);

( 4.17 )

tmin the minimum thickness of the connected elements (min ti). There are also limitations for the length Ld of the weld seam (Fig. 4.27): 6 a for plates 15 a for hot rolled shapes ( L , U ) L d 60 a b 40mm
6 a for plates L d 150 a 30mm
Lw.1 = 1,2 0,2Lj /(150a) but Lw.1 1,0 Lj is the overall length of the lap in the direction of the force transfer.

(STAS 10108/078)

( 4.18 )

(EN 1993-1-8 [14])

( 4.18 )

In lap joints longer than 150a, a reduction factor Lw.1 multiplies the length Lj:

model stress distribution real stress distribution N b N

Fig. 4.27. Geometric requirements for the length of fillet weld seams

Depending on their position with respect to the main force, fillet weld seams can be classified as: side (longitudinal) weld (Fig.4.28a); end (transverse) weld (Fig.4.28b); combined weld (Fig.4.28c).

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4. CONNECTING DEVICES

(a)
Fig. 4.28. Types of fillet weld seams

(b)

(c)

Combined welds are not recommended because of the different stiffness of side and end welds, which generates a non-uniform behaviour of the connection. Tests showed that fillet welds generally fail due to tangential stresses that are developed in inclined planes at 45. EN 1993-1-8 [14] accepts two checking models for fillet welds: the directional method (Fig. 4.17bis); the simplified method where the loading state is reduced to shear stresses .

Fig. 4.17bis. Stresses on the throat section of a fillet weld, according to the

directional method (EN 1993-1-8 [14] Fig. 4.5) Following this, the design relations are as follows. 1. Fillet weld subjected to axial force when the force acts in the centroid line of the connection (Fig. 4.29) a NEd NEd a L a L Ld

Fig. 4.29. Axial force acting in the centroid line of a fillet weld connection

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4. CONNECTING DEVICES

L d = L (2 a)
A w = 2 a Ld

( 4.19 ) ( 4.20 ) ( 4.21 )

N =

N Ed Aw

when the force acts with an eccentricity from the centroid line of the connection (e.g. angles, channels, etc.) (Fig. 4.30) a1 NEd L e NEd b L a2 L N1 a1 Ld1

N2 a2 Ld2

Fig. 4.30. Axial force acting with an eccentricity by the centroid line of a fillet weld

L d1 = L (2 a1 ) L d2 = L (2 a2 )
A w1 = a 1 L d1 A w 2 = a 2 Ld 2

( 4.21 ) ( 4.22 ) ( 4.23 ) ( 4.24 ) ( 4.25 ) ( 4.26 ) ( 4.27 ) ( 4.28 )

N 1 = N Ed

be b

N 2 = N Ed N1 = N2 = N1 A w1 N2 A w2

e b

2. Fillet weld subjected to shear force

when the shear force acts together with a bending moment, Juravskis relation is used

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4. CONNECTING DEVICES

V =

VEd S y w Iy

( 4.29 )

or in cases where there is an important change in the width w of the crosssection, the simplified relation (4.30) may be used, where Asw is the shear area of the cross-section (area of the web for I and H shapes)
V = VEd A vw

( 4.30 )

when the shear force does not act together with a bending moment (a scissors-like force or a force acting in the plane of the connection, in the centre of gravity of the connection, on any direction), relation (4.31) is used, where As is the total area of connection
V = VEd Aw

( 4.31 )

3. Fillet weld subjected to axial force, shear force and bending moment acting
normally to the plane of the connection (Fig. 4.31) element cross-section 1 z

T N M

2 y y

connection design cross-section Fig. 4.31. Fillet weld connection subjected to moment acting normally on the plane Solving the general problem given in figure 4.31 means using linear superposition of the previously presented relations and checking the stress state in the most loaded points, always keeping in mind that all stresses that are developed in a fillet weld connection are shear ones.
N = V = N Ed Aw VEd A vw

( 4.32 ) ( 4.33 )

or, by using the general relation (not a common situation)

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4. CONNECTING DEVICES

V =
M =

VEd S y w Iy
M Ed z Iy M Ed z max Iy

( 4.33 ) ( 4.34 ) ( 4.34 )

max,M =

The checks to be done are:

in the farthest points away from the centre of gravity welded connection (point 1 in figure 4.31)
N M f vw.d

( 4.35 )

theoretically, in any point on the cross-section and especially at the edge of the web for I cross-section, the geometric sum of stresses (point 2 in figure 4.31)

( N M )2 + ( T )2
f vw.d = fu 3 w M2

f vw.d

( 4.36 ) ( 4.361 )

where:
w

correlation factor. Standard and steel grade Correlation factor


EN 10219

Table 4.1. Correlation factor w (EN 1993-1-8 [14] Tab. 4.1)

EN 10025

EN 10210

S235 S235 W S275 S275 N/NL S275 M/ML S355 S355 N/NL S355 M/ML S355 W S420 N/NL S420 M/ML S460 N/NL S460 M/ML S460 Q/QL/QL1

S235 H S275 H S275 NH/NLH

S235 H S275 H S275 NH/NLH S275 MH/MLH S355 H S355 NH/NLH S355 MH/MLH S420 MH/MLH

0,8

0,85

S355 H S355 NH/NLH

0,9

1,0

S460 NH/NLH

S460 NH/NLH S460 MH/MLH

1,0

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4. CONNECTING DEVICES

The values of the ultimate strength fu are given in table 3.4 and the values of the safety factor M2 may be found in title 3.11. The values of the shear design strength Rs f for fillet weld seams according to the Romanian code STAS 10108/078 [7] may be found in table 4.1. 4. Fillet weld subjected to axial force, shear force and bending moment acting in the
plane of the connection (Fig. 4.32)

According to the previously presented relations,


N = V = N Ed Aw V Aw M Ed z Ix + Iz M Ed x Ix + Iz

( 4.37 ) ( 4.38 ) ( 4.39 ) ( 4.40 ) z 3


N xM

xM = zM =

z M x T a
T zM

design cross-section

Fig. 4.32. Fillet weld connection subjected to in-plane moment

Considering fvw.d given in relation (4.361) for fillet welds, the check to be made in the farthest point away from the centre of gravity (point 3 in figure 4.32) is:

( N xM )2 + ( T zM )2

f vw.d

( 4.41 )

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4. CONNECTING DEVICES

In all the previously presented fillet weld connections whenever the seams are doubled (they are situated on both sides of a plate), the areas and the moments of inertia are doubled on the same geometric configuration.
Table 4.1. Strength of weld seams according to STAS 10108/078 [7] Weld type Compression Tension Shear s s s Butt weld Rc = R Ri = R for automatic welding, R f = 0,6 R followed by non-destructive tests Ris = 0,8 R for manual welding Fillet weld Rs f = 0,7 R

R = design strength of the parent material Whenever a connection contains in the same cross-section butt welds
and fillet welds, it is treated as a whole and only the checks differ, depending on whether the checked point is situated on butt weld or on fillet weld.

4.3. BOLTS 4.3.1. General

The more general term fasteners includes bolts and rivets. The behaviour of rivets is very much alike the behaviour of bolts and they are very rarely used today. Bolts are connecting elements largely used on field at the erection stage when structural members are to be assembled in order to realise a steel structure. Figure 4.33 shows a steel frame built on field using bolted connections.

Fig. 4.33. Example of steel frame built on field using bolted connections

Bolts used for structures generally consist of the following components:

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4. CONNECTING DEVICES

a metal cylindrical shank, partially threaded and having a head, usually hexagonal (Fig. 4.34a); a nut, usually hexagonal (Fig. 4.34b); one or two washers, usually round (Fig. 4.34c).

(a)
Fig. 4.34. Components of a bolt

(b)

(c)

A bolted connection results by twisting the nut until a firm contact is obtained between the plates to be assembled (Fig. 4.35a). In bolted connections subjected to vibration, spring washers (Grower) (Fig. 4.35b) or lock nuts (Fig. 4.35c) should be used in order to avoid any loosening of the nuts.

(a)

(b)

(c)

Fig. 4.35. Possible components of a bolted connection

4.3.2. Classification of bolts

Bolts can be classified as:


normal bolts; high strength bolts.

Table 4.2 shows the mechanical properties of the most common bolts used in steel structures depending on the bolt grade. Bolts are defined by two numbers: the first one is the ultimate strength, fub, in hundreds of N/mm2. The second one is ten times the ratio between the yielding limit, fyb, and the ultimate strength, fub. 106

4. CONNECTING DEVICES Table 4.2. Main mechanical properties of the most common bolts [2] Type Grade fub (N/mm2) fyb (N/mm2) u (%) fkb (N/mm2) 4.6 400 240 22 240 Normal bolts 5.6 500 300 20 300 6.8 600 480 8 420 High strength 8.8 800 640 12 560 bolts 10.9 1000 900 9 700 fub is the minimum tensile strength determined on the entire bolt fyb is the minimum yield stress determined on the entire bolt u is the ultimate strain fkb is the characteristic strength value, equal to the lower between fyb and 0,7fub Table 4.2bis. Main mechanical properties of the most common bolts (EN 1993-1-8

[14] Tab. 3.1)


Bolt grade fyb (N/mm )
2 2

4.6

4.8

5.6

5.8

6.8

8.8

10.9

240

320

300

400

480

640

900

400 400 500 500 600 800 1000 fub (N/mm ) The diameters in mm of the bolts usually used in steel structures are: 10, 12, 14, 16,

18, 20, 22, 24, 27, 30, 33, 36.


4.3.3. Behaviour and design resistance of bolts 4.3.3.1. Loading and tightening

The behaviour and the design resistance of bolts substantially depend on:

loading type; tightening type.

Loading type. From the loading type point of view, bolts can be classified as:

bolts loaded perpendicular to their axis (shear connections) (Fig.4.36a); bolts axially loaded (tension connections) (Fig.4.36b). F/2 F F/2 F/2 F/2 (b) F/2 F/2

(a) Fig. 4.36. Loading types of bolts 107

4. CONNECTING DEVICES Tightening type. Tightening can be:

normal tight; controlled tight.

In both types of tightening, the bolt is introduced in a 2...3mm larger diameter hole. If the difference between the diameter of the hole and the diameter of the bolt (clearance) is less than 0,3mm the connection is called fitted connection. The nominal clearance in standard holes is:

1mm for M12 and M14 bolts; 2mm for M16 to M24 bolts; 3mm for M27 and larger bolts.

Normal tight is defined as the tightness that exists when members to be connected

are in firm contact. This may usually be realised by the full effort of a man using an ordinary wrench. The tightening produces a self-stress loading consisting of:

tension in the bolt, balanced by compression in the plates (a certain friction also results between plates in contact); a twisting moment in the bolt balanced by friction between the plate and the washer and between this one and the nut.

Controlled tight is defined as the tightness corresponding to a fully pre-tensioned

bolt. The control of tightening refers to the preload force Nt to be induced in the shank of the bolt by a twisting moment Mt applied to the nut (by using a calibrated impact wrench or by using turn-off the nut method).
4.3.4. Spacing of holes

e1 e2 p2 e2 t1 t2
Fig. 4.45. Spacing of holes

p1

p1

p1

e1

108

4. CONNECTING DEVICES

Table Error! No text of specified style in document..1: Minimum and maximum spacing, end and edge distances (EN 1993-1-8 [14])
Distances and spacings, see Error! Reference source not found. Minimum Maximum1) 2) 3) Structures made from steels conforming to Structures made EN 10025 except steels conforming to from steels EN 10025-5 conforming to EN 10025-5 Steel not exposed Steel exposed to the Steel used to the weather or weather or other unprotected other corrosive corrosive influences influences The larger of 4t + 40 mm 8t or 125 mm The larger of 4t + 40 mm 8t or 125 mm

End distance e1 Edge distance e2 Distance e3 in slotted holes Distance e4 in slotted holes Spacing p1 Spacing p1,0 Spacing p1,i Spacing p2
1) 5)

1,2d0 1,2d0 1,5d0 1,5d0


4) 4)

2,2d0

2,4d0

The smaller of 14t or 200 mm The smaller of 14t or 200 mm The smaller of 28t or 400 mm The smaller of 14t or 200 mm

The smaller of 14t or 200 mm

The smaller of 14tmin or 175 mm

The smaller of 14t or 200 mm

The smaller of 14tmin or 175 mm

Maximum values for spacings, edge and end distances are unlimited, except in the following cases: for compression members in order to avoid local buckling and to prevent corrosion in exposed members and; for exposed tension members to prevent corrosion. The local buckling resistance of the plate in compression between the fasteners should be calculated according to EN 1993-1-1 using 0,6 p1 as buckling length. Local buckling between the fasteners need not to be checked if p1/t is smaller than 9 . The edge distance should not exceed the local buckling requirements for an outstand element in the compression members, see EN 1993-1-1. The end distance is not affected by this requirement.
t is the thickness of the thinner outer connected part.

2)

3) 4)

The dimensional limits for slotted holes are given in 1.Error! Reference source not found. Reference Standards: Group 7. For staggered rows of fasteners a minimum line spacing of p2 = 1,2d0 may be used, provided that the minimum distance, L, between any two fasteners is greater than 2,4d0, see Error! Reference source not found.b). d0 diameter of the hole;

5)

109

4. CONNECTING DEVICES

4.3.3.4. Behaviour of bolts in tension

Tension is applied on the bolt (Fig. 4.44) at the contact between one plate and the head of the bolt (or the washer which is under the head) at one end and at the contact between the other plate and the washer which is under the nut at the other end. A bolt in tension fails in the most reduced cross-section, in the threaded zone of the shank. The area of the cross-section of the bolt, As, in this zone can be taken from tables or it may be calculated using relations (4.51) and (4.52).

Fig. 4.44. Bolt in tension


2 ds 4

As =

( 4.51 ) ( 4.52 )

d s 0,89 d

In the case of rivets, the shank fills the hole and the are is:
2 d0 As = 4

( 4.51 )

The design resistance of a bolt in tension is:


Ft , Rd = k 2 f ub A s M2

( 4.54 )

where: k2 = 0,63 for countersunk bolts or 0,9 otherwise; fub ultimate strength of the material of the bolt; The design resistance of a rivet in tension is:
Ft , Rd = 0,6 f ur A 0 M2

( 4.54 )

110

4. CONNECTING DEVICES

where: fur ultimate strength of the material of the rivet; In the case of bolts, a second failure mode is possible, by punching. The punching shear resistance for a bolt is:
Bp, Rd = 0,6 d m t p fu M2

( 4.54 )

where: dm tp the mean of the across points and across flats dimensions of the bolt head or the nut, whichever is smaller; thickness of the plate.

4.3.3.2. Behaviour of normal bolts in shear connections

Figure 4.37 shows the behaviour of a normal bolt in a shear connection. shear force F/2 F F/2 bearing pressure

real stress distribution

model used for the stress distribution

Fig. 4.37. Stress distribution in a bearing type connection

The following states can be noticed when loading a bolted connection normally on the axis of the bolt (Fig. 4.38):

Phase 1 The bolt is generally introduced in a 2...3 mm larger hole and it is

normally tightened. A friction force Ff results between plates in contact. In this

111

4. CONNECTING DEVICES

phase, when loading, no relative displacement is noticed until the load F reaches the friction limit Ff (Fig. 4.38). F Fu Phase 4

Phase 3

Phase 2 Ff Phase 1 L = L L0
Fig. 4.38. Typical load deformation curve for a usual bearing type connection

Phase 2 When F = Ff, slipping of the joint begins under a force F practically

constant. Slipping stops when the contact shank plates is realised.


Phase 3 is

characterized

by

an

elastic

behaviour,

meaning

that

the

displacement L is proportional to force F.


Phase 4 is characterized by a plastic behaviour, i.e. large deformations occur for

a slight load increase and the joint fails at an ultimate value Fu. Failure at the ultimate load can be one of the following: 1. collapse due to hole failure in bearing (Fig.4.39a); 2. collapse due to bolt failure in shear (Fig.4.39b); 3. collapse by shear failure of the connected plates (Fig.4.39c); 4. collapse by failure of plates in tension (Fig.4.39d). F Bearing failure of plate F Shear failure of bolt F Longitudinal shear failure of plate e1 F/2 (a) F/2 F/2 (b) F/2 (c) F Plate failure in tension d b (d)

112

4. CONNECTING DEVICES Fig. 4.39. Typical failure modes for a usual bearing type connection 1. Bearing failure of the plate (Fig.4.39a). Plate failure is a result of the bearing

force produced at the contact between the bolt and the plates in connection. The bearing resistance of a bolt is:
Fb, Rd = Fb, Rd = k1 b f u d t M2 M2

k1 b f u d t
min

( 4.42 )

Np,g = d t Rb p,g Np,g = d t Rb p, g


min

( 4.42 )

where: d is the nominal diameter of the bolt; t


min

is the smallest thickness of plates in contact; is the minimum value of the sum of the thickness of the plates which tend to

go in the same direction; b is the smallest of d ;


f ub or 1,0; fu in the direction of load transfer: e1 - for end bolts: d = ; for inner bolts: d = 3d 0 perpendicular to the direction of load transfer: e - for edge bolts: k1 is the smallest of 2,8 2 1,7 d0 p - for inner bolts: k1 is the smallest of 1,4 2 1,7 d0

p1 1 3d 0 4

or 2,5 or 2,5

Rb p,g =

Rk is the design strength calculated with: m Rk the characteristic strength of plates (= fy); m = 1,25 partial safety factor of the material; = 2,0 usually.

2. Shear failure of the bolt (rivet) (Fig.4.39b). The bolt fails in shear under a force per shear plane equal to:

113

4. CONNECTING DEVICES

Fv , Rd =

v f ub A M2

( 4.43 )

where the shear plane passes through the threaded portion of the bolt (A is the tensile stress area of the bolt As): - for strength grades 4.6, 5.6 and 8.8: v = 0,6 - for strength grades 4.8, 5.8, 6.8 and 10.9: v = 0,5 - where the shear plane passes through the unthreaded portion of the bolt (A is the gross cross section of the bolt): v = 0,6 In the case of rivets, the shear resistance per shear plane is: Fv , Rd = 0,6 f ur A 0 M2 d2 b Rf 4 ( 4.43 ) ( 4.43 )

Nf ,p = A b Rb f =

where: Rb f is the shear design resistance of the bolt 0,6 Rk Rb f = m Rk the characteristic resistance of the bolt; m = 1,25 partial safety factor of the material; Ab is the cross-section area of the bolt equal to: d2 Ab = when the shear plane passes through the unthreaded part of 4 the bolt (d is the nominal diameter of the bolt); 2 d0 Ab = when the shear plane passes through the threaded part of the 4 bolt. d + dm dres = d0 = n 0,89 d (Fig. 4.40) 2 dn = diameter of the core of the shank; dm = average diameter; d = nominal diameter; dres= resistant diameter.
dn dres
Fig. 4.40. Cross-section of the bolt and the resistant area [12] The design resistance in shear of a bolt or a rivet is:

dm

Fnv , Rd = n f Fv , Rd
where:

( 4.44 )

114

4. CONNECTING DEVICES

nf is the number of shear planes.


3. Longitudinal shear failure of plate (Fig.4.39c). The resistance against

longitudinal shear failure of the plate is:

d fu e1 0 t 2 3 M2

( 4.45 )

In order to avoid shear failure of plates, the following requirement should be satisfied: d ( 4.45 ) e1 t R f Nf 2 The minimum required edge distance e1 (Fig.4.39c) results from relation (4.45), where Rf is the shear design strength of the material of the plate. The minimum required edge distance e1 is generally given in codes (if eactual > e1 there is no need to check the condition (4.45)). Usually, it is greater than two times the diameter of the hole.
4. Plate failure in tension (Fig.4.39d). Generally, the elastic stress distribution

around a hole is the one given in figure 4.41a. F F F

real distribution model distribution


1

2c 2a t

d b (b)

(a)

F/2

F/2

Fig. 4.41. Stress distribution around a hole

If the hole is assumed to be an ellipse it can be proved that the maximum stress is given by the following relation:

2a max = av 1 + c
where: av average stress in the plate; 115

( 4.46 )

4. CONNECTING DEVICES

a half of the axis normal to the stress (Fig. 4.41a); c half of the axis along the stress (Fig. 4.41a). In the special case of a circular hole, it results:

max = 3 av
max = 3 av fy (for structural steel)

( 4.47 ) ( 4.47 )

Based on the good plastic properties of structural steel, which is a fundamental requirement in this case, the simplified distribution given in figure 4.41b is accepted. The resistance against plate failure in tension is: This leads to the following condition, according to the Romanian code STAS 10108/078 [7]:

N u , Rd = 0,9 (b d 0 ) t N net , Rd = (b d 0 ) t fy

fu M2

(rel. (6.7) in EN 1993-1-1) (rel. (6.8) in EN 1993-1-1)

( 4.48 ) ( 4.48 ) ( 4.48 )

M0

(b d) t R F
where: b width of the plate that is being checked (Fig. 4.41b); d0 diameter of the hole (Fig. 4.41b); t thickness of the plate that is being checked (Fig. 4.41b);

d diameter of the hole (Fig. 4.41b); R design strength of the material of the plate; F axial force in the checked cross-section (1-1). Remark The uniform stresses distribution which is assumed in calculus when checking an element is unfavourably affected by the presence of the hole.

4.3.3.4. Behaviour of bolts in tension and shear

When a bolt or a rivet is subjected to tension and shear, an interaction relation must be used:
Fv , Ed Fv , Rd Ft , Ed

1,4 Ft , Rd

1,0

( 4.48 )

All the resistances are summarized in the following table from EN 1993-1-8 [14]:

116

4. CONNECTING DEVICES

Table Error! No text of specified style in document..2: Design resistance for individual fasteners subjected to shear and/or tension (EN 1993-1-8 [14])
Failure mode
Shear resistance per shear plane

Bolts

Rivets
Fv,Rd =
0,6 f ur A0

Bearing resistance 1), 2), 3)

v f ub A M2 - where the shear plane passes through the threaded portion of the bolt (A is the tensile stress area of the bolt As): - for strength grades 4.6, 5.6 and 8.8: v = 0,6 - for strength grades 4.8, 5.8, 6.8 and 10.9: v = 0,5 - where the shear plane passes through the unthreaded portion of the bolt (A is the gross cross section of the bolt): v = 0,6 k f dt Fb,Rd = 1 b u
Fv,Rd =

M2

M2

where b is the smallest of d ;

f ub or 1,0; fu p1 1 3d 0 4

in the direction of load transfer: e1 - for end bolts: d = ; for inner bolts: d = 3d 0 perpendicular to the direction of load transfer: e - for edge bolts: k1 is the smallest of 2,8 2 1,7 d0 p - for inner bolts: k1 is the smallest of 1,4 2 1,7 d0 Tension resistance 2)
Ft,Rd =
k 2 f ub As

or 2,5 or 2,5

M2

Ft,Rd =

0,6 f ur A0

M2

where k2 = 0,63 for countersunk bolt, otherwise k2 = 0,9. Punching shear resistance Combined shear and tension
Bp,Rd

=
+ Ft , Ed

0,6 dm tp fu / M2
1,0

No check needed

Fv , Ed Fv , Rd

1,4 Ft , Rd

117

4. CONNECTING DEVICES
1)

The bearing resistance Fb,Rd for bolts


in oversized holes is 0,8 times the bearing resistance for bolts in normal clearance holes. in slotted holes, where the longitudinal axis of the slotted hole is perpendicular to the direction of the force transfer, is 0,6 times the bearing resistance for bolts in round, normal clearance holes. the bearing resistance Fb,Rd should be based on a plate thickness t equal to the thickness of the connected plate minus half the depth of the countersinking. for the determination of the tension resistance Ft,Rd the angle and depth of countersinking should conform with .8 Reference Standards: Group 4, otherwise the tension resistance Ft,Rd should be adjusted accordingly.

2)

For countersunk bolt:

3)

When the load on a bolt is not parallel to the edge, the bearing resistance may be verified separately for the bolt load components parallel and normal to the end.

4.3.3.3. Behaviour of high strength bolts in slip connections

Tightening control refers to the pre-load force Fp,C to be induced in the shank of the bolt by the twisting moment Mt applied to the nut. Codes generally accept an empirical relation like the following one:

M t = 0,2 Fp,C d

( 4.49 )

between the pre-load force Fp,C and the applied twisting moment Mt, where d is the diameter of the bolt. The preload force is:

Fp,C = 0,7 f u , b A s
The design slip resistance is:

( 4.50 )

Fs, Rd =
where: n

ks n Fp,C M3

( 4.53 )

number of friction surfaces; slip factor given in table 3.7 (EN 1993-1-8 [14]) and table 18 in EN 1090-2;
Class A B C D Slip factor 0,50 0,40 0,30 0,20

ks given in table 3.6 (EN 1993-1-8 [14]);


Table 18 Classifications that may be assumed for friction surfaces (EN 1090 2)
Surface treatment Surfaces blasted with shot or grit with loose rust removed, not pitted. Surfaces blasted with shot or grit: a) spray-metallized with a aluminium or zinc based product; b) with alkali-zinc silicate paint with a thickness of 50 m to 80 m Surfaces cleaned by wire-brushing or flame cleaning, with loose rust removed Surfaces as rolled

118

4. CONNECTING DEVICES

Table Error! No text of specified style in document..3: Values of ks


Description Bolts in standard clearance holes. Bolts in either oversized holes or short slotted holes with the axis of the slot perpendicular to the direction of load transfer. Bolts in long slotted holes with the axis of the slot perpendicular to the direction of load transfer. Bolts in either oversized holes or short slotted holes with the axis of the slot parallel to the direction of load transfer. Bolts in long slotted holes with the axis of the slot parallel to the direction of load transfer.
ks

1,0 0,85 0,7 0,76 0,63

Nt Nf/2 Nf/2 Nf

friction forces Nf/2 Nf/2 Nf

Nt
Fig. 4.42. The basic principles of a slip connection

If a slip-resistant connection is subjected to an applied tensile force, Ft,Ed, in addition to the shear force, Fv,Ed, the slip resistance force is: for category B connections

Fs, Rd = Fs, Rd =

k s n ( Fp,C 0,8 Ft , Ed ,ser )

M 3,ser
k s n ( Fp,C 0,8 Ft , Ed )

( 4.53 )

for category C connections

M3

( 4.53 )

Based on the fact that the greater pressure is the greater the friction force is, in order to obtain a maximum capacity of the connection, a maximum pre-load force Nt needs to be applied. According to the Romanian code C13382 [8], the pre-load force should be: Nt = k A b Rc ( 4.50 ) where: k behaviour factor; k = 0,8 for 8.8 bolt grade; k = 0,7 for 10.9 bolt grade; Ab area of the cross-section of the bolt in the threaded zone; it may be taken from tables or it may be calculated using the approximate formulae: 119

4. CONNECTING DEVICES

d2 s ( 4.51 ) 4 ds 0,89 d ( 4.52 ) d nominal diameter of the bolt; Rc yield strength of the bolt (fyb in table 4.2); The pre-load force Nt may be practically obtained by: using a dynamometric wrench calibrating the required Mt; turning-off the nut tightening (after the first snug tight, an additional turning is applied, representing an amount of a complete turn i.e. 0,25 to 0,75 turn). An important friction appears between plates (Fig. 4.42) as a result of the tightening. Under these circumstances, the slip resistance of a pre-loaded bolt is [8]: Nf = m nf f Nt ( 4.53 ) where: m working condition factor (it has the meaning of a partial safety factor); m = 0,95 for static loading; m = 0,85 for dynamic loading; nf number of friction (slip) interfaces; f slip factor; according to [8] it generally may be considered as: f = 0,25 for cleaned surfaces without any brushing; f = 0,35 for brushed surfaces using wire brushes or for burnt surfaces; f = 0,50 for blasted surfaces; Nt the pre-load force. The equation (4.53) shows that the slip resistance of a bolt increases when the preload force Nt increases. Following this, a higher strength bolt allows a higher slip resistance. It may be also noticed that the greater the slip factor f is the greater the slip resistance is. A treatment of the surfaces in contact improves friction. Figure 4.43 shows the general behaviour of a shear connection. It can be
Ab = noticed that the ultimate load Fu is the same for a given bolt and it corresponds to the failure of a bearing type connection (which is produced by the lowest value between the force that causes failure of the plates and the force that causes shear failure of the bolt). The presence of the pre-load force Fp,C only increases the range of elastic behaviour and it delays slipping but it has no practical influence on the ultimate capacity of the connection.

120

4. CONNECTING DEVICES

F Fu

Nf2 Nf1 pre-loaded slip connection partially pre-loaded slip connection normally tightened connection L
Fig. 4.43. General behaviour of a shear connection

4.3.3.5. Design resistance of bolts according to STAS 10108/078 [7], C13382 [8] 1. Bolts in tension connections Ncap,i = A b Rb i

( 4.54 )

where: Ab area of the cross-section of the bolt (from table or using rel. (4.51)); Rb i tension design strength of the bolt, as given in table 4.3.
2. Ordinary bolts in shear connections Ncap,f = min(Np,g; Nf ,p )

( 4.55 ) ( 4.56 ) ( 4.57 )

Np,g = d t R
min

b p, g

Nf ,p = A b Rb f

where the terms are explained at relations (4.42) and (4.43) and values of the design strength are given in table 4.3.
3. High-strength bolts in slip connections Nf = m nf f Nt ( 4.58 ) where the terms are explained at relation (4.53). 4. Bolts used in tension and shear connections Shear connections Apart from checks using relations (4.54) and (4.55) for the capable forces, an interaction check is needed. This check is based on the von Mises criterion. NL = ( 4.59 ) A NT = ( 4.60 ) A

121

4. CONNECTING DEVICES
2 + 3 2 R

( 4.61 )

where: NL the force acting along the axis of the bolt; NT the force acting normal to the axis of the bolt; A area of the cross-section of the bolt; if shear occurs in the threaded zone of the shank the reduced area given by relation (4.51) shall be used. R design strength of the steel grade of the bolt; Slip connections The force NL reduces the pre-load Nt and it unfavourably affects the capacity of the connection. The capable force is in this case: ( 4.62 ) Nf = m nf f Nt NL Table 4.3. Design strength for bolts according to STAS 10108/078 [7] Design Bolt grade Steel grade of plates strength m 4.6 5.6 6.6*) OL37 OL44 OL52 [N/mm2] 0,6 130 160 180 Shear Rb f

Bearing Rb p, g

1,6

350

415

500

0,8 170 210 240 Tension Rb i *) They are no longer in fabrication In order to avoid failure of plates between neighbour holes and to prevent corrosion between connected elements, codes usually give some limitations concerning the spacing of holes for bolts and rivets. In the Romanian code STAS 10108/078 [7], they are as follows (Fig. 4.45): 3d0 e min(8d0 ;12t ) ( 4.63 ) 2d0 e1 min(4d0 ;8t ) ( 4.64 ) 1,5d0 e2 min(4d0 ;8t ) ( 4.65 ) t = min(t1; t 2 ) ( 4.66 ) where: d0 diameter of the hole; e spacing between centres of fasteners on any direction; e1 end distance from the centre of a hole to the adjacent end of any part, measured parallel to the loading direction; e2 edge distance from the centre of a fastener hole to the adjacent edge of any part, measured normally to the loading direction; t minimum thickness of exterior plates.

122

4. CONNECTING DEVICES

e1 e2 e e2 t1 t2

e1

Fig. 4.45. Spacing of holes

4.3.5. Categories of bolted connections according to EN 1993-1-8

Table 4.4 shows a classification of bolted connections given in EN 1993-1-8:


Table 4.4. Categories of bolted connections (Tab. 3.2 from EN 1993-1-8 [14]) Shear connections

Category
A bearing type B slip-resistant at serviceability C slip-resistant at ultimate

Criteria Fv,Ed Fv,Rd Fv,Ed Fb,Rd Fv,Ed.serFs,Rd,ser Fv,Ed Fv,Rd Fv,Ed Fb,Rd Fv,Ed Fs,Rd Fv,Ed Fb,Rd Fv,Ed Nnet,Rd Ft,Ed Ft,Rd Ft,Ed Bp,Rd Ft,Ed Ft,Rd Ft,Ed Bp,Rd

Remarks No pre-loading required. Bolt classes from 4.6 to 10.9 may be used. Preloaded 8.8 or 10.9 bolts should be used. No slip at serviceability limit state Surfaces treatment Preloaded 8.8 or 10.9 bolts should be used. No slip at ultimate limit state Surfaces treatment No pre-loading required Bolt classes from 4.6 to 10.9 may be used. Preloaded 8.8 or 10.9 bolts should be used. No slip at ultimate limit state Surfaces treatment

Tension connections D non-preloaded E preloaded

123

4. CONNECTING DEVICES

4.3.6. Examples of calculation 4.3.6.1. General aspects

Checking a fastened connection generally consists of the following steps: 1. Establishing the design cross-section of the connection, that consists of points; 2. Reducing loads in the centre of gravity of the cross-section; 3. Establishing the load distribution on the cross-section; 4. Checking the most loaded fastener. A force acting on any direction in the centre of gravity of the connection uniformly distributes its effects on all fasteners in the connection. A moment acting in the centre of gravity of the connection distributes its effects on each fastener proportionally to the distance from that fastener to the centre of rotation. The first three steps of the checking procedure are the same for all types of fastened connections (rivets, bolted connections, slip connections). The influence of the type of fastener appears only in the final step, when establishing the capable force.

4.3.6.2. Connection loaded only in its plane (Fig. 4.46)

z ri x VEd MEd z
Fiz,V Fiz, M

Fi , M

Fix ,N

Fix ,M

NEd

design cross-section

Fig. 4.46. Fastener connection loaded only in its plane

124

4. CONNECTING DEVICES

The force produced in a fastener i by the moment M (Fig. 4.46) is proportional to the displacement i. This displacement is normal to the radius of the point, ri, and it is proportional to that radius, considering a rotation .
i = ri

( 4.67 )

As all fasteners are identical, they have the same stiffness K. The force Ni produced by the moment in a fastener can be expressed as:
Fi = K i = K ri

( 4.68 )

The moment is resisted by all the fasteners in the connection:


M Ed = Fj rj
j=1 n

( 4.69 )

where n is the number of fasteners in the connection. Using relation (4.68) in relation (4.69), the following relations can be written:
M Ed = K rj2
j=1 n

( 4.70 ) ( 4.71 )

K =

M Ed

r
j=1

2 j

Following this, the force Fi produced by the moment in the fastener i is:

Fi =

M Ed

r
j=1

ri

( 4.72 )

2 j

Based on the following notations: ri2 = xi2 + zi2 ( 4.73 ) ( 4.74 ) ( 4.75 )

Fix , M = Fi Fiz, M = Fi

zi ri xi ri zi

it can easily be proved that:

Fix , M = M Ed

(x
n j=1

2 j

+z

2 j

( 4.76 )

125

4. CONNECTING DEVICES

Fiz, M = M Ed

xi

(x
n j=1

2 j

+z

2 j

( 4.77 )

Fi =

(F ) + (F )
2 x i,M

2 z i,M

( 4.78 )

It is obvious that the most loaded fastener is the one situated at the greatest distance from the centre of gravity of the connection. For the problem in figure 4.46:

Fix ,N = Fiz,V =

N Ed n VEd n

( 4.79 ) ( 4.80 )

Based on relations (4.76), (4.77), (4.79) and (4.80), the resultant force in the most loaded fastener is obtained for the maximum value of the distance ri:
Fi ,max =

(F

x i,N

z z + Fix , M ) + (Fi , V + Fi , M ) 2

( 4.81 )

This force must be less than the capable force of the fastener:

for category A shear connections (bearing type):

Fi , max = Fv , Ed Fv , Rd Fi ,max = Fv , Ed Fb, Rd

( 4.821 ) ( 4.822 )

for category B shear connections (slip-resistant at serviceability LS):

Fi ,max = Fv , Ed ,ser Fs, Rd ,ser Fi ,max = Fv , Ed Fv , Rd Fi ,max = Fv , Ed Fb, Rd

( 4.823 ) ( 4.824 ) ( 4.825 )

for category C shear connections (slip-resistant at ultimate LS):

Fi ,max = Fv , Ed Fs, Rd Fi ,max = Fv , Ed Fb, Rd Fi ,max = Fv , Ed N net , Rd

( 4.826 ) ( 4.827 ) ( 4.828 )

Depending on the type of fastener, Ncap may be calculated using relation (4.55) for rivets and bolts in ordinary shear connections or relation (4.58) for high-strength bolts in slip connections.

126

4. CONNECTING DEVICES 4.3.6.3. Connection loaded normally on its plane (Fig. 4.47)

The model accepted by the Romanian code STAS 10108/078 [7] assumes the end-plate as infinitely rigid. A force acting on any direction in the centre of gravity of the connection uniformly distributes its effects to all fasteners in the connection. The model used for calculating the efforts produced by a bending moment M resembles to the one used for a reinforced concrete cross-section. A moment equation should be written by the centre of compressions (Fig. 4.47b):
M = Nj rj
j =1 n

( 4.83 )

Based on the infinite rigidity of the end plate assumption, efforts in each fastener are proportional to the distance ei from that fastener to the neutral axis (Fig. 4.47b).
Ni = K ei

( 4.84 )

where K is a constant. Nix ,N Niz ,T Nix ,M

x T z M

N ei ri hi

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

Fig. 4.47. Fastener connection loaded normally on its plane

A force acting on any direction in the centre of gravity of the connection in figure 4.471 uniformly distributes its effects to all fasteners in the connection. If a support is attached on the column by welding right under the end-plate, than the shear force VEd is transferred to the column by means of this support and no longer loads the fasteners. The model used for calculating the efforts produced by a

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4. CONNECTING DEVICES

bending moment MEd resembles to the one used for a reinforced concrete crosssection. A moment equation is written about the centre of compression (Fig. 4.47b):
x Ftr ,N z Fvr ,V x Ftr ,M

MEd

NEd hr CM

VEd

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

Fig. 4.471. Fastener connection loaded normally on its plane

There are several possible failure modes of this connection and they must be taken into account when checking the resistance:

failure of the bolt in tension; failure of column flange in bending; failure of end-plate in bending; failure of column web in tension; failure of beam web in tension; failure of beam flange in compression; failure of column stiffener in compression.

The models used in EN 1993-1-8 [14] are based on the equivalent T-stub (Fig. 4.472). Three possible failure modes of the T-stub are taken into account:

Mode 1: Complete yielding of the flange (plastic hinges) (Fig. 4.473) Mode 2: Bolt failure with yielding of the flange (Fig. 4.474) Mode 3: Bolt failure (Fig. 4.475)

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4. CONNECTING DEVICES

1 End bolt row adjacent to a stiffener 2 End bolt row 3 Inner bolt row 4 Bolt row adjacent to a stiffener Fig. 4.472. The equivalent T-stub

Prying force

Prying force

Fig. 4.473. Mode 1: Complete yielding of the flange

Prying force

Prying force

Fig. 4.474. Mode 2: Bolt failure with yielding of the flange

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4. CONNECTING DEVICES

Fig. 4.475. Bolt failure

Based on these models, considering several bolt-rows and bolt-groups, the capable force Ftr,Rd on each row of bolts is established and the capable (resistant) bending moment of the connection is calculated as:
n

M j, Rd = Ftr , Rd h r
r =1

( 4.83 )

where hr is the distance from the bolt-row r to the centre of compression. The centre of compression is considered to be in the centre of gravity of the compressed flange of the beam. The distribution of forces on bolt-rows (Fig. 4.471(b)) is not a simple one. The procedure is complicated and requires a lot of calculation. In the following, a simplified procedure (not always a safe one) is presented, as a first step in learning how to check such a connection and not as one to be used in practice. This simplified approach presumes the end-plate (and the column flange) as infinitely rigid. These equations are hard to be handled, so a simplified approach is used: the compression centre is on the same line with the rotation axis, which is situated on the last line of fasteners (Fig. 4.47e). In this case:
ri = ei = hi

( 4.85 )

where hi is the distance from fastener i to the line of least tensioned fasteners (Fig. 4.47e). Under these circumstances, the force produced in a fastener i by the moment MEd (Fig. 4.47e) is proportional to the fastener elongation li. This elongation is proportional to the distance hi, considering a rigid body rotation .
li = hi

( 4.86 )

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4. CONNECTING DEVICES

As all fasteners are identical, they have the same stiffness K. The tension force Ni produced by the moment in a fastener can be expressed as:
x Fti , Ed , M = K l i = K h i

( 4.87 )

The moment is resisted by all the fasteners in the connection:


x M Ed = Fti , Ed , M h j j=1 n

( 4.88 )

where n is the number of fasteners in the connection. Replacing (4.87) in (4.88), it can easily be proved that:
M Ed = K h 2j
j=1 n

( 4.89 ) ( 4.90 )

K =

M Ed

h
j=1

2 j

Following this, the force Fti,Ed,M produced by the moment in the fastener i is (Fig. 4.47e):

Ftix,Ed ,M =

M Ed

h
j=1

hi

( 4.91 )

2 j

and it has the maximum value for the maximum distance hi. The forces produced by the axial force NEd (Fig. 4.47c) and by the shear force VEd (Fig. 4.47d) are:
x Fti , Ed , N =

N Ed n VEd n

( 4.92 ) ( 4.93 )

Fiz, Ed , V =

When solving the problem in figure 4.47a, there are basically three groups of checks that need to be done:
A. Check in the longitudinal direction of the fastener (Fig. 4.47c), (Fig. 4.47e):
x x Fti , Ed , max = Fti , Ed , N + Fti , Ed , M max

( 4.94 ) ( 4.95 )

Fti , Ed , max Ft , Rd
where Ft,Rd is calculated using relation (4.54) or (4.54). where Ncap is calculated using relation (4.54).
B. Check in the plane of the connection (Fig. 4.47d):

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4. CONNECTING DEVICES
Niz ,T Ncap
Fvz, Ed , V Fv , Rd Fvz, Ed , V Fb, Rd Fvz, Ed ,V Fs, Rd

( 4.96 ) ( 4.96 ) ( 4.96 ) ( 4.96 )

where the transverse capable force Ncap is calculated using relation (4.55) for rivets and bolts in ordinary shear connections. For high-strength bolts in slip connections the following interaction checks apply. The relations (4.96), (4.96), (4.96) are chosen depending on the corresponding situation in table 4.4.
C. Interaction check, depending on the type of fastener:

Shear connections

A check based on the von Mises criterion is used. The normal stress and the tangential stress are calculated in the shared cross-section of the fastener. Relations (4.59), (4.60) and (4.61) are used. Relation (4.48) is used.

Slip connections

The longitudinal force in the bolt reduces the pre-load Nt and it unfavourably affects the capable force. The capable force is in this case:
x Nf = m nf f Nt Nix ,N + Ni,M

)]

( 4.97 )

Relation (4.53) or (4.53) is used. If the end-plate stands on a support that is welded on the column, it is considered that the shear force is directly transferred to this support and in-plane checks are no longer necessary, as the fasteners do not carry this force. When checking a spliced connection of a beam, efforts are distributed between the flanges and the web connection proportionally to the stiffness characteristic of the cross-section for that effort:

the axial force proportional to the area; the shear force to the web (proportional to the shear area); the bending moment proportional to second moment of the area.

Following this, the connection of the web and the connections of the flanges are checked separately.

132