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International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences

INT.J.PH.SCI.,JAN-APR, 2011;3(1):1162-1168 ISSN 0975-4725

Original Research Manuscript

Date of Submission: 29-03-2011 Date of Acceptance: 25-04-2011

Phytochemical and Pharmacological Potential of Plumeria rubra Linn. (Apocyanaceae): A Review

Jasmin Gopi *1, Mr. Pankaj Khatri1, Navinder Singh 1, Hitesh Gaud1 and Dr. Rakesh Patel2
1 2

Department of Pharmacognosy, Gyan Vihar School of Pharmacy S.G.V. University Jaipur (Rajasthan) Department of Pharmacognosy, Ganpat University Ahmedabad (Gujrat)

ABSTRACT Plumeria rubra Linn is an ornamental tree of the Apocynaceae or dogbane family and is widely cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions. These trees have very sweet-scented exotic flowers. The Tree has numerous usage such as- in treating ulcers, leprosy, asthma, diabetes and act as rubefacient. According to Ayurveda; root are bitter, carminative, thermogenic, Leaves are useful in inflammation, rheumatism, antibacterial, antifungal, bronchitis, Antipyretic etc. Plumeria rubra Linn. is nowadays, is gaining interest by the scientific reasearchers due to its folklorics and because of its therapeutic value, easy availability and degree of research work which is not done. This paper explains the evidence-based information concerning the phytochemistry and pharmacological activity of this plant Keywords: Plumeria rubra L, Apocynaceae or dogbane INTRODUCTION: - Plumeria rubra L (Hindi name: Lal champa; English: True Frangipani) belongs to the Apocynaceae family and have laticiferous trees and shrubs.

is a deciduous tree with thick, widely distributed in common rather moist garden, in lawns and in open plantation tree is unusual in appearance. Plant loses leaves for a short time during the winter. It grows up to height 25 feet with 35 spread. Plant growth rate is slow. About eight species of Plumeria rubra (L.) occurs in India.The ascending branches are ascending leaves are simple Alternate, spiral, petiole undissected, elliptic or ovate shape, base tapering (narrow attenuate) or oblique, margins entire or undulate, apex acuminate or acute or obtuse. Pink or red color flowers, spreading cymes fruits elongated.

The plants from this genus are widely


cultivated in the tropical and subtropical regions throughout the world.


They are recognized as

excellent ornamental plants and often seen in the graveyards. Plumeria plants are famous for their

attractiveness and fragrant flowers. The essential oils from the flowers are used for perfumery and

aromatherapy purposes. The decoction of the bark and roots of P. rubra is traditionally used to treat asthma, ease constipation, promote menstruation and reduce fever. The latex is used to soothe irritation.
(5) (4)

Flowering period is August to October.

According to Ayurveda; root is bitter, carminative, thermogenic, laxative, leprosy etc. Leaves are useful in inflammation, rheumatism, antibacterial, bronchitis, cholera, cold and cough, Antipyretic, antifungal, stimulant etc. (8)Looking to the scope of herbal drug and increasing demand especially in disease of liver, cancer, diabetes, hypertension, renal disease, inflammation, infectious diseases and skin diseases etc. The selection of the plant Plumeria rubra Linn. is made on the basis of

The fruit is

reported to be eaten in West Indies. In India, however, it has been used as an abortifacient. The flowers are

aromatic and bechic and widely used in pectoral syrups.The flowers decoction of P.rubra was reported to use in Mexico for control of diabetes mellitus. The Leaves of P.rubra are used in ulcers, leprosy, inflammations and rubefacient.

Plumeria rubra Linn.


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Jasmin Gopi et al: Phytochemical and Pharmacological Potential of Plumeria rubra Linn. (Apocyanaceae): A Review

its Easy of availability, Therapeutic value and degree of research work which is not done. PHYTOCHEMISTRY: - (10) The flowers contain volatile components including 1, 1 diethoxyethane, benzaldehyde, 6-methyl 5 heptan-2-ol,

tricycle [] octane, methyl benzoate, linalool, naphthalene, geraniol, citral, methyl 3-propenylbenzoate, nerolidol, benzyl benzoate, methyl salicylate..(11, 12) Most of these volatile components are expected to be lost during drying of the herb.

S. No. NAME DESCRIPTION 1. chemical name :- benzoic aldehyde 2. CAS:- [100-52-7] 3. Molecular formula: C7H6O 4. Others:I Artificial essential oil of almond II Used in manufacture of dyes, perfumery,cinnamic and mandelic acid, as solvents; in flavors III Toxicity data:- LD50 in rats and guinea pigs are 1300mg/kg 1. chemical name :- benzoic acid and methyl ester 2. CAS:- [93-58-3] 3. Molecular formula C8H8O2 4. Others:I. Used in perfumes II. Toxicity data LD5O in rats is 3.43g/kg i.g.(13) 1. chemical name:- 3,7-dimethyl-1,6-octadien 3-ol 2. CAS:- [78-70-6] 3. Molecular formula C10H18O 4. Others: I. It is the chief constituent of linaloe oil II. use in perfumery instead of bergamot or French lavender oil 1. Chemical name:- naphthalin 2. CAS:- [78-70-6] 3. Molecular formula:- C10H8 4. Others:I. Human toxicity poisoning may occur by injection of large doses,inhalation or skin absorption. (14) II. Therapeutically it has been used as antiseptic(topical and intestinal anthelmintic 1. chemical name:- 3,7-dimethyl- 2,6-octadien-1-ol 2. CAS:-[106-24-1] 3. Molecular formula:- C10H18O 4. Others:I. Isomeric with linalool II. Used in perfumery, as insect attractant 1. chemical name:- 3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadien 2. CAS:- [5392-40-5] 3. Molecular formula:-C10H16O 4. Others: I. Citral from natural sources is a mixture of two geometric isomers geranial and neral II. Used in synthesis of vitamin A; ionone and methyl-ionone III. As a flavor, for fortifying lemon oil, etc. 1. Chemical name:-Cis-(+)-1,6,10-Dodecatrien-3-ol,3,7,11-trimethyl, [S-(Z)] 2. CAS:-[142-50-7] 3. Molecular formula:- C15H26O 4. Others:- Found in essential oils from many flowers. 1. Chemical name:- benzoic acid phenyl methyl ester 2. CAS:- [120-51-4] 3. Molecular formula C14H12O2 4. Others:I. used as substitute for champhor in celluloid and plastic pyroxilin compounds; in perfume fixative; in confectionary and chewing gum flavors, etc II. Therapeutically it is been used as scabicide, pediculicide III. toxicity data:- LD50 orally in rats, mice, rabbits guinea pigs are 1.7,1.4,1.8 and 1.0 g/kg i.g, respectively. (15) 1. Chemical name:- 2-hydroxybenzoic acid methyl ester 2. CAS [119-36-8] 3. Molecular formula:- C8H8O3 4. Others:I. Used in perfumery; for flavoring candies etc II. therapeutically as counterirritant III. Human toxicity caution ingestion of relatively of small amount may cause severe poisoning and death.(av. lethal dose 10 ml in children and 30 ml in adult).(14)




Methyl benzoate












Benzyl benzoate


Methyl salicylate


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Jasmin Gopi et al: Phytochemical and Pharmacological Potential of Plumeria rubra Linn. (Apocyanaceae): A Review

The bark contains sitosterol, scopoletin, plumieride and fulvoplumierin. The root contains plumericine, isoplumericin, dihydroplumerzicin, - dihydroplumericinic acid, fulvoplumerin and plumeride isolated from the whole plant. (17) TABLE-2
S. NO 1. NAME Scopoletin DESCRIPTION Chemical name:-7-hydroxy-6-methoxy-24-1- benzopyran-2-one CAS:-[92-61-5] Molecular formula:- C10H8O4 Chemical name:-1-(-D-Glucopyranosyloxy)-4;7-dihydro-4-(1-hydroxyethyl)-5-oxospirol [cyclopenta[c]pyran-7(1H),2(5H)-furan]-G-carboxylic acid methyl ester CAS:-[511-89-7] Molecular formula:- C21H26012 Chemical name:-[3as-(3E,3a,4a,7a,9aR*,9b)] -3-ethylidene-3;3a,7a,9b-tetrahydro-2-oxo-2H;4aH-1,4,5trioxadicyclopent indene-7-carboxylic acid methyl ester CAS:[77-16-7] Molecular formula:-C15H14O6 Chemical name:- (E,E)-7-(2-Buterylidene)-1-7-dihydro-1-oxocyclopenta[c]pyran-4-carboxylic acid methyl ester CAS: [20867-01-0] Molecular formula: C14H12O4 Chemical name:1-(-D-Glucopyanosyloxy)-4a,7a-dihydro-4-(1-hydroxyethyl)5oxospirol[cyclopenta[c]pyran-7(1H),2(5H)-furan]-4-carboxylic acid methyl ester CAS:-[511-89-7] Molecular formula:-C21H26O12 Chemical name: Lup-20(29)-en-3-ol CAS:-[545-47-1] Molecular formula:-C30H50O Others:- it is an abundant plant triterpene Chemical name:-(3;22E)-Stigmasta-5,22-dien-3-ol CAS:-[83-48-7] Moleclar formula:-C29H48O Others:-It is isolated from the pytosterol mixture from Soy or Calabar beans Chemical name:- 3-Hydroxyolean-12-en-28oic acid CAS:- [508-02-1] Molecular formula C30H48O3

. Rubrinol; an antibacterial

triterpenoid, together with taraxasteryl acetate, lupeol, stigmasterol, oleanolic acid cycloart-22-ene-3, 25 diol was














Oleanolic acid





Int.J.Ph.Sci.,Jan-April: 2011;3(1)

Jasmin Gopi et al: Phytochemical and Pharmacological Potential of Plumeria rubra Linn. (Apocyanaceae): A Review


Methyl salicylate



Phytochemical studies on genus Plumeria started as far back as 1870 when Peckolt and Boorsma reported the isolation of the main iridoid glucoside Plumieride(1) from the stem bark of P. rubra and P. lancifolia respectively. structures of Plumieride (1), Plumericin(2), (3) Fulvoplumericin and scopoletin (4). Below are the


Int.J.Ph.Sci.,Jan-April: 2011;3(1)

Jasmin Gopi et al: Phytochemical and Pharmacological Potential of Plumeria rubra Linn. (Apocyanaceae): A Review


properties of the essential oils (at 2 l per disk) were determined using agar diffusion method. Eight different microorganisms were used in this study, that are Escherichia coli (Gram negative bacteria),

had reported the Cytotoxic

constituents of the bark of Plumeria rubra collected in Indonesia: Three iridoids (fulvoplumierin, allamcin and allamandin) and 2,5-dimethoxy-p-benzoquinone were active constituents of the petroleum-ether- and CHCl3soluble extracts whereas the iridoid plumericin and the lignan liriodendrin. were isolated from the aqueous extract of the bark which showed cytotoxic effect. Hamburger M.O medicinal plants

Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus (Gram positive bacteria), Candida albicans and C. humicola (yeast), and Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. rubrum and Microsporum Rasool S. N et. al.

had reported the

antimicrobial activities of Plumeria acutifolia stembark which was tested for antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria and fungi by disc diffusion method. The ethanol extract showed the strong in vitro antimicrobial activity. The extract did not show any toxic symptoms against the tested mice. Kuigoua GM

had reported the Thailand XVII



Biologically active constituents of Plumeria rubra: The compounds Plumericin and isoplumericin displayed molluscicidal, cytotoxic and antibacterial activity, 4hydroxyacetophenone was weakly cytotoxic, whereas the remaining glycosidic isolates (plumieride,13-Ocoumaroylplumieride,; inactive in all test systems Dobhal M.P

had reported the Minor

secondary metabolic products from the stem bark of Plumeria rubra Linn. displaying antimicrobial activities: Four new iridoids viz., plumeridoids A, B, and C and







epiplumeridoid C were isolated from the stem bark of Plumeria rubra Linn. compounds exhibited antifungal, antialgal, and antibacterial activities.

Structural Modifications of Plumieride Isolated from Plumeria bicolor and the Effect of These Modifications on in Vitro Anticancer Activity: Plumieride was isolated as one of the major components from the biologically active methanolic extract of the bark of Plumeria bicolor replacing the methyl ester functionality of plumieride with alkyl amides of variable carbon units improved the cytotoxic activity, and a correlation between overall lipophilicity and cytotoxic activity was observed.


Antioxidant / Hypolipidemic: Merina J


had reported the antioxidant

and hypolipidemic effect of Plumeria rubra L. in alloxan induced hyperglycemic rats: Flavone glycoside isolated from P rubra produced a significant reduction of serum triglycerides in alloxan-induced hyperglycemic rats and Antioxidant activity was confirmed through in vitro


Antimicrobial activity:Sulaiman S.F et. al.


studies had reported the 4. Antibacterial activity: Baghel A.S


Chemical components of the essential oils from three species of Malaysian Plumeria L. and their effects on the growth of selected microorganism: The major

had reported the

Antibacterial activity of Plumeria rubra Linn. plant extract: The in vitro antibacterial activity of ethanol, chloroform, ethyl acetate and aqueous extract of leaves of Plumeria rubra (L.) has been evaluated using disc diffusion method against bacterial strains. The

component that is found in all three species is 2hydroxybenzoic acid phenylmethyl ester. Those three species also shared two alkane hydrocarbons, that is nanodecane and heneicosane.The antimicrobial


Int.J.Ph.Sci.,Jan-April: 2011;3(1)

Jasmin Gopi et al: Phytochemical and Pharmacological Potential of Plumeria rubra Linn. (Apocyanaceae): A Review

comparative study of extract with specific standard (Ciprofloxacin) showed significant antibacterial activity

Researchers are exploring the therapeutic potential of this plant as it has more therapeutic properties which are not known.


Anti-oxidative and proteolytic activities: - . Freitas Cleverson D. T.


had reported

1) Radha R, Sinakumar T and Arokiyaraj S; Pharmacognostic Evaluation Of Plumeria alba linn, Reasearch J.Pharm. and Tech, 1(4), 2008. 2) Sulaiman SF, Yaacob SS, Lan TM and Tengku

the Anti-oxidative and proteolytic activities and protein profile of laticifer cells of Cryptostegia grandiflora, Plumeria rubra and Euphorbia tirucalli: Strong antioxidative activity of superoxide dismutase (E.C. was detected in P. rubra and C. grandiflora latices, and to a lesser extent ascorbate peroxidase (E.C. and isoforms of peroxidase were seen. Catalase (E.C. was detected only in laticifer cells of C. grandiflora. Chitinase (E.C. was the sole activity found in laticifer cells of E. tirucalli, but was also detected in the other latices. The strong proteolytic activity of C. grandiflora was shown to be shared

Muhammad T S; Chemical Components of the essential oils from three species of Malaysian Plumeria L and their effects on the growth of selected microorganisms, Journal of Bioscience, 19(2), 2008. 3) Tung AV; Pepohon Pinggir Jalan Daun Lebar 6. Selangor: Amiza Publishing Sdn. Bhd, 611, 1994. 4) Wiart C; Medicinal Plants of Southeast Asia. Kuala Lumpur: Pearson Malaysia Sdn. Bhd. (2002). 5) Zaheer Z, Konale A G, Patel K A, Khan S, Ahmed R Z; Comparative phytochemical screening of flowers of

6. natural

Anti-HIV activity:Tan, G.T. products


Plumeria alba and Plumeria rubra Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, 3(4), 2010. 6) Bobbarala V, Katikala PK, Naidu KC and Penumajji S; Indian Journal of Science and Technology, 2(4), 2000. 7) 8) Kirtikar and Basu., Indian medicinal plant, 4, 320. Rastogi B and Srivastava M; Journal of essential oil :( 60), 677, 2006. 9) 10) Kirtikar and Basu; The Wealth of India, 8,165. Safety assessment of herbs used by Vitasoy

had reported the Evaluation of as inhibitors type 1 of human reverse reverse

immunodeficiency transcriptase. .


(HIV-1) HIV-1


transcriptase assay which showed the inhibition of Inhibition of HIV reverse transcriptase

Conclusion Our pharmaceutical industry is focused towards the expansion of new innovative/indigenous plant based drugs through examination of leads from traditional system of medicine. In recent years, ethno-botanical and traditional uses of natural compounds, especially of plant origin received much attention as they are well tested for their efficacy and generally believed to be safe for human use. It is best classical approach in the search of new molecules for management of various diseases. Thorough screening of literature available on Plumeria rubra L depicted the fact that it is a popular remedy among the various ethnic groups, Ayurvedic and traditional practitioners for treatment of ailments.
14) 13) 12) 11)

international holdings Ltd. For producing a herbal drink. Zhu LF, Li YH, Li BL, Lu BY and Zhang WL; Aromatic plants and essential constituent. South china institute of botany, Chinese academy of botany, Chinese academy of sciences, Guangzhau, 89, 1993. Pino JA, Ferres A, Alvarez D and Rosado A; Volatiles of an alcoholic extract of flowers from Plumeria rubra L. var. acutifolia. flavours and fragrance journal 9,343345, 1994. Smyth HF, Carpenter CP, Well CS and Pozzani UC; Range-finding toxicity data. Arch Ind.Hyg.

Occupational Med. 10, 61-68, 1954. Gosselin RE Hodge HC, Smith RP, Gleaason MN (eds.); Clinical Toxicology of commercial products.


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Jasmin Gopi et al: Phytochemical and Pharmacological Potential of Plumeria rubra Linn. (Apocyanaceae): A Review

acute poisoning (Williiams and Wilkins, Baltimore, 4 (3), 242-246, 295-303, 1976. 15) Draize JH, Alvarez E and Whitesell M.F; 26)

Rubra L. in Alloxan Induced Hyperglycermic Rats. EJournal Of Chemistry,7(1),1-5, 2010 Ajay Singh Baghel, Chanchal Kumar Mishra, Asha Rani, D Sasmal and Rajesh Kumar Nema;

Toxicological investigations of compounds proposed for use as insect repellents A Local and Systemic effects following topical skin application; Pharmacol ExpH.Therap.93,26-29, 1948 16) Chen YH and Zang S; In Anonymous (ed). Xinhua Bencao Gangyao. Shanghai science and technology Press, Shanghai 418-419, 1991 17) Akhtar N and Malik A; Rubrinol a new antibacterial triterpenoid from from Plumeria rubra. Fitoterapia 65: 162-166, 1994. 18) Akhtar N; Isolation and structural studies on the constituents of calotropis procera, Plumeria rubra and Amberboa ramose, 1992. 19) Kardono LBS, Tsauri S., Padmawinata K., Pezzuto, J.M., and Kinghorn, AD; Journal of Natural Products, 53,1447-1455, 1990 20) Hamburger M.O, Cordell G A. and Ruangrungsi N; Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 33 (3), 289-292, 1991 21) Dobhal M.P, Li G, Gryshuk A, Graham A, 27)

Antibacterial activity of Plumeria rubra Linn. plant extract J. Chem. Pharm. Res., 2(6),435-440, 2010 de Freitas Cleverson DT , de Souza DP, Arajo ES, Cavalheiro MG, Oliveira LS and Ramos M V; brazilian society of plant physiology 22(1): 11-22, 2010

28) Tan, G.T; Evaluation of natural products as inhibitors

of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase, Journal of Natural Products 54, 143-154, 1991.

Bhatanager AK, Khaja S D, Joshi Y C, Sharma M C, Oseroff A,and Pandey R K; Structural Modifications of Plumieride Isolated from Plumeria bicolor and the Effect of These Modifications on in Vitro Anticancer Activity , J. Org. Chem., 69 (19), 61656172, 2004. 22) Sulaiman S.F, Yaacob S.S, Lan.T and Tengku Muhammad T.S; Chemical Components of the Essential Oils From Three Malaysian Species of Plumeria L. and their Effect On The Growth of Selected Microorganisms, Journal Of

Bioscience,19(2),1-7, 2008. 23) Rasool S.N, Jaheerunisa S, Kumar Chitta S &

Jayaveera K.N; Antimicrobial Activity of Plumeria acutifolia, Journal of Medicinal Plants Research,2(4), 077-080, 2008. 24) Kuigoua GM, Kouam SF, Ngadjui BT, Schulz B, Green IR, Choudhary MI, and Krohn K; Minor

secondary metabolic products from the stem bark of Plumeria rubra Linn. displaying antimicrobial activities Planta Med ,76(6),620-5, 2010 25) Merinda J, Sinanesan D, Begum V.H and Sulochana N; Antioxidant and Hypolipidemic Effect of Plumeria


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