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ELECTRICAL & PROTECTIONS

1.0 GENERATOR CIRCUIT BREAKERS Generator circuit breakers (GCB) are now being provided in CCPP and Thermal Plants. Upto synchronizing, UAT is energized from Generator Transformer. Static freq. converter (SFC) initially feeds power to generator terminals. After 70% Gas-turbine speed, SFC is switched off, and gas turbine takes over. At around 90% speed, machine is excited and then synchronized at GCB. For 500 MW air blast type GCB is used. For future, SF6 breakers suitable for high currents may be available. At present for upto 160MW GCBs are SF6 type. Such SF6 GCBs may also integrate all requirements of CTs, PTs, earth switches and surge protection etc., giving compact layouts. Modern breakers like FKG types of Alsthom make, have high interrupting capability i.e. high rate of rise of recovery voltage and use of small capacitors on GT side. They are capable of interrupting short circuits that are apt to affect busbars or transformers. They are also capable of closing on short circuit and carry normal currents without exceeding temp rises as per standards.
2.0 BUS DUCTS: CBIP - CEA MANUAL : PUBLICATION No 145, DEC.1982

Generator shall be connected by means of isolated phase bus-ducts: 60 MW Discontinuous type rated 4 kA.;110 MW Continuous type rated 8 kA.; 210MW continuous type rated10 kA. Peak current and one sec current withstand shall be based on sum of fault current contribution from system & from the generator. For generators with brushless exciters, rating shall be for 3 sec. since de-excitation time is about 2.8 sec. Isolated phase ducts shall be natural air-cooled. Bus bar conductors and the enclosures shall be capable to withstand a temp. of 85C & 70C respectively. Filtered hot air blowing arrangement shall be employed to prevent insulation value reduction when bus-ducts are not carrying any current. Present trend is to pressurize bus ducts to maintain IR value. 25 - 50 mm water col. press. is used. Independent system is preferred. IS 8084 applies to bus ducts. For 13.8 & 15.75 KV, appropriate insulation class is 17.5 KV RMS but IS specifies 24 KV as next class for use. 3.0 NEUTRAL GROUNDING It is always provided separate from system earthing. It is designed so that maximum fault current is limited to approx. 10 Amp. Earthing to be robust and reliable and is done as a rule via a transformer. The neutral point is connected to primary whereas secondary of the transformer is earthed via a resistor.
BHEL MANUAL ON GROUNDING:

Purpose is to limit damage at fault point, limit transient over-voltages and provide sensitive means of detection for generator insulation deterioration, also to limit mechanical stresses in generator windings, during fault conditions. As a rule is grounding is done through a transformer, secondary of which is grounded via a resistance or a reactance. Resistance type is widely used since all objectives are achieved but fault current is limited to 5 -10A, though early detection of faults is not achieved. Reactance grounding has increased fault detection sensitivity, esp. in case of high resistance type of faults in incipient stages. Fault current can be limited to 1A. In view of increased zero sequence voltage (applied to activate ground fault relay), detection of faults nearer to generator neutral is possible. It requires reactance value to match with actual capacitance value of TG circuit. Because of this and some more points, this method is not widely used. Earthing to be robust and reliable. Short term rating of transformer and resistor to suit tripping period of generator is selected: generally transformer for 10 minutes and resistor for continuous rating. Primary voltage of transformer is chosen same as generator phase to phase voltage instead of phase to neutral to avoid excess magnetizing rush when ground fault occurs. 4.0 MECHANICAL PROTECTIONS OF TGs Following protections initiate turbine trip for THW / THDF type BHEL generators: Liquid in terminal box, high cold gas temperature. High exciter hot air temp. High seal oil temperature from oil water cooler. High primary water temp. from the coolers. Low primary water flow at stator winding outlet. Low primary water flow at terminal bushings outlet. Generator circuit breaker & field breaker open on reverse power.

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5.0 TRIPPING ON ELECTRICAL PROTECTIONS


TRIP TYPE:: TT GCB FB

DIFFRENTIAL STATOR EARTH ROTOR EARTH OVER VOLTAGE OVER CURRENT UNBALANCE UNDER FREQUENCY UNDEREXCITATION W/O LOSS OF FIELD WITH LOSS OF FIELD REVERSE POWER LONG TIME SHORT TIME

(Operates only at turbine trip)

Negative sequence, short term I2 Sq t protection, loss of excitation protection, are provided. Separate protections are provided for continuous negative sequence in accordance with permissible values. 6.0 PROTECTION OF THW 210 GENERATORS BHEL RECOMMENDATIONS Resistor grounding. Minimum stator E/F protection: 95%. E/F current < 2A for 2 sec. Trip within 24 Hours on 1st rotor E/F alarm. On 2nd E/F machine to be auto tripped. Over-voltage relay at 120% rated voltage. Reset factor of the relay not less than 0.95 Tripping on exceeding specified loads. Negative phase sequence I2 .t = 8 (210MW) On continuous basis I2 < 5%. Loss of field protection allowed at 40% for 15 minutes etc. If grid cannot sustain on auto basis, tripping within 5 secs. Difference in any two phase currents by more than 20% shall cause instant trip. Inter-turn protection with instant tripping if out of balance current in two parallel paths exceeds 2 - 3% of rated current. Back up protection for generator main breaker failure shall be provided. Operation below 47.5 or above 51.5 Hz allowed only for a total of 2 Hrs. in entire life of set. Reverse power relay to be set at 0.5% of rated output with a time delay of 3 - 10 seconds. Generator differential, Stator earth fault, Rotor earth fault - 1 st and 2nd, Over-voltage, Overload, Negative phase sequence current, Inter-turn for stator winding, Reverse power; Loss of field shall trip the generator-turbine as per class of trip described above.

7.0 MECHANICAL PROTECTIONS OF THW 210 MW TG: Bearing babbit 75 High Check oil temperature and flow babbit 80 HH Trip B manual Oil outlet 60 High Check oil temperature and flow Oil outlet 65 HH Trip B manual H2 seal-oil inlet 45 High Check oil flow; Cooler, CW outlet 70 High Trip B manual DM conductivity: 20Mho Trip B Auto DM inlet temp. <39 Reduce CW flow 44 Check Cooler; Unload >48 Trip B manual Winding DM flow 21M/H Unload to 75% FL 13M/H - 4min - Auto trip B DM outlet 85 Check DM flow; Temperature, Cooler condition Winding temp. 75 Unload to normalize Difference in 2 RTDs >20 Run down; Manual trip B

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Cold H2 temp High High High H2 hot gas temp Core temp H2 purity H2 press. -

44 Check CW inlet temperature, pressure and unload 55 Unload, and Trip B manual 75 High Check CW pressure; Temperature; Flow. 95 High Unload. Trip B manual 95% Low Trip B manual 0.2bar Low Unchecked, trip B +0.2bar High Restore to normal CW inlet temp 20 Low Bring it up 37 High Scheduled unload 48 HighHigh Run down Trip B Liquid in Liquid Level Indicators : If CW, isolate cooler, unload. If seal oil, rectify; Trip B Manual. If DM water; Check H2 pressure. Rotor winding temp 115 High Check H2 temperature and pressure 120 HighHigh Unload.,Trip B

8.0 ELECTRICAL PROTECTION SETTINGS FOR TARI TYPE BHEL TGs Differential protection: To obtain high sensitivity, protected area to include generator only. Operating value: 0.2 - 0.4 In. Relay time: 60 milli sec. Additionally TG+ Transformer + Station service feeder, may be covered by second differential relay. Stator earth fault: Current to be < 15Amp. Relay time 1 sec. Desirable to cover entire winding range including neutral. Rotor earth fault: Alarm at R < 80 Kohm. De-excite and auto trip if R < 5 Kohm. Relay time: approximately : 1 sec delay. Under excitation: Alarm on reaching steady state limit. If excitation is totally lost, instant tripping. With brushless exciter, recommended to introduce a 2nd stator criterion covering range of permeance values 1/Xd and 1/Xd and to provide for instant tripping when this criteria is exceeded. Over-current: 1.3 In, Relay time < 6 - 8 sec. If connected to neutral point, it serves as back up protection to differential. Unbalance: I2 = 10%, I2 . t = 20 sec Rise in voltage: Advisable 2 stage relay: 1.45 Un instant and 1.2Un - delayed trip. Reverse power: Approx. 50 - 80% of reverse power. High setting at 20 sec and low setting at 4 seconds to prevent swings. Over voltage: Advisable to provide surge diverters for TG also- to be connected between phases and earth. Design value: 1.2 - 1.4 Un : Allows 50 Hz over voltage on load rejections. 50 Hz spark over voltage: Approximately: 2Un Test voltage. For stator winding being 2Un+1; Impulse spark over < 4 Un. Surge diverters to be explosion proof or other constructional measures be taken to avoid danger to persons or near by components in case of over voltages. Under frequency with voltage variation protections / controls as per V - f capability diagrams. NOTES:

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9.0 ELECTRICAL PROTECTIONS


9.1 STATOR EARTH FAULT

Type of earthing and earth fault current value decide the relay. For resistance grounded TG either definite time or IDMT ground over current relay is used. Lower CT ratio is selected for neutral CT to achieve optimum sensitivity. Standby E/F relay back up the differential or restricted E/F protection when provided against internal earth faults. Earth fault relay is normally used along with follower timer for a sensitive setting or 2-stage protection using 2 relays used.1st stage with sensitive setting 5% with a follower timer and second with coarser setting say 10% with instantaneous trip. This protection covers about 90-95% of winding. For remaining, 3rd harmonic injection or comparison based relay used.
STATOR WINDINGS FIG. DISTRIB. TRANSFORMER 64 S IDMT TYPE 64 S VOLTAGE OPERATED NEUTRAL DISPLACEMENT IDMT TYPE, 5 20 V 9.2 GENERATOR DIFFERENTIAL SENSITIVE CURRENT OPERATED LOAD RESISTANCE STATOR WINDINGS

High impedance type protection off CTs having identical ratio and rating is used. CTs are low reactance type class PS with minimum turns ratio error and of identical magnetizing characteristics. The relays are either current or voltage calibrated & tuned to system frequency, to ensure stability on through faults in presence of 3rd harmonic currents and transient DC offsets in fault current.
CT A (n/1) CT B (n/1) RL LEAD RESISTANCE

G
FIGURE 87

T
CT A Vs If ACTIVE If / n RST RCT 87 CT B SATURATED

Max. Vs that can appear under through fault = If /n {RCT + 2RL} Relay voltage setting to be greater than Vs. For current relay, choose RST such that Is remains below relay setting. CTs to have a knee point voltage greater than 2Vs, to ensure that current through relay is greater than twice the setting current, when internal fault occurs for fast & positive operation of the relay. Keen point voltage Vk of CT 2Vs or Vk = 2 If /n { RCT + 2RL}

Associated CTs will see current inrush into Generator for an internal fault. This results in high peak voltage across relay and CT secondary pilots. This value may exceed 3 KV, so it is customary to use nonlinear resistors Metrosits across relay branch, to limit such voltages within limits. Biased differential relay is used when TG + GT are treated as single zone. Y GT is

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compensated by Y CT connection. For unit auxiliary transformers, CTs are provided on UAT tap off.
9.3 UNBALANCED LOADING

Unbalanced loads in a generator cause negative sequence currents to flow. These currents create synchronous field in reverse direction. This field produces 2f (100Hz) currents to flow on rotor surface and cause intense heating especially at rotor ends. If current I2 increases preset value, Negative sequence relay gives alarm & trips the m/c if I2 t exceeds limits. VR + VB FIG. R IR IR VB
Y VR IB ZB 46 9.4 ROTOR EARTH FAULT ZR IR IB VB IY IB IY

VR + V B = 0

First or single rotor earth fault is detected based on DC injection principle. This method requires access to field circuit. For brushless exciters often instrument slip rings are provided to which relay can be connected. Relay is time delayed and mostly made to initiate alarm. It can detect fault even during machine standstill condition. If first earth fault appears, it is essential to protect rotor from second earth fault damage which is severe. This is brought in service in steps using 4 position selector switch. Relay is based on disturbed bridge balance that appears on first fault. By adjusting on a potentiometer, bridge is balanced. 2nd fault shall flow current thro 64R2 to trip. + FIG. 1ST EARTH FAULT E 1st E/F AUX. AC SUPPLY FIELD WDG. RELAY 64R1 EARTH FIG. 2ND EARTH FAULT + 2ND E POTEN. AUXILIARY 1ST A.C. SUPP.
E + O 64R1 O O O 1ST FAULT BALANCE TEST 2ND FAULT

TRIP

O O o o 64R2

O mA
o

9.5 FIELD FAILURE

Failure of brush-gear, accidental opening of FCB, failure of AVR, cause field loss. Two types of relays used: 1. Under current type and 2. Offset MHO relay. 9.5.1 Under current relay set at 8% Field current If is used with a follower timer. To overcome slip frequency currents, OFF delay and ON delay timers are used. These relays are unsuitable for large genrators since no load field current Ifo is small.
FCB FIELD WINDING
o o

EXCITER DISCHARGE RESISTOR +

50: FIELD UNDER CURRENT RELAY T1: OFF DELAY TIMER 0.1 1 SEC T2: ON DELAY TIMER 0.1 1 SEC T1 --

SHUNT

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50
9.5.2 FIELD FAILURE - OFFSET MHO RELAY

T2

Offset MHO relay monitors impedance at TG terminals. Without field, machine draws reactive current from system, the terminal impedance shifts from1st to 4th quadrant and settles within the relay characteristic. Used with 1.5 -2 S delay. Supplemented by under voltage relay overriding time delay to ensure stability when field failure occurs say at full load. MHO relay settings are: TG with rotor angle of 90 & X no lead PF operation: LOCUS Offset = 0.50 Xd o Diameter = Xd OFFSET R TG with rotor angle of 120 & LOAD IMPEDANCE lead PF operation: DIA Offset = 0.75 Xd OFFSET MHO RELAY Diameter = 0.5 Xd -X
9.6 BACK UP PROTECTION

It is provided for tripping, in case system faults are not cleared. For close up faults, AVR may not be able to boost voltage and hence low fault current levels are obtained. Voltage controlled over-current relays are used. The relay is designed to become more sensitive with voltage reduction and operates positively, even if fault current is less than rated. Voltage controlled overcurrent relays are used for directly 30 connected m/cs. Relay characteristic TIME OVERLOAD shifts from over- current to fault when SEC input voltage falls below preset level. FIG. 15 Relay is time coordinated with the FAULT down stream back up protections. 0 CURRENT For unit connected generators, single step offset MHO relay is used for back up impedance protection along with a follower timer. Relay is set to cover longest emanating line from station bus bars. Effect of in-feeds from parallel generator is also taken into account while setting the relay to the extent permitted by load. G FIG. LOAD RESISTANCE
E

GT Y Y Y
E GEN V.T.

BACK UP 21 IMPEDANCE RELAY

51N STANDBY E/F RELAY


E

INTERPOSING V.T.

Typical setting for back up impedance relay is thus: Zset = Z T + n ZL ZT is generator transformer leakage impedance, Z L longest line impedance, n = No of TGs. in parallel. Upper limit of Zset is however governed by maximum load on TG and should never exceed 80% of the load impedance. Since relay is connected at TG voltage level but measures line impedance (thro GT impedance), the input voltage from VT is phase corrected by providing -Y VT to compensate phase shift due to -Y Generator Transformer. Back up impedance relay primarily caters for phase to phase or 3 phase faults on the line. Earth fault back up is provided by standby E/F relay 51N operated off neutral CT on Gen Transformer star (HV) side. Thus, the back up impedance protection, together with standby earth fault protection, provide complete phase and earth fault protections to the Generator-Transformer combine.

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9.7 STATOR EARTH FAULTS: COVERING 100% WINDINGS

Phase to ground fault, depending upon fault location, increases electrical stresses on unaffected winding. Probability of 2nd ground fault increases. Serious damage may result, if a fault occurs near to neutral and is then followed by a 2nd fault higher up in same phase. This 2nd fault may result from insulation deterioration caused by transient over-voltages due to erratic, low current unstable arcing of the 1st fault. 2nd fault may result in high currents. To cover entire winding with earth fault protection, three methods are used: 1. Measurement of 3rd harmonic at generator neutral voltage. 2. Deliberate displacement of neutral potential with respect to ground, by injecting a voltage, at a sub-multiple of power frequency. 3. Comparison of 3rd harmonic voltages generated at both: neutral and line ends of the winding. English Electric uses 3rd method. 3rd harmonic voltage builds up across capacitive impedance of phase to ground. Due to ground impedance, neutral shall also have 3rd harmonic voltage to earth. Actual 3rd harmonic voltage is 1 - 3 % of rated voltage at no load. At loads, it can be 0.5 to 2.5 times the no load value. However VN3 / VL3 remains constant. When a fault occurs at point F, ratio VN3 / VL3 changes. Difference of V N3 and VL3 as a percentage of V 3, is sensed by relay PVMM. There is however a blind zone when the ratio V N3 / VL3 remains same in healthy as well as in fault condition. Relay shall not sense the fault. This is taken care of by the usual 95% winding coverage relay tuned to 50 Hz. Relay stability depends upon availability of both neutral and line voltages. Later can disappear if VT fuse blows. Therefore, VT fuse health is monitored by a circuit consisting of a reed relay, which gets energized if the fuse fails. N Rn VN3 V3 VL3 VN3F VN3Q
V3 VL3

N F V3

L VL3F VL3Q

VL3 VN3 N
0

BLIND ZONE

VN3

FAULT POSITION 0.2 0.6

L
1.0

9.8 ANTI MOTORING PROTECTION

For steam turbine sets, motoring power is about 0.5 - 6% of rated. Lower for condensing and higher for back-pressure. Gas turbines may draw 10 - 15% rated. Reverse power relay with time delay is used. While sensitive relay with about 0.5% power setting is required for STG, coarser setting of about 3% for gas turbine / engine driven sets is used.
9.9 OVER VOLTAGE PROTECTION

Over voltages may occur due to sudden load throw off and consequent turbine over-speeding. Although AVR controls voltages and speed governors control speed, back up may be required. Usually definite time over voltage relay is used. The relay should have high drop off /pick up ratio and preferably be of continuously adjustable setting.
9.10 FREQUENCY PROTECTION

Multi stage under frequency schemes are applied. Cumulative timers along with under frequency relays are used to initiate alarms, to isolate machine for a shut down if cumulative operation exceeds limits. Over frequency relays are used as a back up to mechanical over-speed protection. Under/over frequency relays are time delayed to prevent transient operation
9.11 OVER FLUXING PROTECTION

It is used to prevent over-fluxing of Gen-Transformer. Over-fluxing relay measures V/f ratio - an index of over-fluxing. Typical V/f settings are: 1 - 1.3 on 110V, 50Hz basis. Relays are definite

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time or inverse time versions with pre-trip alarm for corrective steps. Since immediate isolation of GT is not required, relay is provided with adjustable time delay, thus also preventing transients.
9.12 OUT OF STEP - POLE SLIPPING

Prolonged fault clearing time, low system voltage, weak field condition or some line switching operation may cause pole to slip. Rotor oscillations cause variations in Voltage, Current, PF and torque reversals. Loss of excitation protection relay may provide some degree of protection but can not be relied upon under all system conditions. Therefore, if during such condition, the electrical centre is located within the region confined by Generator / gen-Transformer impedance, separate out of step protection should be provided to protect the Generator. A practical scheme for detection of out of step condition (Pole slipping) is shown below. Impedance as measured at TG terminals changes most during pole slipping. Considering a Generator represented by E G, XG going out of step with the system represented by E S, ZS, the terminal impedance locus will be the perpendicular bisector of the total impedance XG XT + ZS, when EG = ES or will take a curvilinear shape when EG ES, as shown in figure. To detect a pole slipping condition, two OHM relays are used, with their characteristics being located on left of and parallel to total system impedance vector AC. These ohm relay have an operation area facing away from the direction of pole slipping impedance locus. The characteristics divide the diagram into 3 zones: C, D, and E. As the terminal impedance changes during a swing, impedance vector moves along the power swing impedance loci traversing the 3 zones, in turn causing sequential operation of the two ohm relays. System faults may cause the ohm relay to operate simultaneously but not sequentially. The criteria for operation of the output element is therefore, when the swing impedance locus crosses the 3rd zone E, causing sequential operation of the two ohm relays. Relays can be set not to operate, for swings upto 90 from which synchronism may be recovered. XG XT ZS EG ES X OHM
RELAY 2 ZONE E ZONE D ZS B 90 XT O XG

OHM
RELAY 1 ZONE C ` EG = E S POWER SWING LOCUS

EG > ES

R EG < ES

9.13 DEAD MACHINE PROTECTION

TG is protected at standstill or on barring gear, from accidental energisation. A high speed protection involving current detection in all 3 phases trips EHV breaker. Supplemented with under voltage relays, protection is coordinated to prevent mal-operation for close in faults.
9.14 NUMERICAL PROTECTION

Microprocessor based protection is user friendly with configurable software-based tripping matrix. It has also the following: Continuous self monitoring; facility to communicate with station control and with remote load dispatch control, thus reducing cabling. Events recording; flexible relay settings and reduction in CT / VT burden are possible. It has a library of protection functions that make it easy to apply, replacing large no. of discrete relays and reduction in panels. Protection functions in numerical

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relays are defined by software, resulting in better algorithms for individual functions and capability to adapt to changed operating conditions. Comprehensive multi-function MP-based TG protection relay has been developed by BHEL.
9.15 TRIPPING MODES

Shut down or simultaneous tripping: Class A or interlocked / sequential trip: Class B. Class A trips ST, TG, field breaker and unit aux. transformer LV breaker together. TG differential, overall differential, stator E/F, GT UAT, restricted E/F, 2nd rotor E/F, back up impedance or over-current protections initiate instant trip of whole unit on severe electrical faults. Class B is applied where elec. isolation of TG can be delayed. ST trips immediately. Tripping of TG, UAT, field circuit breaker is interlocked with low forward power relay. This avoids over-speeding of TG. Mode Class D is provided for GTG which involves tripping of GCB and excitation only. GT is not tripped. It can spin at no load w/o over-speeding. Class A trip affects GT life. 10.0 GENERATOR CIRCUIT BREAKER 10.1 A fault close to Generator Transformer terminals is most severe since only GT impedance limits short circuit current supplied from the power system. Generator breaker is designed for this capability. Transient Recovery Voltage is determined by the natural frequency of GTs LV winding. Values of 4 - 5 kV / Micro sec usually obtained. This voltage rise peaks at maximum current. The breaker complies with standards applicable to disconnecting switches and can act as one, even in absence of compressed air. Conventional arrangements without such a breaker, require a separate step down UAT for start up / shut down that energizes from HV side. With GCB, only one UAT is required. GCBs are designed to be connected directly to the busbars between generator and GTs. They render reliable operation in cutting currents upto 100kA 10.2 KAYAMKULAM CCPP( 2 x 115 + 1 x 120 MW ) GENERATOR BREAKERS Peak impulse full wave withstand:125kV, Rated SC duty cycle: CO - 30min CO, Rated SC symmet. current: 100 kA Rated SC assymmet. current: 147 kA Assymet. SC peak current: 274 kA., Short time current: 100 kA, 1 sec, Out of phase synchroniz. 50 kA, Interruption time: 3.5 Cycle GCBs are all provided with hydraulic mechanisms. They are in successful operation in all the three sets at Kayamkulam CCPP of NTPC. 11 DC SYSTEMS Unhealthy battery can lead to motoring or oil starvation in bearings. Ni-Cd and sealed maintenance free batteries are replacing Lead-Acid ones. Advanced battery testing and monitoring systems are said to be available now. They monitor, record and analyze battery condition, using Microprocessor and fibre optics based technologies. They continuously monitor cell voltages, inter-cell voltages and current, and log information during charging / discharging. Information is then analyzed using a software. When a damaged or poorly performing cell detected, alarm is set off, indicating cell no. and battery no., and nature of problem. Corrective measures can be taken well in time. NOTES

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: Author of this handout wishes to acknowledge Shree Y. K. Pandharipande, Consultant, Power System Control, Nagpur for the portion related to Electrical

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Protection Relays and Systems, which was largely borrowed from his publication. Any further queries can also be addressed to him at: Plot No 16, Nishad Aptmts., Dongre Layout, Shradhanand Peth, NAGPUR, PIN 440010, phone 236560.

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