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ROBOT ARM KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS INTRODUCTION Presently, robots are being used in processing operations, material handling,

assembly, and inspection activities. They are also useful in medical, space and nuclear applications. For most of the above applications, planning and accurate control of end effector motion are required. Robot arm Kinematics is the fundamental step useful for motion description, deriving the equation of motion, path planning, and programming. Robot arm Dynamics is useful for validating kinematic design, simulation, evolving sufficient control laws, and in AI related studies. Further, kinematics and dynamics knowledge is very much essential for computer vision, tele-robotics and space robotics. A large volume of literature dealing with this topic is available and the various works [1-24] provides a representative list. In this seminar, topics related to Robot arm Kinematics and Dynamics will be discussed. In this chapter the usefulness of robot arm kinematics, dynamics and various applications of robots are reviewed. ROBOT ARM KINEMATICS Robot Arm Kinematics deals with the analytical study of the geometry of motion of a robot arm with respect to a fixed reference coordinate system as a function of time without regard to the forces / moments that cause the motion. It deals with the relation between the joint- variable space and the position and orientation of the endeffector of a robot arm. The two robot arm kinematics problems 1.For a given manipulator, given the joint angle vector q(t) = (q1 () , - - - - qn ())T and the geometric link parameters, where n is the number of dof , what is the position and the orientation of the end-effectors of the manipulator with respect to a reference coordinate system? - Direct Kinematics (forward) 2.Given a desired position and orientation of the end-effectors of the manipulator and the geometric link parameters with respect to a reference coordinate system.

Can the manipulator reach the desired prescribed manipulator hand position and orientation? If it can, how many different manipulator configurations will satisfy the same condition? -Inverse Kinematics (more practical)

Since the links of a robot arm may rotate and/or translate with respect to reference co. frame, the total spatial displacement of EE is due to the angular orientation And linear translations of the links. Denavit and Hartenberg (1955) developed a matrix-based method, which uses a 44 homogeneous transformation matrix to describe the spatial relationship between two adjacent rigid mechanical links. Usefulness of Robot Arm Kinematics Robot arm kinematics knowledge is useful to describe the position and orientation of end effector/(gripper or tool or foot position) of various types of robotic arm namely the rigid link robotic manipulator, flexible robotic manipulator, space robotic systems, surgical robots, inchworm robots, serpentine robots, reconfigurable robots, bionic systems, snake like robots, tele robots, leg robots etc. the following illustrates some typical applications of kinematic knowledge.

Flexible Link and its Frames

3D Flexible Manipulator

FLEBOT II- Flexible manipulator

Long Reach Manipulator

High Accuracy Robotic Manipulator With 4 Revolute and 2 Prismatic Joints

Wheel leg Robot for Physically disabled persons

Camera Model

Snake 2 robot Hexapod robot

. Self-Reconfigurable Robots

ROBOT ARM DYNAMICS The kinematic formulation does not consider the forces/torques that causes the robot arm motion. The robot arm dynamics deals with the mathematical formulations of the equations of Robot arm motion where the joint torques/ forces, link weights or inertias are taken into account. For the joint force/torque analysis of the robot arm under low speed operation, mere static consideration along with gravitational effect is sufficient. However for high speed operation inertia forces of the links along with powered joints must be considered. The dynamic equations of mathematical equations describe the behavior of the manipulator. Some uses of such equations are For validating planned trajectory For developing robot arm control laws For robot arm design For AI studies and For the simulation of the robot arm.

The dynamic model can be obtained from the known physical laws. Some of the motion equation formulation techniques are, 1. Lagrange-Euler formulation 2. Newton-Euler formulation 3. Generalized dAlembert formulation. The two basic Robot arm dynamics problems are, 1. Forward dynamics Given the desired torques or forces, the dynamic equations are used to solve for the joint accelerations, which are then integrated to solve for the generalized coordinates and their velocities. 2. Inverse dynamics

Given the desired generalized coordinates and their first two time derivatives, the generalized torques or forces are computed. Lagrange-Euler equation The LE equation of motion provide explicit state equation ( closed form equations) for robot dynamics and can be utilized to analyze and design advance joint variable space control strategies. using the 4x4 homogenous transformation matrix representation of the kinematic chain and the lagrangian formulation developed by Bejczy [1974], the equation of motion can be derived.The motion equation so obtained can be used to solve both Forward dynamics and Inverse dynamics problems. Newton-Euler formulation Here the resulting dynamic equations are a set of forward and backward recursive equations. This formulation will not provide explicit state equations for robot dynamics. It involves vector cross product terms, resulting in compact and efficient set of equations facilitating real time control (the computational time of generalized forces or torques is linearly proportional to the number of joints of the arm and independent of the configuration) sequentially. Forward recursion propagates kinematic information from the initial coordinate frame to the hand coordinate frame and the Backward recursion propagates the forces and moments exerted on each link from the end effector of the manipulator to the base reference frame. Generalized dAlembert equation of motion This method yields closed form equation of motion. The equations are derived by applying Lagrange Euler formulation after determining the kinetic and potential energies of the robot arm. These energies are determined from the kinematic information of each link. The kinematics is described using the relative postion vector and rotation matrix representation. This formulaion is efficient and useful for controller and manipulator .This set of recursive equations can be applied to the robot links

design. The following examples elucidate some of the robot applications where motion equations are useful.

Robot For Percutaneous Needle Puncture Procedures

Information Flow in Robotic System for Minimally Invasive Surgery

Minimally Invasive Tele Surgery Robots

Total Knee Replacement Robot

Radio Surgery Robot This is a radio surgery robot that uses a modified industrial robot as a motion platform for the large radiation source mounted at the end of the arm. CONCLUSION In this chapter, the importance of robot arm kinematics and dynamics is elucidated. Robot arm kinematics and their types have been described. Certain typical applications where kinematics knowledge is applicable have been provided. Robot arm dynamics and the various motion equation formulation methods are briefly explained. Some delicate applications where the determination of forces and torques are unavoidable have been illustrated.