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Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium Proceedings, Moscow, Russia, August 1923, 2012 1575

A Method of PCI Planning in LTE Based on Genetic Algorithm

Hao Sun, Nan Li, Yanlei Chen, Jiangbo Dong, Na Liu, Yunbo Han, and Wei Liu China Mobile Design Institute, Beijing, China

Abstract Physical Cell ID (PCI) planning is one of the most important steps in whole Long
Term Evolution (LTE) network planning and construction. It is dicult to improve the QoS of Network by some traditional methods, such as antenna adjustment in LTE system. Assigning PCI reasonably is able to decrease interference and increase operation rate and performance of the network. A PCI planning system is presented in this paper. This system would analyze the interference of LTE system and build up an interference matrix. Then this system would use genetic algorithm to adjust the distribution of PIC to minimize the interference. Finally a PCI plan scheme would be given by this system. 1. INTRODUCTION

Physical Cell ID (PCI) is one of the most important cells identier in the wireless network of LTE system. Therefore, PCI planning is one of the most important steps in LTE network planning and construction. To assign and use PCI reasonably could reduce interference and increase resource utilization and QoS of the LTE system. PCI in LTE only has 168 groups, 504 in total [1], which is not enough for needs of LTE commercial networks. The main idea of genetic algorithms is that adaptable individuals in the group have more chance to hybrid in order to inherit good characteristics. In this way, the group as a whole could adapt to the environment. Genetic algorithm starts with a problem which could have potential results. Then, based on the principle of survival of the ttest, the problem would get the best approximate solution by the evolution of each generation. In each generation, the most adaptable individuals are picked to produce new population presenting new by combination, crossover and mutation with the genetic operators. This procedure would lead to evolution of the population to much more adaptable as in the nature. The best individual though decoding in the latest population could seem as the best approximate solution of the problem [2]. LTE network needs not only well Reference Signal Receive Power (RSRP), but also high Signal to Interference plus Noise Ratio (SINR). If PCI could not be planned well, it will cause high interruption of Reference Signal (RS). Then this situation would cause black hole of signal coverage. A method of PCI planning based on genetic algorithm is presented in this paper to assign PCI reasonably for LTE networks. This method could improve the PCI plan result to increase the QoS of LTE network.

The theoretical basis of genetic algorithm is schema theorem and building block assumptions. The basic follow of genetic algorithm is shown as Figure 1 [3]. Schema theorem has the character of low order, short length and average tness of the mode of degree higher than the population means tness in the ospring. A schema could contain many strings, and dierent strings could link to each other through schema. The string operator in the genetic algorithm is essentially a mode of operation. Statistics researches show that to obtain optimal feasible solution in random search should make sure that the sample of better feasible solutions must grow exponentially.
2.1. Mathematical Modeling

There are two ways of string and binary encoding in genetic algorithm. Binary encoding method is used in this paper. The result of this problem is presented by an n m two-dimensional matrix F . Figure 2 shows that dierent antenna numbers in LTE system would get dierent matrix F . Every element in this matrix is presented as fij , which the value is 1 or 0. When PCI j is assigned to cell i, fij = 1, otherwise fij = 0. In order to satisfy the demand vector, we need to make
m j =1

fij = di ,

which di is cell is PCI demand, n is number of cell, m is the number of usable frequency [4].

generate the initial population (generate several individuals randomly)

PIERS Proceedings, Moscow, Russia, August 1923, 2012

Evaluate fitness functions Meet optimization criteria



Find the best individual and finish


Figure 1: Follow of genetic algorithm. 2.2. Initial Population

There are two ways to initial population generally, one is random generation, which is used for the situation of solution to the problem without any prior knowledge, and another one is to transfer some prior knowledge to a group of essential requirements, then choose the population randomly from the results which meet the requirement. In order to get the optimal solution faster, the second way is used to initial population in this paper [5].

Genetic algorithm is packaged in this paper to realize the function of automatic plan for each cells PCI in LTE.
3.1. Theory of Automatic PCI Plan

There are several factors needed to consider during PCI code plan, such as PBCH, PDCCH and so on. In this system, user could choose one or multiple channels as the considerations during PCI plan. As known, the dierent channel has dierent parameter. For example, PBCH uses initial parameter Cell CInit = NID , (1)
Cell is PCI of this cell. PDCCH uses initial parameter which NID Cell CInit = ns /2 29 + NID ,

Cell is PCI of this cell. PCFICH uses initial parameter which ns is number of timeslot in frame, NID Cell Cell CInit = ( ns /2 + 1) 2 NID + 1 29 + NID , Cell is PCI of this cell. which ns is number of timeslot in frame, NID

Correlation of scrambling code in LTE is calculated by Rab = of LTE system, an improved method is used as follows: Rab 1 = N

Genetic operateor



Figure 2: Mapping of downlink reference signals.



1 N

N i=1

ai bi . Considering the delay

aM bi ,


N, (i + m) mod N = 0 (i + m) mod N, (i + m) mod N = 0


Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium Proceedings, Moscow, Russia, August 1923, 2012 1577

1. select cells 2 . generate PCI plan requirement list 3. select usable PCI


PCI plan requirement

4. generate cell interference matrix

3.2. PCI Automatic Plan

PCI plan module is used for assisting LTE network plan and optimizes and gets best solution of PCI plan. System would obtain cell information, such as frequency, and measurement report, etc. before PCI planning. Then system would assign PCI for cells in order to reduce the interference of the whole LTE network as far as possible. At last, the system would output the solution for users. PCI plan module is shown in Figure 3, which, the ow of PCI plan algorithm is shown in Figure 4.

All the algorithm and method introduced above are coded with C# and used in LTE plan tool ANPOP. This PCI plan system also needs Geographic Information System (GIS) as an addition condition. In this section, we use RS and PBCHs SINR to evaluate the eect of PCI plan method based on genetic algorithm by compare with the simulation result of manual and automatic PCI plan. At the same time, Monte Carlo (MC) simulation is also launched in this paper. Assuming there are 5 UEs every cell, service type is Full Buer FTP. The result of MC shows as follows: Manual PCI plan, average cell throughput is 16.3 Mbps, average cell edge throughput is 0.43 Mbps; Automatic PCI plan using genetic algorithm, average cell throughput is 20.1 Mbps, average cell edge throughput is 0.65 Mbps. To compare the two results, we could know that, using the second method could increase cell throughput 23.3%, and cell edge throughput 51.2%. According to the results above, the algorithm mentioned in this paper could reduce same frequency disturbance and improve SINR coverage of the network, and also could increase the throughput of the LTE network.

PCI plan system

Interference matrix

5. initial populate

PCI plan (genetic algorithm ) solution

6. evaluation 10. mutation 9.cross 8. selection Is get the best approximate solution No 7. Save the best individual, or replace the worst individual Yes 11. adjustment 12. output finish

Figure 3: Construction of PCI plan system.

Figure 4: Flow of PCI plan algorithm.


PIERS Proceedings, Moscow, Russia, August 1923, 2012

RS simulation result by PCI plan manually

RS SINR 15.0 =< X < 10.0 10.0 =< X < 3.0 3.0 =< X < 5.0 5.0 =< X < 10.0 10.0 =< X < 20.0 20.0 =< X < 40.0 40.0 =< X Area (km 2) 0.025 4.988 4.187 8.137 15.330 4.016 0.000 Persentage (%) 0.1 13.6 11.4 22.2 41.8 10.9 0.0

RS simulation result by PCI plan of genetic algorithm

RS SINR 15.0 =< X < 10.0 10.0 =< X < 3.0 3.0 =< X < 5.0 5.0 =< X < 10.0 10.0 =< X < 20.0 20.0 =< X < 40.0 40.0 =< X Area (km 2) 0.000 0.025 4.988 4.187 8.137 15.330 4.016 Persentage (%) 0.0 0.1 13.6 11.4 22.2 41.8 10.9

Figure 5: Simulation results of RSs SINR. 5. CONCLUSIONS

From the simulation result above, we could get the conclusion that assigning PCI reasonably is able to eectively reduce the interference in LTE system, especially in the case of constructing network using the same frequency, and to improve coverage and QoS of the network. As a result, PCI plan algorithm presented in this paper is suitable for multi-antenna LTE system.

Especially thanks to my lovely wife; I cannot nish this paper without her support.

1. 3GPP, Evolved universal terrestrial radio access (E-UTRA); Physical channels and modulation (release 8), 3GPP TS 36.211, 7274, Dec. 2009. 2. Shen, J. and S. Suo, 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE) Technical Principle and System Design, Posts & Telecom Press, Beijing, 2010. 3. Ngo, C. Y. and V. O. K. Li, Fixed channel assignment in cellular radio networks using a modied genetic algorithm, IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, Vol. 47, No. 1, 163 172, 1998. 4. 3GPP, Evolved universal terrestrial radio access (E-UTRA); Radio resource control (release 8), 3GPP TS 36.331, 7576, Dec. 2010. 5. Wang, X. P. and L. M. Cao, Genetic Algorithm Theory, Application and Software Implementation, Xian Jiaotong University Press, Xian, 2003.