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To accomplish our knowledge, apart from our will Lords blessings we always need the right guidance and assistance. So here on the verge of presentation of my technical training report, I thank all those who made my training a possibility.

I take this opportunity to thanks Mr. P.K. Jain (Senior Manager HRD, HZL Debari), for giving me this opportunity to work as a trainee in this prestigious firm. Special thanks to all the staff of HZL especially mechanical maintenance department for providing for providing the wholehearted co-operation and consistent advices.

Last but not the least, I thank everyone whom I came in contact directly or indirectly for teaching me things I didnt knew before.

Practical training is a way to implement theoretical to practical use. To become a successful engineer it is necessary to have a sound practical knowledge because it is the only way by which one can learn and acquire proficiency and skill to work efficiency at different industries/places. It is a proven fact that bookish knowledge is not sufficient because the things are not as ideal in practical field as they should be. In India a huge amount of public money is invested in government undertakings. A country like ours, which is based on mixed economy, attaches great importance to public sector like defense, chemicals, fertilizers, petroleum, electronics etc. There acceptability to public depends upon the way in which they manage and control their finance and gives a profitable system on after discharging their social responsibilities and that in terms which depends upon quality of production of good produced by them and productivity. It is matter of great pleasure that our college authorities have recommended a practical training of 30 days to supplement our theoretical knowledge acquire in the college. In Hindustan Zinc Limited, Udaipur which is one of the examples to understand the production process and productivity in particular of zinc. In this report an attempt has been made to study the overall production system and related action of zinc smelter, debari a unit of Hindustan Zinc Limited, Udaipur. That is engaged in production of high-grade zinc metal and other by product viz. Cadmium, sulphuric acid etc. Since 1968 by adopting hydro metallurgical technology. Montek Singh Soni B.Tech III YEAR (Mechanical Engg.)


Chief ore used for the extraction of zinc metal is ZnS(Zinc Blend). This ore is collected from different mines such as Zawar mines, Agucha mines and is unloaded at the yard. Typical concentration of blended concentrate is Zn Cd Cu Ni Co As S MgO Fe CaO Pb Sb 53.0 0.23 0.11 0.0057 0.0045 0.014 31.0 0.24 9.0 0.05 1.7 0.09

The moistened ore is then led into the roaster furnace through a bet conveyor. Ore should be moistened properly as per requirement. Since, zinc in concentrates are roasted to convert sulphide, and hence suitable for electrolytic production of zinc metal.

There are two roasters at debari zinc smelter. Important details of the roaster are: -

I TYPE Supplier Capacity(TPD dry) Hearth area(m3) Hearth dia.(m) Roaster air flow (m3/hr) Roaster bed temp. (oc) Fluo solid M/S lurgi chemic and hutten tech. 120 18 5.65 10000 950

II Fluo solid Germany 227 35 6.65 20600 920-950

FLUO SOLID ROASTER In roaster, roasting is based on fluo solid technology where the material (concentrate) is kept in fluidized state by flowing air through nozzles in the roaster hearth from the bottom of furnace. Temperature in roaster is maintained at 900-950oC. Being it is an exothermic reaction, no external heat is required except initial start up. For initiating roaster, there are oil burners, which raise the temperature to 350-400oC, and after that temperature up-to 950oC is increased by exothermic reaction. Roaster air blower is of centrifugal type having capacity of 25000 m /hr. It supplies the air through the steel duct into wind bose and then through the nozzles embedded in the ceramic hearth of castable refractory material. There are 3575 nozzles of 6mm internal diameter. The furnace cell is provided with:

Two holes for blend feed at a height of 1800mm from bottom and 2 no. Of burners holes with capacity of 250 tonnes/hr each. Calcine production is around is 9.5 tonnes/hr at blend feed rate of 9.5 tonnes/hr. Calcine obtained after roasting is recovered through overflow and underflow constitutes nearly 30% of total calcine produced and the rest 70% of the calcine is carried away by roaster gases, which passes through the gas cleaning section. TABLE SPECIFICATION OF ROASTER: NEW Feed rate of raw Material Area of furnace No. Of nozzles 227 T/D 35 m2 100 /m2 OLD 120 T/D 18.5 m2 55 /m2

OTHER INFORMATION: Feed machine speed Air flow Tip opening of the nozzles Oil pressure of the burner : : : : 70 kph 9500 mm3/hr. 6 mm 10 kgf/cm2

The underflow of the roaster is conveyed by 2 nos. of cooled screw conveyors of 5 ton/hr. capacity. Calcine from waste heat boiler, at a temperature of 350oC, is collected into air-cooled redler conveyor of 10 ton/hr. Capacity. The discharge of these conveyors will go through no. 5 redler conveyor. Discharge will also to move to no. 6 redler conveyor. Remaining calcine will also get collected in no. 6 redler conveyor installed under hot gas precipitator. Finally, the entire calcine at a

temperature of around 200oC will go to a bucket elevator of 20 ton/hr. Capacity. Lastly, it is collected in a silo of 4000 MT capacity. GAS CLEANING SECTION: The SO2 gas having 70% of calcine is first passed through waste heat boiler(water tube).where the temperature of gas is reduced to 330oC, and pressure is maintained at 40 kgf/cm. The steam produced here is used in leaching section as well as to drive turbine in case of power failure. As the gas cool down here, the calcine particles is recovered here. The tubes in the boiler are U-shaped. The gas is then passed through cyclones where the centrifugal separation takes place, and the calcine is recovered here. The gas is then passed through the HOT GAS PRECIPITATOR in which opposite field is created with the help of very high D.C supply of about 7600V. The gas is now fed scrubbing tower with the help of intermediate draught fan. In scrubbing tower water is sprayed from the top through nozzles installed at the top of the tower. Here calcine gets moisturized and settles down and SO2 gas, which is insoluble in water, is passed out from the scrubbing tower. Gas and water pass in counter current direction. Major portion of water is used to flow to the pump tank and part of it flow to the pump tank and part of it flow into the sedimentation tank where solids which come from the gas are allowed to settled down and then the clean overflow is again led into the pump tank. Gas is then fed to SINGLE STANDPIPE STAR COOLER which acts as a heat exchanger in which the water circulates and reduced the temperature in which the water circulates and reduced the temperature from 57oC to 47oC. It is a Shell and Tube heat exchanger. Gas containing some calcine matter is then fed into WET GAS PRECIPITATOR where gas is cleaned. SO2 is fully cleaned here and the temperature is reduced to 35o C-40oC, and the gas is now sent to acid plant. Sulphuric acid of 98.5% is produced through absorption.

CONDITION PREVALANT FROM ROASTER TO WET GAS PRECIPITATOR Roaster temperature Water heat boiler: Incoming gas temperature Outgoing gas temperature Pressure in boiler Cyclones: Incoming gas temperature Outgoing gas temperature Hot gas precipitator: Incoming gas temperature Outgoing gas temperature Potential difference across electrodes Scrubbing tower: Incoming gas temperature Outgoing gas temperature Single standpipe star cooler: Incoming gas temperature Outgoing gas temperature Wet gas precipitator: Incoming gas temperature Outgoing gas temperature 47oC 35-40oC 57oC 47oC 330oC 57oC 330oC 330oC 7600 V D.C. 330oC 330oC 950oC 350oC 35-40 kgf/cm3 900-950oC

ACID PLANT Roaster gases coming out from the roaster mainly consists of SO2 due to the reaction. 2ZnS + 3O2 2ZnO + 2SO2

This SO2 gas contains nearly 70% of the total calcine produced and calcine is recovered as discussed in previous article. SO2 gas may cause cardiac, respiratory diseases, eye irritation etc., so it is not discharge into the atmosphere but is used for production of sulphuric acid in the acid plant by DOUBLE CONVERSION DOUBLE ABSORPTION (D.C.D.A.) method. Sulphuric acid plant has a capacity to produced 200 tonnes of sulphuric acid and has been installed on turnkey basis by M/S Dharmasi horaji Chemical CO. Mumbai with technical know how from M/S Lurgie Chemic Und Huttenttchnik, West Germany. The moisture content in So2 is removed in drying tower. Temperature of dry SO2 gas is raised to 440oC in a shell and tube type heat exchanger. With the help of SO2 blower, it is led into a convertor where SO2 get converted into SO3 in the presences of vanadium Penta Oxide (V2O5) by the following reaction. 2SO2 + O2 2SO3 + HEAT

SO3 gas now absorbed in absorption tower to produce 98% sulphuric acid. Convertor is a basically, two-stage convertor. Heated SO2 is a led into 2-stage convertor consisting of V2O5 crystal as a result of which, SO2 get converted into SO3. This SO3 gas is led into intermediate. Absorption tower and is absorbed by dilute H2SO4. This result in the formation of concentrated H2SO4. Gas coming out from Intermediate Absorption Tower some SO2 which is sent the second stage of convertor where it is again converted into SO3 and is absorbed in final Absorption Tower. The acid so produced in nearly 87000TPD. Remaining gases are then discharged into the atmosphere through a 30 m high chimney.


INTRODUCTION Leaching is a selective dissolution of ore minerals/oxide minerals in acids, alkalis or solution of other reagents according to the condition adjusted in a manner to leave maximum gangue in the insoluble residue. Calcine comes in the hopper the help of bucket elevator. From the hopper the calcine is coming to reddler conveyor through a rotary valve. By adjusting speed of the rotary valve calcine rate can increased or decreased. The reddler conveyor is discharging calcine directly into bazooka. The calcine if in excess is stored in silos. The average rate of calcine consumption is 11MT/hr, whereas the rate of solution supplied is 90 m3/hr. This corresponds to 140-150 MT of zinc ingot per day. Total calcine storage capacity in the leaching plant: Total capacity Old sios(nos. 1,2,3) New silos(nos. 4,5,6) = = = 3930MT 630MT each 680MT each

This department consists of following section: Neutral leaching Acid leaching Purification Residue treatment plant Cadmium plant

NEUTRAL LEACHING The iron leached from fine particles of ZnO.Fe2O3 will be precipitated as hydroxide in neutral medium according to the reaction. Fe2(SO4)3 + 3ZnO + 3H2O2Fe(OH)3 + 3ZnSO4 This ferric hydroxide precipitates and settles in neutral thickener specially with arsenic, antimony and germanium which are highly detrimental in electrolysis. Thus with the help of iron these harmful impurities are removed, so neutral leaching is often called iron purification. Total no. Of bazooka Capacity Working capacity = = = 8 50m3 each 45m3 each

In neutral leaching, if pH is too low (pH<2.5) the silicate will be leached will interface in setting and then in the filtration after purification. If pH is too high (pH>5.0) basic sulphate will be formed and hence clogging in wet ball mill and the thickener underflow will take place and undissolved calcine will be left, hence the recovery efficiency will be affected. Wet ball mill is used to grind unleached coarser particles separated by spiral classifier. Its capacity is 1MT of solids per hr. Spiral classifier is semi circular screw conveyor to seperate coarser solids which settle down. Dorr thickener a circular sedimentation tank with a centrally mounted rake with central inlet of slurry and periphery outlet of clear solution. Thickener is a circular tank with conical bottom provided at the centre with an inlet well. To accelerate setting of fine particles, flocculent is added. Settled material is swept from the edges to the centre by a device consisting of a shaft that carries obliquely fitted paddle shaped rakes.

Calcine which is coming from the roaster is leached in continuous mixing agitator is provided. Temperature of 65-70oC is maintained throughout in all the bazookas at a pH of 4.5-4.7 to maintain this temp. steam coil device is provided. Soluble oxide gets dissolved producing respective sulphate. MnO2 is added to oxidise ferrous to ferric hydroxide which absorbs some impurities like As, Sb, and Ge and precipitate at 4 pH. The neutral slurry is settled in dorr thickener where floccunt is added as a settling is, the clear overflow is sent for purification where underflow is sent to acid leaching. The Zn in calcine is present as: Zno ZnSO4 ZnS ZnO.Fe2O3 81-83% 6-7% 1-2% 10%

In the first stage of neutral leaching the solution will be slightly acidic and hence pH is maintained at 2.8-3.2, so that in neutral leaching ZnO.Fe2O3 also get leached. The main reaction is: MeO + H2SO4 MeSO4 + H2O

Where, Me=Zn,Cu,Ni,Co,Mg,Ca and Pb The pH of the solution discharged after completion off leaching is 4.5-4.6 and at that pH, acidity is negligible and the solution is of weak base and strong acid. Hence it is called neutral leaching.

Parameters that are maintained in neutral leaching: Total iron Initial pH Final pH Fe++ Temperature Reaction time 2.5-3.0 gpl 2.8-3.2 4.5-4.6 5 mgpl 65-70oC 150-180 minute

This operated is carried in 6 mild steel, lead and brick lined bazookas having capacity of 45 m3 at temperature of 80oC . the underflow from the neutral leaching containing dissolved ZnO and ZnO.Fe2O3 is leached with spent electrolyte to the pH of 2.8. Alternate bazookas are provided with heating coils through which steam is passed. Reaction time is 5 hr. Most of the soluble oxidize go into the solution. The settled in two dorr thickeners with the counter current decantation. The overflow containing 30-40 gpl of Zn is sent to neutral leaching. Underflow is pumped to two drum filters (vacuum based).

Acid overflow Zinc Iron As 100-110 gpl 400-500 gpl 4-5 mgpl

Acid under flow Total Zinc A/s Zinc Solids 18-20% 2% 300-400 gpl

The first stage purification cake containing Cu, Cd, Co, Ni along with excess of zinc issent to cadmium plant for recovery of Cd. Excess of zinc is removed by washing the cake with respect of Cd is also attained sufficient precaution is taken because hydrogen and toxic gases are evolved during Zinc dissolution. Enriched cake is treated with Zinc-spent acid, concentrate sulphuric acid and cadmium spent acid to dissolved Cd. Air agitation and addition of MnO2 helps quicker dissolution. Filtered solution is purified from Antimony etc. by iron purification of controlled pH. Purification solution is now treated with Zinc dust in order to precipitate cadmium, which is filtered out. The cake is known as CADMIUM SPONGE. This is dissolved in exhaust electrolyte of Cd cells or fresh concentrated H2SO4. After filtration and removal of copper, solutions electrolyzed in cells to deposit Cd on Aluminium cathode. Electrolysis is carried at current density of 40 amp/m2 and cell voltage of 2.4-2.6 volts.

INTRODUCTION Purification of zinc sulphate is necessary as certain element even if amounting to milligram per litter may cause: 1. Hydrogen evolution and dissolution of zinc by reducing impurities like Fe++, Co, Ni, As and Sb. 2. Zinc is electropositive to ordinary metals like copper, iron, cadmium etc. Therefore during electrolysis these elements will tend to deposit along with zinc, affecting the purity of the final product and current efficiency. Parameters maintained in purification Temperature Co : Sb Cu in NOF Added zinc dust 82-85oC 1:.2-.3 200 mg/l 2.5-3.0 gpl

Principle The clear overflow from the neutral thickener is fed into the purification stage. The purpose of this stage is to remove base metal impurities like Cu, Cd, Ni etc. Which are harmful to the electrolysis of zinc. All these elements are removed by precipitation with the help of zinc dust. Zinc being placed higher than all the elements in electrochemical series of elements, displaces them from solution of sulphates to zinc sulphate(cementation process) as per the following reaction: Zn + MSO4 ZnSO4 + Mppt

Addition of antimony tartarate and copper sulphate 9if required) has the rate of reaction to ensure complete removal of impurities, while Zn-Cu couple is more effective in removal of Ni, the presence of PAT ensure the availability of free metallic surface of zinc particles for effective removal of cobalt. Removal of cu & Cd posses a little problem.


The zinc ferrite ZnO.Fe2O3 in the acid thickener underflow gets leached in the conversion and simultaneously the leached iron is precipitate as zerosite. Here the reaction is carried out in three stainless steel/lead/brick lined reactors of 300 m3 capacity each, at a temperature if 95oC to 100oC. Some amount of MnO2 s also added to take care of reducing impurities. In this operation zinc ferrite is broken into zinc and iron is precipitated as complex known as zerosite. The main reaction is as follow:

3ZnO.Fe2O3+12H2SO43Fe2(SO4)3+3ZnSO4+12H2O The zerosite precipitation is according to the reaction:


The zerosite slurry from these reactions is settled in the dorr with counter current decantation. Zerosite from the last thickener continuously pumped to drum filters operating under vacuum, where zerosite cake separates & filtered again to recover water soluble zinc. The cake is subsequently repumped & pumped to ETP where it is neutralized to 8pH and discarded into lagoons. The overflow from the dorr contains 80-100 gpl zinc and 5 gpl iron is send to neutral leaching.


Zinc cathodes stacked on wooden ballets are transported from cell house by an electrically separated forklift struck, weighed and restacked on to roller table of the Demag or SICO induction melting furnace. The demag furnace has a holding capacity of 20 tonnes and can melt up to 4 tonnes per hr. This is a main frequency, external channel tilting type induction furnace. The induction coils, which are air cooled by fans, are mounted on three side of the furnace around the melting chamber. The molten metal around the coils flows into the melting chamber into which cathode packets are continuously charged in a column by a hydraulic table at the end of the feed roller table the furnace is refractory brick lined and then with a ramming mass. The metal passes below a bridge into the fore hearth of the furnace from where it is manually bailed out & cast in a raw of C.I. moulds which are cooled by a water spray can be tipped on the mould table to disloged the ingots are stacked last of 88 nos. With the bottom raw having legs to facilitate listing by fork lifter. Each hot weighs around 2 tonnes the molten zinc is passed through three doors situated by the side of each of the 3 sets of inductor using ammonium chloride flux. The power can be supplied to the three coils in series or parallel connections by an automatic trip changer which controls temp. around 480oC depending on the melting rate the main advantage of this new Demag furnace over the earlier SICE induction furnace is that in case of a clogging of the channel only the affected chamber can be changed. Quickly without affecting the main lining as they are external coils and the furnace can be tilled out. In case of SICE furnace, which is a stationary type with the chamber and the fore hearth any restriction or damage necessities a long shut down for the entire relining to redone.

This furnace also has a disadvantage in that the coils are water cooled. Where a possibility of clogging always exists, to give rise to over heating, where as in Demag fue=rnace they are air cooled by fans mounted on each coil chamber. The melting efficiency runs between 96 to 97% Furnace I Make Inductor cooling Induction design Holding capacity Melting capacity Power Voltage Melting efficiency Demag, Germany Air cooling 3 units, 2 coils 30 tonnes 4 ton/hr. 400 KW 440-600 V 95.5% Furnace II Ajax, England Air cooling 1 unit, 2coils 25 tonnes 4 ton/hr. 400 KW 100-500 V 93%

The zinc dust plant is setup with an intention of producing zinc powder, which is used in Leaching & purification. In this point, the molten zinc is fed into a metallurgical cake column, which acts as a resistance where an electric current is passed through it. This causes zinc to boil and vapours passed into a condenser system with a recalculating inert gas steam. Zinc dust so formed settled in condenser tanks and is removed. There requirement are as follows for a metal capacity of 6 TPD. 1. Raw material 2. Power 3. L.D.O. 4. N2 gas 5. Cake 6. Cooling water PRODUCTS Zn dust Zn dross Loss : : : 94% 5.5% 0.5% 1060 kg of Zn strips on ingots 950 KW hr/ton of zinc dust 50 lit/ton of zinc dust 1.25 m3/ton of zinc dust 2.6 kg/ton of zinc dust 0.274 m3/hr.

The main sections of Zn dust plant are: 1. Electrochemical furnace 2. Condenser 3. Cyclone cooler and bag filter

1. Electrochemical furnace: Specification: a) Area c) M.O.C. insulated d) Power e) Temperature : 52 sq. M 380-400 mm : : : Heat resistance lined with refractory bricks 360 KWA 450-500oC b) Cake thickness :

The electro-thermal furnace consists of a column of sized metallurgical cake contained in a refractory shell, shaft which is fitted upper & lower graphite electrodes. Ore is situated at the bottom of column and other near the top. The electrodes enter the cake column and ore connected to power supply. Zn ingots are fed into a melting both liquid metals run into a distribution system. The Zn vapour thus formed passed into a condenser system via a cross over tube. 2. Condenser:Specification: a) M.O.S. b) Area : : M.S. 65 m2

The condenser consists of three tanks equipped with copper bottoms and discharged gates. A recycle system is installed where by inert gas is mixed with vapour at the point exit from cross over tube. Zn dust thus formed falls into copper bottom & discharges automatically in bins through discharge gates.

3. Cyclone and bag filter:A very fine particle of Zn dust thus passes over from condenser enters into the cyclone and bag filter. In cyclone the Zn dust particles settles down and are removed from the bottom. The Zn dust obtained is of 125-300 mesh size. These are collected in bags and taken to leaching plant.


Now a days Environment is very important. The effluent coming out a plant contains a higher level of metal content hence prior to discharge these effluent metals should be removed. In zinc smelter there are two major streams:(1) (2) Acid circuit: now days dominate part. Zinc circuit: Not much quantity.

To receive the effluent there are three sumps A01, A02, A03.From these sumps effluent is taken into reactors of 130m3 capacities. Then hydrated lime Ca(OH)2 is mixed to maintain the pH 9. All metallic impurities get settled down in hydroxides form. This slurry goes to dorr thickener. Overflow of thickeners goes to another reactor where Alumina ferric is added to control fluoride. Underflow of thickener goes to zerosite pond. Composition of zinc stream before treatment 1. Flow : Normal : Peak 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. pH Zinc as Zn Suspended solids Chlorides Iron as Fe Cadmium Fluorides/Phosphate 120 m3/hr. 160 m3/hr. 1.5-3.5 500 to 2000 mg/l 500(max.)mg/l 150 to 300 mg/l 13 to 50 mg/l 2 to 5 mg/l Traces mg/l

Quality of treated effluent

pH Zn Fluorides Phosphate 8 to 9 2.0 ppm 1 ppm to 1.5 ppm 5 ppm

The Debari Zinc Smelter (DZS) is producing Zinc by Hydro Metallurgical process. For this purpose it is having three main plants viz. Roaster & Acid Plant Leaching & purification Plant Zinc Electrolysis Plant These plants are accompanied by D.G. sets as stand by for power supply. These all plants fully modernize & well equipped with various type of machinery, pipes & pipe fitting , various types of valves & instrument, bucket elevators different kinds of pumps, electric motors, boilers & other equipment in order to meet the requirements. It is a well known fact that whenever a part of any machine or other equipment gets damaged, during the running operation, it becomes essential to repair or replace that part immediately to run the plant without break down and efficiently for long period. Considering, above fact and looking to the size of the unit, it becomes necessary that DZS should have its own workshop with all required facilities to meet this circumstance i.e. to repair any machine part without losing much time. The machine workshop of DZS having different types of machines tools for particular job or work along with cutting tools welding tools welding process equipment.

EQUIPMENT/MACHINE MAINTAINANCE PROGRAM At DZS following maintenance systems are being followed for machine maintenance as a part of overall up-keeping of plants: Preventive maintenance Shut down maintenance Opportunity maintenance Reactive maintenance Condition based maintenance CENTER LATHE Function:The main function of centre lathe is to remove metal from a piece of work to get the required shape & size. This is accomplished by holding the work rigidly on the machine and then turning a cutting tool then removes metal from the work in form of chips. Principle Parts:1. Bed 2. Head-stock 3. Tail-stock 4. Carriage 5. Feed mechanism 6. Screw cutting mechanism

Accessories and attachment:They are additional equipment used for specific purpose, are as follows: Lathe Centres Chucks Carries Catch plate Face plate Mandrel Lathe operation:Following machining operations can be successively performed on lathe machine: 1. Cantering 2. Turning 3. Taper turning 4. Chamfering 5. Thread Cutting There are five lathes in DZS namely: SCVL FORT(FRENCH) LATHE THE MYSORE KIRLOSKAR LTD. CELTIC-20 FRANCE LB/17 M/6 NO. 7815 LB/20 M/6 NO. 2082 6. Facing 7. Grooving 8. Drilling & Boring 9. Milling 10. Grinding

Specification of LB-20 model Height of centre Type of bed Centre distance Swing over bed Swing over cross slide Bed width over top surface Special accessories 200mm GAP & Straight bed 1000mm 410mm 230mm 312mm Universal face plate chuck

SHAPER MACHINE Introduction:The shaper is a reciprocating type machine tool intended primarily to produce flat surface. In general, the shaper can produce any surface composed of straight, line elements. The shaper present in workshop of DZS is of hydraulic type. Principle parts:1. Base 2. Column 3. Cross Slide 4. Saddle 5. Table 6. Ram 7. Tool head Specification of shaper


KIRLOSKAR 0.65 mm 50 415 V 15 A 50 Hz 15 H.P 15 rpm 3-PHASE MOTOR

UNIVERSAL MILLING MACHINE Introduction:A milling machine is a machine tool that removes metal as the work is fed against a rotating point cutter. A universal milling machine is so named because it may be adopted to a very wide range of milling operations. The machine can produce spur spiral, bevel gears, twist drill, milling cutters etc. Principal parts:1. Base 2. Column 3. Knee 4. Saddle 5. Table 6. Overhanging arm 7. Front base 8. Spindle

Milling machine operation:-

1. Plain & face milling 2. Angular milling 3. Form & profile 4. Gear cutting

5. Helical milling 6. CAM milling 7. Thread milling 8. Saw milling


Introduction:The Drilling machine is one of the most important machines in the workshop. The radial drilling machine, present in the DZS workshop is intended drilling for medium to large and heavy work pieces. The machine consists of a heavy, round vertical column mounted on large base. The column supports a radial arm which can be raised and lowered to accommodate work piece of different height. The arm may swing around to any position over the work bed. Principle parts:1. Base 2. Column 3. Radial arm 4. Drill head 5. Feed mechanism

Milling machine operation:1. Drilling 2. Reaming 3. Boring 4. Trepanning 5. Grinding 6. Tapping 7. Spot facing 8. Counter boring Drilling machine tools:1. Drill 2. Reamer 3. Counter bore 4. Taps

Introduction:Grinding is a metal cutting operation performed by means of a rotating abrasive wheel that acts as a cutting tool. This is used to finish work piece which must show a high surface quality, accuracy of shape and dimension.

Grinding operation:-

Principal operation which may be done on grinding machines include the grinding of external and internal cylindrical grinding, tapered and formed surface, gear teeth and other using appropriate wheels and fixtures.

ABRASIVE, is a substance that is used for grinding and polishing operation. It should be pure and have uniform physical properties of hardness, toughness and resistance to fracture, to be useful in manufacturing grinding wheels. SLOTTING MACHINE Introduction:The slotter operates almost on the same principle as that of the shaper. The major difference between a shaper and slotter is that in a slotter the ram holding tool reciprocating in vertical axis whereas in shaper the ram holding tool reciprocating in horizontal axis. The slotter is used for cutting grooves, keyways and slot of various shapes, for making regular and irregular surfaces, for cutting internal and external gears and many other operations. Slotting machine parts:1. Base 2. Rotating table 3. Column 4. Saddle 5. Cross slide 6. Ram 7. Tool head assembly 8. Feed mechanism

Operations:1. Machining flat surfaces

2. Machining cylindrical surfaces 3. Machining irregular shapes & cam machining 4. Machining slots, keyways & grooves

Tools:1. Vices 2. Spanners 3. Ring spanner 4. File 5. Screw driver 6. Divider 7. Pipe wrench 8. Try square 9. Vernier calliper 10.Punches 11. Chisel 12.Anvil 13.Swage block 14.Hammer etc.

An engineer was to be deprived of his measuring devices; he would be used to guessing and speculation. Measurement and control is one of the developing fields in engineering. Recent advances in technology have the development of most sophisticated instrument, which helps us in opening an eye on what is actually happening at what place so as to ensure the condition for maximum output. Instrument are used for the following purpose: 1. To measure level 2. To measure pressure 3. To measure temperature 4. To measure flow Level measurement:Level measurement is made to ascertain the quantity of liquid level held in the container. Level affects both the pressure and rate of flow in and out of the container, as such, its measurement and control is an important function in the processes. The task of liquid level measurement may be accomplished by employing primary censors such as differential pressure transmitter, dip tube. Pressure measurement:Measurement of pressure is also needed to maintain safe operating conditions, to help control a process and to provide test data. The most common instrument used for the measurement of pressure is bourdon pressure gauge. It contains of an oval sectioned metal tube one end of which is opened and is led into the vessel whose pressure is required to be measured. The other end of the tube is closed and is connected through a crank and lever mechanism to a pointer. This result in elastic deformation, which is proportional to the pressure. This deformation causes the pointer to move on a suitably inscribed scale.

Temperature measurement:For measurement of temperature by thermoelectricity, generated thermocouples are used. The basic principle involved is that When two conductors of dissimilar metals are joined together to form a loop and two unequal temperatures are imposed at the interface connection an electric current flows through the loop. For convenience of measurement and standardization, one of the two junctions is usually maintained at some constant known temperature difference relative to the reference temperature. Following are the different types of thermocouples: K-type thermocouple (Cr-Al) (0-1200oC) J-type thermocouple (Fe-tungsten) (0-600oC) In addition to these, RESISTANCE TEMPERATURE DETECTORS (RTD) is also employed for temperature measurement. These are usually made with elements of Platinum, Nickel and copper. Platinum is preferred because it is physically stable, resists corrosion and chemical attack, is not readily oxidized and has electrical resistance characteristics. Leads are taken out of the thermometer for measurement of changes in resistance in order to determine the value of temperature. The changes in resistance are usually measured by a Wheatstone bridge. Flow measurement:Flow measurement includes measurement of fluid velocity, flow rate and flow quantity. For this electromagnetic flow meter, Rota meter, orifice flow meter is used. An electromagnetic flow meter depends for its operation on measuring electric current or voltage generated when conducting fluid flow through an applied magnetic field. From these measurements, the flow rate may be deduced. Its main advantages include:-

No obstruction to flow Can handle slurries, greasy material and liquids containing suspended matter High accuracy and reliability A rotameter consists of tapered metering glass tube, inside which is located the rotor or active element (float) of meter. The tube is provided with inlet and outlet connections. The float has specific gravity higher then that of the fluid to be metered. Spherical slots are cut on the part of the float and cause it to rotate slowly about the axis of the tube and keep it cantered. The float adjusted its position in relation to the discharge through the passage i.e. the float rides higher or lowers depending on the flow rate. The discharge is then calculated from the discharge equation of a meter.


The interruptions in the industry are mainly. 1. Break downs 2. Power failure 3. Industrial relation problem 4. Fires and explosion 5. Accidents All the interruptions are undesirable but most unwanted is an accident. The main effects of any accident are. 1. Lowering of production 2. Human suffering 3. Loss/damage of good skilled labourers/employees 4. Material loss 5. Demoralizing effect on employers and society 6. Legit processings harassment to management 7. Comensation Therefore safety is a must. The meaning of safety is S Sound thinking concerning the nature of job A Alertness to danger F Factorizing the entire operation into safe requirement E Efficiency in carefully performing the work T Thoughtfulness to the welfare of group in which the worker is attached Y You and your own protection

When there is a machine it needs the safety of machine and persons. The company has a safety engineering dept. For this purpose hazards and accidents may occur any time by a small error of machine operator or worker. The dept. of safety engineering gives training and guidelines to the workers and other persons time to time. It has put various boards on and near each dept. in the company. These boards depict safety majors, in Hindi and in English languages. It also provides safety equipments i.e. helmet, safety belt, hand gloves etc. This dept. issue these equipments to workers or other employers.


Electrolysis of Zinc Sulphate solution takes place in electrolysis cells with Aluminium cathodes and Lead anodes as electrodes. This reaction can be represented as:ZnSO4 + H2O + 2e Zn + H2SO4 + 2O2 Zinc ions migrates towards the cathode and get deposited in the form of a sheet where as oxygen is given off at the anode. As 304 ions have strong affinity for hydrogen ions this results in formation of sulphuric acid the oxygen which is liberated oxidizes. The Manganese Sulphate in solution to Manganese di-oxide which deposits on the anode. Surface as anode mud, which is cleared out periodically Solution cooling & storage:Neutral electrolyte from purification shell be available at 6070oC as hot purification process has been adopted for expansion. The neutral solution is fed directly to atmospheric coolers of the Hamon Sobeico design, where solution is cooled to 35oC. Two coolers been provided for this purpose out of which one would be stand by the cooler consists of reinforced self supporting FRP panels of 8x8x4 m size. The Zinc Sulphate solution to be cooled is taken through a main feeder from which it is distributed through reinforced polyester pipes on which the stainless steel 316 spraying nozzles are fixed. Above this drift eliminator are arranged in two layers in the form of layers of PVC waves assembled in panels are easily removable through ton of coolers. The cooler is fitted with forced draft fan having FRP blades, the fan stack is also made from FRP & stainless steel grating provided protection to fan inlet. Pulleys and belts drive the fan from two

speed motors. These coolers have been fabricated for the first time in India with import of a few items.

Circulating spent solution is cooled in separate 5 nos. Coolers out of which normally three in service & two are stand by here temperature drops from 42 to 35oC. Due to Gypsum deposit which takes place in these coolers. Periodically cleaning are done in about 4-5 days. Cell house:Electrolysis takes place in lead lined concrete cells which are connected electrically by means of copper bus bars in a series & parallel system for flow of current. In the existing cell house there are 240 cells arranged. These cells are arranged in 40 rows. Each one has six cells arranged in cascade. Each cell is provided with 27 Aluminium cathodes & 28 head anodes. After expansion each cell will have its own feed system and its own independent discharge of electrolyte. Accordingly modifications are being carried out in the existing cell house. In the new cell house 320 cells have been provided, arranged in 40 rows of 8 cell each. New cells are flat bottom provided with 30 Aluminium cathodes and 31 ardentiferous lead anodes. PVC anode spacers have been provided for the voltage between electrodes shall be 3.45 volts & current density of 400-450 amp 2 shall be maintained. The whole cell house has been divided into three circuits are regards feeding and reactivation of electrolyte. 1. In the I circuit feed will be a mixture of spent electrolyte and neutral solution in the ratio of 7:1 Zinc cathode production from this circuit would be about 123 MT per day. Spent electrolyte from this circuit will be cooled by atmospheric coolers and recirculated. Total no. Cell in this circuit will be 428. 2. In the II circuit there will be 108 cells for which feed will be cooled spent electrolyte from above Zinc production from this circuit

containing 50 gpl Zinc and 143 gpl H2SO4 shell present to leaching & purification without cooling. 3. Feed will be coiled spent electrolyte from first circuit in the column circuit. Total no. Of cells in this circuit will be 24 known as bleed cells.

These cells would be arranged in true cascade(and cooled by coils) to get the bleeding liquors containing 10 gpl Zinc & 180 gpl H2SO4. The cascade system allows maximum Zinc recovery from the solution. Volume of the solution to be purged depends on magnesium balance of the system. Production of Zinc forms this circuit would be about 4.9 tonnes per day. The deposit Zinc is stripped from the Aluminium cathodes in 1-2 mm thick sheets every 24 hours and sent to melting furnace 10 nos. Cathodes are removed at a time from cell and sent to stripping platform. Remaining 20 nos. In the cell ensure the passage of current during standard exchange. The cell cleaning shall be done by vacuum cleaning device. Total cathode production from existing as well as new cell house will be 147 tonnes per day with 93% over all recovery efficiency from zinc present in calcine fed to leaching plant & Zinc recovered in the form of Zinc cathode. Energy consumptions would be 3330 KWH per tonne of cathodes measured on D.C side 1873 m3 of electrolyte section per day. Out of which 1490 m3 of spent electrolyte with 50 gpl Zinc and 143 gpl H2SO4 will be sent back to leaching & purification section every day about 80 MT of solution with 10 gpl Zinc will be purged out.

Zinc Smelter, Debari has a central compressor house for supplying compressed air through out of the plant. The compressor house produces two types of air. 1. Process air 2. Instrument air Process air is used in process work such as conveying, cleaning, hoisting etc. where as the instrument air is used in different types of instruments such as recorders, control valves etc. The compressor house consists of the following compressor:-

S. No.

Make & Model

Capacity Working Motor RPM Nos. m3/min pressure power Kgf/cm2 KW

PROCESS AIR 1. 2. 3. Kirloskar TSTB CPT Consolidated 14x13 K.G. Khosla 2HA4TER 15.4 15.4 29.75 7 7 8.4 90 93 185 1470 1460 (1)735 (2)1480 2 2 2

INSTRUMENT AIR 4. 5. 6. 7. Kirloskar TC100M Ingersoll-Rand 7x5 ESVINB2 Ingersoll-Rand 5x3x3.5 Ingersoll-Rand 029TAx3 2.69 2 0.7 83.2 7.5 7.5 7.5 47.97 22 22 4.4 515 1460 1440 1435 2975 3 3 1 1

For the establishment and proper run of any factory, these are two basic requirements to be considered:1. Electricity 2. Water Here HZL, the incoming supply from RSEB is 132KV, which is step down, by 2 nos. 30 MVA, 132/11 KV transformers, 11 KV supply is received in main control rooms which is distributed to all substations in different plant location. At substation, again 11 Kv is step down to 415V and then 415V fed to various type of plant and so on. In case of power cut from RSEB or any further emergency there are facilities of diesel generator sets, which can be operated to give the continuous supply of power to the plants, so that there may no interruption in the work or production. The other important requirements are water, which is supplied from the lakes of Udaipur without any interruption.


Diesel plants are more efficient. These plants are cheap in the initial cost, can be started & stopped quickly & can burn a wide range of fuels. It does not require any warning period. It need not be kept running for a long time before picking up load. As a result there are not staidly losses & also it does not need large amount of water for cooling. Description:A diesel engine is four stroke engine. The fuel injected directly at high pressure & high temperature air in the engine cylinder. Mixing of fuel takes place inside cylinder & a heterogeneous mixture is formed. Ignition of mixture is achieved, owing to high gas temperature. Following are the main characteristics features of the diesel engine:Cylindrical arrangement:V-engines:- These engines contain two banks of cylinder attached to same crankcase using same crankshaft. Cooling system:Water-cooled engine:- In these engine the cylinder walls & cylinder head is cooled by water. Essential systems which runs the D.G sets:1. Engine starting 2. Engine exhaust gas system 3. Engine cooling system 4. Engine lubrication system 5. Engine air intake system 6. Engine fuel system

Two sets are in working order: Allen1 & Allen 2. As indicated above we can describe all the system of D.G. sets. 1. Engine Starting:All the D.G sets have compressed air starting. The circuit of starting as follows:Fresh air Injector Feed pump Fuel tank Air compressor Cylinder head Auto filter Filter Solenoid valve Distributor Flow meter

At the time when the required rpm is net then fuel injector is started. It include silencer, connecting ducts(turbocharger). As the temperature of the exhaust gases is sufficiently high, heat of these gases is utilized in heating oils or air supplied to engine. 2. Engine exhaust system:For purpose of cooling of engine cylinder, the cooling water is passed through jackets. The water is used for cooling engine cylinder is soften by water treatment or water filtrations in order to avoid scale formation in it. 3. Engine lubrication system:In this lubrication oil is drawn by means of a pump & is passed through a strainer & filter. Usually the lubricating oil is drawn from the pump & if it is not, it should be heated to increase its velocity & the filtration easy. The oil is then cooled through a heat exchanger to engine.

4. Engine air intake system:It includes air filters, duct & super heater. Air filter removes dust from supplied air. The turbocharger increases the pressure of the supplied air so it could be developed as increase power output. 5. Engine fuel system:It includes fuel storage tank, fuel transfer pumps, strainer, heater & other connecting pipes. Strainers are needed to ensure clean fuel. Heater for heating may be required in winter. Before starting: Drain moisture from the air receiver. Fill it into required pressure. Check jacket water level in the tank Open the air release cocks in the jacket water system and the fill the system. Open the necessary valves of secondary cooling water system/ Check distillation fuel oil service tank. Release air from the fuel oil system. Check the level of injector coolant header tank. Operate the priming pump until required pressure is obtained. Open the indicator cocks and cocks and bar the engine for at least two revolutions. Close the indicator cocks.

Fuel:For engine heavy or light fuel are used according to required. It is good to maintain temperature nearly 110oC in flow of fuel. To increase the temperature a heating coil is used in overflow pipe which is completely insulated. Starting on light fuel:1. Put the motor driven lubrication oil priming pump on auto control. 2. Set the over speed in the RUN position. Put the fuel cut out lever in the RUN position. Open all valves in the fuel supply system. 3. Open the main valve on the starting air supply. 4. Leave all the valves in the water supply system open. 5. Put the governor speed adjusting control knob in the normal running position. 6. Leave all valves in the injector temperature control system open and switch on the coolant header. 7. Start the engine from remote. 8. Let the engine run on low speed for few minute and then rise to normal speed. In operation:1. Check the lubrication oil and cooling water pressure. 2. Drain the compressor and turbine outlet of the turbocharger once in 8hr., water wash compressor once in 24 hr. And turbocharger once in week or 200 hr.

Stopping:1. Run the engine on light load for a few minute before stopping to allow it to cool. 2. Initiate stop sequence at the control panel. 3. Put the fuel pump cut out lever in the STOP position and close the fuel oil supply valve. 4. Switch of the injector door should not be opened until the engine is cooled. Operating on heavy fuel:Start the engine on light fuel as per instruction. Change over to heavy fuel:1. Raise the temperature of heavy fuel to 160 pc in the engines bus rail. 2. Ensure that all the valves are correctly set on the engine fuel oil module and that the air supply is available. 3. Select Heavy at the engine control panel. Check for the jacket water outlet temperature which should be above 75oC before selecting Heavy the fuel system will automatically change over to heavy fuel. 4. Ensure that the pressure regulating valves are set at 3 kg/cm2 at engine bus rail. If the engine misfires due to vaporization of light fraction increases. The pressure slightly increases by adjusting the regulating valves.

Stopping on light fuel after running on heavy fuel:1. Select distillate at the control panel. The valve on the engine fuel oil module will change over automatically and purse sequence will be completed. 2. Run the engine for at least 10 min. On the full load to flush the engine c/r. If running on reduced load, the time must be correspondingly increased. 3. Continuous detailed in stopping light fuel.

Rating of diesel engine of D.G. sets:Make Type Compression ratio Starting ratio Lubricating oil Speed Temperature of supercharger Exhaust temperature Inlet temperature Engine cooling Jacket coolant pressure Secondary coolant pressure Lubricating oil main pressure Capacity Allen 4-stroke,16 cylinders 12:1 Compressed air (20 kg/cm2) Servo marine 750 rpm 450oC 450oC 45-55oC DM water 12bar 2.6 bar 2.5 bar 5 MW


Name :- Fully Automatic signode Strapping Machine Model :- M410-N-34-CH12i The fully automatic signode strapping machine M410-N-34-CH12i is designed suitably to apply the steel strap on circumference or to the surface of the stack of zinc ingots. Specification:Made or installed: - Made in JAPAN,2004 Cost: - 1 crore 30 lakhs(approx). No. Of straps used: -4 Straps coils upto max: - 250 kg Stroke: - 1400 mm. Speed: - 6min 30sec for 1 lot to pack. Weighing: - By load cell. Cost of one roll of strap belt: - Rs. 6000(change after 24 hrs.) Packing cost: - 1 lot Rs. 40 ITW (Ionized tool works) is running or operating the machine on contract basis. Connections:1. Electrical Connections:Main power: - 415 V 3 phase 50 Hz. Input voltage: - 24 V DC Output voltage: - 110 V AC 2. Pneumatic connections: Air Pressure: - 5.5 bar(min)

Lubrication: - online lubrication. Air quality: - compressed dry air. Air consumption: - 95 ltr/m free air.

BASIC TERMS 1. Package: - The product on stack of products being strapped.

2. Head: - Also psm for former strapping machine the unit that feeds takes up tension, notches and cut off the straps. a. Application machine: - The machine into which head is mounted. b. Take up: - The process of pulling the strap out of the chute and around the package. c. Tension: - The process of drawing the strap tightly around the package. d. Sealing or notching: - The process of forming notches in the strap seal to complete the joint.

3. Pre-feed or feed: - The process of pulling strap into the head and drawing it through the strap chute around the package and break to the head. In most of the application strap is partially in chute when the strap cycle begins. Because the cycle concludes with feeding of strap into the chute again.

Major Components 1. Air motor: - The air motor powers the transmission and strap tension is controlled by regulating air pressure to the air motor for specific adjustment instructions refer manual for air pressure level. Warning: - For proper operation air supply to the air motor must be set to deliver a minimum of 70 pslg and a maximum of 90 pslg. However between low speeds, air pressure to the air motor must not exceed 70 pslg.

2. Transmission: - The transmission drives through traction wheel. Feed occurs when the transmission shaft runs in the forward direction. Take-up and tension occurs when the transmission output shaft runs in reverse direction. The traction wheel is turned at high speed for feed and take-up. During tension, the transmission shift in the low speed.

3. Traction wheel: - The traction wheel is driven by the transmission and contracts the strap directly. It performs 3 functions of the strapping cycle feed, take-up and tension.

4. Air cylinders: - The n410-n-34 head has 3 external cylinders, one to control the gate another to eject the seals. A two in one cylinder for gripping, notching and cutting the strap.

a. Gate cylinder: - Mounted behind the gate. During strap feed phase, it holds the gate closed to the air. The strap within the job area. Just prior to take-up and tension. The cylinder extends to open the gate.

b. Seal eject cylinders: - It is mounted on the right side of the seal magazine, ejects seal into the jaw stack.

c. 2 in 1 cylinders, small: - The small cylinder mounted within the larger cylinder advances the jaws to grip and hold the lead end of the strap.

d. 2 in 1 cylinder, large: - The large cylinder move like jaws to notch the overlap strap, seal the strap and cut off the supply of strap.

5. Jaw stack: - The jaw stack is composed of the moving and stationary cutter for cutting grip jaws, for securely holding this lead and of the strap and the notches for sealing.

6. Strap straightner: - It removes natural curl in the strap that it left it would adversely affect strap feed reliability.

1. Take-up cycle: -

A. Air is sent to the cap end of the gate cylinder and the rod, and is evacuated at a metered flow rate. The gate cylinder extends, opening the gate away from the jaw stack area for final strap cycle phases.

B. Then the air motor reverses and airflows unmetered, turning the traction wheels in the tension direction at high speed, drawing strap out of chute gates and around the packages. Excess strap passes back through the strap straightner.

C. After taking up strap at high speed for a predetermined interval of time, airflow to the air motor is metered down to complete the take of strap at a reduced rate of speed.

2. Grip cycle: -

A. Air is evacuated from the rod end of the large 2 in 1 cylinder.

B. The constantly pressured cap end of the small 2 in 1 cylinder partially advances the piston rod, moving the jaws into the grip position and impinging the central proximity switch. Grip jaws hold the outer strap against the grip side of the stationary cutter.

C. The valve that controls the gate cylinder extension receives the control signal.


1. Bearings to be checked for free movement.

2. Check the amperage of motor.

3. Apply grease in the guides

General safety instructions: 1. Straps shouldnt be handled without hand gloves and eye protection.

2. Safety shoe are recommended for person involved in handling the cord of strap.

3. Immediate work area of equipment should be kept clean of any debris, oil or any other material likely to create hazard.

4. Never temper with or disable or remove any safety guard on mechanism.

5. Never temper any equipment or parts of equipment without consulting itw signode personnel.

6. Before activating the machine in manner or energizing the electrical and or pneumatic controls, make certain that no person is standing in the immediate vicinity of equipment.

7. Never attempt to remove broken parts or damaged materials from any pneumatic parts without isolating the machine from air and electrical supply.

MAINTENANCE Operational maintenance: 1. Operational should be trained for the correct and safe use of equipment.

2. Operator should not attempt to correct faults or make adjustments during an machine cycle or sequence.

3. ITW signode manual having operational instruction should be studied by relevant personnel. Machine maintenance: 1. Daily: -

a. Dirt accumulated on photo sensor and proxy switches must be cleaned. b. Filter must be emptied for water. c. Dust on jaw stack to be removed by using air spray. d. Check air pressure.

2. Weekly: -

a. Loose screw must be tightened. b. Check and tighten the air supply points . c. Check cylinder mountings. d. Maintain strapping head. e. Check gates and align if required.

3. Monthly:-

a. Always beware of fact that fully automatic machinery with moving parts may move at any time without warning.

b. Never assume machine to be safe because of lack of movement. Isolate power supply at all times before carrying out any work. Also if machine is not to be used for any extended period.


While locating the causes for the following symptoms on M410-N-34-CH12i head, keep electrical and pneumatic systems on. 1. Symptom(sym): - Air motor fails to start or run slow Causes: a. Insufficient air pressure. b. Wear or damage to air motor vanes. c. Seizure of air motor caused bogy insufficient lubrication or invasion of foreifn particles. d. Seizure or damage to the transmission. Remedy: a. Check pneumatic circuit. b. Replace air motor. c. Replace air motor vanes. d. Replace the transmission.

2. Sym: - Transmission fails to shift Causes: a. Insufficient pilot air pressure. b. Wear or damage of o-ring clutch plate. c. Wear or damage to the meshing gear of clutch piston and carrier plate. Remedy: a. Check pneumatic supply. b. Replace the o-ring. c. Replace clutch piston on the carrier plate.

3. Sym: - Temperature of air motor rises

Causes: - Insufficient lubrication.

Remedy: - Check lubrication adjustments.

4. Sym: - Temperature of transmission rises. Causes: a. Amount of grease is too little or too much. b. Excessive wear of gear teeth or bearing.

Remedy: a. Check for proper amount of grease. b. Replace worm gears on bearings.

5. Sym: - Traction wheel rotates in the feed direction but not feed strap. Causes: a. No strap in head. b. Insufficient energizing of strap. c. Seals mechanism not fully retracted, blocking strap path. Remedy: a. Rethread the strapping head. b. Tighten spring extension screw. c. Remove any obstruction in the sealer jaw inspect the jaw.

6. Sym: - Incomplete or improper feed. Causes: -

a. Excessive curl in strap. b. Slow running motor. c. Worn traction wheel. Remedy: a. Adjust strap straightened. Natural curl must face away from the front of the head. b. See failed or slow running air motor sym. c. Replace traction wheel

7. Sym: - Head fails to go into the grip phase of the strapping cycle. Causes: a. Incomplete strap feed. b. Rod end of large cylinder fails to exhaust. Remedy: a. Checking for sticking value or electrical malfunction. b. See incomplete or improper strap feed sym. 8. Sym: - Strap unthreads from the head during take up or tensioning. Causes: - Worn or damaged grip jaws or stationary cutter.

Remedy: -Replace the jaws or stationary cutter. 9. Sym: - Insufficient strap tension. Causes: a. Air motor running slow. b. Air pressure too low. Remedy: - Adjust air pressure. Sym: - Strap breaks at grip jaws during tensioning. Causes: - Gripping edges of jaws and/or stationary cutter too sharp.

Remedy: - Lightly stone the sharp edges of jaws/cutter.

10.Sym: - Traction wheel mills the strap. Cause: a. Tension is set too high. b. Worn traction wheel. c. Final take up speed too high. Remedy: a. Reduce air pressure. b. Replace the traction wheel.


1. Breakdown in jaw stack assembly: - The main part of the machine which is prone to frequent breakdown is jaw stack assembly. Inside it a pin is used

which is frequent to break. This pin is an essential part of strapping. It is used for proper sealing. Another part of jaw stack causing problem is nozzle jaw. This is used for cutting. Dust gets accumulated over it. Using air spray can do this. 2. Breakdown due to photo sensors: - Photo sensor are used for the proper displacement, alignment, positioning and dispatching, weighing, stopping, bypassing purpose for a lot. Some times dust get accumulated over it due to which some errors are created. Photo sensors are the devices, which work on the principle that whenever light is incident over it than some electric current is produced in it.

3. Breakdown due to hydraulic table: - Work of hydraulic table is to rotate and bring the lot to correct position under strapping head and to turns it face for strapping. But sometimes table does not rotate properly, therefore it is not aligned to strapping head, thus causes problem during packing hence causing breakdown. To remove the fault it is again set manually by a hydraulic machine through control panel.

4. Breakdown due to conveyor chain: - Conveyor chains are used to transport the lot of zinc ingot from casting to packing machine and then to the strapping head, to the weighing and then to dispatching. Sometimes these chains get trip off which causes the breakdown.

Breakdown due to strap gates: - Strap gates sometimes gets misaligned so it becomes difficult for proper strapping of lot. So it should be aligned properly.