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Geology 377

Exploration and Engineering Seismology

Lecture 10
Earthquake Strong Ground Motion (Reference: Kramer, Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering, 1996)

1. Introduction 2. Seismic Hazards 3. Strong ground motion observations 4. Strong ground motion parameters 5. Ground response: transfer function

1. Introduction 2. Seismic Hazards 3. Strong ground motion observations 4. Strong ground motion parameters 5. Ground response: transfer function

Exactly 100 years ago, in April 18, 1906, at 5:13 a.m., the Great San Francisco Earthquake hit the San Francisco Bay Area. This was the first significant, and longest memorized earthquake in North America. The famous elastic rebound (Reid) hypothesis was intrigued by the 1906 San Francisco Earthquake.

Earthquake Engineering: Studies of the effects of earthquakes on people and their environment, with methods of reducing these effects.

Earthquake Engineering involves: geology, seismology, geotechnical engineering, structural engineering, risk analysis with also social, economic, and political factors

Seismic Hazards: Natural hazards associated with the occurrence of earthquakes. Seismic Hazards: Ground shaking: ground failure, lateral spreading Structural hazards: damage of engineering works (buildings, bridges, highways, etc.) Liquefaction: loss shear strength of the foundation Landslides: mudflow, slope failure Retaining structure failure: retaining walls, dams, breakwater, quaywalls Lifeline hazards: fire, hazardous gas, loss of drinking/fire-fighting water. Tsunami (ocean) and seiche (lake) hazards

Strong Ground Motion


Earthquake motion of sufficient strength to affect people and their environment. It is recorded by 3component acceleration seismometers. Strong ground motion at one site is determined by: Earthquake source location; Physical properties of earth material along the path of seismic wave propagation; Local site effects (soil characteristics); Strong ground motion is characterized with ground motion parameters.

The entire earthquake path to seismic hazard

Detailed view of site effect

Body wave:
P-wave

Sv-wave

Surface wave
Rayleigh wave

Love wave

1906 SFO Earthquake ground shaking movie: Movie:http://nsmp.wr.usgs.gov/Presentations/EGSitSFBR/640/Pres1_1s.html

Earthquake Engineering:
Studies of the effects of earthquakes on people and their environment, with methods of reducing these effects.

Earthquake Engineering involves:


geology, seismology, geotechnical engineering, structural engineering, risk analysis with also social, economic, and political factors.

Seismic Hazards:
Natural hazards associated with the occurrence of earthquakes.

1. Introduction 2. Seismic Hazards 3. Strong ground motion observations 4. Strong ground motion parameters 5. Ground response: transfer function

Seismic Hazards include:


Ground shaking: ground failure, lateral spreading; Structural hazards: damage of engineering works (buildings, bridges, highways, etc.); Liquefaction: loss shear strength of the foundation; Landslides: mudflow, slope failure; Retaining structure failure: retaining walls, dams, breakwater, quarry-walls; Lifeline hazards: fire, hazardous gas, loss of drinking/fire-fighting water; Tsunami (ocean) and seiche (lake) hazards.

Lateral Spreading caused by the 1906 San Francisco Earthquake at Moss Landing, CA (USGS Professional Paper 993)

Ground failure scarp caused by the 1906 San Francisco Earthquake in Pajaro River, CA (USGS Professional Paper 993)

San Francisco in flames after the 1906 Earthquake (downtown, S. F., CA, USGS Professional Paper 993)

On April 18, 1906, the Great San Francisco Earthquake hit the Bay Area at 5:13 a.m., causing more than $2 million in damage at Stanford. The men's gymnasium, above, sustained major damage.

Louis Agassiz Statue in Stanford University after 1906 San Francisco Earthquake

Louis Agassiz (Harvard Professor,1807-1873). I have devoted my whole life to the study of Nature, and yet a single sentence may express all that I have done. ... Louis Agassiz, 1869.)

A gigantic landslide buried the Village of Yungay, Peru, after the 1970 Peruvian Earthquake. (Kramer, 1996)

Foundation failure by liquefaction after the 1964 Niigata Earthquake. (USGS)

Sand Blow in a Rice Field, Southeastern Missouri caused by the 1811-1812 NMSZ Earthquakes

Sand boils after the 1906 Earthquake, Milpitas, CA (USGS Professional Paper 993)

Tsunami Destruction at the Resurrection Bay, Kodiak Island after the Great Alaska Earthquake (March 27, 1964)

Tsunami Destruction at the Resurrection Bay, Kodiak Island after the Great Alaska Earthquake (March 27, 1964)

1946 Hawaii Tsunami

Aftermath of the tsunami

Satellite image of Banda Aceh Shore, Indonesia, before the tsunami (June 23, 2004)

Satellite image of Banda Aceh Shore, Indonesia, after the tsunami (December 28, 2004)

The Damage of Sewerage Structures

Kushiro (town)

Lifted-up Manhole and gushed Soil during Liquefaction

2003 Hokkaido Earthquake


Lifted-up Manhole

The Damage of Sewerage Structures


Failure Mode Sand Boiling
(notice : this is only concept)

Sand Boiling

Manhole Crack or Residual Strain

Flexible Pipe Residual Strain

Rigid Pipe

Original Soil (Liquefied) Lift-up Force Replaced Soil (Liquefied)

The Damage of Embankment Structures

10

Toyokoro

Collapsed Embankment

The Damage of Embankment Structures


Collapsed Embankment

11

Liquefied Soil

Liquefied Soil

Toyokoro

Modern time microseismicity in the New Madrid Seismic Zone, 3 great earthquakes occurred here in 1811-1812 winter.

1. Introduction 2. Seismic Hazards 3. Strong ground motion observations 4. Strong ground motion parameters 5. Ground response: transfer function

A model of the Zhang Heng Seismograph invented in China about 2000 years ago in the Han Dynasty

An old German Seismograph for recording strong earthquake motions

Modern Strong Ground Motion Seismograph, (Kramer , 1996)

At any point the complete ground motion measured should have 3 components of translation and 3 components of rotation. Practically only the 3 translation components are measured.

1989 Loma Prieta Quake recorded at (1) Rock site (2) Soil site at the same location

Response to ground displacement

Response to ground acceleration

1. Introduction 2. Seismic Hazards 3. Strong ground motion observations 4. Strong ground motion parameters 5. Ground response: transfer function

Earthquake Intensity Map of the 1906 San Francisco Earthquake (USGS Professional Paper 993)

Ground Motion parameters:


Amplitude Parameters Peak acceleration; Peak velocity; Peak displacement. Frequency content parameters: Ground motion spectra (Fourier spectra, Power spectra, response spectra); Spectral parameters (predominant period, Bandwidth, Central frequency, shape factor).

Duration Bracketed duration; Corner period (corner frequency); Other ground motion parameters Cumulative absolute velocity (CAV): the integration of the absolute acceleration; Spectral Intensity (SI): the integration of the pseudo-velocity (PSV) response spectrum; acceleration spectrum intensity (ASI): the integration of the acceleration response spectrum.

Predominant frequency then is the reciprocal of the predominant period.

Gilroy 1 (bedrock)

Gilroy 2 (soil)

1. Introduction 2. Seismic Hazards 3. Strong ground motion observations 4. Strong ground motion parameters 5. Ground response: transfer function

http://www.uky.edu/KGS/geologichazards/strong-motion.htm

Recordings from the October 21, 2004 earthquake (Md2.5) at the vertical strong motion array, VSAS. (A) surface, (B) 30 m deep, (C) 260 m deep. We will discuss the transfer function.
http://www.uky.edu/KGS/geologichazards/strong-motion.htm

Transfer Function The transfer function determines how each frequency in the bedrock (input) motion is amplified or de0amplified, by the soil sediments. Thus, the transfer function can be viewed as a filter that acts upon some input signal to produce an output signal. The input is the time history of the load Q(t) in the bedrock, and the output is the displacement in the soil layer u(t), especially u(t) at the free surface.