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significance. For example, we hypothesize that there is a relationship between the type of training program attended and the job placement success of trainees. We gather the following data:

To compute Chi Square, a table showing the joint distribution of the two variables is needed: Table 1. Job Placement by Type of Training (Observed Frequencies)

Placed in a Job?

Yes No Total

Type of Training Vocational Work Skills Education Training 175 125 25 125 200 250

Chi Square is computed by looking at the different parts of the table. The "cells" of the table are the squares in the middle of the table containing numbers that are completely enclosed. The cells contain the frequencies that occur in the joint distribution of the two variables. The frequencies that we actually find in the data are called the "observed" frequencies. In this table, the cells contain the frequencies for vocational education trainees who got a job (n=175) and who didn't get a job (n=25), and the frequencies for work skills trainees who got a job (n=125) and who didn't get a job (n=125). The "Total" columns and rows of the table show the marginal frequencies. The marginal frequencies are the frequencies that we would find if we looked at each variable separately by itself. For example, we can see in the "Total" column that there were 300 people who got a job and 150 people who didn't. We can see in the "Total" row that there were 200 people in vocational education training and 250 people in job skills training. Finally, there is the total number of observations in the whole table, called N. In this table, N=450.

1) display observed frequencies for each cell 2) calculate expected frequencies for each cell 3) calculate, for each cell, the expected minus observed frequency squared, divided by the expected frequency 4) all up the results for all the cells To find the value of Chi Square, we first assume that there is no relationship between the type of training program attended and whether the trainee was placed in a job. If we look at the column total, we can see that 300 of 450 people found a job, or 66.7% of the total people in training found a job. We can also see that 150 of 450 people did not find a job, or 33.3% of the total people in training did not find a job. If there was no relationship between the type of program attended and success in finding a job, then we would expect 66.7% of trainees of both types of training programs to get a job, and 33.3% of both types of training programs to not get a job. The first thing that Chi Square does is to calculate "expected" frequencies for each cell. The expected frequency is the frequency that we would have expected to appear in each cell if there was no relationship between type of training program and job placement. The way to calculate the expected cell frequency is to multiply the column total for that cell, by the row total for that cell, and divide by the total number of observations for the whole table. For the upper left hand corner cell, multiply 200 by 300 and divide by 450=133.3 For the lower left hand corner cell, multiply 200 by 150 and divide by 450=66.7 For the upper right hand corner cell, multiply 250 by 300 and divide by 450=166.7 For the lower right hand corner cell, multiply 250 by 150 and divide by 450=83.3 Table 2. Job Placement by Type of Training (Expected Frequencies)

Placed in a Job?

Yes No Total

Type of Training Vocational Work Skills Education Training 133.3 166.7 66.7 83.3 200 250

This table shows the distribution of "expected" frequencies, that is, the cell frequencies we would expect to find if there was no relationship between type of training and job placement. Note that Chi Square is not reliable if any cell in the contingency table has an expected frequency of less than 5. To calculate Chi Square, we need to compare the original, observed frequencies with the new, expected frequencies. For each cell, we perform the following calculations: a) Subtract the value of the observed frequency from the value of the expected frequency b) square the result c) divide the result by the value of the expected frequency For each cell above,

(fe - fo) 2 (133.3 - 175) 2 (66.7 - 25) 2 (166.7 - 125) 2 (83.3 - 125)

[(fe - fo) ] / fe 2 [(133.3 - 175) ] / 133.3 2 [(66.7 - 25) ] / 66.7 2 [(166.7 - 125) ] / 166.7 2 [(83.3 - 135) ] / 83.3

To calculate the value of Chi Square, add up the results for each cell--Total=70.42

DEGREES OF FREEDOM We cannot interpret the value of the Chi Square statistics by itself. Instead, we must put it into a context. In theory, the value of the Chi Square statistic is normally distributed; that is, the value of the Chi Square statistics looks like a normal (bell-shaped) curve. Thus we can use the properties of the normal curve to interpret the value obtained from our calculation of the Chi Square statistic. If the value we obtain for Chi Square is large enough, then we can say that it indicates the level of statistical significance at which the relationship between the two variables can be presumed to exist. However, whether the value is large enough depends on two things: the size of the contingency table from which the Chi Square statistic has been computed; and the level of alpha that we have selected. The larger the size of the contingency table, the larger the value of Chi Square will need to be in order to reach statistical significance, if other things are equal. Similarly, the more stringent the level of alpha, the larger the value of Chi Square will need to be, in order to reach statistical significance, if other things are equal. The term "degrees of freedom" is used to refer to the size of the contingency table on which the value of the Chi Square statistic has been computed. The degrees of freedom is calculated as the product of (the number of rows in the table minus 1) times (the number of columns in the table minus ).

For a table with two rows of cells and two columns of cells, the formula is: df = (2 - 1) x (2 - 1) = (1) x (1) = 1 For a table with two rows of cells and three columns of cells, the formula is: df = (3 - 1) x (2 - 1) = (2) x (1) = 2 For a table with three rows of cells and three columns of cells, the formula is: df = (3 - 1) x (3 - 1) = (2) x (2) = 4 The level of alpha can vary, but the smaller the value, the more stringent the requirement for reaching statistical significance becomes. Alpha levels are often written as the "p-value", or "p=.05." Usual levels are p=.05 (or the chance of one in 20 of making an error), or p=.01 (or the chance of one in 100 of making an error), or p=.001 (or the chance of one in 1,000 of making an error). When reporting the level of alpha, it is usually reported as being "less than" some level, using the "less than" sign or <. Thus, it is reported as p<.05, or p<.01; unless you are reporting the exact p-value, such as p=.04 or p=.22.

DISTRIBUTION TABLES

Once we have the calculated value of the Chi Square statistic, and the degrees of freedom for the contingency table, and the desired level for alpha, we can look up the normal distribution for Chi Square in a table. There are many tables available in statistics texts for this purpose. In the table, find the degrees of freedom (usually listed in a column down the side of the page). Next find the desired level of alpha (usually listed in a row across the top of the page). Find the intersection of the degrees of freedom and the level of alpha, and that is the value which the computed Chi Square must equal or exceed to reach statistical significance. For example, for df=2 and p=.05, Chi Square must equal or exceed 5.99 to indicate that the relationship between the two variables is probably not due to chance. For df=4 and p=.05, Chi Square must equal or exceed 9.49.

INTERPRET THE RESULTS If the computed value for Chi Square equals or exceeds the value indicated in the table for the given level of alpha and degrees of freedom, then the researcher can assume that the observed relationship between the two variables exists (at the specified level of probability of error, or alpha), and reject the null hypothesis. This gives support to the research hypothesis. The computed value of Chi Square, at a given level of alpha and with a given degree of freedom, is a type of "pass-fail" measurement. It is not like a measure of association, which can vary from 0.0 to (plus or minus) 1.0, and which can be interpreted at every point along the distribution. Either the computed value of Chi Square reaches the required level for statistical significance or it does not.

It is important to note that Chi Square, like other tests for statistical significance: 1) does not indicate the strength of an association between two variables 2) does not indicate the direction of an association between two variables 3) does not indicate the probability of a Type I error 4) does not take into account the reliability and validity of the research 5) does not provide absolute, conclusive proof of a relationship To recap, for the example above: 1) state the research hypothesis: There is a relationship between the type of training program attended and the job placement success of trainees 2) state the null hypothesis: There is no relationship between the type of training program attended and the job placement success of trainees 3) calculate the test for statistical significance Chi Square=70.42 4) calculate the degrees of freedom of the contingency table df=1 5) select the level of alpha p=.05 6) look up the Chi Square value in the table at p=.05 and df=1 Chi Square=3.84 7) interpret the result The computed value of Chi Square (70.42) exceeds the value in the table for p=.05 and df=1 (Chi Square=3.84). Therefore, we can reject the null hypothesis (with a 5% probability of error) and accept the research hypothesis that a relationship exists between type of training program attended and the job placement success of trainees.

Using T-Tests T-Tests are tests for statistical significance that are used with interval and ratio level data. T-tests can be used in several different types of statistical tests: 1) to test whether there are differences between two groups on the same variable, based on the mean (average) value of that variable for each group; for example, do students at private schools score higher on the SAT test than students at public schools? 2) to test whether a group's mean (average) value is greater or less than some standard; for example, is the average speed of cars on freeways in California higher than 65 mph? 3) to test whether the same group has different mean (average) scores on different variables; for example, are the same clerks more productive on IBM or Macintosh computers? To calculate a value of t, a) state the research hypothesis; b) state the null hypothesis; c) stipulate whether the t-test will be a one-tailed test or a two-tailed test for significance d) select the level of alpha e) calculate t To calculate a value of t, a) state the research hypothesis; The average salary of male graduate assistants is higher than the average salary of female graduate assistants at CSULB. b) state the null hypothesis; There is no difference in the average salary of male and female graduate assistants at CSULB. c) select the level of alpha select a value for alpha, such as p=.05, p=.01, or p=.001 d) stipulate whether the t-test will be a one-tailed test or a two-tailed test for significance Like other statistics, the t-test has a distribution that approaches the normal distribution, especially if the sample size is greater than 30. Since we know the properties of the normal curve, we can it to tell us how far away from the mean of the distribution our calculated t-score is. The normal curve is distributed about a mean of zero, with a standard deviation of one. A t-score can fall along the normal curve either above or below the mean; that is, either plus or minus some standard deviation units from the mean. A t-score must fall far from the mean in order to achieve statistical significance. That is, it must be quite different from the value of the mean of the distribution, something that has only a low probability of occurring by chance if there is no relationship between the two variables. If we have chosen a value of p=.05 for alpha, we look for a value of t that falls into the extreme 5% of the distribution. If we have a hypothesis that states the expected direction of the results, e.g., that male graduate assistant salaries are higher than female graduate assistant salaries, then we expect the calculated tscore to fall into only one end of the normal distribution. We expect the calculated t-score to fall into the extreme 5% of the distribution. If we have a hypothesis, however, that only states that there is some difference between two groups, but does not state which group is expected to have the higher score, then the calculated t-score can fall into either end of the normal distribution. For example, our hypothesis could be that we expect to find a difference between the average salaries of male and female graduate assistant members (but we do not know which is going to be higher, or which is going to be lower).

For a hypothesis which states no direction, we need to use a "two-tailed" t-test. That is, we must look for a value of t that falls into either one of the extreme ends ("tails") of the distribution. But since t can fall into either tail, if we select p=.05 for alpha, we must divide the 5% into two parts of 2-1/2% each. So a two-tailed test requires t to take on a more extreme value to reach statistical significance than a one-tailed test of t. e) calculate t A t-score is calculated by comparing the average value on some variable obtained for two groups; the calculation also involves the variance of each group and the number of observations in each group. For example, Table 3. Male and Female Graduate Assistant Salaries at CSULB

To calculate t, 1) subtract the mean of the second group from the mean of the first group 2) calculate, for each group, the variance divided by the number of observations minus 1 3) add the results obtained for each group in step two together 4) take the square root of the results of step three 5) divide the results of step one by the results of step four For example, 1) subtract the mean of the second group from the mean of the first group 17095-14885=2210 2) calculate, for each group, the variance divided by the number of observations minus 1 Male graduate assistants: [40056241 / (403-1)] = [40056241 / (402)] = 99642 Female graduate assistants: [21864976 / (132-1)] = [21864976 / (131)] = 166908 3) add the results obtained for each group in step two together 99642+166908=266550 4) take the square root of the results of step three square root of 266550=516.28 5) divide the results of step one by the results of step four 2210/516.28=4.28 To interpret the results, f) calculate the degrees of freedom g) look up the value in the table h) interpret the value of t Degrees of freedom

The degrees of freedom for the t-test is calculated by adding up the number of observations for each group, and then subtracting the number two (because there are two groups). For example, (403 + 132 - 2) = 533 Distribution of T The values of t are printed in tables in most statistics texts. The values of the degrees of freedom are listed in a column down the side, and the values of alpha (p-value) are listed in a row across the top. There are different tables for one-tailed and two-tailed tests of t. Find the correct table for the number of tails. Then find the intersection of the degrees of freedom and the value of alpha in the table. That value is the value that the calculated t-score must equal or exceed to indicate statistical significance. For a one-tailed test of t, with df=533 and p=.05, t must equal or exceed 1.645. For a two-tailed test of t, with df=533 and p=.05, t must equal or exceed 1.960. Interpret the value of t If the computed t-score equals or exceeds the value of t indicated in the table, then the researcher can conclude that there is a statistically significant probability that the relationship between the two variables exists and is not due to chance, and reject the null hypothesis. This lends support to the research hypothesis. In this example, the computed t-score of 4.28 exceeds the table value of t, so we can reject the null hypothesis of no relationship between graduate assistant gender and graduate assistant pay, and instead accept the research hypothesis and conclude that there is a relationship between graduate assistant gender and graduate assistant pay. Remember, however, that this is only one statistic, based on just one sample, at one point in time, from one research project. It is not absolute, conclusive proof that a relationship exists, but rather support for the research hypothesis. It is only one piece of evidence, that must be considered along with many other pieces of evidence on the same subject.

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