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OBJECTIVE : This report and its research have been conducted with the purpose of identifying the potential

hazards and risk exposures that inherently present in the manufacturing of ice cream. In order to conduct the required research, I selected the Neerala ice cream factory. COMPANYINFORMATION The Neerala ice cream was formerly know as Nirula,which was a popular fast food joint under the Food Court Pvt Ltd.But due to the internal management problems, it had to be shut down.Neerala is trying to build on the goodwill of Nirula.The company operates as a fast food joint. It currently has 12 flavors of ice cream. Its sells an average 500 liters of ice cream a day. Out of its 12 flavors Blind love, vanilla and chocolate blast are the most popular. This report describes the manufacturing process and identifies the risks present in the industry.

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INTRODUCTION : Ice cream is a nutritionally enriched congealed dairy product produced by freezing pasteurized mixture of milk solid other than fat, sugar, emulsifier and stabilizer. Flavor enrichment of ice cream is because of optional addition of fruit nuts, candies, syrups and other flavoring ingredients1. Evolution of ice cream in its present form is because of gradual timely changes brought about according to human taste by changes in its preparation.. Ice cream is undoubtedly one of most popular and favorite food product in Katmandu Valley among children and adults especially during summer season. Several international imported and Nepalese national brands of ice cream in variety of flavors have been marketed here.

History of Ice cream The first frozen dessert is credited to Emperor Nero of Rome. It was a mixture of snow (which he sent his slaves into the mountains to retrieve) and nectar, fruit pulp and honey. Another theory is Marco Polo, 13th century bard and adventurer, brought with him to Europe

from the Far East recipes for water ices....said to be used in Asia for thousands of years. In 1700 Governor Bladen of Maryland served ice cream to his guests. The first ice cream parlor in America opened in New York City in 1776. Dolly Madison created a sensation when she served ice cream as a dessert in the White House at the second inaugural ball in 1812. The first commercial ice cream plant was established in Baltimore in 1851 by Jacob Fussell.

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Then Now

ManufacturingProcessof Ice cream: The production of ice-cream includes many steps classified under the following three main parts: 1. Ice-cream mix making-Mixing of ingredients, pasteurization and homogenization 2. Soft ice cream production-Aging and Freezing. 3. Hard ice-cream production-Packaging, hardening and storage

Ice-cream mix making

Soft ice-cream production

FIG. Processof makingIce Cream

Mixingof ingredients: The first in the manufacture of ice cream is the preparation of the mix. the mixing process us designed to blend together the ingredient both liquid as well as dry. the liquid ingredients of water, milk cream etc are added first and then heated, dry ingredients sugar, milk solids, stabilizers etc are then added. this mixture is heated to a temperature of around 30 oC to 75oC.

Ice-CreammixingMachine Homogenizationand pasteurization: The mix is next pasteurized to reduce the number of viable microorganisms to a level that is safe for human consumption. . Pasteurization temperatures for ice-cream mix, around 70C for 10 30 minutes. The pasteurized mix is then homogenized to break the fat particles down to small droplets. High pressures of 4.1 x 106 Pa (600 psi) to 1.7 x 107 Pa (2500 psi) are used to break down fat globules.

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Homogenizer PasteurizationVessel

Ageing The mix is the pumped into ageing tanks. these tanks are designed to minimize the exposure if mix to the possible sources of contamination. The mix is held at a temperature of 4OC or lower. Generally stirred from time to time .

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AgeingVat Ice Creammachine Freezing During freezing, air is incorporated in the mix and cooled down to around -5C. Freezing must be performed as quickly as possible to prevent the formation of large ice crystals. The air cells in ice cream should be small and evenly distributed in order to maintain a stable frozen foam. At this low temperature, -5 C, not all water particles are crystallized and, therefore, Ice cream is only in semisolid state. The semisolid ice cream emerging from the freezer is similar to the constituency of soft ice cream produced at the retail level. Other ingredients, like fruits, nuts, or syrup, may then be added to enrich the flavor of ice cream.

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Packaging To produce hard ice cream, the semisolid ice-cream is packed into cartons or drums for hardening process to form specific shape of ice-cream products and to have longer shelf-life (more than one year).

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Hardening When ice cream leaves the factory freezer at about -5 0C, semisolid ice cream is then placed in a hardening room where the temperature of about -34C is maintained. This low temperature keeps the core temperature of ice cream at around -18C. Hardening should be better quality of ice cream.

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Ice creamhardeningcabinet

Storage After hardening, the hard ice-cream will then be placed back in the cold store rooms with temperature of around -18C. From this stage, the hard ice cream must be kept at -18C or below throughout storage, transportation and display.

Hazardsassociatedwith the manufacturingof ice cream:

On the basis of my survey of the Manufacturing area and the information provided by the employee. The most relevant risk faced by the ice cream manufacturer is the Liability Risk, as carelessness in the manufacturing can cause food poisoning. Food poisoning is an unpleasant illness. For young children, pregnant women, the elderly and the sick, it can be serious and sometimes fatal. Typical symptoms of food poisoning include: Nausea/vomiting Diarrhea Stomach pains Headaches. The food poisoning is caused by the pathogens and other substances that are inherently or can be mistakenly contaminated present in the ice cream And if the healths of consumers are threatened, this can pose a great risk of ConsumerLiability to the consumer.

The risk hazardscan be classifiedinto 3 types: 1.MicroBiological 2.Chemical 3.Physical

1.MicrobiologicalHazard: This kind of hazard is the presence of pathogens in the raw material and the finished ice cream. As we know milk and milk products are the main ingredient of milk and if milk if not treated well can cause a wide range illnesses. There are various kinds of microbial hazards present in the various stages of the manufacturing process o Raw Material The raw materials of ice cream are milk, skimmed milk, condensed milk,milksolids and in some cases eggs, And if these products especially egg are not treated well can cause severe food poisoning illness like salmonella etc. Hazard:Presenceof pathogensthat can causefoodpoisoning. ControlMeasure: Purchaseof materialsfromreputablesuppliers Intaketestingof milk

o Pasteurization: This step is basically involved with the treatment of milk . Hazard:Presenceof pathogens ControlMeasure: Correcttimeandtemperaturecontrol Maintainceof equipment Effectiveand regulardisinfectionof equipment. o Ageing: In this step the ice cream mixture is kept in sterilized vats. Hazards : Recontaminationafter effectivepasteurization. ControlMeasure: Cleaninganddisinfectingthe vats Temperaturehas to be obtainedat below5oC. o Ingredient addition: This step is when the dry ingredients like nuts syrups and flavorings are added. if these materials are contaminated it can contaminate the whole ice cream mix. Hazards : Contamination ControlMeasure: Maintaince of hygieneof manufacturearea Purchasingof materialfromreputablesuppliers Refrainfromusingexpiredproducts. o Storage and Transportation: Hazard : Growthof harmfulmicroorganisms. ControlMeasure: Temperaturehas to be maintained < 18oC. Discard the productsoncemelted. Maintainceof < 18oC temperaturein the transportationvans.

2.ChemicalHazard: Toxic substances and any other compound that may render a food unsafe for consumption to the general public. e.g. bleach in ice cream. Hazard: Residueof cleaningagentsin the equipment Spillingof hazardousmaterial Controlmeasure: Ensuringno residueis left behind. Properstorageof hazardousmaterial. 3.PhysicalHazard: Physical hazard are materials present in the ice cream that can cause severe damage if consumed. e.g:Fragments of glass in mixture Physical hazards can occur intentionally or unintentionally. Hazard This is risk due to foreign materials glass, metal, plastic paper, hair, steel bolt insectsetc ControlMeasure: Throughexaminationof finishedproducts. Installedqualitycheckers. OtherSafetymeasuresadopted: 1. Installed fire extinguishers and fire safety devices as to manage fire risk. This an exampleof minimizingthe severityof loss. 2. The surfacesof the floor belowequipmentrequireto be cleaned. 3. The surfaces of the floor and ceiling of the freezer require to be cleanedandbuild up of ice removed 4. Every personworkingin ice creammanufacturingarea requires to wearcleanprotectiveclothing 5. Personoperatingthe equipmentmusthaveadequatetraining. 6. Wasteshouldbe disposedeffectivelyand management.

DUE TO THE COMPANYPOLICIES THE INFORMATIONON THE INSURANCEDETAILS COULDNOTBE DISCLOSED.However the following policies are recommended: 1. A fire insurance policy is highly recommended as equipments operating at high temperature and at high pressure and the building should also be equipped with fire escapes. 2. The next policy recommended is Worker Compensation or worker insurance, as any hazard can occur while the operation of the equipments. 3. The third and final policy recommended is the insurance of the property i.e. the equipment, which is the foundation of industry.