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Rose Marie Rementina Francesca Reyes Alexandra Sanson Lyanne Tabios Christian Tigulo Nia Urbano 1SPED1 Research

2 Brief History of Special Education 17th Century Categories idiots and insane Children were put in asylums no categories No education or intervention

July 8, 2013 Ms. Pamela Dela Cruz

18th Century Effective procedures were developed were [sic] devised for teaching children with sensory impairments Programs for the blind and deaf

19th Century First systematic attempts were made to educate the idiotic and the insane mental retardation and emotional/behavioral problems

Ideas of Democracy in France and America Change in attitude Political reformers and leaders in medicine and education began to champion the cause of handicapped children and adults Urged that the imperfect and incomplete individuals (physically disabled) be taught skills that would allow them to be independent and productive citizens Desire to protect and defend handicapped people Sought to normalize exceptional children to the greatest extent possible

20th Century Recognition of children and people with exceptionalities Establishing rights Creation of laws and legislation for the care and protection of exceptional children Focus on education Creation of specific educational programs for each exceptionality Mainstreaming and inclusion

Significant People in Special Education Philippe Pinel (1745-1826) French physician Concerned with the humanitarian treatment of individuals with mental illness Strongly influenced the work of Itard

Jacob Rodrigues Pereine (1715-1780) Introduced the idea that persons who were deaf could be taught to communicate Developed an early form of sign language Provided inspiration and encouragement for the work of Itard and Seguin

Jean Marc Gaspard Itard (1774-1838) French physician Authority on the diseases of the ear and the education of death students Systematic efforts to educate an adolescent thought to be severely mentally retarded Educated Victor the wild boy from Aveyron Introduced key concepts in SPED: 1. Instructional sequence derived from a normal development 2. Individualized instruction 3. Sensory stimulation 4. Systematic instruction simple to complex task 5. Activities that will build independence and functional skills

Eduoard Seguin (1812-1880) A pupil of Itard A French physician responsible for developing teaching methods for children with mental retardation His training program emphasized sensory motor activities Pioneered programs in the US and helped found the organization that was the forerunner of the AAMR

Maria Montessori (1870-1952) Began her career as a physician and spent her earliest years of working with children with mental retardation Observed the natural, spontaneous behavior of children and arrange learning experiences to encourage development Created sensorial materials Emphasis on task analysis, sequencing of tasks and individualization prepared environment

Samuel Gridely Howe (1801-1976) An American physician and educator Known for his success in teaching individuals with visual and hearing impairments Founded the first facility for the blind teaches deaf and blind students Was successful in teaching Laura Bridgeman who was deaf and blind influenced the education of Helen Keller Instrumental in inaugurating institutional care for children with mental retardation Children who are handicapped can learn and should have an organized education not just compassionate care

Louise Braille (1809-1852) A French educator who himself was blind Developed tactile system of reading and writing based on a code of six raised dots

Francis Galton (1822-1911) Scientist concerned with individual differences Genius is solely the result of heredity born not made

Alexander Graham Bell (1847-1922) Children who are hearing handicapped can learn to speak and can use their limited hearing if it is amplified

Thomas Gallaudet (1787-1851) Taught children with hearing impairments to communicate via a system of manual signs and symbols

Alfred Binet (1857-1911) Intelligence can be measured and can be improved through education Authored the first developmental assessment scale capable of quantifying intelligence Originated the concept of the mental age of his colleague Theodore Simon The test also aims to determine which children could succeed in schools and which children need SPED

Lewis Termah (1877-1956) An American educator and psychologist who revised Binets original assessment instrument Publication of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence scale Developed the notion of Intelligence quotient (IQ) Grandfather of gifted education lifelong study of gifted individuals

Anna Freud (1895-1982) The techniques of psychoanalyst can be applied to children with emotional or behavioral problems

Alfred Strauss Saw that children show unique patterns of learning disabilities due to brain injury Such children may require special training

Samuel Kirk Early stimulation Optimize young childrens interaction with the environment to accelerate intellectual development

Three Leaders who changed Special Education Lloyd Dunn: Questioning the Efficacy of Special Education Placement Former president of the Council for Exceptional Children Questioned the efficacy of placing students with mild disabilities into special classes Special educators should assume new roles provide resources and consultation to general education teachers so many more students could remain in general education and avoid separate placements Questioned the utility of disability labeling- None of these labels are badges of distinction. He recommended using labels that describe the nature of the education the students would receive Made educators become more aware of the needs of nondiscriminatory assessment and for placement in general education settings

Evelyn Deno: Proposing a Cascade of Services Committed to making schools more responsive to diversity among children The special education system should serve as a developmental capital to improve the effectiveness of public school education for all students To reshape the school systems in 1970, she proposed the concepts of a cascade of services as a way for schools to meet students individual needs The cascade of services served as a blueprint for the continuum of placement options as an integral part of federal and state special education law and practice

James Gallagher: Advocating for Special Education Contract Advocated for a special education contract that would safeguard against incorrect and permanent placements Placement of primary school-age mildly retarded or disturbed or learning disabled children in a special education unit would require a contract signed between parents and educators with specific goals and a clear time limit. Hold educators accountable for the students progress in the form of an individualize d education program (IEP) and due process hearing