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Speed of Sound Robert Breedlove Target Grade Level: 7th Grade Time Allotment: 2 Forty-Five Minute Periods Science

Content Standards:
P.EN.07.32 Describe how waves are produced by vibrations in matter. P.EN.07.33 Demonstrate how waves transfer energy when they interact with matter (for example: tuning fork in water, waves hitting a beach, earthquake knocking over buildings).

Safety: Because this experiment requires a great distance to get results students may need to cross roads. Be sure all students stay together and wait for the Instructor before attempting to cross any road. Prior Knowledge: Electromagnetic radiations -- from radio waves to x-rays -- travel at the speed of light. In empty space this speed is approximately 300,000 kilometers per second. Objectives: 1. I can explore how sound travels in a medium. 2. I can determine an applicable method for measuring out the experiment. 3. I can demonstrate proficiency in calculating the speed of sound. Teachers Notes: Materials: Air Horn Hand Held Radios Stop watches for all students Calculator Part 1: In class: 1. While still in the classroom have the students brainstorm how sound and light travel through the air. Use Popplet.com to create a mind map of the brainstorm. 2. Create groups of 3-4. Have each group of students calculate the distance they think we should use to measure the speed of sound, students will measure out the distance they recommended to begin the experiment. 3. SMART Exit: Students will complete an exit formative assessment using SMART Clickers anonymously.

Part 2: Activity: 1. Students will gather at one point in an open area. One student or a teachers aide will stay at that point with a hand held radio and the air horn. The other hand held radio will go with the remainder of the students while they measure out the distance they decided on. The air horn will be sounded with the following procedure: The one student with the handheld radio and without the air horn will count into the radio 5, 4 Then release the button on the radio. The person with the air horn will continue the count 3, 2, 1 and then sound the air horn for a second count. The students will start the stop watches when they hear the air horn in the radio and stop the watch when they hear the air horn without the radio. The activity is used to give the students a demonstration of the difference between radio waves (approx. light waves) and sound waves. Students will also calculate the speed of sound with their results. A great distance will be needed to be attained in order to get the desired results. At 493 meters there is approximately a 2 second delay in between the radio wave and the sound wave. This may be more difficult for younger students to time accurately. Part 3: After completing the lab report with their group, students will use linoit.com to record one sentence that summarizes their observations. SMART Exit: 1. Sound travels more quickly through air than light (radio) waves. (T/F) 2. Sound is a vibration that is produced in air. (T/F) 3. What is one thing you can do to practice good lab safety?

Assessment: Students will be expected to properly fill out the lab report. 10 points---report complete, turned in on time 8 points---report mostly complete, turned in reasonably on time 6 points---report missing majority of information, not turned in within a reasonable time 0 points---report blank, report not turned in Resources:
Kuntzleman, Tom Speed of sound. Retrieved June 24, 2009, from Hotchalk Web site: http://www.lessonplanspage.com/ScienceSpeedSound8.htm Science Trek. Retrieved June 24, 2009, from Electromagnegitic waves Web site: http://www.colorado.edu/physics/2000/waves_particles/lightspeed-1.html