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RAIPUR , CHHATTISGARH

Under Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission

CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN


(2006 2013)
Final Report

STATE URBAN DEVELOPMENT AGENCY CHHATTISGARH

June, 2006

IN JOINT VENTURE WITH


Operation Research Group Pvt. Ltd.

City Development Plan, Raipur City

Vision, key Priorities & Sectoral Strategy Framework

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page No.

CHAPTER I 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8

CITY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK AND PROCESS

1 - 14
1 2 4 6 7 7 11 13 15-26 15 19 22 26 27-42 27 28 29 32 35 40 43-67 43 44 52 55 57 60

RAIPUR A PROFILE CITY DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY (CDS) RAIPUR THE CDP INITIATIVE CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN (CDP) OBJECTIVES SCOPE OF CDP THE PROCESS CONSULTATIVE PROCESS IN RAIPUR CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN UNDER JNNURM

CHAPTER II : DEMOGRAPHY, ECONOMY AND LANDUSE 2.1 DEMOGRAPHY 2.2 ECONOMIC BASE 2.3 LAND USE, SPATIAL GROWTH AND PLANNING 2.4 DEVELOPMENT CHALLENGES CHAPTER III : 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 GOVERNANCE, INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK AND REFORMS LEGAL FRAMEWORK FUNCTIONAL DOMAIN INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK STRUCTURE OF GOVERNANCE IN RAIPUR KEY ISSUES IN GOVERNANCE REFORMS

CHAPTER IV : MUNICIPAL INFRASTRUCTURE 4.1 INTRODUCTION 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 WATER SUPPLY SEWERAGE AND SANITATION STORM WATER DRAINAGE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT TRAFFIC AND TRANSPORTATION

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Page CHAPTER V : BASIC SERVICES TO THE URBAN POOR 5.1 INTRODUCTION 5.2 GROWTH OF SLUMS AND SLUM POPULATION 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 SOCIO-ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF SLUM POPULATION UNORGANIZED AND INFORMAL SECTOR POVERTY REDUCTION INITIATIVES COMMUNITY STRUCTURES INSTITUTIONAL STRUCTURES KEY ISSUES AND CHALLENGES VISION, KEY PRIORITIES AND SECTORAL STRATEGY FRAMEWORK INTRODUCTION WATER SUPPLY SEWERAGE STORM WATER DRAINGE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT TRAFFIC AND TRANSPORTATION POVERTY REDUCTION STRATEGIC PLAN INSTITUTIONAL STRENGTHENING : 68-77 68 68 70 73 74 75 75 77 78-151 78 80 95 105 114 129 137 140 152-164 152 152 157 162

CHAPTER VI 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8

CHAPTER VII : FINANCE AND INVESTMENT PLAN 7.1 FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE 7.2 ANALYSIS OF RMC FINANCES 7.3 FINANCIAL STATSUS OF RMC 7.4 DESIGN CHARACTERISTICS OF A REFORM ORIENTED FUND IN RAIPUR CHAPTER VIII: 8.1 8.2 8.3 CAPITAL IMPROVEMENT PROGRAMME

165-179 165 166 166

BASIS OF PRIORITIZATION PROJECT IDENTIFICATION INVESTMENT REQUIRED FOR 7 YEARS CAPITAL IMPROVEMENT PROGRAMME

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8.4 8.5

RECOMMENDATIONS RELATING TO LOCAL BODY AVAILING LOAN FOR 7-YEAR CAPITAL IMPROVEMENT PROGRAMME FORMULATING AND IMPLEMENTING A CDP

178 179

LIST OF TABLES

Page Table 2.1 Table 2.2 Table 2.3 Table 2.4 Table 2.5 Table 2.6 Table 2.7 Table 2.8 Table 2.9 Table 2.10 Table 3.1 Table 3.2 Table 4.1 Table 4.2 Table-4.3 Table 4.4 Table 4.5 Table 4.6 Table 4.7 Table 4.8 Table 4.9 Table 4.10 Table 4.11 Table 4.12 Table 5.1 Table 5.2 Table 5.3 Table 5.4 Average annual growth rate Composition of growth Population and area detail under Raipur Planning Area Demography details of Raipur Planning Area Proposed decadal growth rate Economic basis and occupational pattern of Raipur Industrial Development in Planning Area Land use in Raipur Municipal Corporation Status of land use development Proposed land use as per development plan 2011 Governance Institutions Different authorities and their responsibilities in Raipur Basic services minimum requirements Zone wise coverage of existing water supply system 15 16 16 17 18 19 21 22 23 24 27 35 44 47

Water supply standards as per National Building Code (NBC) and Indian 48 Standards Water supply norms as per UDPFI Guidelines Estimated water Supply & Demand till 2013 Finances of City-Level Water Supply and Sewerage Board Existing Tariff Structure of RMC Present situation of UGD system in Raipur Year wise wastewater generation in RMC Existing infrastructure details Raipur Lengths of the existing roads under Raipur Municipal Corporation Details of Proposed Transport Nagar at Rawabhata Slums and Squatter Settlements as per development plan 2011 Access of The Slum Dweller To The Basic Services Basic Infrastructures in Slums Community facilities in Slums of Raipur 49 49 51 51 53 54 59 62 65 69 70 72 73

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Page Table 5.5 Table 5.6 Table 6.1 Table 6.2 Table 6.3 Table 6.4 Table 6.5 Table 6.6 Table 6.7 Table 6.8 Table 6.9 Table 6.10 Table 6.11 Table 6.12 Table 6.13 Table 6.14 Table 6.15 Table 6.16 Table 6.17 Table 6.18 Table 6.19 Table 6.20 Table 6.21 Table 6.22 Table 6.23 Table 6.24 Table 6.25 Table 6.26 Table 6.27 Table 6.28 Table 6.29 Table 6.30 Table 6.31 Table 6.32 List of Poverty alleviation programs Indicative lists of Institutions and programmes Identified goals for Horizon years Project cost for water supply for 2013 Year wise Project cost of water supply from 2006-13 Estimated Expenditure on Water Supply Estimated Revenue from the water supply tariff Estimated Revenue from the collection of Initial Charges on water supply Per Capita Income & Expenditure on Water Supply for 2013 Estimated service coverage by Horizon period Proposed Sewer lines in various zones for 2013, Raipur Project Summary of Sewerage and Sanitation Systems Phasing & Implementation Estimated Expenditure on Proposed Sewerage and sanitation System for 2013 Estimated User Charges for 2013 Estimated Initial Charges for 2013 74 76 81 85 87 89 92 93 94 96 96 99 99 100 101 102

Per Capita Income & Expenditure on Proposed Sewerage and sanitation 103 System for 2013 Cost Benefit Analysis on Water Supply, Sewerage and sanitation System Estimated Cost for proposed drains ward/Area wise Estimated cost for storm water System for 2013 Year wise estimated cost for storm water System for 2007-13 Estimated Expenditure on Proposed Storm Water Drainage System for 2013 Estimated revenue from the development of storm water drains Goals, service outcomes for different horizon years Estimated Waste generation Profile Type of waste quantity & disposal method Recommendations for SWM Detailed estimated Capital cost for SWM Estimated cost for Proposed SWM System Phasing & Implementation Estimated Expenditure for Solid Waste Management Revenue Recovery Year wise 104 110 111 111 112 113 114 116 120 121 122 124 125 125 127

Estimated Per Capita Cost Benefits on Proposed Solid Waste Management 128 System Estimated Cost for Proposed Transportation System 132

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Page Table 6.33 Table 6.34 Table 6.35 Table 6.36 Table 6.37 Table 6.38 Table 6.39 Table 6.40 Table 6.41 Table 7.1 Table 7.2 Table 8.1 Table 8.2 Table 8.3 Total estimated cost for proposed Transportation System Year wise estimated cost for proposed Transportation System Estimated Expenditure for Transportation Phasing of Proposed Transportation System Vision for basic services Slums in central area Raipur Tentative estimation of physical development for urban poor Institutional responsibility matrix Project listing priority Total receipts and payments of RMC in actual terms 133 134 135 135 137 141 142 145 147 155

Revenue Income and Expenditure of RMC


Total Investment required for 7-years Capital Improvement Programme Sector wise Prioritization from 2006-13 Sector wise Detailed Project Cost from 2006-13

155
168 169 173

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LIST OF FIGURES
Page Figure 1.1 Figure 1.2 Figure 1.3 Figure 2.1 The growing importance of cities City development strategy process The planning process Occupational pattern of villages Land use distribution (1998) Land use status of implementation Comparative chart of LUR Organogram2 State Level Agencies Roles and responsibilities- inter relationship of various departments Ratio of own revenue to total revenue income and to total income Gap funded by capital income Actual income and expenditure figures against budgeted figures Current situation/with the reform fund Formulating and Implementing a CDP 3 11 12 20 22 23 24 31 32 152 154 156 164 179

Figure 2.2 Figure 2.3


Figure 2.4 Figure 3.1 Figure 3.2 Figure 7.1

Figure 7.2 Figure 7.3


Figure 7.4 Figure 8.1

ANNEXURES
Annexure 1 Annexure 2 Annexure 3
Map No. 2.1 Map No. 2.2 Map No. 4.1 Map No. 4.2 Map No. 4.3 Map No. 5.1 Map No. 6.1 Map No. 6.2 Map No. 6.3 Map No. 6.4 Map No. 6.5

Reforms Municipal Finance List of Maps


Existing Land Use Development Plan 2011 Water Supply Plan Natural Drainage System Existing Road Network Slum in Central Area Proposed Water Supply Plan Phase-1 (2006-2011) Existing and Proposed Sewerage Plan Phase-1 (2006-2013) Proposed Drainage System Phase-1 (2006-2013) Proposed Solid Waste Management Plan Proposed Circulation Plan

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City Development Plan, Raipur City

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1
1.1

CITY DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK AND PROCESS


RAIPUR- A PROFILE

Raipur became the capital of the State of Chhattisgarh on Ist November 2000 when Chhattisgarh was carved out of the south-eastern parts of undivided Madhya Pradesh. Uttar Pradesh and Jharkhand in the north, Orissa in the east, Andhra Pradesh in the south and by Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra in the west, bound the state. Raipur is the capital city of the recently formed state of Chhattisgarh, carved out of the erstwhile state of Madhya Pradesh. The city is also the head quarter of Raipur District. Raipur District is situated between 21o14'N to 22o33'N latitude and 81o38'E to 82o6'E longitude. The district is administratively divided into 13 Tehsils and 15 revenue blocks. Chhattisgarh is the richest Stat, in the union of India, in terms of mineral wealth, with 28 varieties of major minerals, including diamonds. All the tin ore in India, a fifth of iron ore in the country and one of the best quality iron ore deposits in the world are found in the Bailadila mines in south Chattisgarh. Rich deposits of Bauxite, Limestone, Dolomite and Corundum are found in the State. The State has large deposits of coal, iron ore and limestone in close proximity, making it the ideal location for the lowest cost of production. Raipur, being the capital of Chattisgarh, is positioned to support the mineral based industries. Chhattisgarh is a land of opportunities and is endowed with huge mineral deposits and forest resources. By virtue of its coal reserves, the state is poised to become the power hub of the nation. Identified as one of the richest bio-diversity habitats, Chhattisgarh has the densest forests in India, and above all, over 200 non-timber forest produces, with tremendous potential for value addition. There are mega industries in steel, aluminium and cement already functioning in the near vicinity of Raipur even before Chhatisgarh was declared a separate
Raipur District Map

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City Development Plan, Raipur City

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state. After the new state was formed, the city is also gradually emerging as an educational hub. Chhattisgarh has the largest concentration of schedule tribes (STs) in the country. As a result, the city of Raipur has a fair share of its population belonging to schedule tribes. Besides the native population, the city has a significant number of migrants from other parts of the country owing to its multi disciplinary functional characteristics. The major issue of Raipurs future growth pertains to the growth of the city as the state capital. The state government is in the process of establishing the capitol functions in a greenfield area and its integration with Raipur, the primate city of the state. The state government has initiated activities on an area of about one thousand hectares near village Kotarabhata, Kuhera and Rakhi in Mandir Hansad Assembly constituency for locating the capitol functions. The new capital township is envisaged to develop as a satellite town of Raipur. Apart from the capitol functions, Raipurs regional primacy as a commercial, industrial and educational centre needs to be addressed from a future perspective of the regional development. The city is located in the fertile plains of Chhattisgarh Region. The major constituents of the soil are silt, clay and sand. The general slope of the land is towards north. Mahanadi is the primary river of the region. Water supply to the city is from the Kharun River, a tributary of Mahanadi that has been dammed at Mahadeo Ghat. The climate of Raipur is warm. The mean maximum temperature in May is 46.4 0C. Relative Humidity is generally over 75%. Rainfall observations indicate that annual rainfall in the area is around 1400 mm. The foremost issue of urban growth in Raipur pertains to its growth as the state capital with appropriate city cynosures. Apart from the state capitol functions, of late the city has also emerged as a major commercial, educational and industrial centre in the region. Integration of Durg city (head quarter of Durg district) with Raipur has been a concern for long. The market forces and urbanization trend has already vested dense ribbon development along RaipurDurg corridor (NH-6) posing traffic bottlenecks. With the added importance of capitol functions in Raipur, the trend is likely to intensify and pose further problems in this corridor. 1.2 The CITY DVELOPMENT STRATEGY urban agglomeration, with growth in

population is putting heavy pressure on services and the urban local bodies are not been able to

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Mission Statement: The aim is to encourage reforms and fast track planned development of identified cities. Focous is to be on efficiency in urban infrastructure and service delivery mechanisms, community participation, and accountability of urban local

City Development Plan, Raipur City

Vision, key Priorities & Sectoral Strategy Framework

meet the demands and expectations. To address the present and emerging infrastructure needs and services delivery gaps in Raipur urban agglomeration area the city development strategy need to be prepared. The key objective of the strategy will be to formulate a development strategy for meeting the emerging challenges of infrastructure, address the problems of urban poverty and create enabling environment for the growth of economy.

Cities and towns matter:


Firstly, because of the sheer and increasing weight of people located in urban areas Secondly, because of the economic, social and cultural activities that continues to cluster in cities and which increasingly drive national development processes; and

Thirdly, because of the apparent intractability of urban poverty, which threatens national development. Urban poverty is a most degrading and pernicious problem, and one that is not diminishing; quite the opposite in many countries.
Figure: 1.1 The Growing Importance of Cities

URBAN POPULATION AND ECONOMIC CHANGES


Rapid urban population increase Urban populations soon numerically dominant Urban economic activity driving national economics

GLOBAL ECONOMIC TRENDS


Globalization Market liberalization Rapid technological change Localization, a new competitive factor Increasing Economic and Political Importance of Cities

GLOBAL POLITICAL TRENDS


Decentralization Devolution Rise of Governancemoving beyond government Rise of municipal civic leadership

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The CDP Initiative


An Economic and Governance Strategic Response to the Increasing Importance of Cities

1.3

THE CDP INITIATIVE: A PROPOSED NORMATIVE FRAMEWORK

In order to assess the success or otherwise of the CDP initiatives, it is necessary to clarify the expected outcomes of the initiative. In other words, a normative framework for the CDP must be established. Based on the above review of the economic potential of cities and current thinking on development, it is appropriate that the

Outputs of a CDP should focus on: The city as an engine of economic growth; The city as the locus of good governance; and The city as an arena of social inclusion and poverty reduction.

The key expected process characteristics and outputs of a CDP are as follows:

Stakeholder Participation: A CDP is to be seen as an instrument whereby trust and


relations of mutual benefit between stakeholder groups are built, managed and nurtured. A CDP is a mechanism of social inclusion. In addressing issues involved in the recreation of civil society through inclusion a CDP is often a political process.

Building Civic Capacities and Capabilities: Most importantly, a CDP should be a


process through which the capacities and capabilities of the stakeholder group are considerably improved. For government a CDP should be an instrument to be used to build and ensure good governance, to change institutional behavior, and thereby to build the internal institutional ability to direct the economy and manage civil society and for the community a CDP should be an instrument to build freedoms of development.

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Changing the Nature of Thinking about Development: A CDP involves people


thinking about the development of their city in a different way than that which characterized the past. Getting a critical mass of people thinking strategically should be one of the defining successes of a CDP.

Addressing the Complexity of Development: Experience demonstrates the complex


development agenda associated with the new economic realities demands a coordinated strategic approach by all the main stakeholders in the public, private, and community sectors. A CDP should be seen as an instrument, which can be used to achieve a coordinated strategic approach. Other important products associated with a CDP can be summarized as follows:

A Collective Vision and Strategy: A CDP should generate a collective vision, lay the
foundation for a more collaborative economy, and bring both strategic intent and realism to city development planning. Indeed, development experience clearly demonstrates that strategies are more likely to fail when they are not grounded in a collective vision to which the stakeholders are committed, and a consensus, which the stakeholders are committed to maintain.

Defined Priorities and Action Plans: A CDP should focus on the fundamental drivers of
economic change and assists stakeholders determine development priorities, sort out specific inter -sectoral priorities and investment sequencing, and thereby formulate and implement practical actions plans.

Defined Roles and Responsibilities for Stakeholders: Role definition (including the
provision of enabling resources) is part of the process of empowerment. Assigning responsibilities to various stakeholders enhances performance. Both processes are related to the building of civic consciousness. A CDP should involve, engender and empower reciprocal responsibilities amongst stakeholder groups, and precipitate a change in dependency attitudes and behavior.

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Poverty Alleviation Focus: Stakeholder participation and participatory democracy are


more than likely to place poverty firmly on the agenda. A CDP initiative should focus on formulating development strategies that address poverty reduction.

Reduced Lending Risks, and Improved Investment Climate: A clear and achievable
strategy, and associated action plans, backed with the commitment and participation of key stakeholder groups reduces investment risks, demonstrates progress and sends a very positive message to investors, small and large. The very process of the CDP, furthermore, should demonstrate the confluence of societal and shareholder added value and draw the private sector into a constructive partnership role in the development of the city. Table 1.1 is a summary of the package of process and product outputs and associated attributes that, define a CDP, and differentiate the CDP initiative from past development plans.
Table 1.1: Summary of the proposed Defining Outputs of a CDP

Defining Outputs

Associated Attributes

CDP PROCESS FOCUS Stakeholder (civic society; business; municipal corporation) Participation and Ownership Building Trust and Relations of Mutual Benefit amongst Stakeholders Building a Collective Vision and a New Social Contract Building capacity and Capabilities in the stakeholders groupsGovernment, the Private Sector and the Community Making Connections between Policies and Investments, and Outcomes Changing the Nature of thinking about Development Changing Institutional Behaviour

CDP PRODUCT FOCUS City Economic Development Strategy City Governance Strategy Prioritized and Sequenced Policy and Investment Interventions Annual Development Plans Action Plans and Budgets Assigned Responsibilities to Stakeholders Partnerships (PublicPrivate; Private-Private; Public / Private- community) Pro-Poor Approaches to Policy and Investment Interventions Reduction in Borrowing and Lending Risks

1.4

CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN OBJCTIVES


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The CDP aims at achieving equitable growth by addressing the issues of economic growth, poverty, good governance and service delivery to the poor through a consultative process of strategizing and visioning. A collective city vision and action plan aimed at improving urban governance and management, increasing investment to expand employment and services, and systematic and sustained reduction in urban poverty. The CDP makes basic policy choice and provides a flexible framework for adapting to real conditions over time. It emphasizes on issues of priority local concerns for livability, and the implied requirements in terms of enhancing city productivity, reducing poverty, improving urban governance and enhancing financial sustainability.
Enhancing City Productivity Reducing Poverty Improving Urban Governance and

Enhancing Financial Sustainability The CDP comprises of sectoral plans for the identified sectors for a time horizon of 20 years outlining the policy framework and investment interventions to achieve the vision. The objectives of CDP are:
To develop a city development framework for Raipur Urban Agglomeration To formulate the Strategic Action Plan and the City Assistance Programme based on the city development framework Prioritization of sectors and identification of short, medium and long-term goals; and Preparations of implementation arrangements

1.5

SCOPE OF CDP

The CDP outlines the strategic policy and investment interventions to achieve the vision of Raipur including formulation of sectoral plans for the identified sectors. The scope of work is to:
Assess the current situation in respect of demographic and economic growth, infrastructure services, municipal finances, etc; Identify the gaps in service delivery; Outline the issues faced by the citys poor; Prepare a vision and sectoral strategic framework outline the goals, strategies, interventions and projects to achieve the vision;

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Formulate a city investment plan with appropriate financing strategies and an implementation action plan; and Focus on the reforms to be carried out at the state and local levels in consonance with the vision and strategic plan outlined to sustain the planned interventions.

1.6

THE PROCESS

The ethos around which a City Development Plan is built is the notion of participatory planning so as to ensure buy-in of the plan from a cross-section of stakeholders. The planning process therefore needs to be a consultative one, with stakeholders representing a wide spectrum of interests taking part in the discussions and dialogue leading to the formulation of a vision and development objectives, identification of priority sectors and projects. The Planning Process followed for preparing the CDP for Raipur has remained faithful to this ethos. Exhaustive consultations were carried out with key stakeholders, both institutional and individual. These stakeholders included key representatives (both elected and administrative) of Raipur Municipal Corporation, the Urban Development Authority, line departments of the state government such as PHED, PWD, Irrigation, Transport, Railways, Tourism et al, prominent citizens of Raipur, representatives from trade and commerce, NGOs, slum inhabitants, representatives of education institutes. In addition to one-on-one interactions, a Preliminary Stakeholders workshop was held on 10th February 2006 and 8 April 2006 in Raipur. A Rapid City assessment was presented in each of these workshops and consensus was sought on the key issues facing each of these cities. A draft vision was also finalized in these workshops. 1. 1st Field Visit: 16th to 21st December 2005 2. 2nd Field Visit and Meetings with officials of different organizations: 3rd to 6th January 2006 3. 3rd fiend visit and 1st Stakeholders consultancy: 10th to 16th February 2006 4. 4th Field visit and 2nd Stakeholders consultancy: 8th to 10th April 2006 The CDP outlines the critical issues of city development, undertakes a deficiency analysis and formulates a management framework outlining strategies and guidelines for future growth. The plan provides a distinctive thrust for introducing enabling rather than restrictive regulatory mechanisms through realistic planning and management interventions with the overall regulatory and instructional framework. A development implementation action plan comprising
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of implementation schedule, role of stakeholders, regulations and institutional strengthening mechanisms are formulated. It also aims at institutionalizing through monitoring mechanisms. The CDP, considered as an inter-sectoral exercise, took into account the existing situation including assessing the current status of municipal services, its fiscal status, operational and management procedures. The CDP also took into consideration the works and plans of other government and quasi government agencies contributing towards the growth and development of the city and was prepared by undertaking the following tasks:
Vision exercise; Situation analysis; Formulation of goals and strategies; Capital investment plans and project scheduling; Stakeholder workshop; Action and operating plan indicating the policy and reforms measures for improved service provision and delivery.

The entire exercise was carried out through robust stakeholder participation through various stages. The data has been captured on various dimensions of municipal functions, including governance, finances, infrastructure, civil societies and poverty alleviation initiatives, etc.

Stakeholder analysis: The following stakeholders were identified: The city district level agencies like RMC, Raipur Urban Development Authority Officials of the department of urban development and municipal Administration, Government of Chhattisgarh Representatives of live departments like education, health, welfare, electricity, housing and others responsible for delivery of public services Representatives of business trade industry and other private sector agencies Non-governmental and community based organizations Representatives of the poor communities- NHGs, NHCs, SHGs, etc. Representatives of the civil societies, including media, academic institutions, etc.

A key feature of Consultations is inclusion of the representatives from poor community Development Societies and Self-Help Groups in the entire process including the working groups
Orientation To The Key Stakeholders

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The key stakeholders such as Corporators, Officials from various other convergent departments, and representatives of community based organizations and civil society organization etc. were familiarized with the purpose, process and expected outcomes of the CDP. An important feature of preparation of CDP was consistituation of working groups with sector specialists. The following working groups were constituted:
Governance Poverty Alleviation and Slum Improvement Land-use planning and environment Economic Development Environmental Improvement Traffic and Transportation Water supply and Underground drainage Sanitation and Solid waste management Health Education Municipal Finance

These working groups identified indicators for sustainable development in the respective areas and reviewed the current situation, projected the requirements over a period of two decades and made valuable suggestions and recommendations to improve governance in all its aspects including infrastructure provision and poverty alleviation. The RMC constituted the Municipal Reforms Committee and three Working Groups on governance reforms, Infrastructure and Poverty Alleviation, as per the guidelines of Chhattisgarh Urban Reforms and Municipal Services project (CURMSP). These Groups also made valuable recommendations. The Government of India has launched a major programme, entitled Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM), for promoting reforms and investments in select 63 cities in the country. Raipur is one of the eligible cities under the scheme. Under JNNURM, it is mandatory to prepare City Development Plan through consultative process. Accordingly, the Raipur Municipal Corporation (RMC) has prepared a CDP based on the City Development Strategy formulated earlier. The insights of the workshop groups and their recommendations were reviewed and the CDP finalized through consultations. The CDP process is given in Figure 1.2.

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Figure 1.2

City Development Strategy Process

City Assessment
Opportunities, strengths, weaknesses, unmet demand or gap

Parameters

Demography Economic Base Financial Profile Infrastructur e

Future Perspective and Vision

Direction of change and Projections/expectations

Strategies for Development

Parameters

Options and Strategies Reforms Criteria for

Environmental services Social Infrastructure Urban Renewal Slum Improvement

City Investment Plan & Financial Alternatives

1.7

CONSULTATIVE PROCESS IN RAIPUR

The ethos around which a City Development Plan is built is the notion of participatory planning. The planning process therefore needs to be a consultative one, with stakeholders representing a wide spectrum of interests taking part in the discussions and dialogue reading to the formulation of a vision and development objectives, identification of priority sectors and projects.

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This City Development Plan has been prepared for the city of Raipur, as part of the initiative of the Government of Chhattisgarh to access funds from the Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM). The City Development plan process for Raipur is given in Figure 1.3 FIGURE 1.3
Task 1: Initial Consultation and Reconnaissance Initial Meeting with officials of Municipal Corporation and other key parastatal agencies (eg. PHED, UDA). Data needs and requirements. Reconnaissance visit of project area.

THE PLANNING PROCESS


Task 2: Analysis of Data Analysis of data, (Published / Unpublished viz. census, municipal records etc.) maps, drawings, existing project reports. Demographic & Socio-Economic ULB financial and organization Information, Rapid review of relevant Acts.

FIELD LEVEL SITUATION ASSESSMENT


Task 3: Rapid Assessment of Land Use, Infrastructure & Environment Rapid field assessments with ULB/ PHED, and other Stakeholders. Task 4: Rapid Assessment of Socio- Economic Issues Rapid assessments of local economy, income profile, key occupations, primary health and education services. ULB performance in poverty schemes. Task 5: Rapid Assessment of Financial and Institutional Capacity Organization mechanisms of ULB Correlation of ULB with other parastatal agencies

Stakeholders Consultations:
Consultations with ULB councilors, parastatal officials, NGOs, prominent local citizens, etc.

VISION / PRELIMINARY CONCEPT


Task 6: Demand Analysis Taking citizen priorities into account to assess Infrastructure & service delivery gap

Task 7: Supply Analysis Coordination mechanisms between all city level agencies. Projection of ULB finances, organizational capacity

Task 8: Priority Project Identification and Preparation of City Investment Plan (CIP)

Task 9: Reform Measures and Institutional Strengthening Plan

Task 10: Workshop - Prioritization of Project proposals and Consensus on draft CDP

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1.8

CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN UNDER JNNURM

The City Development Plan is an essential element of State Governments overall application for funds under the JNNURM. CDPs provide cities the opportunity to achieve convergence of opinion and ideas across various infrastructure, service delivery and institutional reforms agenda. Prepared through a participatory

Although CDPs are a mandatory requirement to access large investible funds from GoI, they should be seen by State Governments and ULBs as an initiative to usher in a new era of urban

process with various urban stakeholder groups, The CDP and will set a vision for the future development of the city, a set of objectives and goals which the city aims to achieve and identifies thrust areas in various sectors which need to be addressed on a priority basis in order to achieve the objectives and the vision. It thus provides the overall framework within which projects will be identified and put forward in a City Investment Plan. Seen in this light, the City Development Plan differs from a traditional Master Plan which focuses on development trends based on land use and related controls.

The Government of India has launched Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission in the current year 2005-2006. To access the funds under JNNURM, the city is required to prepare City Development Plans (CDPs) and implement a set of reforms at the state and the city levels by entering into a tripartite agreement. The CDP also took the inputs from studies viz., the Master Plan for preparation under the Town and Country Planning Department under UDA. This document is result of extensive consultations with stakeholders in RMC as per the guidelines of Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission.

Features of a City Development Plan

A City Development Plan should have the following features:


Prepared for a 5-10 year horizon, such plans are based on past trends, existing strengths and limitations The planning horizon is set to be foreseeable and achievable The plans seek to integrate infrastructure requirements and environmental concerns together with land-use patterns and regulation of the same

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The plans derive the vision, objectives and targets from socio-economic needs and quality of life needs as articulated by their citizens, their representatives and other stakeholders from civil society Poverty alleviation and needs of urban poor are important elements of such plan with commensurate allocation of resources The plans focus on resources available, seek to balance needs and priorities with available resources Multiple stakeholder agencies are involved in such planning to ensure a shared and commonly owned vision, development objective and plan of action Private sector role in preparation of such plans, financing and implementation is ingrained Institutional reforms and capacity enhancement measures of urban local bodies and / or other civic agencies are integral to such plans

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DEMOGRAPHY, ECONOMY AND LANDUSE

2.1

DEMOGRAPHY

Raipur, the largest urban agglomerations in the state, consists of the Raipur Municipal Corporation (RMC). Planning area of Raipur is notified under the act on 22.11.73. It is spread over 188.01 sq.km and consist of 41 villages with in the planning area (Map No 2.1). Raipur is the largest city in the state with a population of 670042 as per census 2001.
Population Growth Rate

The connectivity of Raipur helped it to develop as the wholesale market and logistic hub for the adjoining states. Designation of capital city further added functions of administrative city to the list of other functions of town. Raipur also provides for higher order social infrastructure facilities in education and health for the entire state. These roles and functions have made Raipur a very active and high potential developing city. The Population that has been taken for CDP pertains to population of Municipal Corporation area as per census 2001. In the year 2003, 26 villages were brought under RMC. These villages had a population of 88139 as per 2001 census and were added as 16 Wards under RMC. The growth rate for projecting the population of these villages for the year 2003 has been taken at 2.01% (The growth rate for Rural Population in MP between 1991-2001). Considering that population the projection has been done for 2005 to 2021. The average annual growth rates of Raipur city between 19812011 are given in Table 2.1.
Table 2.1: Average Annual Growth Rate

Sl.No. 1 2 3 4 5 1981 1991 2001

Year

Population 338000 461000 670042 866545 1064045

Average Annual Growth Rate (%) 5.07 3.15 3.81 3.48 3.48

2005 (Estimated) 2011 (Projected)*

Note: Population projection has been done using Compound Growth Rate Method.
The city is witnessing rapid growth since it has assumed the role of capital city. The growth rate is significantly above the average
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Table 2.2 below presents composition of growth during 1981-2001

Table 2.2: Composition of Growth


Composition Year 1981-91 Population Increase During % of Total 1991-2001 % of Total

Natural Increase In-migration Jurisdictional Change Total Increase

67650 55350 0 123000

55% 45% 0 36.39

81526 127516 0 209042

39% 61% 0 45.34

The population and the area detail for Raipur Planning Area is give in Table 2.3.

Table 2.3: Population and Area Details under Raipur Planning area
Sl.No A B
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Name of villages in planning area Raipur (U.A.) Raipur (M.C.)


Birgoan Deopuri Boriakhurd Urkura Jora Sarora Dumartarai Dunda Rababhata Goagoan Mowa Tikrapara

Area in hect.

Population (Census 2001) 699,264 670042


10653 3930 3218 5334 3968 7074 3205 2952 6469

1222.2
345.8 397.0 424.1 551.3 395.5 592.2 385.0 511.8 935.7 303.3 387.7 687.4

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Sl.No
13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41

Name of villages in planning area


Sarona Sondongari Gondwara Daldalseoni Labhadih Amlidih Bhatagoan Hirapur (jarvai) Attari Tatibandh Chandniadih Bhanpuri khamtarai Raipura Changor Bhata Mathpurena Phundhar Telibandha Sardu Dangania Chirhuldih Gudhiyari Fafadih Pandari Tarai Kapa Sankarnagar Kota Dumartalao Raipur Khas

Area in hect.
561.00 395.5 343.3 688.1 764.1 385.2 943.6 447.0 240.2 561.00 289.0 350.3 449.2 659.3 165.5 647.3 244.3 454.5

Population (Census 2001)

3003 45.8 256.4 149.2 134.4 111.6 301.5 413.8 363.3 370.0 1163.8

Grand Total Planning Area

18801.6

719848

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Villages mentioned at serial number 1-9 fall out side municipal area, villages from 10-30 fall fully or partially within new Municipal Corporation area, village Sardu mentioned on serial no. 31 is included in new Municipal Corporation area but does not fall in Planning area. However this village is included in revised planning area. Villages mentioned from 32-41 fall within old municipal area, therefore the population of villages falling partially or fully within municipal area is mentioned collectively as population of Raipur M.C. Planning area Raipur has got 4 urban settlements apart from Raipur municipal area, which constitutes 21+1(Sardu) urban settlements and 20 rural settlements. The settlements falling in planning area adjacent to municipal area are the ones who face and absorb the pressure of development. The demography of these villages is detailed in Table 2.4.

Table 2.4: Demography Details of Raipur Planning Area


SL. NO. VILLAGE NAME TOTAL POP. SC POP. ST POP. LITERATE WORKERS IN % HOUSEHOLD SIZE

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22

Gudhari Tikrapara Sarona Sondongari Gondwara Daldalseoni Labhandih Amlidih Deopuri Boriahhurd Bhata Goan Rawabhatha Urkura Jora Sarora Dumartarai Dunda Sardhu Banasari Birgoan Gogoan Mowa

467 6444 9820 2952 2713 4359 3949 2424 3930 3218 7751 6469 5334 3968 7074 3205 2952 3003 10653 23562 10456 13706

433 475 1172 48 1178 285 1238 109 1838 170 133 1075 62 723 640 813 476 397 1186 3013 2529 2355

0 372 2043 79 313 77 68 87 63 222 531 150 155 98 445 70 0 39 413 1094 933 615

283 3877 3308 1413 1452 2696 1562 1396 2186 1915 4603 3176 3043 2651 4190 1752 1407 1584 7638 13924 5644 8798

AL- 93.8 OW- 91.0 OW- 93.7 OW- 65.2 OW- 81.8 OW- 796 OW- 50.6 OW- 69.7 OW- 79.1 OW- 63.5 OW- 49.4 OW- 75.9 OW 72.8 OW- 67.8 OW- 81.0 OW- 55.0 CL- 46.6 OW- 61.8 OW- 92.9 OW- 95.9 OW- 91.7 OW- 96.8

4.5 5.3 4.3 5.6 4.5 5.4 5.8 7.0 6.0 5.4 6.3 4.9 4.3 5.9 4.4 6.0 7.7 5.8 4.6 4.4 4.3 4.9

Note: AL: Agricultural Labour; OW: Other Workers; CL: Cultivators

Analysis of the above table reveals that Gudhiary has got maximum population (92.75%) as scheduled castes, followed by Deopuri (46.8%) and Gondwara (43.4%). There is only one village Sarona that has maximum congregation of 20.8% Scheduled Tribe population. The household size varies from 4.2 to 7.7; Dunda, Amlidih, Bhatgoan and Dumartarai are the critical villages having a high house hold size.

2.1.1

Future growth pattern

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The rates of growth of population experienced by Raipur Urban Agglomeration during 1991 and 2001 will continue in future through at a lesser rate. The projections indicate that the Raipur Municipal Corporation would house a population of 10.64 lakhs in 2011 and 14.98 lakhs in 2021. The detail is shown in Table 2.5.

Table: 2.5
Year 2001 2011 2021 Decade 1991-01 2001-11 2011-21

Proposed Decadal Growth Rate


Growth Rate 37.9% 34.8% 34.8% Population

670042 1064045
1498216

2.1.2

Emerging Issues

The Raipur Urban agglomeration is experiencing population growth rates higher than the state. In the next two decades it is expected to touch 1.5 million marks. Most of the growth is taking outside the RMC area in the urban agglomeration. This necessitates integrated planning, development and service delivery.

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2.2 2.1.3

ECONOMIC BASE Occupation Pattern

As per the 2001 Census over 46% of the total population comprises of city work force and the occupational pattern of Raipur indicates that it is a major center for tertiary activities. While 67.14% of the total workers in 1991 belonged to the tertiary sector, the proportion has increased to 75.13% of the total work force in 2001. On the other hand there has been a decline in the proportion of workers in the secondary sector from 25.49 % to 19.51% during 1991 and 2001 respectively. A detailed composition of work force has been enumerated in Table 2.6.

Table: 2.6

Economic Bases and Occupational Pattern of Raipur


1991 2001 % of total No. workers 1.81 2.38 2.8 A 0.31 7.36 1.87 7582 5.36 3.48 1068 1567 % of total workers 0.4 0.7

Sectors

Category
I Cultivation Agricultural Laborers

No. 2493 3278

Primary

II III IV Total VA

Live stock, fisheries, forestry 3899 etc. and allied activities. Mining and Quarrying 437 10107 Manufacturing and processing in Household industry Manufacturing and processing in Household industry Construction 2567

Secondary VB VI Total

24392 8023 34982

17.77 5.84 25.49 26.68 13.31 27.13

19.51

Tertiary

VII VIII IX

Trade and Commerce Transport. Storage and communication Other services

36623 18277 37234

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Total Grand Total

92134

67.14

75.13 217641 100

137223 100.00

Source: Census 2001


Work participation rate in Raipur Urban Agglomeration is 32.48%, which is slightly greater than the state urban work participation rate i.e., 31.11 %. Service sector has been increasing after becoming the state capital in 2000.

Gudhiyari is one amongst the initially developed areas. The literacy rate is above 50% in all the settlements of planning area but workers participation rate of female is high but participation of women in other working class is less. Economic structure of the population of planning area falls in other workers category; only Gudhiyari has 93.8% population engaged in primary sector as agricultural labour and Dunda has 46.6% population engaged in primary sector as Cultivators.
OCCUPATIONAL PATTER OF VILLAGES
100%

90%

80%

Female Other w orkers Female Household Industries Female Agriculturals Female Cultivators Male Other w orkers Male Household Industries Male Agriculturals Male Cultivators Other w orkers' Household Industries' Agriculturals' Cultivators'

70%

60%

%AGE

50%

40%

30%

20%

10%

0%

NAME OF THE VILLAGES

The graph above shows the male and female work force engaged in various occupations. This can be seen that female participation is also good in almost in all the villages. How ever a
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tendency is seen that maximum male and female workers are in the category of other workers in Mowa, Sarona, Bhanpuri, Birgaon and Tikra para. Where as Atari and Jarvay are having maximum female work force in Agriculture. Atari and Labhandih have reasonable amount of Agricultural occupation. 2.1.4 Trade and Commerce

The city of Raipur is traditionally the main agricultural market center for the State. It acts a major commercial center to a host of wholesale and retail activities dealing in consumer goods, textiles, automobiles, industrial products etc. it is also major trading, place for processed Iron materials, Virginia Tobacco etc. the agricultural commodities produced in this part of Chhattisgarh finds its market in Raipur both for local consumption and export.

2.2.3

Industries

Agro based industrial activity is predominant around the city. The industrial base consists of solvent extration plants, rice mills, oil and dal mills etc. there are 2 Industrial Estates in and around the city. Urla and siltara located in the northern part of the city. Total 850 Hect. Land was allocated under industrial use in planning area out of which only 430 Ha land is developed. But out of planning area 1608 Ha land is developed by AKVN outside planning area. Some unauthorized area is also developed in NE in Daldalseoni Mova, in East Dhomtarai, Deopuri, Tikarapara and in West Talibandh and Chandandeeh, which shows the development in almost all directions. The details are given in Table 2.7. Table: 2.7
Sl.No 1

Industrial Development in planning area


Type of Industry Heavy Medium Plan 1991 Proposed Location Gogaon Gogaon Area in Ha. 200 65 80 50 110 145 200 Implementatio n Status Not Executed Partly Executed (10%) Executed Not Executed Not Executed Partly Executed (5%) Executed Reasons Private land

2 3 4 5

Service, SSI Polluting Agricultural Based Forest Wagoan Workshop

Gogaon
Kelkarpara Near New Grain Mandi Gogaon Bhanpuri / Kampa

Private land

Source: Department of Town and Country Planning

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The execution status clearly shows that the developed land under industrial use is much more than the speculated and proposed, but not in the planning area. The reason being establishment of industrial growth centre at Siltara and industrial area at Urla around Raipur.

2.3 2.3.1

LAND USE, SPATIAL GROWTH AND PLANNING Land Use Pattern:

The area of the municipal Corporation has increased from 140 Sq.Km to 188 Sq.Km the corporations administrative area comprises of 54 administrative divisions inclusive of the extension areas. With regards the existing land use (excluding the extension areas of the city) about 55.3% of area is categorized as residential and a significant 13.5% is assigned towards transport. On the other hand the proportion of commercial and public use land constitutes 4.8% and 12.1% respectively. The land use details of the added areas are unavailable. A detailed land use structure of the Corporation area has been enumerated in Table 2.8 and Map 2.2 Table No: 2.8 Land Use Residential Commercial Industrial PSP& PUF Recreational Transportation Total Land Use in Raipur Municipal Corporation Area in Ha 2050 180 430 450 100 500 3710 % Distribution in 1998 55.3 4.8 11.6 12.1 2.7 13.5 100.00

Fig 2.2: Land use Distribution (1998)

Land Use Distribution (1998)


Residential 13% Commercial Industrial PSP& PUF 55% 12% 5% Recreational Transportation

3% 12%

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2.3.2

Planning Efforts

Raipur development plan 1991 was based on land utilization rate as 11.5 Hect/ 1000 persons; but due to non implementation of many proposals under public and semi public use, recreation and transport, the desired urban areas could not be developed and the land utilization rate dropped.

Table No.2.9
Sl.No 1 2 3 4 5 6 Land use Residential Commercial Industrial Public & Semi Public & Amenities Recreational Transportation Total

Status of Land use Development


Land allocation in DP-1991 2300 280 280 950 550 820 5750 Developed area -1998 2050 180 180 450 100 500 3710 Variation (-) / (+) ( - ) 250 ( - ) 100 ( - ) 420 ( - ) 500 ( - ) 450 ( - ) 320 ( - ) 2040 %age of Implementation 89.13 64.29 50.59 47.37 18.18 58.82 64.52

Source: Department of Town and Country Planning


Note: Area in Hectare

Land Use- Status of Implementation

Fig 2.3
18% 6% 27%

Land use status of implementation

14% 15% Residential Public and Semi-Public Commercial Recreational 20%

Industrial Transportation

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The implementation of Development plan 1991 was to be undertaken through a process of detailed planning, formulation of programmes and projects. But due to lack of public participation in development process, the plan was vitiated, mainly in equalization terms and provisions of public facilities. The proposals were not fully translated in to envisaged physical framework thus creating an unguent and detrimental urban spread in both planned and unplanned areas. The desired LUR could not achieve. Up to 1998 only 6.18 Hect/ 1000 persons land could be developed under various uses. The proposed allocation for land under various uses in the modified plan 2011 is given in the following Table, having land utilization rate as 6.85 Hect/ 1000 persons.

Table: 2.10 SL. NO. 1 2 3 4 5 6

Proposed land use as per Development Plan 2011 PROPOSED FOR 2011 Area in Hect 3926 461 1237 1008 2168 1476.0 10276.0 % 38.2 4.5 12.04 9.8 21.10 14.36 100.00 LUR 2.62 0.31 0.82 0.67 1.45 0.85 6.8

LAND USE
Residential Commercial Industrial PSP& PUF Recreational Transportation Total

Source: Department of Town and Country Planning Note: Area in Hectare

Fig No 2.4 Comparative chart of LUR

Comparative Chart Of LUR

4.5 4 3.5 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0

LUR in %

Ind PS Re Co Tra P& cre mm us ns P t po ria UF 108 atio erc nti rta l na al ia l t io l n Proposed LUR in 1991 Present LUR in 1998 Proposed LUR in 2011 Re sid e

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The land utilization rate of 10.00 Hect / 1000 Persons could not be achieved because of non implementation of plan proposals under public and semipublic, recreation, transportation and commercial land use resulting in congested Roads, crowded Markets and insufficient social infrastructure. Due to Lack of facilities of premises of infrastructure, pressure on residential area is being felt. Although Land use under industrial use is not developed as envisaged in planning area but it is developed outside planning area. The modified plan 2011 envisages population to be 15 lacks and land allocation is proposed keeping LUR around the one, which is derived in actual developed area. This indirectly indicates dense development. But keeping low LUR under transport, recreation and social infrastructure indicates forfeit in quality of life. In our view LUR under these uses should be more than what is prescribed, so then more open spaces can be planned to propose for better environmental condition.

2.4 2.4.1

DEVELOPMENT CHALLENGES Perspective Plan

With the objective of achieving good governance, the corporation should prepare a perspective plan to be implement during the period of JNNURM. The plan will give directions and approach of the local bodies and envisages future reforms in revenue improvement, institutional development and better service delivery mechanisms to improve municipal performance. It will also aims at the provision of infrastructure in all notified poor settlements, critical infrastructure improvement and improved operation and maintenance. It will also aims at social development and strengthening of SHGs and CBOs. The other focus of perspective plan will be mainstream gender issues, participatory planning and implementation and capacity building.

2.4.2

Proposals for JNNURM

The proposals in JNNURM aim at municipal performance improvement of environmental infrastructure and aims at socio-economic development. The proposals for municipal reforms are aimed at enhancing the efficiency, effectiveness and service delivery with accountability. The JNNURM reforms proposals include privatization of advertisement tax collection, revenue

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improvement, town development, operation and maintenance of critical infrastructure investment. The environmental infrastructure proposals aim at improvement of infrastructure in the prioritized poor settlements as per poverty and infrastructure deficiency matrices and linked infrastructure for poor settlements. These include rehabilitation of existing infrastructure provision f water supply, roads, drains, sanitation and street lighting based on community prioritization and construction of drains to improve the living environment. The social development proposals aim at addressing the social-economic needs identified and prioritized through participatory micro planning process. These proposals cover areas of health, education, livelihood, vulnerability and strengthening of SHGs, with focus on gender issues. This leads to the reduction of poverty and improvement in living conditions of the people in the poor settlement.

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GOVERNANCE, INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK & REFORMS

Growth of cities makes the scale and complexity of urban problems daunting. This requires efficient and effective governance framework. Urban governance refers to the management of civic affairs by institutions to improve the quality of life in an inclusive, transparent and accountable manner. The good urban governance is characterized by equity, efficiency, transparency, accountability, civic engagement and security of people and environment. Pace of urbanization throws many a problem in the management of city and makes the governance of cities more complex. This requires an efficient and effective governance framework. Only good urban governance enhances citys competitiveness and contributes to sustainability. A number of institutions are involved in governing a city. They include the state government departments, local bodies and parastatals. While the departments are part of government, the local bodies and parastatals are created through Acts of legislature or government orders. Urban governance refers to the management of civic affairs by institutions to improve the quality of life in an inclusive, transparent and accountable manner. 3.1 LEGAL FRAMEWORK

Raipur Urban Agglomeration consists of the Raipur Municipal Corporation, and a few outgrowths. A number of institutions are involved in the governance of Raipur city and surrounding Peri-Urban areas that constitute the Raipur Urban Agglomeration. Some of them were established through Acts of legislature and others are part of states governance framework. The institutions established by law are given in Table 3.1.
Table No: 3.1 Governance Institutions AGENCY Raipur Municipal Corporation Gram Panchayats State Urban Development Authority (RUDA) Chhattisgarh Pollution Control Board LEGISLATION Raipur Municipal Corporation Act, 2001 Raipur Municipal Corporation Act, 1956 Chhattisgarh Village Panchayat Act, 1992 Chhattisgarh Urban De Act, 2001 Water (Prevention and control of Pollution) Act, 1974

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Raipur Municipal Corporation is governed by two important legislation viz., Raipur Municipal Corporation Act 1956 And Raipur Municipal Corporation Act, 2001 The Former Act extends to all the municipal corporations in the state. The Chhattisgarh Municipalities Act 1955 Governs, all the municipalities in the state. Similarly, the Chhattisgarh Village Panchayat Act 1992 applicable to the entire gram Panchayats in the state. The Acts specify governance framework, the spatial jurisdiction and the functional domain of the local bodies.

3.2

FUNCTIONAL DOMAIN

The functional domain of local bodies in the state is derived from respective legislations. The Municipal Acts list the function under two categories, namely, obligatory function and discretionary function. The functional domain was expanded in 1994 as per the 12th schedule of the 74th Constitution Amendment Act. In Chhattisgarh, the municipalities and Corporation Acts provide for a majority of the functions listed in the 12th schedule of the Constitution. The include:
Urban planning including Town Planning Regulation of land use and construction of buildings Roads and bridges Water supply for domestic, industrial and commercial purposes Public health, sanitation, conservancy and solid waste management Slum improvement and upgradation Provision of burial ground; cremations, cremation grounds and electric crematoriums Cattle ponds; prevention of cruelty to animals Vital statistics including registration of births and death Public amenities including street lighting, parking lots, bus stops and public conveniences Regulation of slaughterhouses and tanneries

In 2003, the Government, after a review of functions of urban local bodies, transferred five more functions to the urban local bodies through government orders. They are:
Planning for economic and social development Urban forestry, protection of the environment and promotion of ecological aspects Urban poverty alleviation Safeguarding the interest of weaker sections including the handicapped and mentally retarded

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Promotion of cultural and aesthetic aspects

The Government decided that the remaining function i.e. Fire Services should remain with the state government and will be transferred after a review later. Though the five functions were transferred, they have no statutory basis. There are several issues in the transfer of functions of state agencies to the local bodies. Transfer of functions need follow up legislation, institutional capacity of local bodies, financial resources, etc., which come in the way of transfer of these functions to the urban local bodies. It is also expected that transfer of officials as well as resources will follow the transfer of functions. However, transfer has not happened in the state thereby leaving the transferred functions only on paper.

3.3

INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK

At the helm of the RMC there is the corporation council democratically elected by the civic community as per the 74th CAA. The present council was elected in 2002 and has a five-year tenure. As per 74th CAA, five wards committees have been constituted and they are endowed with the functions of maintenance of sanitation, water supply and drainage, street lighting, roads, markets, parks and playgrounds and school buildings. They also review the revenue collection, prepare draft annual budget, and send it to the council for incorporation in the citys annual budget. The Commissioner, who is always drawn from IAS, heads the Raipur Municipal Corporation. Additional commissioner assists him and he assists the Commissioner in all his activities. The city administration is decentralized at zonal and circles levels for administrative convenience (see organogram). The Commissioner belonging to the cadre of state municipal commissioners heads the civic administration. He is assisted by a group of officials in the areas of town planning, health, public health, engineering, poverty, etc. in administration; a Manager assists him. The Organogram of RMC (Figure 3.1) gives the details. Apart from the local bodies, a number of government institutions are associated with the governance of the RUA. They include:
State Government Agencies:

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Municipal Administration and Urban Development Department Directorate of Municipal Administration (DMA) Directorate of Town and country planning (DTCP) Public Health engineering Department (PHED) Revenue Department Medical and Health Department Social Welfare department R&B Department Home Department

Revenue Department: Slum Upgradation Department Social Welfare Department R&B Department Home Department

Parastatals: State Urban Development Authority State Highway Authority State Transport Corporation (CSRTC) State Housing Board (CHB) State Pollution Control Board (CPCB) State Industrial Infrastructure Corporation (CHIIC)

The figure 3.1 gives an overview of state level agencies operating in RMC. Each of the institutions listed above have specific functions and liaise with local government institutions in planning the provision of infrastructure and delivery of services. There are also central government institutions like railway, which are responsible for the provision of services in the city. The Figure 3.2 gives an indicative list of governance institutions in the Raipur Urban Agglomeration area along with their functions and jurisdictions. In the absence of a coordinating agency, there are several constraints in the integrated and comprehensive planning and delivery of services. Interdepartmental coordination is one of the prominent issues and conflict that are becoming difficult to address or resolve even at the level of heads of the service delivery agencies. It is observed that the citizen is often

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concerned with the quality of service rather than who is delivering the service. The service delivery often suffers because more than one agency is involved and there is no mechanism for ensuring inters agency coordination.
Figure 3.1 Organogram2: State Level Agencies

Health and Family Welfare Education Department Civil Supplies

HOME

Transport, Roads and Buildings Dept.

Energy Dept.

Municipal Admin & Urban Dev. Dept

Panchayatiraj

Industry CHDC CIDC Rural Dev

Panchayats CHCPDC

Traffic Police RMC Roads & buildings Commissioner and Director Municipal Admin SUDA

Ch. Road Dev.Corp

Ch. State Road

Municipal Corporation

To illustrate, there are a number of agencies dealing with road infrastructure- both construction and maintenance and there is no clear distinction of scope. This is clear from the Figure 3.2. Road management is key co-ordination issue and it can be built and maintained but the multiplicity of agencies involved make the task difficult. Road infrastructure development could suffer due to lack of co-ordination between agencies. As a consequence, the traffic and transportation in the city faces uphill tasks with increased travel time, traffic congestion, accidents, etc.

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Figure 3.2: Roles and responsibilities- inter relationship of various departments


Sewerage Irrigation, Road Infrastructure Telecom and Other Development and Pollution Control Urban Planning, Tax Collections Law and Order Water supply,

and Drainage

Fire Services

Electricity

Transport

Utilities

Control

Government Body

Area under purview

Raipur Municipal Corporation (RMC) Raipur Urban Development Authority CH. Central Power Distribution Co. Postal and Telegraphs Department Chhattisgarh State Road Transport Corporation Road and Buildings Department Chhattisgarh Pollution Control Board Indian Railways Village Panchayats

Municipal Limits Urban Development Area Entire State Entire State

Entire State

Entire State

Entire State Entire State Panchayats Limits

Source: In-Stakeholder Discussions

Key Agency in Respective Jurisdiction Coordination Overlap

3.4 3.4.1

STRUCTURE OF GOVERNANCE IN RAIPUR Governance Structure in Raipur City

The urban governance structure in city of Raipur comprises three area level agencies and the department of urban development of Government of Chattisgarh (GoC) as described below.

3.4.2

Raipur Municipal Corporation (RMC)

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Raipur Municipal council was formed in the year of 1867 and on 26th August 1961 it was upgraded to Municipal Corporation status.

Administrative Structure of RMC

Raipur Municipal Corporation (RMC) has for administrative purpose divided the Raipur City into 5 zones and 54 wards. It has 54 elected councilors representing each ward. The Mayor is elected directly. The Mayor selects a 10 member mayor-in-council from elected councilors. The Mayor-in Council is constituted for a five-year term. On the executive side the Municipal Commissioner is the head of RMC. Besides the Commissioner, there are two Deputy Commissioners in-charge of Finance and Revenue & General Administration. The officers of the Corporation are drawn from the Municipal Corporation cadre of the State. The State Government has taken an initiative to upgrade administrative structure of RMC to cope up with increasing responsibilities. Additions to the supervisory structure are envisaged.

Functional and Financial Powers The Commissioner of RMC enjoys financial powers for incurring expenditure up to Rs.l0 lakhs. The Mayor-in-Council's powers are for Rs.30 lakhs and the Council has powers up to Rs.3 crores. The Mayor, however, does not enjoy any executive or financial power and the financial powers of the Mayor-in-Council are also not considered to be adequate. The functional domain of RMC consists of water supply, sewerage, sanitation, roads, streetlight, general public health, fire brigade services, parks and gardens, poverty alleviation etc. It runs 13 secondary schools whereas the State Government runs the primary schools. There are 14 hospitals in Raipur. It also maintains the fire services and horticulture services. The Corporation administers the centrally sponsored schemes for poverty alleviation.

3.4.3

Capital Area Development Authority (CADA)

CADA is responsible for the development of a proposed capital city. of Chhattisgarh. The new city is expected to come within a distance of 12-15 kms from the present city of Raipur. CADA is expected to play the role of a planning agency for the capital city and in the initial years would focus on urban. Infrastructure planning for the capital city.

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3.4.4

Chattisgarh Infrastructure Development Corporation (CIDC)

Chhattisgarh Infrastructure Development Corporation is entrusted with promoting and catalyzing private investments in infrastructure. CIDC was incorporated under The Companies Act in. March 2001. It works under Finance Department of State Government. It is a planning organisation and implementation or execution of projects was not in its mandate. Now efforts are being made to include this role in its constitution. The presence of such a body would assist in a) facilitating a reform discussion at a city level and b) to also support the reform process.

CIDC has prepared various sectoral policies for GoC. CIDC is now preparing plan regarding development of city centre of Raipur and Bilaspur. It is also working on the concept and plan of development of satellite towns. CIDC also manages the Slate Housing Board and State Transport Corporation.

3.4.5

Urban Development Department of GoC

Department of urban development of GoC oversees the urban issues and urban local bodies.

3.4.6 Institutional Fragmentation in Urban Services Delivery To ensure good governance in the state of Chhattisgarh, the Government has removed redundant layers in government functioning through streamlining of processes, systems and departments. The State has already reduced the number of departments from over 50 to 18 together-with closing 30 public sector enterprises including Chhattisgarh Road Transport Corporation. Such an approach has also been seen in the urban sector. Traditionally the management of urban centers in India has been fragmented with multiple agencies like urban local bodies, development authorities, city improvement trust, State government departments, etc. In Raipur, in line with the policy of the Government to keep the number of departments to a minimum, the Raipur Municipal Corporation plays the don1inant role in civic governance and no other authorities or parastatals exist in Raipur.

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TI1e Raipur Development Authority has been merged with the Raipur Municipal Corporation in conformity with the 74th Constitution Amendment. Raipur, probably, has become the first Indian city where both the municipal and planning functions are under the same umbrella. Though minimal compared to other states, there exists a certain level of institutional fragmentation in the delivery of urban services in Raipur on the following line of responsibility1) Public Roads - RMC, Public Works Department (PWD) and CIDC 2) Augmentation of water supply and sewerage systems is the responsibility of Public Health Engineering (PHE) Department of GoC.

3) Streetlight service is maintained by Chhattisgarh State Electricity Board

In order to look into functional and financial domain Second State Finance Commission has been set up on 22nd August 2003, but it is yet to submit its report. Meanwhile GoC is following the recommendation of the First State Finance Commission of Madhya Pradesh. Table 3.1 below shows the different authorities that are responsible for the development of infrastructure services in Raipur.

Table 3.2- Different authorities and their responsibilities in Raipur

Name of the Authority Raipur Municipal Corporation Chhattisgarh Infrastructure Development Corporation Public Health Engineering Department Chhattisgarh State Electricity Board Public Works Department
1 2

Water supply and Sewerage


2

Roads & Transportation

Streetlights

Limited to Execution of Capital works


1

CSEB does the maintenance of streetlights Augmentation process for water supply & Sewerage 3 Only roads outside the purview of RMC

3.5

KEY ISSUES IN GOVERNANCE

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3.5.1

Political Fragmentation

At the State level, there is a strong political will backed up administrative commitment for reform initiatives. At the city level, the Mayor is directly elected. The Bharatiya Janata Party rules the State Government. The Mayor of Raipur also belongs to the same party. BJP also enjoys a majority in the council.

3.5.2

Municipal Legislations

When the new State of Chhattisgarh was formed, laws pertaining to Madhya Pradesh were carried forward, At present, the government is in the process of revisiting the legal structure Among these is the Madhya Pradesh Municipal Corporations Act, 1956 that needs a critical review having regard to the new policies for removing the excessive controls of higher levels of government, promoting public-private partnerships, making enabling provisions for borrowing and helping improve the self Sufficiency of municipal finances. Additionally, the planning legislation needs overhauling considering the emphasis in article 243 W of the Constitution on planning for economic development and social justice and not on land use planning only. Also the building bye-laws need to be updated, to provide for the roles of architects and developers, deemed approvals and many other innovations. The town planning function has been devolved to the municipal bodies. In this scenario, the stakeholders perceive the existing laws to be inflexible to the needs of development. There exists ambiguity about sharing of planning and development control function by RMC and TCP Dept of GoCH. Though planning function has been transferred to Raipur Municipal Corporation, Chhattisgarh has not implemented provisions regarding forn1ing of District Planning Committee/ Metropolitan Planning Commission as per 74th CAA.

The governance of the city is characterized by multiplicity of agencies. This results in lack of inter department coordination which is a serious roadblock plaguing local bodies. The agencies have their own priorities, procedures, lines of accountability, financing pattern, which often may not be in conformity with those of the ULBs. The critical issues that emerge from the existence of multiple agencies include:
Spatial and functional fragmentation

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Overlapping functions Multiple accountability lines High service delivery gaps, and Increasing urban poverty

These and other key challenges are discussed below. 3.5.3 Lack of Clarity in Local Functions

The Constitution (74th amendment) Act, 1992 envisages that the functions listed in the 12th schedule be entrusted to elected local bodies. This is with a view to minimize ambiguities and overlapping of functions between local bodies and other authorities. However, in practice, several agencies are responsible for the functions and in some cases, local bodies have no role.

3.5.4

Lack of Inter-Departmental Co-ordination

Any citys governance depends upon effective organizational structure and adequate financial inflows. Although the city of Raipur has been in the forefront of implementing reforms and good governance practices for the past three to four years, these reforms and good governance practices for the past three to four years, these reform initiatives did not really achieve the desired results. The reforms primarily belonged to the areas of e- governance and better citizen interface. what is necessary is for these kind of reforms is a two pronged approach, the first creating a front end, the next strengthening the back end to effectively cater to the front end. What has happened in the case of Raipur is that front-end systems have been created but the back end systems have not been effectively upgraded/geared up to meet the influx of the kind of information/ complaints that came through the same. The result is improper functioning of the system as a whole. The functioning of the RMC reflects a wide gap between the demand and supply. Among the several reasons focus has to be given to proper delegation of powers to the urban functionaries and orienting the organization towards the principles of good governance. Organizational structure of the RMC has to be examined and adequate steps are to be initiated to strengthen the same.
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3.5.5

Inter Institutional Co-ordination

One of the prominent issues in the area of urban governance was inter departmental coordination and conflict issues that are becoming difficult to address or resolve even at the level of heads of the service delivery agencies. It was observed that the citizen is often concerned with the quality of service rather than who is delivering the service. The service delivery often suffers because more than one agency is involved and there is no mechanism for ensuring inter- agency coordination. Lack of institutional coordination across the service delivery agencies is identified as

3.5.6

Functional and Spatial Fragmentation in Metropolitan Area

Raipur Metropolitan area consists the area under the Municipal Corporation of Raipur. It is governed/ administered by State Urban development Authority (SUDA). Presently the development in the Metropolitan area is occurring in a haphazard and uncoordinated manner. The CDP programme has a united focus on the RMC area. Unless there is a mechanism for comprehensive planning and implementation of development activities in the entire metropolitan area, it may be difficult to achieve the objectives of CDP. The municipal systems in the surrounding municipalities are also weak and require strengthening. The district is agrarian based; hence a lot of importance has to be given to the spatial integration of all the areas through better infrastructure facilities and network.

3.5.7

Municipal-Parastatal Coordination

There is a lack of coordination between urban local bodies and parastatals in areas such as inter-municipal, inter-district and inter-state roads, inter- municipal storm drainage and sewerage, common amenities like wholesale markets, truck terminals, bus stations, garbage dumping yards, landfill sites etc. the Raipur Urban Development authority takes care of a part of coordinated planning. It prepared a master plan for the entire Planning area. The plan provides for common infrastructure systems and amenities, which transcend municipal
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boundaries. However, the real problem is noticed in plan implementation. There is no clearly defined institutional mechanism to ensure that all roads, which pass through more than one area, are developed as per a common road development framework. Similarly there is no mechanism to ensure that storm water drains for the metropolitan area is developed in an integrated manner taking into account geographical factors and the existing and proposed built up patterns. There is also no mechanism to project and ensure infrastructure provision based on built up analysis from time to time. The results in conflict between local bodies and SUDA. The Metropolitan Planning Committee envisaged under the 74th Amendment Act, 1992 has not yet been constituted for Raipur.

3.5.8

Jurisdictional Issues

While subsidiarity is a desirable principal that can be adopted as a guide to draw boundaries for various agglomeration functions, it is not possible to arrive at a common boundary for all services. The geographical area required to internalize the costs and benefits of a service like urban planning may not be the same for another service like urban transport or water supply or storm drainage. However, a large enough an area would be in a position to internalize most of the dimensions of key local services. The whole idea is to contain the spillover externalities so that the benefit districts match the revenue districts. If such matching is not ensured there will be perennial problems of service revenues falling short of service costs, mounting interinstitutional conflicts, increased cost of public. Thus, it is important that jurisdictional issues are sorted out carefully. While keeping the costs of metropolitan administration low, exploitation of the development potential of the metro area and its contribution to national wealth and income should be the primary consideration for metropolitan spatial organization. 3.5.9 Transparency and Accountability

There is a need to have greater transparency and accountability in the functioning of the service providing agencies. The RMC web site has a number of features. Which enables transparency in the functioning of the organization through there is scope for improvement since the web site is only over one year old. There is also a need to explore the possibility of involving the citizen in making budgetary allocations at the ward level. It is necessary to understand the strengths and weaknesses of different spatial and sectoral areas within the city for location of economic activities. This has implication with regard to

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availability of land, transportation and infrastructure facilities. Both demand side and supply side factors by conducting a SWOT analysis of citys economy. To get a comprehensive overview of the city a SWOT analysis was undertaken at two levels, first at the city level and the second of the Municipal Corporation.

3.5.10 Impact of Development The rapid urban development is leading to increasing land use changes and the measurement and monitoring of these land use changes are crucial to understand land use/ land cover dynamics. The city is stretching horizontally and vertically at rapid speed so many residential colonies; commercial establishments, medium and small-scale industries are coming up in the city. This is in turn adding to the pressure on the infrastructure and available space. The townplanning department is responsible for enforcing planned development in the city, while the horticulture department is responsible for maintaining the parks and greenery. Raipur Municipal corporation covers an area of 12.22 Sq.Km of which about 60% is developed. Of the undeveloped area, vacant land constitutes around 20% and the land under agricultural is about 53%, adding the developable area to be about 81% of the total RMC. The agricultural land referred to is a mainly green cultivation fields and in the recent years they can be seen barrier and put vacant for escalation of price. The rest 19% constitute hills, river, canals and water bodies. However, during the latest decades due to rapid population growth, the pressure on development land has been enormous and hence residential development has also taken place on hills as well as low lying areas.

3.5.11 Grievance Redressal The grievance redressal mechanisms in the city are weak and the people are made to run from pillar to post for grievance redressal. There is also no proper platform to provide information to the citizen on all services. Lack of awareness and information is affecting the citizens access to grievance redressal. Through citizen charters were established for the service providing agencies, majority of the public is not aware of the duties and rights under the same.

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There is a need to address these institutional and other challenges to provide good governance to the city. Unless the roadblocks are removed, economic development is hampered and efficient service delivery becomes difficult. This adversely impacts the community-particularly the poor. There is need, therefore, to restructure the governance framework, remove the roadblocks and streamline the lines of accountability. The governance reforms become all the more critical in the context of Raipur becoming more competitive. The city should offer high quality services and promote inclusiveness and citizen friendly governance institutions only where it is environmental friendly and is well governed the vision of the city can be realized. The institutional strategies required include:
Spatial integration of RMC and surrounding rural areas for better planning and delivery of services Establishing clear lines of accountability of all service delivery agencies

With in this overall framework institutional and implementation mechanisms need to be worked out. They include:
Strengthening local government capacities by outsourcing the project management and M&E functions Establishing appraisal systems and processes The institutional and governance reform strategies include Strengthening decentralization- 74th CAA Evolving inclusive governance mechanisms Evolving partnerships for service delivery Establishing coordination mechanisms to overcome spatial and functional fragmentation

3.6 3.6.1

REFORMS Analysis of state and city

Reforms and change are critical elements in development process; they become more significant in urban development in the context of growth of cities and consequent pressure on infrastructure services, growth of poverty, etc. this is compounded by institutional constraints like in capacity, Fragmented structures, functional overlaps and dated processes and procedures. In additional, there has been a paradigm shift in governance from the traditional top-down model. As a result governance reforms have become imperative for efficient delivery of services, provision and maintenance of infrastructure and to provide efficient and

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responsive governance to the people. Recognizing the significance of reforms to provide efficient and effective governance, government of Chhattisgarh has initiated and implementing several urban sector reforms during the few years. Similarly the urban local bodies particularly the municipal corporations have initiated city specific reforms to improve governance. Details of Draft Reforms given in ANNEXURE-1

3.6.2

State Level Reforms

The reforms initiated at the state level fall under three categories namely 74th CAA, Governance and Pro-Poor. They are discussed below:

74th CAA
Reforms related to 74th Constitutional Amendment Act (CAA) Development State Urban Development & Poverty Reduction Strategy

Governance
Establishment of strategy performance and innovation Unit Citizen charters E-Governance initiatives Outsourcing of services Developing partnerships in service delivery Rationalization of municipal staffing Preparation of common municipal act for corporation and municipalities Simplification of planning regulations Framework for solid waste management Rationalization of stamp duty Preparation of municipal actions plans for poverty reduction by ULBs Affordable water supply connection to BPL families New citizen friendly street vendor policy Pro-poor Notification of slums Tab connection to the poor at Rs 1200 Spending 40% of the net corporation revenues on poor slums 126

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Pro-Poor
Preparation of Municipal action plans for poverty reduction by ULBs Affordable water Supply connection to BPL families New citizen friendly street vendor policy Notification of Slums

3.6.3

City Level Reforms RMC

The Raipur Municipal Corporation initiated several reforms to improve service delivery and strengthen municipal performance in the city. Some of these of reforms are part of 74th Constitution Amendment Act. The reforms include: 74th CAA: Ward committee for effective administration through decentralization

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4
4.1 INTRODUCTION

MUNICIPAL INFRASTRUCTURE

Affordable, abundant and clean water is essential for human well-being. There are clear linkages between access to potable water and health, nutrition levels and subsequently education achievement, labor productivity and economic growth. Water and sanitation have usually been treated as public services, supplied to users for a fee and requiring government subsidies justified on social and environmental grounds. Municipal or state-owned utilities are often inefficient, overregulated, and unable to supply even the formal sector with adequate services. Subsidies through tax transfers and foreign aid/borrowing are becoming more difficult to secure. The growing population, as well as the economic development, experienced in Raipur over recent years has led to growing pressure on the environment. Economic pressure and demographic growth are concentrated in medium-sized and large cities whose authorities face the challenging of increasing and improving the provision of services. In the case of Raipur city, there is an inadequate water supply distribution network. Maintenance of the roads is in an awful condition and some of the roads are in a permanent state of disrepair. The city also suffers from water pollution from untreated sewerage that contaminates both the surface water and the groundwater due to the prevalence of poorly constructed pit latrines. Most of the infrastructure problems, persisting in the city of Raipur, originate from the central part of the city, which is designated as the core area by the Raipur development plan. This area experiences the drawbacks related to the population congestion, transportation, intensity of the activities and old infrastructure.

4.1.1

Basic services

Basic services are important to everyones survival and access to decent and standard life. All the people in urban areas have at least basic services they need in an affordable manner. There are large numbers of services that they provide, the most important of which are:
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Water supply Sewerage and sanitation Municipal roads and storm water drainage Solid Waste Management Traffic and transportation

4.1.2

Minimum requirements

Minimum requirement for each service sector at 3 levels are as follows.

Table 4.1 - Basic services minimum requirements

SERVICE TYPE Water Sanitation Roads Storm water drainage Solid Waste disposal

LEVEL 1 BASIC Communal standpipes (Sewage collection/disposal Graded

LEVEL2 INTERMEDIATE Yard taps, yard tanks VIP Latrine Septic tanks Gravel

LEVEL 3 FULL In house water Full water borne Paved/tarred & kerbs Piped systems

Earth lined open channel Open channel lined Communal (Residents)

Communal (Contractors) Kerbside

4.2

WATER SUPPLY

Raipur Municipal Corporation is responsible for supplying safe water to Raipur city. The Public Health Engineering Department of Chhattisgarh under takes capital investments. Raipur being capital city of Chhattisgarh should have adequate and safe water supply. The present water supply is inadequate (110 lpcd), to meet the demand of the growing city (considered population for 2005 is 866545), which is less as per UDPFI guidelines (170lpcd). Map No: 4.1 shows water distribution network in Raipur

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In 1976, the water supply scheme was augmented from 7.5 MGD to 10.5 MGD, which includes construction of 3 MGD conventional type treatment plant, an intake well, 500KVA transformer, raw water supply rising main of 500mm dia with 3 km length. In 1993 the water supply scheme was sanctioned to increase the water supply capacity from 10.5 MGD to 28 MGD. This scheme is designed to cater the water supply need of 8.20 lakhs population at a rate of 150 lpcd. 4.2.1 METHOD OF THE CURRENT WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM

4.2.1.1 Source of water supply The main sources of water to the city is 1 2 3 The Gangarel dam, which is built on the Mahanadi River Kharun River Ground water by tube wells

Both the Rivers mentioned above are the non perennial in this Region. River Kharun is flowing near by the city where as Mahandi is flowing approximately 60 km away from the city. Kharun River is supplying water to Raipur from a lean period. One small storage Bhatagaon anicut has been created across the River Kharun and supplemented from Ravishankar dam situated at Dhamtari. The raw water from the Gangarel dam will be taken to the Anicut Ghughuwagaut and then to the treatment plant at Rawanbhata from where the treated water is supplied. Out of total 67.5MLD from the Gangarel Dam, almost 13.5 MLD (20%) water is lost either due to seepage, evaporation and illegal extraction by farmers.

4.2.1.2 Household Connections and Public taps The total no .of households connections are about 42000 and 2000 connections are concerned to commercial and industrial purposes. The city is provided with around 7000 public taps for the public use. The city was provided with about 310 hand pumps, 300 power pumps and 800 public taps in the slum areas. The level of coverage in slum areas is about 25%. Water is supplied for three to four hours every day. The average per capita consumption of water is estimated as 110 lpcd, but in slum areas it is estimated as much lower.
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4.2.1.3 Ground Water and Bore wells The depth of the ground water table varies from 60-90m in the Raipur city. A bulk of water is supplied to the city, i.e. around 18MLD in pre-monsoon and 22MLD in post monsoon season through ground water sources. Out of the total supplied water to the city (76MLD), about 22 MLD of ground water is being extracted and distributed with out any treatment. The Municipal Corporation of Raipur has provided around 1400 tube wells through out the city for ground water extraction. During summer, the lowering of the ground water table further reduces the supply by 3 MLD.

4.2.1.4 Distribution and Storage network The transmission mains carry water from the source to the water treatment plant and subsequently to the reservoirs. For convenience the distribution network is divided in to 8 zones in RMC and each zone is having a reservoir and from that reservoir water will be pumped to distribution system by the existing pipeline network. The total storage capacity available within the municipal limits is 90 MLD comprising of various ground level and elevated service reservoirs. The present storage capacity is inadequate for the quantity of water supply available for providing as well as planning for continuous water supply. The total length of the distribution system is 363 Km, comprising of pipes with diameter ranging from 75 mm to 700 mm of different materials.

4.2.1.5 Water Quality The quality of water for drinking purposes is an important aspect in the provision of this service. It is observed that the raw water, which is carried by pumping mains from the source, is quite suitable for domestic as well as industrial and other needs. But due to some illegal extractions, leakages in the pipelines, solid waste disposal near water bodies and other liquid wastes are causing serious effects to the people.

4.2.1.6 Service area of the present water supply system At present the Raipur Municipal Corporation area is 55 sq.km and as per notification order no.2957/1/90/33 (1), this limit was extended to approximately 143 sq.km area, including 26

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villages and Raipur Municipal Corporation is responsible to provide the water supply for this total area. At present, approximately 65% of the total area of the city is covered by pipeline distribution and the rest is covered by hand pumps (34.25%) and some uncovered areas (4.37%) are being supplied through tankers in the summer time. In the old town area the coverage is about 85%. Industries in the city limits have developed ground water supply for own use. Even though the present water supply was augmented but there are still many poor localities that are not supplied with piped water such as Raipura, Batagaon, Changora bata, Matpurana, Hamlidih, Fandhar, Labhandi, Khamhardih, Mowa, Dubey colony, Kapa, Saddu, WRS Colony, Gondwana, Kamtharai(Part), Bhanpuri, Gogaon, Sandhongari, Kota, Jarwai, Athari, Sarona, chandini dih, thati bund, kabir nagar, herapur, Ravi shankar sukla university area.

Table 4.2:- Zone wise coverage of existing water supply system Coverage Through Zone No Wards/Areas Pipe Line Hand Pumps Tankers Remarks

In the summer period water will be supplied by tankers for.. Yathiyathanlal 1 10 wards 63% 33% 8% Banjarimatha Takkarbapa ward Veerangana Avanthi bhai ward, Rajiv Gandhi ward, Mahathma 2 8 wards 70% 35% 10% Gandhi ward, Dr. Bheemrav and Ambedkar 3 4 5 6 8 wards 10 wards 8 wards 10 wards 67% 71% 77.50% 61% 30% 28% 22.50% 39% 6% 1% 3% Mukheswara Rao Ghade ward Nagar ward ward, and

Khushabhau Takare ward Pandit Ravi Shankar Sukla Ward Shaheed Pankaj Vikram Ward

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7 8 Average Total coverage

8 wards 8 wards

86% 22.50%

14% 72.50%

1% 6.30%

Ramsagar Para ward, Brahmana para ward Veer Sawarkar ward, Shaheed Bhaghath Singh ward

70 wards

64.75%

34.25%

4.37%

4.2.2

SUPPLY & DEMAND

The existing water supply arrangements were designed to meet water demand of 8 lakhs population with a capacity of 127MLD at a rate of 110 lpcd, where the demand of water in the city is around 170MLD (170 lpcd). Thus, there is a shortage of around 60MLD of water. Due to increase in population and growth of the city existing water system is becoming more and more inadequate day by day. Apart from this, extended municipal limits of the city that included some newly developed areas are not having their own protected water supply. 4.2.2.1 Water Supply Standards The following Tables show the actual requirement of water supply per capita in urban areas. I. As per National Building Code (NBC) and Indian Standards

Table 4.3 - Water supply standards as per National Building Code (NBC) and Indian Standards SL NO PURPOSE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Drinking Cooking Ablution Cleaning utensils and Houses Washing clothes Flushing water closets Bathing Public Purposes TOTAL WATER REQUIRED (LPCD) 5 10 10 10 25 45 30 35 170

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Source: Water supply standards as per National Building Code (NBC) and Indian Standards II. Norms laid by UDPFI

Table 4.4 - Water supply norms as per UDPFI Guidelines (for Domestic Supply)

Small Cities (<50000)

Medium Cities (>50000-100000)

Large Cities & Metros (>10 lakhs)

1. Absolute minimum 2. Desirable

70 LPCD

40-100 LPCD 135-150 LPCD

135 LPCD(can be reduced to 70 LPCD) 150-200 LPCD

100 LPCD

Note: Water supply standards as per the norms UDPFI Guide lines

Table 4.5Sl. No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Estimated Supply & Demand Year 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 Estimated Population 896711 927927 960230 993658 1028249 1064045 1101086 Existing Supply (MLD) 76 76 76 76 76 76 76 Total Demand (MLD) 152.44 157.75 163.24 168.92 174.80 180.89 187.18 Deficiency (MLD) 76.44 81.75 87.24 92.92 98.80 104.89 111.18

The following chart shows the demand and supply of water for 7 years

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Estimated Demand & Deficiency in Water Supply (MLD) 200.00 150.00 100.00 50.00 0.00 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13

Total Dem and

Deficiency

4.2.3

FINANCIAL STATUS OF WATER SUPPLY IN RMC

4.2.3.1 Components of cost in supply Fixed cost Fixed costs are mainly concerned with borrowed money from the financial institutions for implementation of the project. The mode of debt servicing or repayment depends on the financing pattern of the financial institutions. The fixed costs contains mainly: The repayment of principal amount borrowed. The repayment of interest on borrowed capital.

Variable cost

Variable cost concerns mainly operation and maintenance cost of the system and also a sinking fund for the replacement of the future replacement of the system. This cost includes:
Administrative expenses such as salaries and wages. Repairs and maintenance charges. Chemicals and consumables Electricity charges. Deprecation charges.

4.2.3.2 Present Expenditure and Income on Water Supply

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The RMC is responsible for a significant portfolio of fixed (land, buildings, equipment, fixture) and perpetual (right of way and easements, pipe collection and distribution network and water treatment facilities) assets in its delivery of public infrastructure services. Providing sufficient drinking water to the citizens is one of the prime responsibilities of the local body. However it is seen that tax collected towards this service does not match with the expenditure incurred for provision of the facility. The following table shows the expenditure and revenue receipts towards water supply over a period of 4 years of Raipur Water Supply and Sewerage. It is evident from the table that expenditure is more than the tax collected for water supply during that year. However it is seen that people do not appreciate this service and value the facility they are getting is almost free of cost. One way of reducing the burden of Municipal Corporation and increase the sense of responsibility is to increase the rate water tax.

Table 4.6:-Finances of City-Level Water Supply and Sewerage (RMC) Expenditure (Rs. In Lakhs) Staff Cost Maintenance of Power Chemicals 8.53 8.66 11.20 11.42 Water supply & Sewer System 116.07 117.75 152.29 155.33 Administra tion & others 13.65 13.85 17.92 18.27 341.37 346.32 447.92 456.85 309.77 290.86 260.6 447.68 Total Income

Year 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05

102.41 100.70 103.90 102.16 134.38 132.14 137.06 134.77

4.2.3.3 Current Sources of Revenue for water supply Public sector water and sanitation utilities in developing countries historically covered only about one-third of the costs of providing and sustaining their services. Cities have different reasons for charging for water, including cost recovery, redistribution of income, improvement of water allocation, and water conservation.

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The existing tariff structure collected by the RMC is given below

Table: - 4.7 Existing Tariff Structure of RMC Sl. No 1 2 3 Collecting Type of Connection Domestic Connections Commercial/Industrial Connections Public Taps Nos. Service (Rs.) 42000 1800 7600 60/month 150/- to 3000/Collecting Charge Initial (Rs.) 920/1500/--3000/Charges

It can be observed from the above table, that the tariff rates which are being collected by RMC is very are less as compared to the cost of supplying water from the source to houses. Tariffs should not be discriminatory and should send a clear signal to consumers that reducing consumption will reduce the bill. The main objective of tariff setting is to cover the cost of the supplying water to make the water-supplying entity financially viable and to ensure access of all groups to basic minimum need.

4.2.3.4 Non Revenue Water Non-Revenue water (NRW) due to commercial losses and physical losses in the system, leads to loss of revenue. Non-revenue water accounts the supply of water for slum areas through the tankers, public taps, for public purposes like fire station & horticulture and city beautification, leakages in the distribution network and some illegal tap connection. Out of total 67.5MLD from the source, almost 13.5 MLD (20%) water is lost either due to seepage, evaporation and illegal extraction by farmers. The main problems faced by the RMC are the Illegal tapping of water and difficulty in collection of water bills from the slum people as well as others. To ensure regular payment of bills and to detect illegal tapping of water periodical checking and monitoring is necessary.

4.3

SEWERAGE AND SANITATION


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4.3.1

SEWERAGE SYSTEM

4.3.1.1 Introduction A sewerage system was implemented in 1992 and it covers about 25% area (27 wards out of 57 wards) and administered by the Municipal Corporation of Raipur. Before 1992 PHE department carried out cleaning of sewer lines, clearing of about 1000 manholes, overhauling motors, transformers and other equipment at the cost of Rs 43 lakhs out of a Rs 90 lakhs grant given by the state Govt. The system consisted collector lines, pumping stations no 5 and a sewerage treatment plant. Subsequently it was handed over to Raipur Municipal Corporation. For sometime mainlines collected sewerage from open drains and five APS were operated but with high electricity dues, power supply to APS was withdrawn. Power supplies to pumping stations have been disconnected due to failure of payment of electricity bills amounting to about Rs. 1 crores.

4.3.1.2 EXISTING SEWERAGE SYSTEM 4.3.1.2.1 Network Coverage The sewerage generated in the city is around 60 MLD. As the underground drainage scheme is not completed, the wastewater generated in the city does not get any secondary treatment. Even the surface drainage system is not fully presented in the city. The drains which are present; carry the sewage into the water bodies present in the locality or into the nallahs /canals which drains the effluent into the river Kharun north of the city. The sewerage system is existed only in the core area of Raipur city and covers only 25% of the municipal area. This system is overloaded due to the growth of population and the development of economic activities in the core area. However, in out the suburban areas, is not covered by safe sanitation facilities due to lack of well-established sewerage system. The areas at present, which are not served by sewerage system, include old city area served by conservancy system/individual septic tank. Some areas are having their own community septic tanks with their effluent discharging in to the open sullage drain ultimately joining the natural drainage. The present system of disposal using water as a medium of transport through sewage pipes to the city outfall involves huge cost and resources.

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Table 4.8:- Present situation of UGD system in Raipur Sl. No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Network Coverage Access to Sewerage Access to Surface Drains Total Quantity Generated Capacity of Treatment Plants Treatment & Disposal Recycling / Reuse Components Municipal area (Core Area) 25% 10 % 45% 100MLD Sub Urban Area 30% -

4.3.1.2.2

Sewer Distribution Network

The existing sewage network was not covered the entire city, it is having on some main roads and internal roads which are situated in and around commercial areas. At present the total sewer lines length in Raipur city is 55.97 km to an extent of 970 km road length. Areas having sewer lines are Gudhiyari in Nethaji kanhailal Bajari Ward, Ramana Mandir Area, Shankar Nagar area in Shankar nagar and Gurugovind Singh wards, Irrigation colony and Indravathi colonies in Bhahadur Shasthri Ward, main roads in Bhagavathi charan sukla ward, Shalendra nagar main road in Aravind Dixit ward, main roads in Sadar Bazar ward, Swamy Vivekananda Ward and Babu Gagjeevan ram Wards. Apart from the sewerage system, the city is not having, proper drainage system which is essential service of the city. With the result no drains, the waste water which comes from Moudha para area is over flowing towards the adjacent road. Many of roads are not having even open drains and existing drains which are covered in some areas are demolished and blocking with garbage and other road waste.

4.3.1.2.3

Sewage Treatment Plants

Collection and disposal of sewage from living areas and urban waste from manufacturing areas is essential to maintain healthy living conditions in the city. Sewerage project for different areas in Raipur is in progress, which was prepared by PHE Dept. It envisaged
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construction of 5 pumping stations at (1) Tikarapara (2) Khokhopara (3) Khamatari (4) Birgaon (5) Daladal Siwani. These five pumping stations have already been constructed. The project also provided for construction of 7 oxidation ponds, 4 at Rawabhata and 3 at Daladalseoni. All these seven oxidation ponds have been completed and these are to be inadequate for the growing population in and around the city.

4.3.1.3 ESTIMATED WASTE WATER GENERATION The actual quantity supply of of wastewater water by is
Estimated Waste Water Generation (MLD)
160.00 140.00 120.00 100.00 80.00 60.00 40.00 20.00 0.00 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 Estim ated Waste Water

calculated mainly based upon the the municipal corporation. It is calculated that the total waste water generation by the end of 2013 is approximately 140 MLD, considered 75% of the total water supply. The year wise water supply and sewerage generations are shown in given table: 4.9

Table 4.9:- Year wise waste water generation in RMC


Estimated year Population Water Supply (MLD) Projected Sewerage @ 75% to the total water supply (MLD)

2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13

896711 927927 960230 993658 1028249 1064045 1101086

152.44 157.75 163.24 168.92 174.80 180.89 187.18

114.33 118.31 122.43 126.69 131.10 135.67 140.39

4.3.1.4 KEY ISSUES AND CHALLENGES Lack of sewerage system

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Raipur city do not have proper underground sewerage and sewage disposal system. The conservancy system of sanitation, in other words, the rudimentary method of manual collection and disposal of night soil in trenching grounds still prevails in the city. The effluent, which is left out from the existing drains, is causing further deterioration of the environment of the city. Lack of proper drainage system Apart from the sewerage system, the city is not having, proper drainage system which is essential service of the city. With the result no drains, the waste water which comes from Moudha para area is over flowing towards the adjacent road. Lack of maintenance Even though some areas are having proper drainage system, they are enduring by the poor maintenance of the local authority. The drains are completely obstructed with the garbage and roadside waste.
The sewerage systems never became functional, as household connections never got linked to sewerage network. RMC could not give additional sewer connection as expected, as users were not ready to spend Rs. 4000-5000 for getting connection. Lack of sewerage treatment facilities resulting in discharge of untreated sewage into water bodies. No comprehensive sewerage quality studies Data regarding Sewerage network is not available in the RMC Lack of effective communication strategy Polluting water bodies by mixing the sewerage with in the in the vicinity of water bodies and nallhs.

Inadequate and inefficient public toilets

4.4 STORM WATER DRAINAGE

4.4.1

EXISTING SCENARIO

Drainage system of the area plays an important role in carrying out storm, rainwater. Topography of the land in planning area of Raipur is flat in character except some elevated lands in Rawabhatta. Tikrapara and Mathupurena with a general slope of land towards North-

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West above ridge on which, the alignment of GE road divides the city into two natural drainage basins. Currently, storm water drains in the city are constructed and maintained by the Raipur Municipal Corporation and respective ULBs. The drainage system in Raipur comprises of a hierarchy of natural and man-made drains and water bodies that ultimately discharge surface run-off into River Kharun. Numerous lakes and nallahs constituted in the major storm water drainage system in the City. The nallahs are the major carriers of storm water finally disposing into the river and water bodies in the catchments.

4.4.1.1 Main River and Drains Mahanandi is the primary river of the region. The important tributaries of this river are Pairi, Sheonath and Jonk. River Kharun, which flows 8 km to the west of Raipur, is a tributary of river Sheonath. The bed of the river is rocky with sufficient water for a greater part of the year. The river Kharun has been dammed at Mahadeoghat to provide water supply to the city. The chokra nallah along with other smaller nallahs drains the water into Kharun down stream. During floods the area near the river banks are flooded and the old road bridge on National highway is submerged. The rainwater mainly flows through the nallahs towards northern side of the city. Some rainwater is also drained though small nallahs towards south-west direction of the relatively plain plateau on which the city is situated and also owing to difficulty of providing continuous storm water drains in certain localities. Some low lying localities face the problem of waterlogging during rainy season. Since river Kharun is little away from the main habitation, the city does not face the problem of floods except some village inhabitants of Chandini Dih and Raipura. Map No: 3. showing the storm water Drainage basins of Raipur 4.4.2 Key Issues and Challenges

Some of the key reasons for problems and challenges to be faced for perfect storm water drainage system in Raipur city are,
Lack of Awareness Low Coverage Low Capacity

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Water logging problems Lack of integrated drainage plan Encroachments

Resulting in flooding and inundation

4.5

SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT

4.5.1 SOURCES & QUANTITY OF SOLID WASTE GENERATED The main sources of waste in Raipur city are individual houses, slums, commercial establishments, vegetable markets, road sweepings, hospitals and industries. A) Sources of Solid Waste a) Municipal Solid Wastes The Municipal Solid Waste includes commercial and residential wastes generated in municipal or notified areas in either solid or semi-solid form excluding industrial hazardous wastes but including treated bio-medical wastes. Domestic Waste: Daily it comes from 1,14,819 (2001 census) houses in Raipur city consisting of household waste, kitchen, house cleaning, old papers, packing, bottles, crockery wares, furnishing materials, garden trimmings, etc. Trade & Commercial Waste: In Raipur city Daily it comes from 12,624 units of business premises, shops, offices, markets, departmental stores (paper, packing material, spoiled/discarded goods), organic, inorganic, chemically reactive and hazardous waste. Institutional Waste: Schools, colleges, hospitals, large hotels and restaurants, markets selling vegetables, fruits, meat, fish, wastes from slaughter houses, food packaging industries, cold storage units etc., community halls, religious places, etc. The city is having 400 educational institutions (schools, colleges, etc.) and 420 hotels (restaurants, lodge and guest houses) and 500 hospitals (poly clinics, dispensaries, general hospitals, etc.)

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Street Sweeping: The city is having 970 km of road length. The main sources of this waste are unconcerned throwing, litter by pedestrian and vehicular traffic, stray animals, roadside tree leaves, rubbish from drain cleansing, debris, etc. Debris or Construction rejects: Frequent digging of roads by various utilities comprising earth, brickbats, stones, wooden logs etc, generates from contemn activities. b) Industrial waste or Hazardous waste Industrial Waste: Manufacturing and material processing trade generated waste.

Around the Raipur city and planning area there are no major industries available and around 1700 small and medium scale industries are available. Industrial waste may contain hazardous wastes and it may be toxic to humans, animals, and plants; are corrosive, highly inflammable, or explosive. These industrial waste shall be treated at Treatment , Storage and Disposal Facility ( TSDF) separately. c) Hospital waste At present in Raipur city there are 500 hospitals (including dispensaries, polyclinics, etc.) existed within the city. It has been roughly estimated that of the 4 kg of waste generated in a hospital at least 1 kg would be infected. These are in the form of disposable syringes, swabs, bandages, body fluids, human excreta, etc. This waste is highly infectious and can be a serious threat to human health if not managed in a scientific and discriminate manner. B) Quantity of Solid Waste As indicated in the above chapters, Raipur has a population of 8,96,711 (2006), and the corporation generates about 393 TPD of MSW at a rate of 500 gms/ head-day (Out of the entire solid waste bio degradable waste has been occupying 42% of total waste and rest of the waste have been characterized like inert and recyclables 48% and 10% respectively). Out of the entire generated waste 70% of waste will come from households and rest of the waste comes from different sources like hotels, hospitals, commercial establishments, markets, etc.

4.5.2 PRESENT PRACTICES OF SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT 4.5.2.1 Storage and Collection
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At present Raipur do not practice segregation at source as a whole. Some wards are having door-to-door collection system and waste being collected into the tricycle. From the tricycle it will be disposed into the nearest community ring bins. They disposed it into two or more successive bins and each household pays Rs 10-20/- per month. Even though the wastes are segregated at source, it again gets mixed at storage point, defying the purpose of segregation. It was observed that the people were thrown the waste into vacant sites, open spaces though community bins were in close proximity. Due to this, waste was strewn outside the bin, and when there was wind and rains, the wastes got dispersed, creating nuisance and unhygienic conditions. These wastes are also choking the drains, creating stagnant conditions for the proliferation of mosquitoes.

4.5.2.2 Transportation After collecting the waste from different areas & from different sources it is being transported with tractors/dumpers to the dumping site. Dumper placers (5), tippers (5) and tractor-trailers (14) are mainly used for transportation of waste. The tractors are deployed to collect the wastes from the main roads and other major roads and in the cross roads of markets and commercial areas. The narrow lanes and slums were cleared for every three to four days by the tractors. Transportation involves, movement of vehicles to various temporary storage points, manual loading of wastes using baskets and other lifting tools, lifting of wastes from open yards on the way to the disposal site and transportation to disposal site. The following table shows, existing municipal equipments for solid waste management. 4.5.2.2.1 Infrastructure details

Table 4.10: existing infrastructure details - Raipur


S. No Storage Description No. of Dustbins (R.C.C) No. of Dustbins (Metal) Tricycles Collection Wheel barrows Loaders Tractors Transportation
Source: Raipur Municipal Corporation

Number 300 250 100 250 5 4 5 5

Tippers Skip Loaders

4.5.2.3 Disposal/Treatment
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The Raipur municipal corporation has one Dumpsite of Methuen, which is 4 kms away from the city. The approach road is 3.0 kms (B.T) and the remaining 0.5 kms is metal road. The road passes via the Dhamtari ring road. The surrounding land is of black soil. It is observed that some part of waste is being dumped at roadsides and low lying areas and the balance waste reaches the designated dumpsite. Currently there is no specific way of treatment is being adopted except for screens. There are several options available for the treatment and/or disposal of solid waste. Local body has given contract to one private body to treat the waste. They are screening the fine particle from entire mixed waste and its selling as compost (manure, Rs.90/50kg) to the nearby communities. Almost ninety percent of waste generated at Raipur city (350 TPD) is being dumped by the municipal corporation. But no segregation is practiced. However recovery is seen. The rag pickers retrieve metal wastes, plastic wastes like bottles, cement bags from the rubble. They scavenge through the entire heaps of waste. In the process the wastes undergo mixing and turning leading to faster decomposition. These retrieved materials are sold to recycling units. A part of the waste is also burnt to reduce volume and obnoxious odour. The important parameters of solid waste at Raipur city is given in below table.

4.5.2.4 Bio-Medical Waste Management There are 500 hospitals are existed within the Raipur city. At present the bio medical waste from the hospitals are being sent to bio medical treatment plant at industrial area for treatment. Unless, Raipur city have integrated bio- medical waste treatment facilities there will be possibility to get mixed bio medical waste with municipal solid waste. At present the Biomedical waste is being treated at Raipur Industrial Area.

4.5.2.5 Key Issues and Challenges No organized system for collection, transportation and disposal of domestic and other city solid wastes. Lack of adequate equipment for collection and disposal of solid waste Inadequate solid waste disposal ground Orthodox and unhealthy disposal method Lack of source recovery mechanisms/systems

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4.6 TRAFFIC AND TRANSPORTATION


4.6.1 IMPORTANCE OF THE CITY

Capital of Chhattisgarh state and playing a vital role in the economy of the state/region. Since ancient times the city plays a predominant role in the trade and commerce of the region. Connected by effective transportation network. Connected by effective network of irrigation projects. It serves as administrative center for Chhattisgarh state. It is a nerve center of regional trade and commerce and industrial center. There is a good prospect of establishment of Engineering, Chemical and Agro based industries It is one of the timber marketing centers. It is a principal educational center of higher studies. It serves as a medical and health center for region.

4.6.2 CURRENT SITUATION Raipur, the capital of Chhattisgarh is now emerging as an important commercial cum industrial center of the state. Raipur city is linked by all modes of transportation viz. road, rail and air. The NH-6 connects it with Kolkatta, Bombay and NH-43 to Jagdalpur and Vishakapatnam and NH-200 to Bilaspur. The city is served by Broad-Gauge line and conveniently connected with the large cities of Bombay, Calcutta and Vishakapatnam. A Narrow Gauge line passing through the city connects Raipur with Dhamtari. It is also served by air services connecting Chennai, Vizag, Bubaneswar, Bombay and Delhi. Regular long distance bus services are available for Ambikapur, Bhopal, Nagpur, Jabalpur, and Sambalpur etc.

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4.6.2.1 Raipur Road Network The available lengths of the different kind of Roads in the Raipur Municipal Corporation limits are shown in the following Table No 4.11 Table 4.11 Lengths of the existing roads under Raipur Municipal Corporation
Sl. Year No WBM BT CC Total Motarable Pucca Roads NonMotorable Total

Length of Roads

Remarks

1. 2 3 4

31.05.00 31.05.01 31.05.02 31.05.03

20.90 19.50 27.90 21.30

305.40 308.70 317.90 325.80

147.83 156.53 161.23 166.63

474.13 484.73 507.03 513.73

24.20 19.40 10.40 6.40

82.37 76.57 63.27 60.57

106.57 95.97 73.67 66.97

580.70 580.70 580.70 580.70 580.70 Old Raipur City Developm ent of New colonies Integration of 26 villages

31.05.04

26.90

335.80

180.95

543.65

93.65

332.10

425.75

156.66 232.04

Total 6 31.05.05

26.90 25.40

335.80 342.00

180.95 202.45

543.65 569.85

93.65 79.90

332.10 319.65

425.75 399.55

969.40 969.40

Source: Raipur Municipal Corporation, Raipur Lengths of roads by Type


Length of Roads by Type 400 300 Length in Km 200 100 0
20 00 20 20 02 20 03 20 20 01 04 05

The table reveals that the Road network is developing in accordance with the physical developments of the City.

WBM

Year

BT

CC

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4.6.2.2 Pedestrian Sub Ways Because of the mixed traffic such as cars, auto rickshaws, rickshaws, cycles, it has become increasingly difficult for the pedestrians to cross the roads particularly in the center of the city. Hence it is proposed to construct two pedestrian sub ways 1. At Shasthry Chowk, 2. At Jaisthambh Chowk. 4.6.2.3 Ring Roads As per the development plan, the circulation plan (Map No 3.5) regarding road networks and inner and outer ring roads are examined. The ring road No 1 and 2 are implemented. But the primary (P) ring road 1 and 2 are not implemented. With the result there is a heavy truck traffic creating traffic problems. 4.6.2.4 Junction Improvement Similarly the intersections, roundabouts or traffic signals at these ring roads are not developed. These ring roads No 1and 2 so far developed are not to the specific standards. So far road widening schemes are taken up as per the suggestions of the development plan. The following intersections both with in the city and on ring roads which are Suggested for Junction improvement and Traffic signal development are:
1. Subhash Chowk 2. Railway station Chowk 3. Fafadih Chowk 4. KK Road up to Triangular Road intersection

5. Rajbhandha Maiden Junction


6. Jail Road Junction 7. Shastri Chowk 8. Ravi Shankar Shukla Road Junction 9. Nalghar Chowk 10. Aadivashi Hostel Junction 11. Sardar Patel Road Crossing Malviya Road Junction 12. Budeswar Mandir Chowk 13. Purani BAsthi Thana Road intersection

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14. Kankali para Marg 15. Ghore Chowk 16. Rathore Chowk 17. Lalitha Chowk 18. Rajendra Chowk

19. Jaystambh Chowk


20. Sharada Chowk 21. Nagar Gadi Chowk 22. Tatibandh Junction

23. Telibandha Junction Out of the above all chowks, the following junctions have to be taken for junction improvement;
1. Tatibandha Junction ( Junction of Ring Roads No.1 &2 and GE Road) 2. Telibanda Junction ( Junction of Ring Road No.1 and GE Road) 3. Pachperi Naka Junction ( Junction of Ring Road No.1 and NH -43) 4. Bhanpuri Junction ( Junction of Ring Road No.2 and Bilaspur Road (NH-200)) 5. Sharada Chowk (Junction of MG Road and GE Road) 6. Jaystambh Chowk (Junction of Malviya Road and GE Road)

7. Shastri Chowk (Junction of Jail Road and GE Road) 4.6.2.5 Grade Separated Crossings (Over Bridges) Raipur city is having broad gauge line namely Bombay-Howra, Raipur -Waltare, which acts as a physical barrier for development on the northern side of the city. In order to link the development on either side of the railway line grade separated crossings (Over bridges and under passes) are suggested, and those four locations are,
1. Dumar Talab bypass railway line 2. Bilaspur road bypass railway line 3. Telghani Naka

4. Ring road No 1 near Tati Bandh Out of four locations Telghani Naka and Ring Road No.1 near Tati Bandh are implemented. As per the development plan 2011 it is proposed to develop the following over bridges.
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1. Near Sanskrit college main railway line 2. Near Khamtarai on Bilaspur road

3. On Bhaloda bazaar road near Kapa -Woltare line 4.6.2.6 Transport Nagars The plan also suggests development of Transport Nagars to ease the traffic congestion. Locations of Transport Nagars are proposed at the following places.
1. Expansion Of Tatibandh Transport Nagar 2. Development of new transport Nagar at Rawan Bhata

3. On Dhamtari Road near Dunda village For this purpose a small area has been acquired to an extent of about 5 acres in the outskirts of the city and minimum infrastructure is provided. But it is felt by the truck operators that it is not satisfactorily developed. An area of about 100 acres near Rawabhata village on Bilaspur road is in possession of Raipur Development Authority (RDA), and the same area is being taken up for development of Transport Nagar. The Transport Nagar Scheme constitutes the following components with the common utilities at a cost of Rs.15 Crores. Table 4.12
Sl.No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Ware Houses Forwarding agent Shops Work Shops Automobile shops Small Shops Weigh Bridge Repair Shops Body building shops Dhaba

Details of Proposed Transport Nagar at Rawabhata


Description Nos. of Plots 252 86 240 74 62 131 02 37 08 07

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11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Total

Restaurant Insurance Agent Office/Admn/P.O Bank Petrol Pump Fire Station Police Station Toilet/Sulabh Hotel Cold Storage

01 24 12 01 02 01 01 02 01 03 946

4.6.2.7 Bus/Truck Terminals a. Urban Transport Urban Transportation plays a vital role in the economic development of the City. Raipur, the state capital of Chhattisgarh is emerging as a fast growing city with increasing commuters. The present capacity of the city roads, parking spaces and Bus stands are not in a sustainable position for the future demand of the city. b. Bus Stand
The existing Bus Stand at Pandri is being congested with improper parking lots making the commuters to stand on the road to catch the buses. And also the Buses helpers stand on road to call the passengers out of competition among the Bus agencies. With all these the effective carriage way of the road became in-sufficient for the thorough traffic.

In the Long Term Plan it is proposed to expand and maintain the existing Bus stand to cater the increasing number of Buses and Passengers with an out lay of Rs.2 Cr. And two well maintained Sulbh complexes are also proposed under this scheme for the convenience of the passengers and commuters. c. Auto Stands and Cycle Rickshaws Stand

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There is no well organized public transport system in Raipur City. Most of the people use Auto Rickshaws or Cycle Rickshaws depend on the distance of travel for the transportation. As the Citys rapid growth these Autos and Rickshaws are also increasing rapidly. There is a need for the development of proper Stands for the Autos and Cycle rickshaws. An amount of Rs. 1 Cr is proposed for the development of these Auto Stands and Cycle Rickshaw Stands on the Arterial and sub-arterial roads of the Raipur City. d. Commercial Complex with multilevel parking A well organized Commercial centre with Multi Level Parking is proposed with an approximate estimated cost of 2 crores in the Central Area and the same is detailed in the Core Area Chapter.

e. Widening/Improvement/Construction of Arterial Roads As per the Development plan 2011 of Raipur, Ring Road No.3, Ring Road No.4, Arterial Roads and sub-arterial roads are proposed for construction during the plan period. A Road connecting the two proposed ring roads is also proposed to avoid the truck traffic flow between Bilaspur and Mahasamundh Road coming to the city. 4.6.2.8 Public Transport System There is no organized public transportation system present in Raipur. Most of the public transportation is through two wheelers, auto rickshaws, Cycle rickshaws and private mini buses. Due to the multi modal transportation of the public, there are traffic congestions on all the major arterial and sub arterial roads. This will lead to the pollution of the environment. 4.6.2.9 Parking At present central area of the city needs efficient off street parking spaces at various places particularly in business area which is creating congestion. No of vehicles are increasing in the city. Parking of vehicles particularly cars along main roads are creating traffic problems.

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Increasing industrial, commercial, activity in and around the city work canters has resulted stray parking along required roads and major streets. Parking proposals as indicated in RDP 1991 are again reviewed in RDP 2011 and the following places are proposed for parking.
1. Near industrial area on Bilaspur road at suitable places 2. Near Gunj mandi at Pandri 3. Near bus stand

4. Near all planning unit shopping canters A well-organized Commercial centre with Multi Level Parking is proposed in the Central Area and the same is detailed in the Core Area Chapter. Map No: 4. Showing existing circulation Patten or Raipur 4.6.3

KEY ISSUES
The city road network lacks a functional hierarchy The central area has congested road network and the more traffic The absence of adequate geometry at intersections further adds to the traffic problems in the city. The city roads lack the maintenance

On street parking problem, especially in the core area

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BASIC SERVICES TO THE URBAN POOR

5.1 The

INTRODUCTION paradox of economic

growth in the urban areas is the growing urban poor. In spite of Raipurs prominent role in the economy of the region, urban population and especially the urban poor due faces to serious population problems

pressure, deterioration in the physical environment and quality of life. In this chapter an overview of the urban poverty situation in Raipur urban agglomeration are discussed. According to information available from RMC, Raipur has 52 slums sprawling the city and constitute one-third of city population i.e. about 32 % of population resides in slum, squatters and other poor settlements in the city and surrounding villages. In the RMC they are mostly concentrated on the central part of the city. Their contribution to citys economy has been growing over decades. With soaring land prices and absence of clear policy framework to address their problems, the poor suffer with out access absence of clear policy framework to address their problems, the poor suffer without access to basic services, like housing, livelihoods, education and health services, etc. there is need to clearly articulate policies and programmes to address these concerns and meet the infrastructure and social and economic development needs to their quality of life.

5.2

GROWTH OF SLUMS AND SLUM POPULATION

Raipur urban agglomeration is characterized by a very significant presence of the urban poor, with growing poverty profile. Slum settlements have multiplied over years and the living conditions of the poor have not improved much. Environmental decline, inadequate basic services and infrastructure in poor settlements hit the poor hardest. Slums are scattered across the city in different wards (Map 5.1). It is estimated that many slums are located on private 155 lands without access to basic services. The poor, not only habitat the slums of the city but are spread in squatters and informal settlements in small groups near residential colonies, market

City Development Plan, Raipur City

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VISION, KEY PRIORITIES & SECTORAL STRATEGY FRAMEWORK

6.1 INTRODUCTION
It is widely acknowledged that the 21st Century will emerge as the era of urbanization, with, rapid global economic integration driving forward growth, prosperity and social well being in cities across the world. Cities will emerge as important nodes in a network of flowing investments, information, goods and people, as well as centres of culture, innovation and knowledge management. The emergence of the "urban space" as a vanguard of evolution and progress in socioeconomic development has largely been an organic process. The "urban space" is typified through complex and multi-dimensional interactions between various characteristics, including:
Social and demographic character - size, composition and socio-economic make-up of the urban residents. Historical character - the temporal changes experienced by the city. Geographical character - largely driven by location, topography and climatic environment. Economic character - economic activities that enables sustenance and growth. Cultural character - the artistic, intellectual and literary milieu. Physical character - the physical spaces, infrastructure and built environment. Institutional character - the urban governance mechanism.

Till recently, urban planning was primarily considered as planning for physical spaces in anticipated new human settlements, and therefore was primarily focused on 'land-use planning'. Regulation too was focused on ensuring compliance with designated use of land and built environment In recent times, however, planning has evolved into developing a long-term perspective, as encapsulated in a "vision", developing integrated multi-disciplinary strategies for achieving the "vision" and specific and identifying specific action plans and initiatives for implementing the identified strategies supported by a robust financial and capital investment plan. The key objective of such a plan was to guide public investments, programmes and plans of various
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government agencies and also to identify opportunities for community and private sector participation. Therefore, urban planning has transformed into managing and building on the six types of "capitals" as identified in the framework above. Herein lies the genesis of the City Development Plan.

6.1.1

VISION AND STRATEGIES

A vision statement was outlined for the Municipal Corporation of Raipur involving the various stakeholders consisting of Senior Citizens, Corporators, Mayor, Ex-Mayors, M.L.A.s, M.P.s, Industrialists, Environmentalists, N.G.Os and officials in the visioning exercise. Each stakeholder has suggested a key word that could represent his or her vision for city. All the key words were listed and based on the common key words a few vision statement based on a consensus. The following vision statement was adopted for the city of Raipur A beautiful eco-friendly city for all, providing high quality of civic services. The vision statement outlines that the citizens of the city should committee to maintain the Natural eco system and make the city eco-friendly. The city of Raipur should also envisaged to be an inclusive city for all including the poor and the vulnerable. The poor and the destitute will be integrated into the main stream and disparity will be reduced. The city administration would be responsive to all and development will be given highest priority. High quality services including continuous water supply to all, 100% sanitation, door-to-door collection of solid waste and good quality roads will be provided to all the citizens. This will not only enhance the productivity of the city but also contribute to the economic development of the city as a whole.

6.1.2

KEY ISSUES AND CHALLENGES

6.1.2.1 Key Priorities The CDP process of Raipur has undergone extensive consultative process with its key stakeholders in prioritizing the key sectors for investments and reform initiatives. The priorities of the national and state governments including the international developmental trends and

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Millennium development goals (MDGs) have been considered in prioritizing these critical sectors, presented below. Water Supply Sewerage Storm Water Drainage Solid Waste Management Traffic and Transportation Urban Poverty

6.1.2.2 Sectoral Strategy Framework The overall vision for the city and the prioritization of the key sectors paved the way to formulate sector specific vision and strategies. This sector specific approach with year wise strategies and corresponding year wise investments will be instrumental in framing the action plan/ implementation plan. The sector specific reforms and investments are an integral part of the year wise strategies.

6.2
6.2.1

WATER SUPPLY
KEY CHALLENGES

Based on the review of the current water supply scenario, the following key challenges are identified. There is huge decline in water supply sources due to lack of effective catchments management. The core area and especially the surrounding areas, which are newly added in the municipal limits, are short of adequate water supply network and access to piped water supply. And moreover, the RMC not have adequate finances to mobilize capital for augmentation of new water supply schemes. There is a huge demand supply gap, which is likely to widen drastically in future. Lack of metering, exorbitant illegal connections and Public Stand Posts leading to high non-revenue water in the RMC. No regulatory mechanism to oversee the functioning of the sector and to fix service standards as well as tariff to meet capital and operating expenditure.

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6.2.2 Goal

GOAL AND SERVICE OUT COMES

The goal is to develop and manage the existing water supply system in an efficient and equitable manner by providing quality of water (minimizing the water contamination resulting from solid waste and other liquid wastes) with adopting the various techniques. Considering the above challenges, the following goals for different horizon years have been identified. The water supply coverage and access to piped water supply in RMC area needs to be enhanced to 100% by the year 2016. The per capita water supply should be maintained at 170 LPCD by increasing source of supply and hours of supply to the people.

Table 6.1 Identified goals for Horizon years Sl. No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Component Network Coverage Access to Piped water supply Per capita supply Hours of supply Non- Revenue water Quality of water O&M cost Recovery Horizon Period 2011 85% 80% 170lpcd 5 Hours/daily 30% Potable (as per WHO standards) 65% 2016 100% 100% 170lpcd 8 hours/daily 15% Potable (as per WHO standards) 100% 10 hours /daily 10% Potable (as per WHO standards) 100% 2021 100% 100%

6.2.3

STRATEGIES AND ACTION PLAN

This chapter consists of proposals and recommendations, which would address the problems and issue. The main idea of these proposals is to bridge the gap between service provider and customer by considering the issues such as the affordability levels, willing ness to pay and cost recovery. Considering the current challenges and identified goals, a strong strategy for water supply is adopted to create Raipur a city, which is environmentally, as well as economically sound.
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Detailed strategy is furnished below which covers policy level planning, reforms, institutional strengthening, source augmentation and service delivery aspects. The following are brief outline of the projects taken up in the year one:

6.2.3.1 Providing Community Taps and Group Connections Community taps can be provided based on the population that is to be served. This option may not ensure full cost recovery, as there will be many social problems, thefts, lack of accountability and maintenance. It is very much evident from the Study and observations that mostly in slums likely community people stay together and are willing to share connection. Therefore providing group connections (one connection to every three or four houses, this may vary from customer to customer) can be one of the options in delivering the service to the community.

6.2.3.2 Provide installments to obtain new connections The cost of obtaining a supply is often beyond the means of the urban poor who are unable to meet the high once-off cost of a connection and associated deposit. Often living on a day-today budget, it is not usually possible for them to save several months income to obtain a connection. In such cases arrangements should be made to allow connections to the water supply system to be paid for by monthly installments rather than one-off payment.

6.2.3.3 Cost recovery through adopting differential pricing system Differential pricing system can be adopted for various building use such as commercial units (hotels, shops etc) as it is already indicated in the study that the people who own the commercial units are willing to pay more for the service. So charging them charged for what they consume creates the potential to cost recovery and also to avoid both waste and underused.

6.2.3.4 Privatization of the service Privatization is one of the upcoming options in service delivery. Various studies indicate that privatization can improve the present condition as it ensures cost recovery and efficient service delivery.

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6.2.3.5 Public Participation Public should be made aware through campaigns the advantages of having group connections, problems faced by the service providers due to illegal tapping of water. Board should educate them regarding the recent developments of the board such as dial 1234 where they can call and give their complaint without being even charged for the phone call. The board can prepare suitable stickers, educating the public in simple and understandable language.

6.2.3.6 Customer

satisfaction

through

providing

regular

information

service

performance Keep the customer satisfied by responding to queries and complaints in a timely manner and providing them with regular information on service performance.

6.2.3.7 Water Demand Planning There are many initiatives the RMC can undertake to encourage or achieve total water demand reduction. Leak detection and repair, wise use of water and rain barrel programs have all played a role in the citys past. The goals and objectives of such initiatives, total expected water savings, total expected infrastructure cost savings, cost to implement programs and permanence of water savings are all factors which must be considered in determining the initiatives the RMC should undertake to plan for a goal of per capita water demand reductions.

6.2.3.8 Effective infrastructure management through policies and frame works Maintain open and effective communication with its customers and the public regarding the citys infrastructure planning processes, objectives through the establish, maintain and update content on the city of Raipur web site and publication materials in support of processes, objectives and projects;

6.2.3.9 Rain Water Harvesting The RMC should take-up the rain water harvesting for improving ground water level, to improve the environment and to deduct the financial burdance to the RMC towards the providing and maintaining of the water supply and sanitation system and to generate revenue by selling recycled water to industrial units.

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6.2.3.10

Maximizing the existing infrastructure facilities

Maximizing the use of existing infrastructure as well as planning for maximization of use of future infrastructure provides efficient means to address growth. In order to plan for maximization of use of existing infrastructure, the City must first understand the availability of infrastructure capacity and then plan for the allocation of that capacity.

6.2.3.11

Effective communication

All departments in RMC, to a greater or lesser degree, have a role in infrastructure planning. To ensure effective communication, it is important that each player understands his or her own role and understands and respects the roles of others. The people who deliver infrastructure services, the customers and the general public all have an important role to maintain the system. Open and effective communication within and between these three groups is essential to the success of this service.

6.2.4

PROPOSED INFRASTRUCTURE

6.2.4.1 Augmentation of water supply As mentioned in the chapter IV, the existing supply should be augmented. So, one treatment plant should be constructed at Rawanbhata near present WTP on ring road no.1 with a capacity of 150 MLD to meet the demand of 11,01,086 populations for 2013 (considering all losses). It is also suggested to construct the suitable raw water pumping main and an anicut at suitable place across Kharun River. And the existing intake well, having a capacity of 88 MLD should be increased to 160MLD. The estimated cost for these proposals is Rs 200 crores for the 2013.

6.2.4.2 Service Reservoirs Apart from the existing storage facilities it is suggested to construct 20 no. of service reservoirs with a capacity of 5 ML each at different locations inside and out side of the municipal area. The areas of suggested reservoirs are Jarwai, Gogaon, kabir Nagar, Kota, Tati Bandh, Deendayalnag, Sarona, Idgah Bhata, Bhatagaon, Daldalseoni, Saddu, Khamardih, Amlidih, Lalpur, Mathpurena, Changora bhata, Mowa areas. Out of the total number (20) of proposed reservoirs, it is suggested to construct 10 reservoirs for the present

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year and the rest of the 10 reservoirs for 2013. The estimated cost for these proposals is Rs 45 crores for the 2013. 6.2.4.3 Distribution Network The distribution system should be divided in to 20 zones, and each zone should be provided with a ground level/ elevated service reservoirs and from those service reservoirs the water should be pumped to the distribution system by suitably designed pumping sets. Apart from the existing distribution network of 402 km length, it is suggested to construct/provide main lines for length of 120 km ranging from 350 mm dia to 1400mm dia. and local distribution lines for a length of 232kms ranging from 150 mm dia to 450mm dia. And the distribution lines for a length of 32kms shall be replaced. The estimated cost for this proposed network is Rs 93.50 Crores.

6.2.4.4 Public Taps After examining the existing number of public taps (7600) it is suggested to provide another 4500 number of taps in different slums and in other suitable areas, which requires an amount of Rs1.35 crores for the 2013. The proposed water supply system shown in Map No: 6.1

6.2.4.5 Project Summary Table 6.2 Project cost for water supply for 2013
Sl. No. 1 2 3 4 Project Laying and joining of raw water main / rising main Treatment plant 150 MLD Construction of OHSR/GLSR (20*5ML) Clear Water Pumping Mains (55 km) Rate/unit Rs. 450 lakhs/km Rs. 1 per liter Rs. 4.5 per liter Rs. 120 lakhs/km Rs. 27.50 lakhs/km 5 Extension of distribution network with in the city (222km) (average for main & Distribution lines) Rs. 25 lakhs/km 6 Development of distribution in newly developed areas (130km) (average for main & Distribution lines) 32.50 61.00 Estimated Cost (Rs. Cr.) 72.00 15.00 45.00 66.00

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Sl. No. 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

Project Establishing Customer Connections Meters (1.50 lakh meters) Providing Public Taps (4500 no.s) Leak Detection Study and Rehabilitation Program for Water Supply System Energy Efficiency Study Strengthening of Water Testing Laboratory at Filter Plant Replacement of Old Pump sets Others (Construction of Anicut, C.W.Pump sets, Electric Substation, Communication and Miscellaneous) Total Civil & electromechanical Works Design & Supervision Consultancy Cost GRAND TOTAL

Rate/unit Rs.800/meter Rs. 3000/one LS LS LS LS LS

Estimated Cost (Rs. Cr.) 12.00 1.35 1.60 3.00 0.50 7.00 35.00 351.95

13 14

4% to the total cost 2.5% to the total cost

14.08 8.80 374.83

Say

375.00

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Table 6.3 Year wise Project cost of water supply from 2006-13 Sl. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Project Laying and joining of raw water main / rising main Treatment plant 150 MLD Construction of OHSR/GLSR (20*5ML) Clear Water Pumping Mains (55 km) Extension of distribution network with in the city (222km) Development of distribution in newly developed areas (130km) Establishing Customer Connections Meters (1.50 lakh meters) Providing Public Taps (4500 no.s) Leak Detection Study and Rehabilitation Program for Water Supply System Energy Efficiency Study Strengthening of Water Testing 35 4 40 5 40 6 45 7 45 8 45 9 15 17 20 22 27 29 100 15 150 20 150 20 200 20 200 20 200 20 300 350 500 600 500 500 750 750 900 900 950 950 800 800 1200 1200 1000 1200 700 1000 300 800 300 800 1000 150 1500 200 2000 300 1100 300 1000 200 400 200 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12

Rs. In Lakhs 2012-13 Total

200 150 200 800 900 500 200 20 30 50 11

7200 1500 4500 6600 6100

3250

1200 135

160

300 50

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Sl. No. 12 13 14 15

Project Laboratory at Filter Plant Replacement of Old Pump sets Others (Construction of Anicut, C.W.Pump sets, Electric Substation, Communication and Miscellaneous) Civil & electromechanical Works Design & Supervision Consultancy Cost Total

2006-07

2007-08

2008-09

2009-10

2010-11

2011-12

2012-13

Total

70 400 150 440 5029

75 450 200 440 6597

85 450 300

90 500 300

110 550 150

120 550 150

150 600 158

700

3500

1408 880

6971

5784

4860

4273

3969

37483

6.2.5 PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION

6.2.5.1 Institutional Mechanism for Implementation The PHED and Municipal Corporation, Government of Chhattisgarh, will implement these projects.

6.2.5.2 Financial Analysis for Water Supply & Sewerage Systems

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Table 6.4 Staff Cost 400.00


420.00 441.00 463.05 486.20 510.51 536.04

Estimated Expenditure on Water Supply Maintenance of Power Chemicals Water supply & Sewer System 450
472.50 496.13 520.93 546.98 574.33 603.04

Rs. In Lakhs Administration & others 50


52.50 55.13 57.88 60.78 63.81 67.00

Year 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 Total

Loan Repayment

Interest 12% for (P-L.R) amount

Total

16
16.80 17.64 18.52 19.45 20.42 21.44

500
525.00 551.25 578.81 607.75 638.14 670.05

1416.00

6217 6217 6217 6217 6217 6217 37300.00

4476 3730 2984 2238 1492 746 15666.00

12179.47 11507.81 10839.86 10175.82 9515.88 8860.24

3256.80

3663.90

130.27

4071.00

407.10

64495.08

Estimated Expenditure on Water Supply

Note: Considered 5% increase in all components for every year. It is estimated that around Rs 645 crores will be spended till 2013 on various purposes of water supply.
Staff Cost Chem icals

24.29%

5.05%

5.68% 0.20% 6.31% 0.63%

Pow er

Maintenance of Water supply & Sew er System Loan Repaym ent

57.83%

Adm inistration & others Interest 12% for (P-L.R) am ount

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6.2.5.3 Estimated Revenue on Water Supply The price of water or the water tariff is the rate levied for the water supplied to the consumers in order to achieve sufficient revenues to provide for the operation and maintenance and also for the debt servicing. Tariffs should be defined to promote both economic efficiency and financial soundness o the water utility and should eventually cover all the costs connected with operation and maintenance, debt servicing, the depreciation of existing assets and expansion of the service.

6.2.5.4 Cost Recovery 6.2.5.4.1 Water tariff Advance registration/connection charges Water benefit tax Water tax as a percentage of ratable value where the properties do not have a metered water supply or water tax on the basic of the floor area. Water kiosks system for revenue generation system through stands posts. By internal cross subsidization by diverting other sources of funds like octroe for water supply purpose. On time development charges/ water utility service charges collected through the land development authority. Different mechanisms/Indicators available for the cost recovery:

6.2.5.4.2

Guidelines for Cost recovery

For any water supply scheme, the pricing structure should be such that 100 percent cost recovery should be ensured with a minimum burden on the poorest. Factors such as capacity to pay, benefits derived and proportionate cost of the service has to be considered. The rate must be enough to fetch the necessary revenue and at the same time not so excessive as to discourage consumers from making use of water or opting for alternative sources, which ultimately affect the pricing. Pricing system should be quite attractive; otherwise beneficiaries will explore the possibilities of alternative arrangements.

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Non-domestic users such as industries and institutions could be utilized for the purpose of cross-subsidizing the weaker sections. While fixing the price structure, year wise fixed and variable cost should be taken into account government subsidies if any. Water tariff should be designed after taking into account all the policy scenarios, whether only O&M costs are to be recovered or debt and interest are also to be realized.

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6.2.5.4.3

Collection of Water Tariffs

Table 6.5: - Estimated Revenue from the water supply tariff


Domestic Year Explanation Connect ions 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 Proposed Connections/Tariff Proposed Connections/Tariff Proposed Connections/Tariff Proposed Connections/Tariff Proposed Connections/Tariff Proposed Connections/Tariff Proposed Connections/Tariff TOTAL Rate/mont h (Rs.) Revenue (Lakhs) Commercial Connections Rate/mont h (Rs.) Revenue (Lakhs) Industrial Total Connect ions Rate/mo nth (Rs.) Revenue (Lakhs) (Lakhs)

52000 65000 80000 95000 110000 130000 165000

60 100 150 200 200 250 250

374.40 780.00 1440.00 2280.00 2640.00 3900.00 4950.00 16364.40

1400 1700 2000 2400 2800 3300 4500

600 1000 1000 1500 1500 1800 1800

100.80 204.00 240.00 432.00 504.00 712.80 972.00 3165.60

250 300 500 800 1200 1500 2250

1500 2500 3000 3000 4000 5000 5000

45.00 90.00 180.00 288.00 576.00 900.00 1350.00 3429.00

520.20 1074.00 1860.00 3000.00 3720.00 5512.80 7272.00 22959.00

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Total revenue estimated to be collected through water tariffs by 2013 is Rs 22959 lakhs. Out of that from domestic uses total revenue to be collected is about Rs 16364.40 Lakhs i.e 71.28% and from commercial uses Rs 3165.60 lakhs i.e 13.79% and from Industrial uses Rs 3429 lakhs i.e 14.94%.

6.2.5.4.4

Collection of Initial Charges

Table 6.6: - Estimated Revenue from the collection of Initial Charges on water supply Domestic Year Explanation Nos. 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 Additional Connections/Tariff Additional Connections/Tariff Additional Connections/Tariff Additional Connections/Tariff Additional Connections/Tariff Additional Connections/Tariff Additional Connections/Tariff TOTAL 10000 13000 15000 15000 15000 20000 35000 123000 Rate (Rs.) 920 1500 2500 2500 3000 3000 4500 Revenue (Lakhs) 92.00 195.00 375.00 375.00 450.00 600.00 1575.00 3662 Nos. 200 300 300 400 400 500 1200 3300 Commercial Rate (Rs.) 1500 3000 4000 5000 6000 6000 6000 Revenue (Lakhs) 3.00 9.00 12.00 20.00 24.00 30.00 72.00 170 Nos. 100 50 200 300 400 300 750 2100 Industrial Rate (Rs.) 1500 4000 4000 5000 5000 6500 6500 Revenue (Lakhs) 1.50 2.00 8.00 15.00 20.00 19.50 48.75 114.75 Total (Lakhs) 96.50 206.00 395.00 410.00 494.00 649.50 1695.75 3946.75

Rs 3946.75 lakhs is estimated to be collected as initial charges by 2013. Out of that from domestic uses Rs 3662 lakhs, from commercial uses Rs 170 lakhs and from industrial uses Rs 114.75 lakhs is estimated.
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6.2.5.5 Cost Benefit Analysis Table 6.7:Per Capita Income & Expenditure on Water Supply for 2013 Total Revenue Year 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 Population Total Expenditure (Tariff and initial charges) 896711 927927 960230 993658 1028249 1064045 1416.00 12179.47 11507.81 10839.86 10175.82 9515.88 8860.24 64495.08 616.70 1280.00 2255.00 3410.00 4214.00 6162.30 8967.75 26905.75 % of recovery to expenditure 43.55 10.51 19.60 31.46 41.41 64.76 101.21 41.72 Per Capita Expenditure (Rs) 157.91 1312.55 1198.44 1090.90 989.63 894.31 804.68 Per Capita Revenue (Rs) 68.77 137.94 234.84 343.18 409.82 579.14 814.45

1101086 TOTAL

Total expenditure on water supply by 2013 is Rs 64495 lakhs where the revenue is Rs 26905.75 Lakhs i.e 41.72%

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6.3
6.3.1

SEWERAGE AND SANITATION


SEWERAGE SYSTEM

6.3.1.1 Development Strategies The following strategies are primarily to increasing the coverage of sewerage network by increasing the number of house service connections and treatment of sewage before disposal in the Raipur Municipal Corporation Analysis from the sewerage sector reveals that sewerage network coverage is very low and even covered portion also do not have the proper maintenance and concerned by the RMC. Data on sewage network in RMC is not available. The poor and slum dwellers lack safe sanitation facilities and hence are prone to health related diseases. With the increasing population and growing demand on water supply, this existing service will not be adequate and creates hazardous environment in the city. Development strategies are made based on the existing condition and importance of existing roads such as adjacent to commercial areas and in high dense areas and near to land use designated for public purposes.

6.3.1.2 Goals and Outcomes

Goal The main goal is to develop and manage the existing sewerage system, by providing the sufficient sewer net work, surface drains and suitable treatment plants, which will improve the quality of citys environment and reduce the financial burden to the RMC by collecting various user charges. Considering the above key challenges, the following goals for different horizon years have been identified. The sewerage coverage and access in RMC limits needs to be enhanced to at least 50% by the year 2011, 70% by the year 2016 and 90% by the year 2021. By the year 2021, 60% of the wastewater should be treated and disposed and 60% of the wastewater should be recycled and reused. In addition to that, 70% O&M cost recovery is achieved by the year 2011.

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Table 6.8:- Estimated service coverage by Horizon period Sl. No 1 2 3 4 Component Sewer network Waste plants Recycling/ Reuse O & M cost recovery 20% 70% 40% 100% 60% 100% water Coverage by Horizon period 2011 50% treatment 15% 2016 70% 35% 2021 90% 60%

6.3.1.3 Proposed Infrastructure

6.3.1.3.1

Sewer Lines network

Apart from the existing sewer length 55.97km, it is suggested to provide sewer lines for a length of 200 km (Main lines- 40km, Distribution lines-128 km and replacement of old system for 32 km) which requires Rs.59.89 crores in various areas/localities such as Tikrapara, Purani Basti, Sundar nagar, Donganja, Choubey colony, Gudhiyari, Khamtarai, Devendra nagar, Rajeev nagar, Geetha nagar, TeliBandha, New Rajendra nagar and some other roads which are locating in important areas. The following table shows zone wise proposed sewer line network details i.e location/area, covering wards, proposed lines length.

Table 6.9: Proposed Sewer lines in various zones for 2013, Raipur Zone no. 1 2 Covered Wards 12 6,20,21,26,27 Covered Areas/Localities Chirhuldih Station area, Telghani naka chowk, Raman mandir, WRS colony, Dubey colony, Kapa, mowa, Saddu Indravathi colony, Irrigation colony, Irrigation 3 4 23,24,28,29,33 32,46,47,49,41 colony, Shankar nagar, Anupam nagar, Labhandih Fundhar,Amlidih,Police lines 20544 20.54 12708 12.71 16458 16.46 Proposed length (M) 16420 (km) 16.42

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Zone no. 5 6 7 67

Covered Wards 41,52,54 17,35,40

Covered Areas/Localities Changora bhata Moti bagh, Math purana,Rawa bhata Ram sagar para, Kachari,Jai sthambh area Chandini dih,Jarvai,Atari,Sondongari,Kabir nagar,Kota,Ravi sankar sukla university area,Gogaon,Raipura,Sarona and other lines in all wards

Proposed length (M) 18099 11445 18226

(km) 18.10 11.45 18.23

1,2,3,14,68,70

46100

46.10

Main lines in all wards on the main roads

40000

40.00

TOTAL

200001

200.00

6.3.1.3.2

Surface Drains Network

Along with the sewer lines, surface drains also should be provided in the city for the internal streets and colonies. In the 1st seven years it is estimated to provide new surface drains in various streets and localities for a length of 170km which require an amount of Rs.13.60 crores.

6.3.1.3.3

Sewerage Treatment Plants

As the per capita water consumption increases, sanitation becomes increasingly water based. In areas with high water consumption rates and population densities, sewerage is often required and the collected waste water must be treated off- site in centralized system. After examining the Raipur citys sewage and sanitation system, surface water bodies and considering the past experience in other municipal areas (failure of septic tanks, wet land treatments etc causing water pollution), construction of Sewage Treatment Plant (STP) with Bio Gas Recovery System (Methane extraction) is suggested. The treated effluent from STP can be utilized for horticultural and agricultural purposes. In the first five years it is suggested to construct sewage treatment plants with a capacity of 15 MGD at Rawanbata, one plant in Daldalsiwani with a capacity of 15 MGD and another one with a

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capacity of 5 MGD at Kokapara require an amount of Rs.50 crores. The proposed sewerage plan shown in Map No: 6.2

6.3.2 SANITATION
6.3.2.1 Strategies/Recommendations Providing the sufficient number of toilet blocks in all parts of the city Community participation for designing, construction of and maintenance of public toilets Cost recovery through collecting the user charges

Goal To develop and manage a sanitary system by providing the innovative technologies in design, construction and community/NGO participation by collecting user charges which will reduce the financial burdens to the RMC.

6.3.2.2 Development Proposals for sanitation After considering the current scenario it is suggested to construct 350 public toilets at different slum areas, having 20 seats in each block, which requires and amount of Rs. 3.50 crores for a period of 2013. Public-private partnership/community participation is suggested to design, construction, and maintenance. Even if the extent of community participation was limited with respect to design and construction, the area of maintenance is an exception. The program envisaged the collection of Rs 20 per family per month to fund the appointment of a caretaker and for cleaning materials. The caretaker is to be accountable to the community and is supervised by them. This is in sharp contrast to the model where the sanitary staff of the corporation does not heed the community voice. The system of monthly passes for about Rs. 20 per family scores high value. When some aspects or amenities are given free it devalues in the eyes of the community. On the other hand when the charge is as high as Rs. 1 per use per person, the poor are priced out of the market and will return to open defecation. It should also be under lined that when there is community control and maintenance, the sanitary staff of the corporation no longer required. There will be huge savings for the corporation, as it need not recruit in future.

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6.3.3

PROJECT SUMMARY

Table 6.10: Project Summary of Sewerage and Sanitation Systems Sl. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Three STPs 35 MGD Laying of Secondary and Tertiary Sewers (128km) Laying of Main Sewers (40km) Replacement of existing sewers (32km) Surface Drainage Network in all areas (170km) Construction of Public toilets (350 no.s) Total Civil and Electro-Mechanical works of SPS (1.5% of the total cost) Design and Supervision Consultancy (2.5% of the total cost) Total 1.90 3.17 132.07 Project Estimated Cost (Rs. Cr.) 50.00 34.27 16.00 9.62 13.60 3.50 126.99

Table 6.11: Phasing & Implementation


Sl. No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Rs. In Lakhs
2011-12 800 650 250 160 225 50 25 2160 2012-13 860 527 225 190 210 45 25 2082 Total 5000 3427 1600 962 1360 350 190 317 13207

Project
Three STPs 35 MGD Laying of Secondary and Tertiary Sewers Laying of Main Sewers Replacement of existing sewers Surface Drainage Network in all areas Construction of Public toilets Civil and ElectroMechanical works of SPS Design and Supervision Consultancy Total

2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 600 300 125 100 125 35 15 150 1450 630 300 200 120 150 50 25 167 1642 650 500 200 120 200 50 35 1755 700 500 300 130 200 60 35 1925 760 650 300 142 250 60 30 2192

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6.3.3.2 Institutional Mechanism for Implementation This project will be implemented by the PHED, Government of Chhattisgarh

6.3.3.3 Financial Analysis of Sewerage System Table 6.12 2013 ------- Rs in Lakhs Loan Year Repayment (P) 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 Total 2200 2200 2200 2200 2200 2200 13200 Interest 12% for (P-L.R) amount 1584 132 1056 792 528 264 55.44 800 840 882 926 972 1021 1072 6514 800 4624 4402 4182 3964 3749 3536 25258 160 925 880 836 793 750 707 5052 960 5549 5282 5019 4757 4499 4243 30309 Administration & other Total Others (20% to total) Grand Total Estimated Expenditure on Proposed Sewerage and sanitation System for

Estimated Expenditure on Serage & Sanitation

Total Estimated expenditure for proposed sewerage system by 2013 is 30309 Lakhs.
21.49%

16.67% 43.55%

18.29%
Loan Repaym ent Adm inistration & other Interest 12% for (P-L.R) am ount Others (20% to total)

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6.3.3.4 Estimated Revenue on Proposed Sewerage System for 2013 Table 6.13 Estimated User Charges for 2013
Domestic Year Explanation Conne ctions 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 Proposed Connections/Tariff Proposed Connections/Tariff Proposed Connections/Tariff Proposed Connections/Tariff Proposed Connections/Tariff Proposed Connections/Tariff Proposed Connections/Tariff TOTAL 50000 250 1500.00 3600 1200 518.40 1400 4000 672.00 2690.40 35000 200 840.00 3000 1000 360.00 1200 3000 432.00 1632.00 20000 200 480.00 2400 800 230.40 950 2400 273.60 984.00 12000 150 216.00 2000 700 168.00 650 2000 156.00 540.00 8000 100 96.00 1700 500 102.00 400 1500 72.00 270.00 3000 60 21.60 1400 400 67.20 250 1000 30.00 118.80 Rate/mo nth (Rs.) Revenue (Lakhs) Conn ection s Commercial Rate/mo nth (Rs.) Revenue (Lakhs) Connec tions Industrial Rate/mon th (Rs.) Revenue (Lakhs) Total

75000

250

2250.00 5403.60

5000

1300

780.00 2226.00

2200

4000

1056.00 2691.60

4086.00 10321.20

An amount of Rs 10321.20 lakhs is estimated to be recovered by 2013, Out of which Rs 5403.60 lakhs from domestic users, Rs 2226 lakhs from commercial users and Rs 2691.60 lakhs from industrial users.
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Table 6.14

Estimated Initial Charges for 2013

Domestic Year Explanation Nos. 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 Additional Connections/Tariff Additional Connections/Tariff Additional Connections/Tariff Additional Connections/Tariff Additional Connections/Tariff Additional Connections/Tariff Additional Connections/Tariff TOTAL Rate (Rs.) Revenue (Lakhs) Nos.

Commercial Rate (Rs.) Revenue (Lakhs) Nos.

Industrial Rate (Rs.) Revenue (Lakhs)

Total (Lakhs)

1000 5000 4000 8000 15000 15000 25000

1500 2000 2500 2500 3000 3000 4500

15.00 100.00 100.00 200.00 450.00 450.00 1125.00 2440.00

1000 300 300 400 600 600 1400

1500 3000 4000 5000 6000 6000 6000

15.00 9.00 12.00 20.00 36.00 36.00 84.00 212.00

200 150 250 300 250 200 800

1500 4000 4000 5000 5000 6500 6500

3.00 6.00 10.00 15.00 12.50 13.00 52.00 111.50

33.00 115.00 122.00 235.00 498.50 499.00 1261.00 2763.50

Total initial charges are going to be collected by 2013 are Rs 2763.50 lakhs. Out of which Rs 2440 lakhs from domestic users, Rs 212 lakhs from commercial users and Rs 111.50 lakhs from industrial users.

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Table 6.15 Per Capita Income & Expenditure on Proposed Sewerage and sanitation System for 2013

Total Year 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 Population Expenditure (Lakhs) 896711 927927 960230 993658 1028249 1064045 1101086 Total 960.00 5548.80 5282.40 5018.52 4757.29 4498.83 4243.29 30309.13

Total Revenue (Lakhs) 151.80 385.00 662.00 1219.00 2130.50 3189.40 5347.00 13084.70

% of recovery to expenditure 15.81 6.94 12.53 24.29 44.78 70.89 126.01 43.17

Per Capita Expenditure (Rs.) 107.06 597.98 550.12 505.06 462.66 422.80 385.37

Per Capita Revenue (Rs.) 16.93 41.49 68.94 122.68 207.20 299.74 485.61

Total expenditure on sewerage and sanitation system by 2013 is Rs 30309.13 lakhs where the revenue is Rs 13084.70 Lakhs i.e 43.17% (avg.).

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Table 6.16 Cost Benefit Analysis on Water Supply, Sewerage and sanitation System

Expenditure Year Estimated Population Water Supply 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 896711 927927 960230 993658 1028249 1064045 1101086 1416.00 12179.47 11507.81 10839.86 10175.82 9515.88 8860.24 64495.08 Sewerage 960.00 5548.80 5282.40 5018.52 4757.29 4498.83 4243.29 30309.13 Total 2376.00 17728.27 16790.21 15858.38 14933.11 14014.71 13103.53 94804.21 Water Supply 616.70 1280.00 2255.00 3410.00 4214.00 6162.30 8967.75 26905.75

Income

% of Recovery

Sewerage 151.80 385.00 662.00 1219.00 2130.50 3189.40 5347.00 13084.70

Total 768.50 1665.00 2917.00 4629.00 6344.50 9351.70 14314.75 39990.45

to the expenditure 32.34 9.39 17.37 29.19 42.49 66.73 109.24 42.18

TOTAL

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6.4 STORM WATER DRAINAGE


6.4.1 Goal and Out Comes

The main goal is to align, develop and manage the existing nallahs and to give the high quality environment and sustainable economy to the local body. Cleaning and widening of existing drains and construction of additional drains in new areas to avoid flooding during rainy season.

6.4.2

Strategy and Action Plan

Considering the current challenges and identified goals, a robust strategy for storm water drainage is adopted to create Raipur a healthy City. Detailed strategy is furnished below which covers planning, construction, development, and community participation and service delivery aspects.

6.4.2.1 Construction and alignment of existing Nallas/Drains The existing nallahs/ Drains that are having in bad condition, having length of 63.58km to be aligned and developed by the deepening, widening and providing of retain walls at critical sections.

6.4.2.2 Protection of Environmental Resources The first and foremost intervention is the protection of environmental resources. Protection of water bodies, waterways and open spaces from further encroachments would be carried out in a coordinated way.

6.4.2.3 Public Education and Outreach For the success of any service, Public Participation and awareness plays an important role and especially in Raipur.

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The Public Education and Outreach minimum measures consists of Best Management Practices (BMPs) that focus on the development and distribution of educational materials designed to inform the public about the impacts that storm water discharges have on local water bodies and the steps that the public can take to reduce pollutants in storm water runoff.

6.4.2.4 Storm Water Quality Web-Site Development and maintenance of a website designed to educate the public on storm water quality issues.

6.4.2.5 Public Service Announcements Development and broadcasting of public service announcements (PSA's) that focus on the impacts of storm water runoff on local water bodies and steps the public can take to reduce storm water pollution.

6.4.2.6 Impacts of Illegal Dumping and Littering Development and distribution of public education materials that focus on the impacts of illegal dumping and littering on local water bodies as well as methods for the public to report illegal dumping and/or litter occurrences and locations of incidents.

6.4.2.7 Public Education on Construction Activities and New Development Activities Development and distribution of public education materials that focus on the impacts of construction site runoff and steps the public can take to report the occurrence of potential construction related storm water quality problems.

6.4.2.8 Education of School Children on the Importance of Water Quality Development and incorporation of age appropriate presentations and projects that focus on water quality issues into existing MDOT school partnerships.

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6.4.2.9 Public Involvement The Public Involvement/Participation minimum measure consists of Best Management Practices (BMPs) that focus on involving the local public in development and implementation of the Storm Water Management Program (SWMP).

6.4.2.10

Illicit Discharge Detection and Elimination

The Illicit Discharge Detection and Elimination minimum measure consists of Best Management Practices (BMPs) that focus on the detection and elimination of illicit discharges into the nallahs.

6.4.2.11

Dry Weather Outfall Inspection

Developing standard investigation procedures to identify, report and follow-up on illicit connections to the city storm sewer system and conduct systematic visual inspection of outfalls within urbanized areas in the MS4 in order to identify the presence of non storm water discharges.

6.4.2.12

Illegal Dumping Detection and Reporting

Developing standard reporting procedures for illegal dumping occurring on city nallahs and right-of ways and procedures for the removal and notification to the appropriate regulatory authorities.

6.4.2.13

Develop a Program for the identification, Disposal & Recycling of

Potentially Hazardous Materials Developing and implementing a program for the collection, recycle, reuse, or proper disposal of potentially hazardous materials used in RMC operations.

6.4.2.14

Construction Plans Review

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Implementing a construction plans review process as per the storm water guidelines.

6.4.2.15

Construction Related Public Reporting

Providing the public with a mechanism to report and receive feedback on construction related storm water problems.

6.4.2.16

Protection of Sensitive and/or Impaired Water Bodies

Identifying sensitive water bodies and stream segments with approved allocations and implement appropriate pollution control strategies.

6.4.2.17

Street Sweeping

Sweeping of streets and roadways in order to reduce the amount of sediment and associated pollutants discharged to the nallahs from roadways.

6.4.2.18

Litter and Debris Collection

Evaluating and conducting litter collection in order to reduce the discharge of floatable materials to receiving streams.

6.4.2.19

Employee Training

Developing and conducting employee training programs that focus on right-of-way maintenance, fleet and building maintenance, construction activities, illicit discharge detection and reporting and water bodys maintenance.

6.4.3

DEVELOPMENT PROPOSALS

6.4.3.1 Development/Alignment of Nallas The existing nallahs are to be aligned and constructed in a proper way to carry out rain water with out any obstructions like mixing of drainage and sewage in the city and blocking with garbage and it would reduce flooding in rainy season. Storm water drains should be
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constructed for a length of 63.58 km, passing through various areas/localities such as Labhandi, Purona, Amlidih, Fundhar, Devpuri, Boriyakhudr, Bhatagaon, Mathpurana, Changora bhata. Apart from this it is being targeted to restructure and align the remaining drains. De-silting of all the drains is required because almost all the drains are highly chocked with solid waste, silt and sullage. During rainy season all the drains get chocked and cause flooding in some areas.

The total estimated cost is Rs. 95.37 crores towards the nallahs alignment, construction and development and an additional amount of Rs. 15 crores is estimated for managing the storm water drains for 2013.

6.4.3.2 Construction of New drains in new Colonies The following table shows the proposed drains which are to be constructed in the first year of implementation. This table shows the proposed drains, areas/wards, drain lengths and estimated cost in lakhs. The proposed storm water drainage network is as shown in the following Map No: 6.3

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Table 6.17 Estimated Cost for proposed drains ward/Area wise

Sl No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

Name of the Nallah Ward No/Name From Vaaman rao lakhe ward Vaaman rao lakhe ward Vaaman rao lakhe ward Dr Khoobchand Baghel Ward Pdt Sundarlal sarma ward Pdt Sundarlal sarma ward Pdt Deendayal Upadhyaya Ward Pdt Deendayal Upadhyaya Ward Pdt Deendayal Upadhyaya Ward Pdt Deendayal Upadhyaya Ward Thakur Pyarelal Ward TOTAL 188 Behind Danteswari Mandir Malsai Talab, Banjara Nagar backside Sundar nagar, changora Bata Chowk on ringroad Changora bata chowk Changora bata chowk Payal Kirana Stores Dangnia Chowk on Mahadev Ghat Road Shanti vihar colony Raipura Chowk on ring road Dangnia Shitla Talab Dangnia Quary To Outlet Malsai talab Ring Road Kanha ice cream parlour Raipura Chowk Raipura Chowk Changora bata chowk Raipura Chowk Mahadev ghat road Petrol Bunk via Jayka Auto Mobiles University nallah Dangnia Chowk (Mahadev Ghat Road)

Length (mts) 550 750 950 1100 1100 1300 1100 650 2700 1200 250 11650

Size (mts) 1.2x1.2 1.2x1.2 1.8x1.5 1.8x1.5 1.8x1.5 1.2x1.2 1.8x1.5 1.2x1.2 1.8x1.5 1.2x1.2 1.2x1.2

Estimat Rate ed ( in (Rs/RMt) Lakhs) 3609.79 3609.79 6109.84 6109.84 6109.84 3609.79 6109.84 3609.79 6109.84 3609.79 3609.79 19.85 27.07 58.04 46.93 67.20 46.93 67.20 23.46 164.96 43.32 9.02 573.98

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6.4.4

PROJECT SUMMARY

Table 6.18 Estimated cost for storm water System for 2013 Sl. Project No. 1 De-silting and Alignment of major drains 44.70 Rs. 150 km lakhs Lining and Restructuring of medium Drains Rs. 120lakhs 18.88 km Construction of New drains in new Colonies Rs. 50 Lakhs 11.65km Construction of Other Drains & Water bodies LS and Management of those all nallahs Total Estimated Cost (Rs. Cr.)

67.05

22.66

5.74

14.92 110.37

6.4.4.1 Phasing & Implementation Table 6.19 Year wise estimated cost for storm water System for 2007-13 Rs. In Lakhs
Name of Projects 200607 800 200708 800 200809 900 200910 905 201011 1000 2011- 201212 13 1100 1200 Total

Sl. No.

De-silting and Alignment of major drains 44.70 km Lining and Restructuring of medium Drains 18.88 km Construction of New drains in new Colonies 11.65km Construction of Other Drains & Water bodies and Management of those all nallahs Total

6705

250

286

302

325

352

360

391

2266

70

75

75

83

90

90

91

574

150

160

182

210

240

260

290

1492

1270

1321

1459

1523

1682

1810

1972

11037

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Table 6.20

Estimated Expenditure on Proposed Storm Water Drainage System for 2013 ------- Rs in Lakhs
Loan Interest 12% for (PL.R) amount Administration & other Total Others (20% to total) Grand Total

Year

Repayment (P)

2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 Total

700.00 1840 1840 1840 1840 1840 1840 11037 1324.44 1103.7 882.96 662.22 441.48 220.74 4635.54 735.00 771.75 810.34 850.85 893.40 938.07 5699.41

700.00 3898.94 3714.95 3532.80 3352.57 3174.38 2998.31 21371.95

140.00 779.79 742.99 706.56 670.51 634.88 599.66 4274.39

840.00 4678.73 4457.94 4239.36 4023.09 3809.25 3597.97 25646.34

6.4.5

COST RECOVERY

The storm water management utility is a user fee system that integrates all user classes into a fair and equitable rate structure. As such, it can generate ongoing revenue from monthly user fees and permit fees to cover planning, design and construction of facility improvements; operation and maintenance; and the organizational and administrative requirements of a comprehensive storm water management program.

Significant capital is required to improve the existing drains to meet water quality requirements. Two options for this cost recovery process are including an annual capital improvement program in the rate base and levying a special assessment.

Using the first option, costs for improving the system are recovered through the user charges that all should pay equally. This places the responsibility of bringing the existing system up to an acceptable standard on all utility's customers.

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6.4.5.1 Estimated Revenue The following table shows the estimated revenue from the user charges. These are calculated based on the number of households, which were adjacent to these drains and are considered to be 40% of households to the total in the city. It is suggested to collect from each household @ Rs. 25/month and the total estimated cost toward these user rates are given below. Approximately Rs. 20.91 crores to be collected from this option by the end of the year 2013.

Table 6.21: - Estimated revenue from the development of storm water drains Households Year Population Considered Population (45% of total) (@ 4.5 family size) 89671 92793 96023 99366 102825 106404 110109 Rs. In Lakhs @ Rs.25/month

2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 TOTAL

896711 927927 960230 993658 1028249 1064045 1101086

403520 417567 432104 447146 462712 478820 495489 3137358

269.01 278.38 288.07 298.10 308.47 319.21 330.33 2091.57

The second option for recovering capital costs is based on contributing areas. For example, if a customer's property represents 10 percent of the service area, he would pay 10% of the project's capital cost. It will be difficult to calculate the estimated amount towards this option with out doing the detailed surveys and analysis. So, it is suggested to make a detailed project report for the storm water drainage in the first year itself.

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6.5
6.5.1

SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT


GOALS AND OUT COMES

The Main Goal is to Provide Raipur citizens, an environmentally friendly and sustainable waste management system with complete safe disposal facilities by putting waste reduction and recovery mechanisms.

6.5.1.1 Service Out comes Providing awareness to the public towards source reduction and segregation practices Initiating door to door collection system in entire city Providing proper community bins at suitable places Providing adequate vehicles to the transportation of waste Providing innovative technologies to treat the waste like compost plants, recyclable plants and scientific landfill sites Table 6.22:-Goals, service outcomes for different horizon years

Sl .No 1 2 3 4 5

Component 2011 Door to Door Collection Source Segregation Collection Treatment & Disposal Cost Recovery of O & M Private Sector Participation 75% 75% 70% 65% Collection and Transportation

Time Frame 2016 100% 100% 100% 100% Entire system 2021 100% 100% 100% 100% Entire system

6.5.2

STRATEGIES AND ACTION PLAN

In order to achieve above outcomes, issues and deficiencies in each of the solid waste management component have been identified and the strategies for improvement both in

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physical and financial terms are elaborated in the following sections. Strategies and recommendations were given based on the existing situation and to fulfill the solid waste management rules 2000.

6.5.2.1 Basis of prioritization for implementation of MSW in the city The projects are prioritized based on their low capital cost, feasibility of project implementation and ability to show desired results in short time. The prioritized projects are as follows: First priority shall be given to the implementation of those programmes for which master plans has already been prepared. This will reduce the time consumption for making another study. Shifting of the present dumping ground to a legal and scientific MSW disposal landfill to restrict any further damage to the ground and surface water Procurement of mechanical equipments for cleaning, collection and transportation of wastes Encouraging drives for keeping the city clean and encouraging segregation of wastes at source to the common mass Involving private sector participation in collection, transportation and treatment of MSW facilities. The key success of MSW management is primarily depends on segregation of wastes, effective storage, collection and transportation of wastes from the point generation to the waste management facility. As indicated in the above, lot of changes will have to bring into the system to ensure compliance with the rules and to ensure effective management of wastes. The legal framework governing the MSW storage, collection and transportation of wastes is presented below for ready reference. There is a need to augment the present system of solid waste management. The proposal for improvements to the existing waste management systems is prepared while keeping the below waste quantities of proportions of waste generation in view.

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Table 6.23: -

Estimated Waste generation Profile

Year

Population

Quantity TPD 448.36 463.96 480.12 496.83 514.12 532.02 550.54

in

Broad classification of waste (MT/day) Organic (42%) 188.31 194.86 201.65 208.67 215.93 223.45 231.23 Recyclables (10%) 44.84 46.40 48.01 49.68 51.41 53.20 55.05 Inert (48%) 215.21 222.70 230.46 238.48 246.78 255.37 264.26

2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13

896711 927927 960230 993658 1028249 1064045 1101086

6.5.3 6.5.3.1 6.5.3.1.1

PROPOSALS FOR SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT Source & Storage Deficiencies

Due to inadequate bins at some areas public and even some tricycle workers who are collecting waste from households are throwing the waste in low lying areas, adjacent to roads and water bodies. During the field visits it was observed that, even though community bins are available, the public were dumping the waste into vacant sites and open spaces. Door to Door collection system is initiated in some parts of city, and the rest of the areas do not have collection system on daily basis. Waste was dumped outside the bin and got dispersed due to wind and rains creating ugly and unhygienic conditions. These wastes are choking the drains and creating stagnant conditions for the proliferation of mosquitoes.

6.5.3.1.2

Strategies for Improvement

Highest priority has to be accorded for Segregation & Storage at source irrespective of the area of generation so as to facilitate an organized and environmentally acceptable waste collection, processing and disposal. Source segregation of Recyclables and biodegradable (organic waste) will not only provide an efficient way for resource recovery, but will also substantially reduce the pressure and pollution in Landfill sites. In order to achieve the above objective, Two Bin system of Solid Waste Storage at source is being recommended. As per this system, each of the households would be directed to

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keep separate Bins/containers for Biodegradable and non-bio degradable waste generated within their premises.

Type I for Bio-Degradable or Organic Wastes (Green Bin) 1. Food waste of all kinds, cooked and uncooked, including egg shells, bones. 2. Flower and fruit wastes including juice peels and house-plant wastes 3. All vegetable wastes. 4. Other wastes generated in a house which could contain sweepings.

Type 2 for Inorganic Waste (White Bin) 1. Recyclable/Other Non Biodegradable wastes 2. Paper and plastic, all kinds 3. Cardboard & cartons 4. Glass, all kinds 5. Metals, all kinds 6. Rags, rubber, wood 7. Foils, pouches, wrappings, sachets 8. Discarded clothing, furniture and equipment

Type 3 for Inert waste (Black Bins) All inert wastes Street Sweepings Small quantity construction debris Wastes other than bio-medical and hazardous which do not qualify for the above categories.

6.5.3.2

Collection

6.5.3.2.1 Deficiencies Households generally deposit the waste at community facilities except in areas where community manages the primary collection of waste. The existing dump site for Raipur city is located at Mathpurana which is near to ring road no1. It is located 4 Kms distance from the center of the city, so no transfer station is proposed.

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6.5.3.2.2

Strategies for Improvement

The following measures have been recommended for improving the primary collection practices of Raipur. Phased implementation of Door to Door collection System through community organizations and RMC and surrounding ULBs by mobilizing, facilitating, organizing and supporting community activities with the help of local NGOs. Installation of Community Storage Bins in areas where house-house collection cannot be implemented. Expanding the Voluntary Garbage Disposal Scheme for more number of restaurants/hotels and commercial establishments and collecting user charges Placement of dumper containers sufficient in number at markets for ensuring that all the vendors place the waste in the containers. Persuading the hospitals to be part of the existing bio-medical waste management facility in the suburbs of the city.

6.5.3.2.3

Requirements of the Proposed Primary Collection System

For the Wastes generated from households, small commercial establishments, multi storied buildings, hotels and restaurants, marriage and function halls and other places 10L bins should be used. A tricycle may be used for collection of waste through door-to-door basis. On an average each tricycle covers 250 households/day. The wastes collected in the tricycle would be transported and disposed in the dumpers. It is ensured that each tricycle needs to cover a 0.3 - 0.5 km radial distance from the dumpers. The tricycles should have some space for recyclable (white bin) materials. One metal piece should be provided between the organic and recyclable materials. The door-to-door collector collect the recyclable waste and deposit it in separate bins(white ) which are provided at adjacent to community bins(Green) .

a) Sweepers and wheel barrows: The required road sweepers are envisaged on road length and wheel barrows (to the collection road waste, silt, etc) are proposed based on number of sweeping workers. On an

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average one sweeper is required for the sweeping and collection of waste on 1.5 km stretch and one wheel barrow is required for every two sweepers.

6.5.3.3 Collection & Transportation

6.5.3.3.1

Deficiencies

Around 20 to 25 % of the total waste is going to be dumped on the river sides, adjacent to water bodies and the main roads with around 22 collection vehicles. There is no adequate no. of vehicles for the transportation waste from primary collection points to dumpsites or disposal sites.

6.5.3.3.2

Strategies for Improvement

a) Transportation of Community Bins (Green):- As discussed earlier, dumper placers (community bins) shall be used for collection and transportation of community bins. Three types of vehicles proposed for collection of different types of wastes. The organic waste which is deposited in the community green bins is collected by skip loaders/dumper placers from each bin. b) Transportation of Recyclable waste (white bin):- The recyclable waste which will deposit in the community white bins will be collected by autos from each bin. c) Transportation of concrete bins (black bins):- The inert waste, silt etc., which was deposited in the community black bins (concrete ring bins) is transported by tractors Apart from this, it is strongly recommended that a standard register should be maintained at each disposal site and transfer station. The register should contain information on each of the vehicle trips at both the locations and the origin of waste collection. A summary of this information would be prepared at the end of the day and to be verified by the health officer.

6.5.3.4 Processing & Disposal 6.5.3.4.1 Deficiencies

The present practice is to dispose of wastes by land filling or uncontrolled dumping at the disposal yard (termed as compost yard). The present dumping yard is neither adequate nor ideally located as it is located in a flat level ground.

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6.5.3.4.2

Strategies for Improvement

The final functional element in solid waste management system is treatment and disposal. The proposed disposal system has been devised synchronizing with the storage and primary collection and considering the MSW (Mgmt & Handling) Rules '2000 also. Based on this system the waste disposal methodologies have been formulated as follows:

Table 6.24 Type of waste quantity & disposal method Waste Type Organic Waste Quantity Comprising the waste 42% of Disposal method Composting. Final product sold while rejects sent to land fill Methane Plants

Recyclable waste Inert Wastes

Comprising10% of the Segregation into glass, metal, plastic waste Comprising the waste 48% and paper and identify recycle options of Segregation into recyclable waste and waste to landfill

6.5.3.4.3

Methane Extraction from MSW

MSW requiring treatment/disposal contains large amounts of organics, even with the exhaustive waste recycling/reuse efforts over the past quarter century. Generation of methane from MSW, both from source-separated organics and mixed MSW is a subject of high interest. This is due to the substantial energy recoverable as methane from wastes and from ensuing reduction in waste volumes (which can be considered waste reduction) as well as to reduce Green House Gas (GHG) Emissions. A great deal of information has accumulated for more than two decades about the kinetics and yields of waste-to-methane processes from various MSW fractions and sources and from cost/performance analyses performed at varying levels of detail. The conversion of MSW to methane, variously termed anaerobic digestion or biomethanation, has been commercialized in developed countries. The methane recovery from MSW will also attract Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), which ensures additional income to power generation. Keeping in view of the above, four methane recovery system plants at landfill sites are proposed at Raipur.

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6.5.3.4.4

Incinerators

It is suggested that awareness to be brought in among the hospitals about the disposal rules and the need for segregation of waste and use of color-coding bags. Raipur City is having approximate 500 hospitals/dispensaries, considering 1200 beds at Raipur region the approximate quantity of Bio-medical wastes works out to 2.4 tonnes/day (1.5 2.0 kg/day/bed). Keeping in view of the above, full-fledged integrated BMW treatment facilities (Incinerators) at Raipur are proposed in long term plan with an outlay of Rupees four (4) crores in two phases. Preference may be given for Private Public Participation for Build Own and Operate basis in order to handle this bio-medical waste. Thus it is estimated an amount of Rs. 60.66 crores of capital cost towards equipment such as tricycles, wheel barrows, skip loaders, autos, tractors and effective treatment plants for organic waste, recyclable waste and inert wastes by the end of plan period.

Table 6.25:Sl. No Items

Recommendations for SWM Plan Product reuse; Reduced material volume; Reduced toxicity of products; Increased product lifetime; and Decreased consumption. Remarks

1.

Solid Waste reduction practices a. Conducting of awareness programmes b. Implementation Door-to- Door collection system MSW collection systems

Conducting of awareness programmes: Rs. 50 lakhs.

2.

Tricycles

3.

Wheel barrows Community bins Skip loaders Tippers Tractors Three (3) units @ Rs.21 lakhs each : Rs.63 lakhs (Private Public Participation (PPP) is preferable )

4.

MSW transportation system

5.

Recycling units

Three units

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Construction of mechanical compost yards

Three units at (i) Mathpurena (ii) Jarwai Urf Kherapur (iii) Sarona

Four (3) units @ Rs.107.60 lakhs each : 322.80 (Private Public Participation (PPP) is preferable ) Five (5) units @ Rs.20 lakhs each : Rs.100 lakhs (Private Public Participation (PPP) is preferable ) Five (4) units @ Rs. 100 Lakhs each : Rs. 400 lakhs (Private Public Participation (PPP) is preferable ) (To be maintained through Private Public Participation (PPP)) Landfill cost: Rs.800 lakhs each. Total cost Rs.1600 lakhs for four landfill sites.

Construction of local vermin compost yards

Five units

Construction of biomethane or bio-mass plants

Four units

9.

Construction of bio-fertilizer plant or screening plants

Three units at (i) Mathpurena (Existing) (ii) Jarwai Urf Kherapur (iii) Sarona Two places at i. Mathpurena -6.25 Ha(Phase-1)

10.

Construction of Landfill site ii. Sarona -18.49 Ha (Phase-2)

Proposed solid waste management plan shown in Map No: 6.4

Table 6.26: - Detailed estimated Capital cost for SWM Total (Rs. In Lakhs)

Sl. No

Component

DESCRIPTION

1 a b Sub total

H. H. Level Green bins (H. Holds) White bin (H. Holds) 144.89 144.89 289.78

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Sl. No

Component

DESCRIPTION

Total (Rs. In Lakhs)

2 a b c Sub total 3 a b Sub total 4 a b c Sub total 5 a b c d e f Sub total

Storage Green bins White bins RCC bins 27.64 10.22 40.07 77.92

Primary Collection Wheel barrows Try cycles 8.86 90.90 99.76

Transportation Skip loaders Autos Tractors 160.62 43.46 109.05 313.12 Treatment/Disposal compost plants Recycling units Land fill sites Vermin compost Methane extraction Land cost (Land fill) and others 322.80 63.00 2400.00 100.00 400.00 2000.00 5285.80 6066.38 Say Rs. 60.66 crores

GRAND TOTAL

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6.5.4

PROJECT SUMMARY

Table 6.27: - Estimated cost for Proposed SWM System Sl. No. 1 Project Name Expenditure from Storage to transportation (Including Public Awareness programs) Treatment and Disposal (Including land cost), 2 others including laboratory, equipments, land cost and miscellaneous Total 60.66 52.86 Estimated Cost (Rs.Cr.) 7.80

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Table 6.28: - Phasing & Implementation Sl. No. 1 2 Projects Expenditure from Storage to transportation (Including Public Awareness programs) Treatment and Disposal (Including land cost) and others Total 600 750 70 100 2006-07

--------Rs in Lakhs 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 125 750 875 125 1000 120 1000 2011-12 120 600 720 2012-13 120 586 706 Total 780 5286 6066

670 850 Table 6.29: - Estimated Expenditure (O&M) for Solid Waste Management

1125 1120 Rs in Lakhs

Loan Year 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 Total 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1066 6066 Repayment (P)

Interest 12% for (P-L.R) amount

Administration & other 500.00

Total

Others (20% to total) 100.00 450.58 431.83 413.35 395.13 377.21 372.79 2540.90

Grand Total 600.00 2703.50 2591.00 2480.08 2370.81 2263.27 2236.76 15245.43

500.00 2252.92 2159.17 2066.73 1975.67 1886.06 1863.97 12704.52

727.92 607.92 487.92 367.92 247.92 127.92 2567.52

525.00 551.25 578.81 607.75 638.14 670.05 4071.00

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6.5.5

RECOVERY

As indicated from above a huge amount of Rs. 60.66 crores is required as capital cost, to provide an effective waste management system to ensure compliance with the MSW management and handling rules. However, this would Yield certain revenues in the form of compost sales and sale of recyclables. This will however not be adequate to maintain the entire system, it is therefore essential to adopt 'user-pay-principle' to ensure that the Municipality generates revenue to generate the required funds.

6.5.5.1

Revenue Recovery

Money would be recovered from various sources like compost Rs.1500/ton of manure, recyclable materials Rs.1500/ton (on an average) and user charges such as households Rs.15/month, Hotels & Function halls Rs.100/month, commercial establishments Rs.50/month and markets Rs.500/month. The following table shows year wise estimated revenue from various sources.

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Table 6.30: - Revenue Recovery Year wise Description Recyclable Compost Houses Hotels Commercial Function halls Markets TOTAL 2006-2013 2006-07 208.35 875.09 25.37 0.30 4.95 0.02 0.04 1114.11 2007-08 215.98 907.11 26.30 0.32 5.13 0.02 0.04 1154.88 2008-09 226.16 949.85 27.54 0.33 5.37 0.02 0.04 1209.30 2009-10 240.59 1010.48 29.29 0.35 5.71 0.02 0.04 1286.49 2010-11 260.10 1092.41 31.67 0.38 6.18 0.02 0.05 1390.80 2011-12 283.33 1189.99 34.50 0.41 6.73 0.02 0.05 1515.03 2012-13

Rs. In Lakhs Total (Lakhs) 1749.32 7347.15 212.99 2.56 41.54 0.13 0.32 9353.99

314.81 1322.21 38.33 0.46 7.48 0.02 0.06 1683.37

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Table 6.31:-Estimated Per Capita Cost Benefits on Proposed Solid Waste Management System Total Year Population ExpenditureO&M (Lakhs) 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 TOTAL 896711 927927 960230 993658 1028249 1064045 1101086 600.00 2703.50 2591.00 2480.08 2370.81 2263.27 2236.76 15245.43 Total Revenue (Lakhs) 1114.11 1154.88 1209.30 1286.49 1390.80 1515.03 1683.37 9353.99 Per Capita Expenditure (Rs.) 66.91 291.35 269.83 249.59 230.57 212.70 203.14 Per Capita Revenue (Rs.) 124.24 124.46 125.94 129.47 135.26 142.38 152.88

% of recovery to expenditure

185.69 42.72 46.67 51.87 58.66 66.94 75.26

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6.6 TRAFFIC AND TRANSPORTATION


6.6.1 GOALS AND SERVICE OUTCOMES

Goal The main goal is Traffic and Transportation for Raipur city is to provide with the safe and reliable transport system that is sustainable, environmental friendly and to significantly improve the share and quality of public transport service that would improve the traffic management. Providing efficient transportation network through the Construction of ring road by joining the all internal roads Sufficient arterial, sub arterial and express ways to the free flow traffic Adequate no. of parking sites to reduce the traffic problems on the roads Well- Organized public transport system Construction of FOBs and ROBs and Construction of Transport Nagars to minimize the mixed traffic Junction improvements

6.6.2

STRATEGIES AND ACTION PLAN

Short term measures including immediate trouble shooting actions and TSM actions such as intersection improvement, signalization etc., to be taken up regularly. These measures should be taken up on a continuous basis as the travel characteristics and loading of different links, intersections etc., and change very frequently owing to natural growth and changes in land use. Medium term action plan aimed at development of transport infrastructure over a perspective plan period of 5-10 years to bring about coordinated development among different components. These measures typically will include various infrastructure projects, which will be directed at network improvements such as parallel roads, link roads, slip roads, and bridges. Flyovers, alternate transportation systems such as MRTS etc.,

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Long-term action plan aimed at development of structure plan for the Urban Area with Transit as one of the lead components, which will direct the urban growth so as to bring about a structural fit between transit infrastructure and Urban Growth. This will also examine a comprehensive multi-modal public transit system to bring about the most optimal mix of commuting within the Urban Area and thus providing a sustainable transit solution. Comprehensive Traffic and Transport Study for the entire RMC Region This strategy is aimed to come out with sustained solutions for the entire RMC as a unit that has financial and environmental viability. This also includes the current institutional analysis, policy, financial and service delivery issues. Traffic and Transportation Management using G.I.S. and GPS Technologies Use of Global Positioning System (GPS), a satellite based positioning and navigation technology, will help track the position of the public transport vehicles from a central location. This data is very useful in assessing the performance of the services offered. The same data can be beamed back to the electronic information boards at bus stops that will display information on the location of the busses and the expected arrival time. Use of such service has additional benefits in tracking the traffic conditions on the roadways, delays at intersections, passenger demand, as well as immediate notification to the control centre in case of accidents, all without any involvement of the driver or conductor. This strategy will also improve the share of public transport. Providing Public Transport System As per the standards of GoI, a city should have at least 100 buses per lakh of population. It is also mentioned that by 2020, this should go up to 250 buses per lakh population. This is also supported by the prevailing over crowded buses specifically in peak hours. But there is no any organized public transport system. Hence, it is suggested to provide the public transport system in the first year of implementation.

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Junctions and Traffic Signal improvements This is an area of immediate intervention that can be implemented with marginal investments and where improvement in the performance can be felt. While channelization of intersections reduces the conflict area, they function only when the flows are low in nature and allow sufficient gaps for crossing flows to accept them. These gaps decrease as the volume of flows increase thereby necessitating physical stoppage of one of the conflicting flows to facilitate movement of the other. There are number of such signalised intersections where in old technology controllers and signal aspects are found to be ineffective, hence they should be replaced with better LED controlled signal system. Grade Separators There are situations where even signalized intersections fail because of excessive queue lengths building up on all arms. In this situation choice of solution is limited to bypassing the traffic on one or more directions by grade separation. Typically this situation occurs when the total traffic volume of all the arms of the intersection is in excess of 10,000 vehicles per hour. Traffic Signs and Markings The traffic in the city being mixed in nature and carriageway being a non-standard format, the carriageway needs extensive traffic signs and road markings to provide guidance for disciplined and safe driving. It is observed that on many important corridors traffic guidance in the form traffic signs and lane markings are not up to the standards. It is necessary to standardize the lane markings, edge markings, median markings, pedestrian crossings, parking zones etc; Parking management Raipur, like other cities is confronted with a downtown-parking problem. Excessive population densities aggravate this problem, large number of pavement hawkers, sidewalk encroachments and heterogeneous nature of traffic and commercial area development along all the major roads. A proper parking policy, which looks at userspay principle, is imperative. Off street parking complexes for private vehicles

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in the city are required to ease traffic congestion by releasing precious carriage way. Similarly there is a need for providing parking spaces for private bus operators. Road widening Road-widening programme improves channel capacity by adding more area to the circulation channels. Link roads Mere treatment of isolated intersections will not give the required relief beyond certain volumes of traffic. At this stage it becomes inevitable to look for critical links, which can form alternate paths and thus distribute the traffic. The traffic and transportation under road network has following components. 1. New linkages 2. Upgradation of existing roads 3. Decongestion of congested roads 4. Segregation of different type of traffic (ROB) 5. Junction improvements 6. Passenger facility 7. Transport Nagars Raipur city has got a burning problem of traffic and transportation. As is discussed in Chapter 4 in depth, more emphasis is given to this component of physical infrastructure. The estimated cost of different components is as given in Table No. 6.32 and proposed road network shown in the following Map No: 6.5

Table 6.32: - Estimated Cost for Proposed Transportation System S. No Ii Developmental activity (devt. Component) Urban transport Bus stands Taxi stands Auto rickshaw stands Commercial complex with parking lots(1 lakh sft) Ii Roads(construction/improvements) Laying/improvement/widening of arterial roads 45.00 3.00 1.00 1.00 20.00 Total (rs. In crores)

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S. No

Developmental activity (devt. Component) Laying/improvement/widening of sub arterial roads

Total (rs. In crores) 27.00 25.50 25.50 65.00 32.00 30.00 275.00

Iii

ROB's New bridges (ROB) Pedestrian subways/fobs'

Iv V Vi

Laying of ring roads and bypasses Intersection improvements Construction and development of transport nagars Total

6.6.2.1 Basis of Prioritization Minimum land acquisition Optimum utilization of existing road network Diversion of through traffic Technical feasibility

Table 6.33:-Total estimated cost for proposed Transportation System S. No Ii Developmental activity (devt. Component) Urban transport Bus stands Taxi stands Auto rickshaw stands Commercial complex with parking lots(1 lakh Sft) Ii Roads(construction/improvements) Laying/improvement/widening of arterial roads Laying/improvement/widening of sub arterial roads Iii ROB's New bridges (ROB) Pedestrian subways/FOBs' Iv V Vi Laying of ring roads and bypasses Intersection improvements Construction and development of transport Nagars Total 2550 2550 6500 3200 3000 27500 4500 2700 300 100 100 2000 Total (rs. In lakhs)

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Table 6.34:-Year wise estimated cost for proposed Transportation System S. No Ii Developmental activity (Devt. Component) Urban transport Bus stands Taxi stands Auto rickshaw stands Commercial complex with parking lots(1 lakh Sft) Ii Roads(construction/improvements) Laying/improvement/widening of arterial roads Laying/improvement/widening of sub arterial roads Iii ROB's New bridges (ROB) Pedestrian subways/FOBs' Iv V Vi Laying of ring roads and bypasses Intersection improvements Construction and development of transport nagars Total 2.00 2.00 5.00 2.00 5.00 26.60 2.00 2.00 10.00 3.00 10.00 39.20 5.00 5.00 10.00 5.00 10.00 50.40 4.50 4.50 10.00 10.00 5.00 55.00 4.00 4.00 10.00 7.00 0.00 44.80 5.00 2.50 5.00 2.50 5.00 4.00 10.00 5.00 10.00 5.00 0.50 0.05 0.05 2.50 0.50 0.10 0.10 4.00 1.00 0.20 0.20 5.00 0.50 0.50 0.50 4.50 0.50 0.15 0.15 4.00 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11

-------Rs in Crores 2011-12 2012-13 Total

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

3.00 1.00 1.00 20.00 0.00

5.00 4.00

5.00 4.00

45.00

27.00 0.00

4.00 4.00 10.00 5.00 0.00 32.00

4.00 4.00 10.00

25.50 25.50 65.00 32.00

0.00 27.00

30.00 275.00

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Table 6.35 Year 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 Total

Estimated Expenditure for SWM Loan Repayment (P) Interest 12% for (P-L.R) amount Administration & other 700.00 4583 4583 4583 4583 4583 4583 27500 3300 2750 2200 1650 1100 550 11550 735.00 771.75 810.34 850.85 893.40 938.07 5699.41 Total 2000.00 8618.33 8105.08 7593.67 7084.19 6576.73 6071.40 46049.41

Rs in Lakhs Others (20% to total) 400.00 1723.67 1621.02 1518.73 1416.84 1315.35 1214.28 9209.88 Grand Total 2400.00 10342.00 9726.10 9112.41 8501.03 7892.08 7285.68 55259.29

Table 6.36:-Phasing of Proposed Transportation System Implementation period S. No Ii Developmental activity (Devt. Component) Urban transport Bus stands Taxi stands Auto rickshaw stands 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13

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Implementation period S. No Developmental activity (Devt. Component) Commercial complex with parking lots(1 lakh Sft) Ii Roads(construction/improvements) Laying/improvement/widening of arterial roads Laying/improvement/widening of sub arterial roads Iii ROB's New bridges (ROB) Pedestrian subways/FOBs' Iv V Laying of ring roads and bypasses Intersection improvements Construction and development of transport Vi Nagars 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13

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6.7 Vision Vision

POVERTY REDUCTION STRATEGIC PLAN

To be a city without slum by 2020 With about one fourth of the population in RMC living in slums, urban poverty is a major issue confronting the RUA area.

Table No: 6.37

Vision for basic services to urban poor

Sl.No. 1 2 3 4 5 6

Vision Outcomes BPL Population (%) Access to Schools (%) Access to Primary Health Care (%) Housing access (%) Slum (% reduction) Literacy (%)

2005-06 33% 40% 65% 35% 30% 45%

2010 20% 60% 80% 60% 40% 65%

2015 15% 80% 100% 60% 60% 80%

2020 10% 100% 100% 80% 80% 100%

6.7.1 Development Objectives


To promote an integrated slum development project to improve the living condition and quality of life of urban poor. 6.7.2 Major initiatives / Projects Integrated Slum Development focusing on improving roads, drainage, sanitation facility and solid waste management. Public interventions will be required in providing basic services to the slums. To the extent feasible community involvement may be secured in maintaining the facilities particularly community toilets, solid waste management etc. Granting security of land tenure to slums (individually or preferable to groups) will be a major intervention that would enable slum dwellers to access housing finance and improve their shelters over a period of time. Even with increased supply of housing there would be 3800 slum households by 2011. Provision of basic services like paved street, streetlights, community (or individual) water supply, and community toilets will have to be extended to these settlements.

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Drinking water supply scheme aimed at improving the number of taps and hours of supply

Housing for EWS: In the short run, however, public agencies will have to play a role provider of housing for the EWS. This need not be in the form of fully built houses but in the nature of sites and services. In this case smaller plots (25 to 30sq.m.) with pedestrian accesses and water and sewerage facilities are provided. Water tap and toilet seat are built on the plot. The plot allotted can then build the shelter and improve it as his income improves. By ensuring water and sanitation the environmental hygiene is ensured. There are experiences of such schemes in India, and lessons from them can be used in Raipur.

6.7.3

Goals and Service outcomes The goals formulated to achieve the vision are;

All poor will have access to qualitative and affordable basic services; 100% literacy; Universal access to primary health care and no one should die of preventable diseases; Livelihood to all urban poor; Tenurial security and Affordable housing; The strategy formulated for reducing poverty includes; Provision of land tenure security; Community empowerment; Linking livelihoods to citys economy; Development of housing through partnerships-PPP; Formulation of notification and Denotification Policy; Relocation of slums located in hazardous and vulnerable Areas; Provision of basic infrastructure- both Physical and Social infrastructure;

6.7.4

Strategies and Action Plans

Development of a comprehensive database

Having a comprehensive and authentic database is the first step to take up any developmental action. Hence a database covering all aspects of slums and the will be initiated.

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Major Initiatives / Projects

Integrated Slum Development Focusing on improving roads, drainage, sanitation facility and solid waste management. Public interventions will be required in providing basic services to the slums. To the extent feasible community involvement may be secured in maintaining the facilities particularly community toilets, solid waste management etc. granting security of land tenure to slums (individually or preferable to groups) will be a major intervention that would enable slum dwellers to access housing finance and improve their shelters over a period of time. Even with increased supply of housing there would be 33045 slum households by 2011. Provision of basis services like paved street, streetlights, community (or individual) water supply, and community toilets will have to be extended to these settlements. Drinking water scheme aimed at improving the number of taps and hours of supply Housing for EWS: In the short run, however, public agencies will have to play a role provider of housing for the EWS. This need not be in the form of fully built houses but in the nature of sites and services. In this case smaller plots (25 to 30 sq.m.) with pedestrian accesses and water and sewerage facilities are provided. Water tap and toilet seat are built on the plot. The plot allotted can then built the shelter and improve it as his income improves. By ensuring water and sanitation the environmental hygiene is ensured. There are experiences of such schemes in India, and lessons from them can be used in Raipur. This is an important decision that is key for any slum improvement that is sustainable. The state government is keen on providing housing on a large scale to the poor under different tenure and housing related welfare schemes like VAMBAY, etc. the RMC shall negotiate with the state government and the concerned departments to take up housing and tenure issues in big way. Infrastructure deficiency is one of the major concerns of slums for which the poor are more vulnerable. The poor in accessing safe and reliable basic amenities experience extreme poverty. The RMC is committed to establish the required infrastructure for the provision of basic services to the poor.
Institutional arrangements for convergence of programs

RMC shall negotiate with the state government and related agencies in bringing effective convergence in the poverty related development programs.
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Drinking water supply Housing for EWS

Slum improvement and relocation Development of a comprehensive approach to slum rehabilitation. Wherever possible slums would be taken of for in -suit improvements in to normal, hygienic localities by providing basic amenities. Clearance of slum or resettlement of slum dwellers would be restore to in case:
Slums are located on government land required for other public purposes Slums are unfit for human habitation, such as land prone to flooding, road medians, land under flyovers, land adjacent to railway tracks and water bodies etc. Grant of tenural rights in all in-suit to development projects to ensure land security of slum dwellers. A list of families in each slum will be prepared and photo identification cards would be issued to such families.

Under taking participatory project preparation for long term success of slum improvement projects. Participation of the community in the design, implementation and management of slum improvement and housing projects would be ensured. Accordingly formation of residents welfare associations and societies would be encouraged. Supporting NGOs in slum improvement and welfare projects. NGOs would be involved in the process of motivating, educating, creating awareness and mobilizing communities for participatory action in shelter programs for slum dwellers. Where in-suit development is not possible, relocation and rehabilitation of the families to be done by providing them low cost land/shelters developed in near by areas with soft loans. To enable such relocations the government would create a land bank. Every local authority will make public notification of public land within their area, which has been earmarked for low-income housing. With these policies improvement of slums in central area is proposed. There are 18 number of slums settlements which are proposed for complete improvement they as follows.

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Table No.6.38
Sl. No 1 2 3 Ward No. 14 13 15

Slums in central area, Raipur


Ward Name Kelkar Para Stationward Jawaherlal Nehru ward Name of slum Ganjbastall Janakbada Narmada para Jorapara Bhangrapara Jawaher Nagar Population 3178 1723 4914 3829 5311 21`88 3499 3786 3050 594 426 1398 1366 3237 1408 2331 7418 No. Families 128 198 291 406 158 43 63 281 256 105 88 166 182 289 201 167 263 of

4 5 6

36 37 30

Chhotapara Baijnathpara Hospital ward

Chhotapara Bairan Bazar Bainathpara Utkal Nagar Arjun Nagar EAC colony Deendayal Nagar

17

Mauhadapara

Subhash Nagar Marhimata Bhima Basti Mauhadapara

It is mentioned in the guidelines of JNNURM that funds from all State Schemes and discretionary funds for development works can be pooled up in the form of State share, hence over all development for all urban poor is proposed. It may be taken up as combination of on-going schemes and JNNURM.
At present 29906 families live in substandard dwelling but there can be undeclared slums to the tune of nearly 30% of declared slums. Since this is a continuous process, it is impossible to completely remove or up-grade all the slums, but continuous efforts need to be made for reducing the number of substandard dwelling on every passing day.

Assuming 30% total declared slums to be as undeclared slums, total number to be considered will be 30% of 29906 i.e., approximately 9000+30000=39000. Further assuming that only 30% of dwelling units do not require physical up-gradation. The number of dwelling units requiring physical up-gradation will be 27300.

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Physical Up-gradation of Slums Considering complete up-gradation of physical conditions the tentative estimate will be as follows;

Table No.6.39 Tentative Estimation of Physical Development for Urban Poor


Sl.No 1. 2. 3. Description Construction of Dwelling units @ Rs.80,000 per DU Water Supply (internal Development) @ Rs.5000 per DU Sewerage, Solid Waste, Drainage and electricity (internal Development) @ Rs.15000 per DU Total Cost of Physical Development 273.00 27300 40.95 No.of Dwelling Units 27300 27300 Estimated Cost Rs.in Crore 218.40 13.65

85% of total Dwelling Units should cover during Mission Period i.e. 23205 DU and the total cost for the plan period will be 232 Crore. Construction of dwelling can be done with the help of contribution from beneficiaries also. Along with physical up-gradation, social infrastructure is also required to be provided.

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6.8 6.8.1

INSTITUTIONAL STRENGTHENING Organization Structure of Raipur Municipal Corporation The governance structure of the RMC consists of both the elected members as well as the administrative staff. This structure is depicted in the figure below.

Figure No: 6.1

Organization Structure of Raipur Municipal Corporation


Commissioner (Administrative)

Chairman in Council (54 councillors, 3 nominated Members by GoR, MPs,and MLAs of local constituency

Commissioner (Development) Secretary RMC Executive Engineer Accounts Officer

Section / Department / Cells General Administration House Tax Department Other Revenue Department General Works Building Plan Establishment Accounts Law Section Health Department Slum Improvement Section

Vice- Chairman

Health Officer Revenue Officers

Functional Committees (Mayor- incouncil)

Ward Committees (Nil)

Law Officer Garden Supervisor Chief Sanitary Inspector Officer in Charge (Municipal Hospital) Community Officer Fire Officer

Elected Members The Elected Members of the RMC comprises of the Chairman and councilors representing each of the 54 Wards. The Deputy Chairman assists the Chairman in his duties and is elected from among the councilors. The term for both the Chairman and Deputy Chairman is five years.

Functional Committees The Municipal Corporation has one Functional Committees, leading to the centralization of functions at Mayor-in-Council level.

Ward Committees The Municipal Corporation has a total 54 wards, but, till date, the Municipal Corporation has constituted no Ward Committees. Formation of Ward Committees is essential for Ward level or decentralized planning, decentralization of functions and active citizen participation.
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Administrative Wing Some key points to note are:


The Commissioner (Administration), who is also the executive head of the corporation, heads the Administrative wing A significant proportion of the total municipal staff strength (about 97%) consists of cleaning staff, clerical staff and other non-technical staff. Due to this the Municipal Council currently lacks technical capability and is not able to take on / manage large capital works. Around 22% of the total Municipal posts are currently lying vacant The Administration of the Council is largely centralized. This has led to the concentration of powers and functions at a single location, often leading to administrative inconvenience as well as inconvenience to the citizens

Database and Information Management

Some key points to note are as follows:


The database and Information Management System in the Municipal Corporation is relatively poor with no centralized information management systems in place. Computer usage is limited and most of the municipal processes are still manual The accounting and budgeting procedures at RMC need to be upgraded. Accounting is still on single entry cash basis and budgeting is done on the basis of past trends, with no ward wise budgetary planning.

Land Records are not updated on a regular basis. The Building plan Sanction Records are incomplete and therefore it is difficult to monitor whether the construction of assets is in accordance with the sanctioned plan.

Institutional Responsibility Matrix

The construction, operation and maintenance of all Infrastructure Assets are handled by a large number of organizations, at both the local level as well as the state level. Effective co-ordination among and delegation of authorities and responsibilities with a proper calendar of activities is critical for asset creation and maintenance.

The following table highlights the responsibilities of various institutions involved in planning and design, construction, operation and maintenance of assets.

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Table: 6.40

Institution Responsibility Matrix

Institutional Responsibility Urban Infrastructure Land Use / Master Plan Building Byelaws Water Supply Sewerage Roads/Bridges/Flyovers/RoB / Multilevel Parking Traffic Control and Management System City Public Transportation Storm Water Drainage Solid Waste Disposal Street Lighting Parks, Playgrounds, beautification of road intersections Air, water and noise pollution control Slum Development Urban Poverty Programmes Housing for EWS Public Conveyance Heritage Building Conservation Planning and Design DTCP RMC PHED RMC RMC Police Deptt State Transport authority RMC RMC RMC RMC SPCB RMC DUDA/ RMC CGHB State Transport authority Tourism and Culture Deptt RMC DUDA/ RMC CGHB RMC Tourism and Culture Deptt RMC DUDA/ RMC CGHB RMC Tourism and Culture Deptt Construction RMC RMC PHED PHED RMC RMC RMC RMC RMC RMC RMC Operation and Maintenance RMC RMC RMC RMC RMC RMC RMC RMC RMC RMC RMC

The above table clearly shows that multiple agencies are involved for execution of capital works and operation and maintenance of assets. Many a times there is no proper coordination, and clear cut demarcation of responsibilities, leading to duplication of efforts and neglect of certain critical areas of service deliver.

6.8.2

Development Objectives

The following long-term development objectives have been identified for the Raipur Municipal Corporation in order to transform it into an efficient and productive organization, geared to shoulder the responsibility of future governance and service delivery demands.
Ensure all Municipal Administrative Staff is fully computer literate this will lead to an improvement in the efficiency and overall productivity of staff.

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Implement double entry accrual accounting this will lead to an improvement in overall municipal management and governance Develop interactive channels of communication with citizens this will lead to an improvement in citizen interaction and service delivery Implement GIS and MIS this will lead to an improvement in day to day municipal management Upgrade municipal infrastructure and facilities - this will lead to enhanced productivity of municipal staff.

6.8.3

Strategies for Development

Transition to modern organization management principles

Municipal Corporation need to gear themselves for meeting future challenges in service delivery. Therefore, they need to initiate a process of transition by adopting various organization management principles such as improved accounting techniques, monitoring and evaluation of projects (including social audit), and improved budgeting methods. Another important facet is to introduce a performance culture among all municipal staff and provide adequate incentives for inducing improved staff performance levels.

Focus on developing the skills of municipal staff on a regular basis

Human resources are the key to efficient service delivery in any organization. RMC will need to emphasize on developing core skills of municipal staff in order to ensure that these skills are relevant to the ever-changing operational environment.

Leverage developments in Information Technology

RMC will need to adopt IT applications wherever these applications assist them to improve service delivery, decision-making municipal management and to create a transparent and accountable basis of governance.

Decentralization of functions

Decentralization of municipal functions, particularly in service delivery, citizen interface and planning will greatly enhance the operational capabilities of RMC.

Providing a conducive working environment for municipal staff

The municipal facilities should be upgraded and well maintained in order to ensure that the municipal staff has a good working environment. It will also ensure a citizen-friendly environment in the municipal office.

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Major Initiatives and Projects

This section outlines the parameters, which form the basis of prioritization of projects identified to implement the above strategies, the list of prioritized projects.

6.8.4

Basis of Prioritization of Projects

Projects in Institutional Development have been prioritized based on the following parameters:

Time to completion Initial capital cost Clearly identified linkage with Development Objectives and Strategies Clearly identified source and availability of funding

6.8.5

Project Summary

The Projects as listed in the table below have been prioritized based on the above parameters. The sequence of the projects reflects the priority. Table: 6.41
Sl. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6

Project Listing priority


Name of the Project Implementation of Double Entry Accrual Based Accounting Training and Institutional Strengthening Implementation of Geographical Information System E-Governance System for Municipal Services Communication and Citizen Participation Programme Modernizing Office Infrastructure Total

Cost (Rs.Lakhs)
8 4 50 27 9 10 108

6.8.6

Phasing and Implementation

The following table outlines the proposed phasing of the projects identified above
Sl. No. Name of the Project Implementation Period (Years) 1 2 3 4 5

1 2 3 4

Implementation of Double Entry Accrual Based Accounting Training and Institutional Strengthening Implementation of Geographical Information System E-Governance System for Municipal Services

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Communication and Citizen Participation Programme Modernizing Office 6 Infrastructure Institutional Mechanism for Implementation of Projects 5

A number of institutional mechanisms, based on a partnering policy, can be adopted for implementing the projects listed above. This will ensure that the implementation is carried out efficiently and will enable RMC to meet the objectives it has laid down in area of Institutional Development.

Use of local Chartered Accountancy firms in implementing Double entry Accrual based Accounting Local Chartered Accountancy firms can be brought on board for providing field level support to RMC staff in preparation of opening balance sheet, training of RMC staff and handholding support following implementation.
Leveraging the Role of the State level steering committee on accounting reforms

The state level steering committee on accounting reforms can be leveraged in obtaining technical guidance on implementation of accounting reforms as well as adapting the National Municipal Accounting Manual to suit local needs.
Leveraging the Presence of Training Institutes in Raipur

Raipur has a large number of educational and vocational training institutes, which can partner with RMC in developing focused training programmes for RMC staff.

6.8.7

Financial Operating Plan Of Raipur Municipal Corporation

Analysis of Current Situation

Levy of Taxes

The Chhattisgarh Municipalities Act, 30th June 2001provides for the levy of obligatory and other taxes by the ULBs. The Chhattisgarh Municipal Bill, 2005 also provides for the levy of obligatory and discretionary taxes by the ULB. The following table shows the comparison of various taxes permitted under the Act and Various taxes being imposed currently by the Raipur Municipal Corporation.

Sl.No.

Taxes as per Act

Taxes Levied by Raipur Municipal Corporation Yes Abolished by the State

Obligatory Taxes 1 House tax 2 Octroi on Goods or Animals brought within the Municipal

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Sl.No.

Taxes as per Act Limits

Tax on Professions and Vocations Surcharge on Electricity Consumption within the 4 Municipal Area Tolls on roads, bridges and ferries owned by, or built 5 from the funds of the Municipal Corporation Discretionary Taxes Tax on Vehicles and other conveyances plying for hire or 1 kept within the Municipal Area 2 Tax on boats moored within the Municipal Area 3 Lighting Tax 4 Tax on Congregations 5 Tax on Pilgrimages and Tourists Tax on Advertisement other than Advertisements 6 published in the news papers 7 Fire Tax Tax on deficit in parking spaces in any non-residential 8 building 9 Tax on Dogs kept within the Municipal Area Tax on Animals used for riding, driving, draught or 10 burden when kept within the Municipal Area Toll on Vehicles and other Conveyances and on animals 11 entering the Municipal Area 12 Scavenging Tax 13 Sanitary Tax

Taxes Levied by Raipur Municipal Corporation Government, Local Bodies receiving Compensation in Lieu of Octroi No No No No N.A. No No Yes Yes No No No No No No No

Levy of Taxes by the Raipur Municipal Corporation


The above table clearly shows that RMC is not charging and recovering all the taxes, permitted under the Chhattisgarh Municipalities Act, 2001 and The Chhattisgarh Municipal Bill, 2005. The account keeping of municipal finances of the Raipur Municipal Corporation is currently based on single entry cash basis. The Municipal Finances of the council can be broadly summarized in the following figure. The above figure shows that most of the Capital Expenditure incurred by ULB is on the utilization of the grants from the Central and State Government, however the ULB is not able to make full utilization of the grants from the Central and State Government. Out of a total grants amounting to Rs (20,877,647 + 346,839,396) Lakhs received by the Corporation, Grants amounting Rs (22,277,915 + 233, 699,419) Lakhs were utilized during the year. The various underlying assumptions for preparation of these projections are

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The various items of income and expenditure have been projected on the basis of CAGR (Compounded Annual Growth Rate), computed on the basis of actual figures for the F.Y. 2001-02, F.Y. 2002-03, F.Y. 2003-04, F.Y. 2004-05

Wherever the growth is inconsistent, the items of income and expenditure have been assumed to growth at a rate of 5%.

Proposed Financial Initiatives The following financial initiatives have been proposed to assist the RMC augment its existing revenue base. The financial impact of these initiatives has also been discussed below: Improving Collections from House Tax RMC is currently conducting House-to-House Survey for assessment of the property tax demand on the basis of Unit Area Method. On the basis of Assessment the current Demand is expected to be around Rs. 75 crores and arrear demand is expected to be around Rs. 25.25 crores. The collection efficiency for the current demand is expected to be 60% from F.Y. 2006-07, with a year-to-year increase of 5%, stabilizing at 85% in F.Y.2011-12. The collection efficiency for the arrear demand is expected to be about 40% in F.Y. 2006-07, with year-toyear increase of 5%, stabilizing at 85% in F.Y.2015-16. Compensation in lieu of Octroi The ULBs were charging Octroi on the Goods coming to the Municipal Limits from outside. With the abolition of Octroi w.e.f. 1ST august 1998, to make good the loss of Octroi income of Urban Local Bodies, the State Government is giving grant in aid every month based on actual Octroi income for the year 1997-98, with an increase of 10% every year. The annual increase of 10% has been reduced to 5% from F.Y. 2001-02. The Second State Finance Commission has requested the State Government to restore the annual increase in octroi grant to 10%. The Projections from F.Y. 2006-07 for Compensation in Lieu of Octroi has been prepared, assuming an increase of 10% every year. Increase in Rental Income Raipur Municipal Corporation has about 115 Shops, given on rent. The rent for these shops has not been revised for a long time. For most of the shops the Rental agreements were entered way back in 1983. The Rental agreements should be revised, in accordance with the present rates. The rent agreements should have inbuilt clause for year-to-year increase of the rents. The revision of the Rental agreements would lead to a substantial increase in the income of the ULB.

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Increase in income from License Fees Currently RMC is receiving license fee from 23 Hotels and Restaurants and Food license from about 82 establishments. Licenses are not renewed every year and there is no demand or bill raised by the Municipality for the same. A proper survey of all the Licensees should be taken by the ULB to identify all the current license holders and the potential license holders. The Implementation of a Geographical Information System would be of great help in identifying the total demand from license fees. It is assumed that proper survey, would lead to estimate increase of about 25% in revenue from license fees in F.Y. 2006-07. A year-to-year growth rate of 5% is assumed from F.Y. 2006-07. Increase in Fees for Grant of Permit RMC is currently charging the Building Plan Sanction fees, only from the Plans, which are coming for approval to ULB. The general presumption is that only 10-20% of the total buildings being constructed come for the approval. With the Introduction of GIS, RMC will be able to know all the buildings being constructed in the City, which can lead to increase of Fees from Grant of permit to 5 times. With the Implementation of GTIS in F.Y. 2008-09 the Income from fees for Grant of Permit, is expected to increase substantially. It is assumed that income in F.Y. 2008-09 would increase to least three times of the income in F.Y. 2007-08. From F.Y.2009-10, income is expected to grow at 5% annually. General Grant General Grant is the untied grant, which is received by the ULB on the basis of population as per the immediately preceding census. The general grant being received by Raipur Municipal Corporation is Rs. 555 Crores on the basis of 1991 census. It is assumed that from 2006-07, this grant would be available to the RMC on the basis of 2001 census. From 2012-13, the general grant would be available to the ULBs on the basis of 2011 census. Improving collections from Lease Money RMC collects lease money from the colonies transferred from the UAD. Currently RMC is conducting a survey to identify the current and arrear demand from the lease income. The arrear demand (including interest) is about Rs 50 Lakhs and current demand is Rs. 175 lakhs. It is assumed that the current lease income would grow at 10%.

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Collection Efficiency fro the Current Demand is assumed to be at 70% in F.Y. 2006-07, with an annual increase of 5%, stabilizing at 90% in F.Y. 2010-11. Collection Efficiency for the Arrear Demand is assumed to be at 50% in F.Y. 2006-07, with an annual increase of 5%, Stabilizing at 90% in F.Y. 2014-15

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FINANCE AND INVESTMENT PLAN

7.1

FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE

This chapter details the municipal finances of the municipal corporation and other following entities involved in the provision of services and outline the receipts and expenditure over the last five years.
Raipur Municipal Corporation

7.2

RAIPUR MUNICIPAL CORPORATION

7.2.1 Municipal Finance Structure


Revenue The revenue of RMC comes from own tax and non-tax sources, government grants (both revenue and capital), loans and borrowings and deposits from public. The revenue structure is dominated by government grants, as it constitutes 60 % share of total revenue of RMC. Total own tax & non-tax revenue constitutes only 20 per cent of revenue. The per capita total receipt of RMC in 2001 was about Rs. 1108, while per capita receipt from own sources (tax and non-tax) was at Rs. 230. Per capita tax revenue stood at Rs. 148.43. RMC received per capita Rs. 632 as total grant (revenue and capital) from State Government. The own revenue stream of RMC is dominated by property tax, which is assessed, collected and retained by the Corporation.

0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0

Fig.No. 7.1 Ratio of Own Revenue to Total Revenue Income & to Total Income

2000-01

2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 Ratio of Own Revenue to Toal Revenue Income Ratio of Own Revenue to Total Income

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Internal Revenue Sources

The main tax sources are property tax, water tax, conservancy tax and fire tax. Octroi was abolished in 1976 and since then RMC is receiving compensatory grant with annual increase of 10 percent. In the past four years CAGR of own revenue has been 7.70 %, which is more than CAGR of total revenue (5.11 %) and grant receipt (3.85 %). Though it is slightly more than other growth rates, it clearly indicates that RMC has made effort to improve receipts from own tax and non-tax resources. Income from tax sources of RMC has been very low, ranging between 13 to 15 percent of the total income. Non-tax revenues are also low ranging 7 to 9 percent of total revenue. Property tax's share in total revenue has been on an average only 5 percent while water tax revenue constituted average 4 percent. Rest of the taxes yields less than 1 percent revenue individually.

Property Tax

Only about a third (about 35,000) of total likely property tax payers are on the assessment register of the RMC. An agency which has been working on computerization of property tax records has identified around 1,10,000 property tax payers. But said agency has not transferred this data base to RMC as there is dispute between RMC and the agency regarding payment of consultancy fees or commission of recovering property tax income. As a result RMC is still sending property tax bills to existing 35000 property tax payers only. In addition to the narrow base the collection efficiency is also low (around 60 percent). As a result current yield of property tax revenue is very low.

Grants and Aids

Grants and aids form between 65 to 70 per cent share in total revenue of RMC. RMC receives revenue and capital grants from GoC. Both types of grants constitute almost equal share. Revenue grants of RMG primarily come under following heads in the order share as follows
1) Octroi compensation grant. 2) Surcharge on Sales Tax. 3) State Finance Commission Grants. 4) Passenger Tax Grant. 5) Stamp Duty Act Grant.

6) Other Miscellaneous Grants

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While capital grants are received mainly under two heads - a) programme grants and b) capital grants. There is high degree of fluctuation in receipts of capital nature grants.

Expenditure Structure

Expenditure structure of RMC is dominated by revenue expenditure. On an average it constituted more than 75 per cent of total expenditure while capital expenditure constituted on average less than 25 per cent. Deposits refund and advances constituted very miniscule percentage. Revenue expenditure has shown constant growth trend while capital expenditure has been highly volatile as it mainly depends on availability of capital fund in the form of grants and loans from GoC. RMC has no receipts from own capital resources. Per capita total expenditure of RMC in 2001 was Rs. 1030.50 out of this per capita revenue expenditure was Rs. 726.75, while per capita development expenditure was Rs. 303.75. The revenue expenditure share of 75 per cent of total expenditure is made up of three components salary related (average 33 per cent), maintenance (average 30 per cent) and interest payments (10 per cent).
Every year revenue expenditure has remained more than revenue receipts of Raipur Municipal Corporation thus there is a revenue deficit, which is financed by capital receipts.

funded by capital income Fig. Gap No.7.2 Gap Funded by Capital Income
60.0 50.0

In Rs Crores

40.0 30.0 20.0 10.0 0.0 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04

Revenue Income

Revenue Expenditure

7.2.2

Key Observations

Quality of Data

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The financial data for the year 2003-04 is not in confom1ity with the trend or time series. When it was crosschecked, the municipal authority certified that at aggregate level data is correct and errors exist in categorization. Even if aggregate level data can be accepted as correct, there is certainly a different form of classification of receipts and expenditure either in 2003-04 or in the earlier years. It can also be observed that opening and closing balances are matching on year-to-year basis but not over the years. This figure tally for one year but previous year closing balance is not carried to next year in correct manner. It indicates that there is a problem with accounting system and there is no proper integration of accounting and budgeting.
Continuous Revenue Deficit

It can be observed from the Table 7.1 below that at aggregate level Raipur Municipal Corporation was in surplus in the years 2000-2003, but as next Table 7.2 reveal there was a revenue deficit every year and capital funds have financed revenue expenditure over the years. Finally at aggregate level also it has entered into deficit in the last year 2003-04, mainly due to lack of growth in the revenue side.

Table 7.1: Total receipts and payments of RMC in actual terms (Rs. In crore)
Particulars/Heads Actual total income Annual Growth Rate of Total Income % 1993- 1994- 1995- 1996- 1997- 1998- 1999- 2000- 2001- 2002- 200394 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 12.52 16.99 20.08 20.21 23.10 36.5 35.70 18.19 0.65 41.63 61.43 76.47 79.20 67.83 14.36

14.30 58.01 14.05 47.56 24.48 3.57

Actual Total Expenditure 12.35 15.62 20.80 21.12 22.66 33.63 36.22 53.48 71.10 74.19 7.63 Annual Growth Rate of Total Expenditure % 26.48 33.16 1.54 7.29 48.41 7.70 47.65 32.95 4.35 7.33

Table 7.2 - Revenue Income and Expenditure of RMC


Particulars/Heads Own Revenue Sub-total - Grants Total Revenue of RMC Sub-Total Revenue Exp Revenue Deficit 2000-01 Actual 1232.5 2188.5 3421 4412.2 -991.2 2001-02 Actual 1590.6 2542.2 4132.8 5014.8 -882 2002-03 Actual 1964 2825.5 4789.5 5714.6 -925.1 2003-04 Actual 1386.1 2380.7 3766.8 3640.4 126.4 2004-05 Budgeted 3669.1 3567.4 7236.5 12950 -5713.5

High Level of Capital Income (not from own sources) but Low Level of Capital Expenditure

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The detailed break up of the revenue and expenditure is given in Error! Reference source not found. It can be observed that ratio between revenue income and capital income has been around 55:45 which indicates high level of capital income in RMC. Though share of capital income is very high, it is not from own resources, but in the form of capital grants. Error! Reference source not found. Also indicates that the share of capital expenditure in the total expenditure has ranged between 18 to 29 percent, much less compare to ratio between revenue and capital income. It indicates that in comparison to capital income RMC has spent much less amount every year, as capital expenditure, which could be an indicator of a low absorption capacity, but is more likely to be due to the need to fund the revenue deficit. State Revenue and Capital Income Structure Though the revenue of RMC has increased -in absolute terms and especially after formation of Chhattisgarh State, the relationship between different components of its receipts like revenue and capital, own resource and government grants or property tax and total receipts has not undergone major change.

Unrealistic Budgeting

The quality of budget estimates can be observed from Annexure 2. It can be observed that budget formulation exercise is highly unrealistic in Raipur as actual revenue or expenditure falls short of budgeted figure by more that 60 percent. This is a serious f1aw in budgeting exercise and RMC needs to address it urgently.
60.0
Fig.No.7.3 Actual Income & Expenditure Figures against Budgeted Figures

Actuals as a % of budgete

50.0 40.0 30.0 20.0 10.0 0.0 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04

Income

Expenditure

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Poor Revenue Collection Efforts

The actual figures for the year 2003-04 are not available but limited data clearly indicates that compared to the earlier two years RMC has fared badly on revenue collection front.
Inadequate Accounting System and No Inventory of Assets

Raipur has initiated implementation of accrual based double entry accounting system but accounting reforms are still not complete. Inventory of Assets of RMC is not in place but it has started initiatives in this direction.

High Outstanding liabilities

RMC has high outstanding liabilities of about 40 Crores, which is roughly 4 times annual own revenue levels. Bulk of these liabilities are outstanding electricity payments (approximately 21 crores) and payments due to contractors (about 14 crores). The outstanding liability of Raipur Municipal Corporation is shown in Figure 8 below. The year wise break up of the outstanding liability is not available, but year wise revenue expenditure of RMC is underreported in its budgets and tables to the extent these dues have not been paid by RMC. The responsibilities of Municipal Corporation are of various types right from providing, operating and maintaining up keeping and charging for the services. It is true that the work force required for all these activities to perform is of a greater magnitude but optimum work force need to be worked out and due reduction in work force is appreciate. The budgetary provision of expenditure expresses the establishment charges with in the prescribed limit of the project but actual expenditures often exceed the provisions of budget. Reduction in establishment cost can be achieved through public participation, BOT and private participation. It is proposed to reduce this cost considerably during the period of mission.

7.3 7.3.1

FINANCIAL STATUS OF RAIPUR MUNICIPAL CORPORATION Need And Directions of Change

Positioning of Raipur in the State

Raipur city is in a transition stage. While, it has traditionally been a commercial hub and a part of a larger economic cluster, its new status as a capital city is providing it the character of an administrative hub. Raipur City would continue to absorb the growth pressures due to economic development of the State as a whole as also due to the economic activities generated due to its national and regional roles. Thus Raipur city continues to be a focus

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area for the State Government, inspite of a separate capital city being planned to house administrative activities. The expected growth in the Raipur's population, its increasing role as a capital city and the expanding trade is expected to increase the demand for better urban services in the city of Raipur. The growth in the Raipur - Durg - Bhilai corridor would necessitate that throughout this corridor, quality urban services are provided, including high quality transportation facilities.

Its interface with the State Government

State Government does not closely control Raipur but in future it will get controlled. At present the Government of Chhattisgarh has focused on a leaner administrative set-up across the State administration. In line with this, Raipur Municipal Corporation (RMC) plays the dominant role in civic governance with only limited involvement of other authorities or parastatals. But growing economic and political capital status of Raipur and the level of financial dependence of RMC on the State Government will increase the level of Government control over the city.

RMC is financially weak and is dependent on state grants

RMC has weak income levels and a high reliance on State Government transfers and grants. RMC has an average shortfall of 20 % in the revenue budget. Weak income levels have led to a large reliance on State Government transfers and grants, amounting to about 60 % of total income every year. Even the capital grants provided by the Government are used to bridge the revenue deficit.

7.3.2

Priorities of Stakeholders

The priorities of stakeholders are detailed below


Raipur Municipal Corporation

Discussions with Mayor, Municipal Commissioner and other officers revealed following reform priority for Raipur
1) Sewerage System 2) Road Network Improvement and solving traffic management 3) Solid waste management 4) City transport system 5) Water supply

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6) Internal systems A strong need is felt for system improvements in RMC.

CIDC

From Chhattisgarh Infrastructure Development Corporation's point of view the following is the priority for infrastructure development for Raipur City
1) Mass Rapid Transport System including city transport - Raipur along with nearby cities likes Durg, Bhilai and Rajnandgaon forms an interdependent cluster of cities. MRTS is the urgent need of not only Raipur but of all these other cities. 2) Underground Sewerage System 3) Solid Waste Management 4) Better urban planning of the city

5) Development of adequate Road


Network
State Government

The formation of new capital city is a priority agenda for the State Government and, by constitution, for CADA. The present facilities in Raipur are not adequate to handle the administrative requirements of a capital for a long term. In addition the following priorities emerged:
1) Raipur needs to address the strong needs of transportation and housing in the Raipur - Bhilai Durg economic cluster. 2) In the existing city, the levels of urban services are poor and need to be upgraded.

3) The Raipur Municipal Corporation also needs to improve its fiscal position to reduce its reliance
on transfers and grants from the State Government.

The priorities and associated costs result in four levels of initiatives that are felt needs in Raipur. Level I - the capital city formation is a need that is owned by the State Government. It would also need to be driven by the State Government since the resource requirements are large. Level 2 - The transportation and housing requirements for the emerging economic and industrial corridor of Raipur - Durg - Bhilai is also a state level priority and similar to the capital city requires large resources.

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Level 3 - Upgradation of infrastructure at the city level requires efforts by RMC. Given its current level of dependence on the State Government, it is unlikely that this could be done without the support of the State Government. .

Level 4 - Fiscal and systems improvements that can be driven entirely by RMC.

7.3.4

Roadmap For Reform Oriented Fund In Raipur

Enablers for change


The State Government has had a consistent reform agenda since inception; the State Government of Chattisgarh had adopted reform agendas in several sectors. Specifically for Raipur, the planning function has been integrated with the local body and RMC today has responsibility for delivering most of the urban services. These places RMC in a favorable reform climate with enough autonomy to undertake a reform programme focused on the city.

The State Government also has a special focus on developing Raipur as a world-class city, consistent with its growing status as a trading and administrative hub. .
Raipur's along with its neighbouring cities forms a high growth economic corridor

The Raipur-Bhilai-Durg corridor has historically been a commercially active cluster, and with the emergence of Raipur as capital of the state, these activities, have grown manifold. There is an underlying need to focus on economic growth of this corridor and to plan for integrated urban services for all three cities that form this corridor. This need has been recognized by the Government and has officially been stated as a priority.

The new capital city would decongest Raipur, and can be planned as a model for urban governance

The new capital city could be an ideal starting point for introducing a model urban governance system. This provides a non-conventional opportunity to introduce the right political, institutional and administrative structures of urban governance. Such a structure could also function as a model for the rest of the State in its urban agenda.

CIDC and CADA could function as reform partners

Both CIDC and CADA have been formed recently, to assist the State in its agenda. These agencies, due to the nature of their function, are well placed to assist RMC in a reform programme.

Potential for generation of funds through revenue reforms

The current levels of inefficiency in internal revenue generation of RMC indicate that a welldesigned revenue reform programme could generate significant funds to carryout some of
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the investment needs. RMC also has control of the planning and building regulation functions. With adequate changes in the legislation, RMC would be able to leverage the revenue potential of these functions.

7.3.5

Constraints for change

State Government is keen and is able to fund moderate investments

After the division of the State, the financial position of Chhattisgarh State has improved As a result; the allocation to the urban sector has quadrupled in the past three years. The total budget size (total income) of the RMC was about Rs. 79.2 crores in 2002-03, which included revenue and capital grant of about Rs. 59.6 crores. In this scenario, the stakeholders have a stable source of financial support to meet their operation and investment requirements. The process of securing these funds is also easy for the local body. Being the State capital, there is also a willingness on the part of the State Government to provide support to the City. This reduces the attractiveness of an external incentive fund.

Keenness for simple fund procedures

Possibly as a result of the existing support from State Government, the keenness to follow complex funding conditions is very low. We understand from the stakeholders that they would be interested in parallel support mechanisms, but would look forward to a simple process for appraisal and disbursement.

The larger priorities of Raipur need much larger funds

The priority needs for Raipur are the creation of transportation infrastructure and the new capital city, which will lessen the strain on the existing city. Both these are also a part of the State Government agenda. The funding required for these priorities is large and may quite exceed the limits of any reform-oriented fund.

7.3.6

The best scenarios cannot be achieved

Since an assured level of funding exists, possibly relatively large compared to what a reform oriented fund could provide, it would be difficult to incentives Raipur to adopt a set of initiatives which are at, variance with its agenda. On the other hand, the priorities of Raipur and the State Government, which they would not be able to implement with their funding capability, also go far beyond the capability any
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reform oriented fund. As a result, neither can the full set of priorities of the stakeholders, be addressed by a reform-oriented fund.

7.3.7

Potential exists to align with some of the priorities

Given the focus the State Government has on Raipur, it is inevitable that it continues to support RMC in its investment needs. Such support would gradually weaken the financial independence of RMC (even at present it relies on Government support for revenue expenditure). A reform-oriented fund can work with RMC to correct such a possibility through internal revenue reforms. Similarly, the State Government would continue to place a priority on economic growth in the Raipur-Durg-Bhilai corridor. Technical support to the Government in developing a sound plan for economic growth coupled with sound urban services in the corridor is another possible option. The State Government has already identified internal reforms in RMC as apriority so that urban services are delivered better. A reform-oriented fund could leverage this priority and work Witi1 both RMC and the Government to set up a service delivery focus within RMC. A linkage between service delivery improvement and Government support is also possible, given the keenness of the Government on these improvements. Thus a reform oriented in Raipur would align with the existing agenda of the RMC and the State Government. Even within this a large scope exists
1) To improve financial management so that priority investments can be undertaken 2) To help the State Government develop an economic plan for its key corridor of growth

3) To design a linkage between Government support and service delivery

7.4 7.4.1

Design characteristics of a reform oriented fund in Raipur What would the fund seek to achieve

The fund should target to achieve I) Financial management improvements in the Raipur Municipal Corporation to enable it to
a) Improve own revenues, specifically property tax through coverage and collection improvements b) Bridge the existing revenue deficit c) Generate a revenue surplus with which city level investments can be undertaken
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d) Through these measures reduce the reliance on the State Government on both the revenue and the capital account e) Improve the quality of accounting and budgeting practices

2) Service delivery improvements in the short term, specifically


a) Door to door collection of solid waste b) Coverage of water supply network c) Number of households connected to the sewerage network

3) Service delivery improvements in the medium term


a) Disposal of solid waste in line with MSW Rules 2000 b) Full coverage of water supply in the town and improvements in the hours of supply c) Expansion of the sewerage network and treatment infrastructure d) Transportation solutions for the Raipur - Durg - Bhilai corridor

4) Initiate a planning process fur integrated urban services delivery in the Raipur-DurgBhilai corridor 4) Initiate changes in planning legislation

7.4.2

Where should the dialogue be targeted

The fund should leverage the priority that the Government of Chattisgarh has placed on Raipur. The fund objectives are similar to that of the State Government. Hence the dialogue should be targeted at the State Government. Such a dialogue can also leverage the revenue support that the Government of Chattisgarh today provides to Raipur city. At present, the support (both on the revenue and the capital accounts) is without any outcome expectations. Through such a dialogue, the fund would also be able to assist the State Government in its priorities, such as economic planning for the Raipur - Durg - Bhilai corridor and the plans for the new capital city. 7.4.3 What should the fund offer

The fund would seek initiatives from both the State Government and the RMC. From RMC, the initiatives would be in line with the objectives listed in Section 7.4.1. The fund should seek the Government of Chattisgarh to redesign the current unconditional revenue support to a performance based revenue support. Specifically the performance requirements should include
1) Revenue and financial management improvements

2) Service delivery outcomes


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To incentives the State Government to reorient its revenue support, the fund could offer a combination of
1) Financial support to. RMC proportionate to the performance based support from the Government of Chattisgarh 2) Technical assistance to meet the Government's priorities, in economic planning and in capital city initiatives. 3) Partial financial assistance for the capital city initiatives and for improving transportation in the Raipur -Durg - Bhilai corridor 3) Partial financial assistance for urban infrastructure improvements in Raipur city (such as sewerage network, solid waste disposal facilities)

Current Situation GoC


Initiatives for the economic corridor and capital city

GoC
Revenue Support

Fund
Part financial support for urban infrastructure

Matching assistance

Performance based support

RMC

Raipur-Durg-Bhilai economic corridor. Capital City Improved urban services

RMC

Improved financial management

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Capital Improvement Programme

CAPITAL IMPROVEMENT PROGRAMME

8.1

BASIS OF PRIORITIZATION

The City investment plans have brought out a detailed examination of various elements involved in the plan and highlight the options for implementing the programmes under various plan periods. Therefore to work out a viable capital improvement programme, it is suggested to select the short-term programme identified from various elements involved in the City Investment plan. The implementation of short-term programme i.e. 7 years City Development programme, aiming to bring out the beneficial projects required to improve the existing level of services for the future development of the town. The projects identified as part of the programme are discussed with stakeholders during the consultation meeting and extensive discussion held with them. In addition, the issues highlighted in each element are discussed with the elected representatives, Municipal officials and other stakeholders in detail for inclusion of the same in the report.

An extensive discussion held with Mayor in Council and Commissioner in council

This involves in caring out the following: 8.2 Project Identification Project Selection Investment Requirement for Capital Improvement Programme PROJECT IDENTIFICATION

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As part of the project identification, the existing level of services with reference to existing and future population is taken into consideration. To bridge the gap between existing and future level of services, the norms required maintaining the sustainable level of services are phased as for short-term, medium and long-term Programme. The short-term programme suggested under different sectors is expected to narrow down the gap between the shortterm and long-term development. 8.2.1 Project Selection

Project selection was carried out to short-list the immediate projects that can be taken up to improve the level of services based on the following: To bridge the gap in the level of services to meet the need for the immediate and future population To achieve a progressive increase in building the infrastructure facilities in the town To build a strong economic base, supported by self-sufficient infrastructure for longterm and sustainable development. Based on the above selection criteria, the projects identified as part of short-term programme are selected for implementation for the financial year 2006-2012. The projects that can be taken up as part of the 7-year programme, and investment requirement for implementation carried out in the next section.

8.3

Investment required for 7 years Capital Improvement Programme

The investment required for 7 years Capital Improvement programmes was carried out based on the element identified as part of CDP.

8.3.1

Water Supply

The water supply programme is being implemented in the town at a capital cost of Rs 37483 Lakhs, which can satisfy the water supply, demand for 7 years period.

8.3.2

Sewerage and Sanitation

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Capital Improvement Programme

It is proposed to spend an amount of Rs 13207 Lakhs for improvement of sewerage system and construction and maintenance of toilets for 7 years from 2006-13.

8.3.3

Storm Water Drainage

Raipur is not provided with Under Ground Drainage systems. To cover the town with pucca sanitation system, the ULB has initiated an effort to obtain the financial assistance from Central and State Governments. Apart from that, the local body has identified to strengthen the Kutcha drains into new pucca drains and procuring storm water drain cleaning equipment for regular maintenance of existing drains in the town. This requires an investment of Rs 11037 lakhs for the next 7 years.

8.3.4

Solid Waste Management

The existing solid waste collection system covers 59 % of the total waste collection. This reflects the high deficiency in collection of remaining waste of 41%, which are left behind in the town. It is anticipated that the gap may expect to widen future due to increase in population with same percentage of solid waste collection. Therefore, there is a need to strengthen this sector with additional storage material cost from storage to transportation Rs 780 lakhs and Rs 5286Lakhs for treatment plants including the purchase of land for treatment facilities, equipment and other facilities. The total investment requirement for this sector is Rs 6066 Lakhs for 7 years.

8.3.5

Roads and Transport

The Raipur Municipal Corporation proposes to provide public transport facility. It is also proposed to upgrade all the existing roads with BT and Cement Concrete surface. This will also provide Vehicle transshipment facility, pedestrian subway, mini bus parking and Rickshaw and Auto-rickshaws parking. Therefore an investment of Rs 27500 Lakhs is required for the next 7 years period.

8.3.6

Others

As part of strengthening the existing social infrastructure facilities, it is proposed to provide additional facilities to enhance the social environment condition in the town. For this
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purpose the ULB has proposed to provide additional facilities like New Commercial complex, Provision of Improvement of Parks for an amount of Rs 25 Lakhs for the next 7 years. Management and Conservation of water bodies for an amount of Rs 650 Lakhs for the next 7 years. Among these projects, provision of Community halls are proposed to implement under BOT system Rs 55 Lakhs, Shifting of Dairies from inner area to outer area Rs 1089 Lakhs, Providing Basis Services to Urban Poor Rs 1050 Lakhs

Table: 8.1
Sectors

Total Investment required for 7-years Capital Improvement Programme


Investment required ( Rs. In Crores) % to total

Water Supply Sewerage and Sanitation Storm water drainage Solid Waste Management Roads and Transport Others (Shifting of Dairies From Inner Areas to Outer Ares) Slum Rehabilitation
Total

374.83 132.07 110.37 60.66 275.00 28.69 232.00


1213.62

30.89 10.88 9.09 5.00 22.66 2.36 19.12


100.00

The above investment priorities are need to be evaluated based on the financial status of the ULB through Financial Operating Plan for Identifying their resource generation capacity to sustain for undertaking capital works. Mentioned in Chapter 6

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Table 8.2

Sector wise Prioritization from 2006-13


PROJECTS Expenditure from Storage to transportation Treatment and Disposal (Including land cost) PRIORITIZATION F.Y 2006-07 F.Y 2007-08 F.Y 2008-09 F.Y.2009-10 F.Y. 2010-11 F.Y 2011-12 F.Y 2012-13

NAME OF THE SECTOR

Solid waste Management

Other cost for proposed system like Laboratory expenses, purchase of additional lands and equipments and Awareness programs O&M charges De-silting and Alignment of major drains 44.70 km Lining and Restructuring of medium Drains 18.88 km

Storm Water Drainage Construction of New drains in new Colonies 11.65km Construction of Other Drains & Water bodies and Management of those all nallahs Sewerage and sanitation Three STPs 158 MLD Laying of Secondary and Tertiary Sewers Laying of Main Sewers Replacement of existing sewers

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Capital Improvement Programme

NAME OF THE SECTOR

PROJECTS Civil and Electro-Mechanical works of SPS Surface Drainage Network in all areas Construction of Public toilets Design and Supervision Consultancy

PRIORITIZATION F.Y 2006-07 F.Y 2007-08 F.Y 2008-09 F.Y.2009-10 F.Y. 2010-11 F.Y 2011-12 F.Y 2012-13

Roads and Transport

Urban transport Bus stands Taxi stands Auto rickshaw stands Commercial complex with parking lots (1 lakh Sft) Roads (construction/improvements)

Laying/improvement/widening of arterial roads Laying/improvement/widening of sub arterial roads ROB's New bridges (ROB)

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NAME OF THE SECTOR

PROJECTS

PRIORITIZATION F.Y 2006-07 F.Y 2007-08 F.Y 2008-09 F.Y.2009-10 F.Y. 2010-11 F.Y 2011-12 F.Y 2012-13

Pedestrian subways/FOBs' Laying of ring roads and bypasses Intersection improvements Construction and development of transport nagars Water Supply Construction of OHSR/GLSR (20*5ML) Extension of distribution network with in the city (222km) Development of distribution in newly developed areas (130km) Establishing Customer Connections Meters (1.50lakh meters) Providing Public Taps (4500 no.s) Leak Detection Study and Rehabilitation Program for Water Supply System Energy Efficiency Study Strengthening of Water Testing Laboratory at Filter Plant Replacement of Old Pump sets Civil & electromechanical Works

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City Development Plan, Raipur City

Capital Improvement Programme

NAME OF THE SECTOR

PROJECTS Design & Supervision Consultancy Cost Decentralizing wholesale commercial activities Large Scale housing Development EWS Housing Aforestation and Soil Conservation measures Desiltation of Budha Talab and Raja Talab Equipment for Deweeding

PRIORITIZATION F.Y 2006-07 F.Y 2007-08 F.Y 2008-09 F.Y.2009-10 F.Y. 2010-11 F.Y 2011-12 F.Y 2012-13

land Use, Spatial Development and Housing

Water Bodies Rejuvenation Construction of community toilets complexes Public Awareness and Training Lab for Water quality monitoring & biological research Creation of Lake conservation Authority Implementation of Double Entry Accrual based Accounting Training and Institutional Strengthening Institutional Strengthening Implementation of GIS & MIS E- Governance System for Municipal Services Communication and Citizen Participation Programme Modernizing Office Infrastructure

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Capital Improvement Programme

Table 8.3

Sector wise Detailed Project Cost from 2006-13


PROJECT PROJECT COST IN LAKHS F.Y 2006- F.Y 2007- F.Y 2008- F.Y.2009- F.Y. 2010- F.Y 2011- F.Y 201207 08 09 10 11 12 13 70 100 125 125 120 120 120

NAME OF THE SECTOR

Total 780

Expenditure from Storage to transportation Treatment and Disposal (Including land cost) Solid waste Management and others like Laboratory expenses, purchase of additional lands and equipments and Awareness programs Sub Total De-silting and Alignment of major drains 44.70 km Lining and Restructuring of medium Drains 18.88 km Storm Water Drainage Construction of New drains in new Colonies 11.65km Construction of Other Drains & Water bodies and Management of those all nallahs Sub Total Sewerage and sanitation Three STPs 35 MGD

600

750

750

1000

1000

600

586

5286

670 800

850 800

875 900

1125 905

1120 1000

720 1100

706 1200

6066 6705

250

286

302

325

352

360

391

2266

70

75

75

83

90

90

91

574

150

160

182

210

240

260

290

1492

1270 600

1321 630

1459 650

1523 700

1682 760

1810 800

1972 860

11037 5000

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City Development Plan, Raipur City

Capital Improvement Programme

NAME OF THE SECTOR

PROJECT

PROJECT COST IN LAKHS F.Y 2006- F.Y 2007- F.Y 2008- F.Y.2009- F.Y. 2010- F.Y 2011- F.Y 201207 08 09 10 11 12 13 300 125 100 125 35 15 150 1450 300 200 120 150 50 25 167 1642 500 200 120 200 50 35 1755 500 300 130 200 60 35 1925 650 300 142 250 60 30 2192 650 250 160 225 50 25 2160 527 225 190 210 45 25 2082

Total 3427 1600 962 1360 350 190 317 13207

Laying of Secondary and Tertiary Sewers Laying of Main Sewers Replacement of existing sewers Surface Drainage Network in all areas Construction of Public toilets Civil and Electro-Mechanical works of SPS Design and Supervision Consultancy Sub total Roads and Transport Urban transport Bus stands Taxi stands Auto rickshaw stands Commercial complex with parking lots (1 lakh Sft) Roads(construction/improvements)

50 5 5 250

50 10 10 400

100 20 20 500

50 50 50 450

50 15 15 400

0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0

300 100 100 2000

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City Development Plan, Raipur City

Capital Improvement Programme

NAME OF THE SECTOR

PROJECT

PROJECT COST IN LAKHS F.Y 2006- F.Y 2007- F.Y 2008- F.Y.2009- F.Y. 2010- F.Y 2011- F.Y 201207 08 09 10 11 12 13 500 500 500 1000 1000 500 500

Total

Laying/improvement/widening of arterial roads Laying/improvement/widening of sub arterial roads ROB's New bridges (ROB) Pedestrian subways/FOBs' Laying of ring roads and bypasses Intersection improvements Construction and development of transport nagars

4500

250

250

400

500

500

400

400

2700

200 200 500 200

200 200 1000 300

500 500 1000 500

450 450 1000 1000

400 400 1000 700

400 400 1000 500

400 400 1000 0

2550 2550 6500 3200

500

1000

1000

500

3000

Sub Total Laying and joining of raw water main / rising Water Supply main Treatment plant 150 MLD Construction of OHSR/GLSR (20*5ML) Clear Water Pumping Mains (55 km)

2660

3920

5040

5500

4480

3200

2700

27500

1000 150 800 800

1500 200 1200 1200

2000 300 1000 1200

1100 300 700 1000

1000 200 300 800

400 200 300 800

200 150 200 800

7200 1500 4500 6600

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City Development Plan, Raipur City

Capital Improvement Programme

NAME OF THE SECTOR

PROJECT

PROJECT COST IN LAKHS F.Y 2006- F.Y 2007- F.Y 2008- F.Y.2009- F.Y. 2010- F.Y 2011- F.Y 201207 08 09 10 11 12 13 750 300 100 15 15 35 4 70 400 150 440 5029 250 750 350 150 20 17 40 5 75 450 200 440 6597 320 250 250 250 250 250 250 6971 5784 4860 4273 3969 900 500 150 20 20 40 6 85 450 300 900 600 200 20 22 45 7 90 500 300 950 500 200 20 27 45 8 110 550 150 950 500 200 20 29 45 9 120 550 150 900 500 200 20 30 50 11 150 600 158

Total

Extension of distribution network with in the city (222km) Development of distribution in newly developed areas (130km) Establishing Customer Connections Meters (1.50 lakh meters) Providing Public Taps (4500 no.s) Leak Detection Study and Rehabilitation Program for Water Supply System Energy Efficiency Study Strengthening of Water Testing Laboratory at Filter Plant Replacement of Old Pump sets Others (Construction of Anicut, C.W.Pump sets, Electric Substation, Communication and Miscellaneous) Civil & electromechanical Works Design & Supervision Consultancy Cost Sub Total land Use, Spatial Development and Housing Decentralizing wholesale commercial activities Large Scale housing Development 1408 880 37483 570 1500 3500 50 700 160 300 1200 135 3250 6100

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City Development Plan, Raipur City

Capital Improvement Programme

NAME OF THE SECTOR

PROJECT

EWS Housing Aforestation and Soil Conservation measures Desiltation of Budha Talab and Raja Talab Equipment for Deweeding Water Bodies Rejuvenation Construction of community toilets complexes Public Awareness and Training Lab for Water quality monitoring & biological research Creation of Lake conservation Authority Implementation of Double Entry Accrual based Accounting Training and Institutional Strengthening Institutional Strengthening Implementation of GIS & MIS E- Governance System for Municipal Services Communication and Citizen Participation Programme Modernizing Office Infrastructure

PROJECT COST IN LAKHS F.Y 2006- F.Y 2007- F.Y 2008- F.Y.2009- F.Y. 2010- F.Y 2011- F.Y 201207 08 09 10 11 12 13 150 150 75 75 75 12 30 40 36 13 35 75 8.00 1.00 25 1.00 25 14 14 3.00 3.00 3.00 10 1.00 1.00 1.00 12 30 0 36 13 35 75 12 30 0 0 13 12 30 0 0 13 12 30 0 0 13 30 0 0 13 0 0

Total 525 60 180 40 72 78 70 150 8.00 4.00 50 27 9.00 10

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City Development Plan, Raipur City

8.4

Recommendations relating to Local Body availing loan for 7-Year Capital

Improvement Programme Raipur Municipal Corporation possesses limited capacity to absorb the future investment for implementing various Capital Improvement programmes formulated as part of the CDP. The options available to improve the financial status of Raipur Municipal Corporation is as follows: Revision of ARV (Annual Retable Value) at least by 50% in 2007-08 to mobilize the additional revenue. Improvement in collection performance of Property Tax, Profession Tax and Water Charges including the arrears collection. Regular repayment of annuities for the existing and new loans Collection of deposit and revenue through new House service connection. Mobilizing the adequate revenue from the New Remunerative Projects.

Based on the recommendations and the amount of capital investment required for a tune of Rs. 121362 Lakhs over a period of 7 years. It is very difficult to fund the new projects based on the surplus available from the Raipur Municipal Corporation. Therefore, the ULB may sick the help of Financial Institutions like TUFISIL, HUDCO, ILFS etc, for obtaining the required loan amount to implement the new capital works. Refer Chapter 7 for Financial Status of Raipur Municipal Corporation, Which highlight the existing financial status and various alternatives to undertake the new capital works with out revision and with revision, and Grant for 30% for service projects.

(i)

City Development Plan, Raipur City

8.5 Formulating and Implementing a CDP

Workshop for Commitment Implementation & Monitoring

Existing Knowledge Compilation and Counterpart set-up

Workshop for Stakeholder Identification

City Assistance Program Formulation

8 7

1 2

Stakeholder Identification & Participation Planning

Discussion on the 3 6 Draft & 4 Responsibility 5 Assignment Draft Strategy Making Workshop for Assignment Alternative Scenario Making

Issues & Constraints Opportunity Identification

Workshop for Issue Identification

Workshop for Prioritization

( ii )

City Development Plan, Raipur City

( iii )