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CHAPTER-1

Introduction to Human Resources Management As we know that the principal resources of an organization is the people. Without which no organization can born and run. Thus people are that resources of organization through which all activities are done to achieve the organizational objectives. So the process of managing the human resources of an organization is known as human resource management. It is mainly concerned with peoples dimension in the organization. It means employing people, developing these resources, utilizing, maintaining, and compensating their services with the job and organizational requirement. Human resource is the primary resources of the organization, so they should be managed effectively and efficiently to achieve organizational goal. HRM is said to be the philosophy, policies, procedures and practices releted to the management of productive human resources in and organization. According to Byars and Rue: Human resource management encompasses those activities designed to provide for and coordinate the human resources of an organization. Decenzo & Robbins: HRM is a process of four function acquiring, development, motivation and maintenance of human resources. In short HRM can be defined as the process of accomplishing organizational goals by acquiring, retaining, terminating, developing and properly using human resources in an organization. Characteristics of HRM: i) Action Oriented: Effective HRM focuses on action, rather than on record keeping, written procedure or rules. It gives emphasis on the solution to employment problem to achieve organizational objectives and facilitate employment development and satisfaction in a dynamic environment. ii) Human Approach: HRM is the process of managing people of an organization with a human approach. It means employing people developing these resource, utilizing, maintaining and compensating their services to the job and organizational requirement. It is concerned with human aspects. Mainly it develops and utilize human potential. iii) Part of Management: HRM is a part of management principles and functions.

It involves managerial functions such as planning, implementing and controlling of acquisition, development, utilization and ........ maintenance of human resources. iv) Pervasive function: HRM is pervasive function of management. All level of management perform it. Although the HR department is created under HR manager, it should not be assumed that other managers are not free from its responsibility. v) Continuous Process: HRM is a continuous process and it must be performed continuously to achieve organizational goal smoothly. It is concerned with present as well as future. vi) Achievement of Goal: HRM aims to achieve organizational goal by managing the human resources of an organization. vii) HRM function: acquisition, development, motivation and maintenance. Objectives of HRM Objectives are predetermined goals to which individual or group activity in an organization is directed. Effective management of human resources is the key to organizational success. Corporate objectives and individual as well as social goals influence the objectives of human resource management. The primary objectives of HRM is to acquire, develop, motivate, and utilize the human resource to achieve organizational goals in a dynamic environment. The various purpose of HRM is given below: a) Acquisition: One of the main purpose of HRM is to enable the organization to obtain and retain the skilled committed and well motivated workforce to achieve organizational objectives. b) Achievement of organization goal: HRM always aim to achieve organizational goal by an effective utilization of human resources. c) Development of People: The another purpose of HRM is to enhance and develop the inherent capacities of people, their contribution potential and employability by providing continuous training and development opportunity. d) To develop an environment in which team work and flexibility can flourish. e) To ensure that people are valued and rewarded for what they do and achieve and to give equal opportunities are available to all. f) Improve quality of work life: Human resource management maintains and improve physical and mental well- being of employee. HRM always aim to maintain the quality of work life. Without this improvement, it is difficult to improve the organizational performance. Functions/ Components of HRM In order to achieve organizational objectives, HRM must perform certain functions. The main function performed by HRM can be classified into four category.

1) Acquisition: Acquisition means to place right number of people at right time in the organization. The following activities are related with acquisition: a) HR Planning: The HRM process begins with human resource planning. Planning ensures organization that it has a right number of qualified people in the right job at right time. This includes the estimation of demand and supply of labour. b) Recruitment: recruitment is the process of seeking and attracting prospective candidate for the job vacancies. It ensures more people to apply for the job. c) Selection: Selection means to choose the right candidate from among all the prospective application. It involves reviewing the application form, psychological testing, interviewing etc. d) Specialization: The acquisition functions is completed when the selected applicant have been placed in organization and have adopted to the organizations culture and environment. 2) Development of Human Resource: HRM is intended to improve the performance of employees. Plans should be arranged for developing people at all level because competent people will not remain competent forever. So that additional development of human resources required time to time. The development of human resources can be viewed in three process. The first is employee training which gives emphasis on skill development to cope with the current changes. The second is management development, which is concerned with enhancement of an executives conceptual abilities. The third is career development which involves carrier path of employee to match long term individual and organization needs. 3) Motivation of Human Resource: Highly motivated employee always tend to be more productive and have lower rates of absenteeism, turnover and lateness. Thus employee motivation is vital to the success of any organization. The extrinsic factor such as job design. Working condition, job security, and supervision and intrinsic factor such as achievement, recognition are the main factors which affect the motivation of the employee. The employees of any organization motivates towards his work when his needs are satisfied by the job, is doing. The performance appraisal process and its outcome will affect the employee motivation. If they think their efforts will be unfairly judged, motivation will decrease. The reward or punishment that follow the appraisal and compensation and benefit administration will influence motivation. A link should be established between employee performance and compensation. The main aim of HRM is to increase the productivity and performance of the employee by motivating them. 4) Maintenance of human resource: The final function of HRM is maintenance of human resource. It is concerned with providing those working condition that employee believe are necessary in order to maintain their commitment to the organization. Organization are required to provide safe work environment free from physical hazards and unhealthy condition. Labour relation is concerned with the relationship between the organization and its employee. If there is good relationship , there will be cooperation and a high level of commitment otherwise not. Thus through these activities, we can expect

to have competent otherwise not. Thus through this activities, we can expect to have competent employee who are committed to the organization and satisfied with their job. HRM System HRM is the process of managing people in the organization with a human approach. Thus it is concerned with the people dimension in management. HRM can be viewed from system prospective. A system is an organized set of interrelated and integrated parts or objects in a manner of achievieing common goal. System consists of components such as input, processing and outcomes which interact with environmental dynamics. These components are interlinked through feedback and it is a continuous process operates in a dynamics environment. This system provides a conceptual structure for integrating the various components within the HRM system. 1) Input: i) Organizational Plan: The organizations plan and strategies needs for the future determine of human resource . Various components of organizational plan such as production plan, marketing plan, sales plan, plan for expansion and diversification are used as the basis for developing human resources planning. This plan help in estimating the demand of human resources that will be required for future. ii) HRM Policies: HRM policies are general statement that serve to guide decision making. They direct the action of HR activities towards the achievement of its goals. HRM policies are there to serve three major function. A) to reassure employees that they will be treated fairly and objectively, b) to help managers make quick and consistent decision and c) to give managers the confidence to resolve problems and to define their decision. Organization can improve the performance of HR by the proper use of human resources policies. iii) HR plans: HR plans help to keep the organization supplied with the right people when they are needed. It determines the human resources required by the organization. It forecast the demand for HR by comparing the present supply of HR with organizations projected demand for HR. iv) Job Analysis: Job analysis is the process of determining the tasks that make up the job and the skill, abilities and responsibilities that are required of an individual to successfully accomplish the job. This specify the job requirement. v) Labour Market: Lobour market serves as the external sources of supply of HR that are required for organization. 2) Processing: ( Same as the function of HRM. 3) Output of HRM system: i) Quality of Work life(QWL) : Quality of work life refers to the quality of relationship between employee and the total working environment of the organization. QWL can be defined as the extent to which members of an organization are able to satisfy personal needs through organizational process. It

concentrates on creating a working environment that is conductive to the satisfaction of employee nees. QWL includes autonomy, recognition, belonging and external rewards. It helps to increase productivity, organizational effectiveness and employee satisfaction. ii) Productivity: Productivity is the relationship between real inputs and real outputs. It measure how well resources are combined and utilized to produce a result desired by management. Higher productivity ensures lesser cost of production, higher production and most effective utilization of available resources. This leads to the satisfaction of every section of society, consumer, employees and employers. iii) Readiness for change; Change is the part of organizational life. In fact the survival, growth, and profitability of an organization depends on its ability to change its structure and process in response to changing environment. Training is important to reduce the fair associated with change. The management must creates a work atmosphere that views change as a positive and progressive endeavor. iv) Competitive Advantages: Globalization and liberalization of business are bound to intensify competition. In such situation organization must obtain competitive advantage to survive and successed. Competitive advantages is obtained through efficient and creative workforce. Continuous improvement and innovation are two essential objects to achieve and sustain competitive advantages.

Personnel and Human Resource Management (HRM)

HRM is the modern term for what has traditionally been referred to as personnel administration or personnel management. HRM is the term increasingly used to refer to the philosophy, policies, procedures, and practices related to the management of people in the organization. Some view personnel management or perhaps modern personnel management means the same thing. Change in terminology reflects the increased significance associated with the management of people in organization as well as border prospective from which the field is currently viewed. One should clearly understand that HRM is not only personnel mgmt. rather it is only the part of HRM. In the past personnel management had a strong functional focus, that is personnel specialists were primarily concerned with the administration of specific employee related function such as living, training, wage setting and disciplinary action. HRM is emerged out of personnel functions, and personnel mgmt. can not be isolated from HRM. The difference between HRM and personnel management are as follows: 1. HRM is primarily a philosophy, policies, procedures and practices related to the management of people while personnel mgmt is a functional area and function.

2. HRM must remain at the center of management. It is concern of all managers from top to button in an organization, while personnel mgmt is mainly the concern of personnel managers. 3. HRM makes effort primarily to satiety the human needs of the people at work which motivates the people to make their best contribution for the achievement of organization goals and objectives, while personnel management maintains rules, principles and legal provisions in maintaining the people. 4. Human values and individual needs are given priority in HRM, while personnel management gives emphasis on efficient administration. 5. HRM is an integrated approach accommodating all the aspects of acquisition, development, motivating and maintenance of human resources, where as personnel management is primarily concerned with recruitment, selection, and administration of manpower.

Outcomes of HRM Quality of Work Life(QWL): QWL refers to the quality of relationship between employees and the total working environment of the organization . QWL can be defined as the extent to which members of an organization are able to satisfy personal needs through organizational process. Thus QWL concentrates on creating a working environment that is conductive to the satisfaction of worker needs. Thus QWL concentrates on creating of working environment that is suitable and gives satisfaction to the workers. Barry A. Stein provides us with following five procedures or policies, that makes the work less routine and more rewarding for the employee. a) Autonomy/ Freedom: It deals with the amount of freedom...... that employee can exercise in their job. b) Recognition: It involves being valued by others in the company. An employee's contribution to the organization is noticed and appreciated. c) Belonging: It refers to being part of the organization. An individual who belongs to an organization is one who shares the organizations values and is regarded as being valuable part of the firm. d) Progress and Development: Progress and development refer to the internal reward available from the organization, challenge, and accomplishment. e) External Reward: External rewards are usually in the form of salary and benefits but also include promotion and status.Personnel and Human Resource Management (HRM) HRM is the modern term for what has traditionally been referred to as personnel administration or personnel management. HRM is the term increasingly used to refer to the philosophy, policies, procedures, and practices related to the management of people in the organization. Some view

personnel management or perhaps modern personnel management means the same thing. Change in terminology reflects the increased significance associated with the management of people in organization as well as border prospective from which the field is currently viewed. One should clearly understand that HRM is not only personnel mgmt. rather it is only the part of HRM. In the past personnel management had a strong functional focus, that is personnel specialists were primarily concerned with the administration of specific employee related function such as living, training, wage setting and disciplinary action. HRM is emerged out of personnel functions, and personnel mgmt. can not be isolated from HRM. The difference between HRM and personnel management are as follows: 1. HRM is primarily a philosophy, policies, procedures and practices related to the management of people while personnel mgmt is a functional area and function. 2. HRM must remain at the center of management. It is concern of all managers from top to button in an organization, while personnel mgmt is mainly the concern of personnel managers. 3. HRM makes effort primarily to satiety the human needs of the people at work which motivates the people to make their best contribution for the achievement of organization goals and objectives, while personnel management maintains rules, principles and legal provisions in maintaining the people. 4. Human values and individual needs are given priority in HRM, while personnel management gives emphasis on efficient administration. 5. HRM is an integrated approach accommodating all the aspects of acquisition, development, motivating and maintenance of human resources, where as personnel management is primarily concerned with recruitment, selection, and administration of manpower.

Outcomes of HRM Quality of Work Life(QWL): QWL refers to the quality of relationship between employees and the total working environment of the organization . QWL can be defined as the extent to which members of an organization are able to satisfy personal needs through organizational process. Thus QWL concentrates on creating a working environment that is conductive to the satisfaction of worker needs. Thus QWL concentrates on creating of working environment that is suitable and gives satisfaction to the workers. Barry A. Stein provides us with following five procedures or policies, that makes the work less routine and more rewarding for the employee. a) Autonomy/ Freedom: It deals with the amount of freedom that employee can exercise in their job. b) Recognition: It involves being valued by others in the company. An employee's contribution to the organization is noticed and appreciated.

c) Belonging: It refers to being part of the organization. An individual who belongs to an organization is one who shares the organizations values and is regarded as being valuable part of the firm. d) Progress and Development: Progress and development refer to the internal reward available from the organization, challenge, and accomplishment. e) External Reward: External rewards are usually in the form of salary and benefits but also include promotion and status.Personnel and Human Resource Management (HRM) HRM is the modern term for what has traditionally been referred to as personnel administration or personnel management. HRM is the term increasingly used to refer to the philosophy, policies, procedures, and practices related to the management of people in the organization. Some view personnel management or perhaps modern personnel management means the same thing. Change in terminology reflects the increased significance associated with the management of people in organization as well as border prospective from which the field is currently viewed. One should clearly understand that HRM is not only personnel mgmt. rather it is only the part of HRM. In the past personnel management had a strong functional focus, that is personnel specialists were primarily concerned with the administration of specific employee related function such as living, training, wage setting and disciplinary action. HRM is emerged out of personnel functions, and personnel mgmt. can not be isolated from HRM. The difference between HRM and personnel management are as follows: 1. HRM is primarily a philosophy, policies, procedures and practices related to the management of people while personnel mgmt is a functional area and function. 2. HRM must remain at the center of management. It is concern of all managers from top to button in an organization, while personnel mgmt is mainly the concern of personnel managers. 3. HRM makes effort primarily to satiety the human needs of the people at work which motivates the people to make their best contribution for the achievement of organization goals and objectives, while personnel management maintains rules, principles and legal provisions in maintaining the people. 4. Human values and individual needs are given priority in HRM, while personnel management gives emphasis on efficient administration. 5. HRM is an integrated approach accommodating all the aspects of acquisition, development, motivating and maintenance of human resources, where as personnel management is primarily concerned with recruitment, selection, and administration of manpower.

Outcomes of HRM Quality of Work Life(QWL):

QWL refers to the quality of relationship between employees and the total working environment of the organization . QWL can be defined as the extent to which members of an organization are able to satisfy personal needs through organizational process. Thus QWL concentrates on creating a working environment that is conductive to the satisfaction of worker needs. Thus QWL concentrates on creating of working environment that is suitable and gives satisfaction to the workers. Barry A. Stein provides us with following five procedures or policies, that makes the work less routine and more rewarding for the employee. a) Autonomy/ Freedom: It deals with the amount of freedom that employee can exercise in their job. b) Recognition: It involves being valued by others in the company. An employee's contribution to the organization is noticed and appreciated. c) Belonging: It refers to being part of the organization. An individual who belongs to an organization is one who shares the organizations values and is regarded as being valuable part of the firm. d) Progress and Development: Progress and development refer to the internal reward available from the organization, challenge, and accomplishment. e) External Reward: External rewards are usually in the form of salary and benefits but also include promotion and status.

CHAPTER-2

HUMAN RESOURCE PLANNING

Introduction:

HRP is the process os forecasting, developing and controlling human resources in an organization. It identifies what must be done to ensure the availability of human resources needed by the organization to meet its goal. According to French " HRP is the process of assessing the organization's human resources need in light of organizational goals and making phase to ensure that a competent stable workforce is employed." It ensures that the organization has the right number of employee at the right place at the right time so that human resource e problem will be solved when it occur. It provides

information about the existing strength and weakness of the people in the organization as well as the kinds of skills to be developed. Characteristics of HRP: i) Assessing current human Resource: HRP is an internal analysis that includes an inventory of the employee or workers and skills already available within the organization. ii) Human Resource Needs: It estimate right number of employee needed with right skills and competencies. Hence it is future oriented. iii) Matching Demand and supply of human resources for future. iv) Acquisition Function: HRP is the continuous process that tries to keep the organization supplied with the right people when they are needed. It concerned with the acquisition function of HRM. v) Time Horizon: HRP can be the shot term or long term planning as per requirement.

Importance of HRP

The human resource is the primary resource of organization. For the proper HRM, HRP is the first factor which determines the HRM system of any organization needs HRP to meet its future human resource requirements. The importance of HRP can be defined in following grounds: i) Future Personnel Needs: HRP plays the vital role in determining the future need of human resource in an organization. It minimize the future risks and uncertainties, shortage and excess staff problems. HRP maintains balance between demand and supply of human resource in the dynamic environment. It fulfills the organization need for right type of people in right numbers at right time. ii) Environmental Adaptation: HRP enables an organization to adopt with changes in competitive forces, market, technology, product and government regulation. Such changes directly affect to the HRM factor, such as job content, skills and organizational environment. iii) Function for Personnel function: HRP provides essential information for designing and implementing human resource function such as recruitment, selection, training and development and perso...... nnel movement. It provides better means for managing human resource in the organization. iv) Utilization of Human Resource: HRP ensures that the organization acquires and retains the quality and quantity of human resources it requires. It helps to utilize the HR of organization effectively and efficiently.

v) HR development: HRP provides the better lead time for training and development program. this often lead to greater employee satisfaction, lower turnover and higher quality of work. It also helps to adopt with environmental dynamics through training and development. vi) Investment in HR: Organizations make investment in their human resource either through training and development. The cost can be controlled to achieve efficiency through planning.

Human resource Strategy:

Strategic human resource management can be defined as the linking of HRM with strategic goals and objectives in order to improve business performance and develop organizational culture that foster innovation and flexibility. HR and top management gathered in one table to craft the companys business strategy. Strategy provides the framework for specific HR activities such as recruitment and training. Strategy helps organization to achieve the organizational objectives in competitive environment. HR strategies are the course of action to help the company in achieving its strategic aims. In short the HR strategies ultimately provides the direction for HR activities for its proper development and management. HR strategies are the foundation to HRP as well as HRP is directed to the HR strategy.

Relationship between HRP and Strategic planning:

(Important Question)

Strategic planning can be defined as the process of indentifying organization objectives and the action needed to achieve those objectives. It directs the whole organization and give motion to organization. Where as HRP is the process by which an organization achieve its overall strategic objectives. This means that HRP can not be separated from organizational objectives. It must be linked to the organizations overall strategic planning. The strategic planning are made always in consideration of that the organization has appropriate personal are available to complete the action. Thus to ensure that appropriate personal are available to meet the requirement set during strategic planning. Human resource managers engage in HRP. So HRP operates within the strategic planning process and interlinked.

HRP Process:

The HRP process consist of following five step given below:

1) Assessing current HR: The first step of HRP is to assess the current status of the organizations human resource. This is an internal analysis that includes the inventory of employees and skill already available within the organization and job analysis. Thus the assessment of HR includes the following steps:

a) HR Inventory: HR inventory is the common method to assess the current status of the organizations human resource. It prepares report on the basis of forms completed by employee and then checked by supervisor. Such report includes the list of employee, education, training, prior experience, current position, performance rating, salary rating and specialized skills etc. It helps HRP for determining the skill, training and development program and number of people should be hired on future. This inventory can also provide crucial information for identifying current or future threat to the organization ability to perform. The assessment of current HR situation is based on following two techniques.

i) HR information (HRIS): The most effective device to provide the current state of HR in the organization is HRIS. A HRIS is the method by which organization collects, maintains, analysis and report information on people on job. HRIS is typically designed to quickly fulfill the HRM informational needs of the organization. HRIS include the mgmt of basic records, benefits administration and planning, skills inventories, training and development data, performance appraisal and job evaluation information. It facilitates both planning and identifying person for current transfer or promotion.

ii) Succession Planning: Succession planning is the process of identifying future managerial staffing needs and making plans for the development of managers to meet those needs. It focus on the development of competitive employee and takes the long term view of the organizations human resource needs. Succession planning fetch the information from HR inventory specially expand the information of current performance, promotability , development needs and take plans for long term growth potential. It is directly directed to the HRP to helps for future needs of HRM. (Note: This should be include only when the Assessing current HR is asked in 10 marks.)

2. Job Analysis:

Job analysis is the process of identifying the job and skills, abilities, and responsibilities that are required for an individual to accomplish the task or job. It provides the information on the task should be complete and the qualification needed to accomplish the job. Job analysis outcomes are job description , job specification and job evaluation.

3. Analyzing the Organizational plans: The organizational plan and strategies directs the whole activity of the organization. It also determines the future HR needs. Specially based on its estimate of total revenue the organization can attempt to establish the number and mix of human resource needed to reach this revenue. Therefore various components in organizations plan such as production plan, marketing plan, sales plan, plan for expansion etc. determines the activity of HRM, needed to achieve those objectives.

4. Forecasting HR Demand: Once information about the current status of human resource is analyzed and HR objectives are determined, future HR needs are forecasted. Job analysis and forecast about he HR mix facilitate demand forecasting. This step analyze the HR needs for future in terms of skill, value, compabilities with no. of HR ultimately based on the organizations plan and strategies.

5. Supply forecasting: This step analyzed the source of HR supply needed for future to ensure the availability at right time at right place. It analyzed the HR inventory and determined the addition and reduction in HR. Specially there are two sources of HR supply first is internal and second is external supply. Internal supply which can be ensure from promotion, transfer and demotion and external supply which is done with new recart of employee.

6. Matching Demand and supply of HR: This step ensure the balance between HR demand and supply. It results that the balance, shortage and overstaffing. If the organization is in the stage of shortage, then demand is increased and if overstaffing is predicted then the HR should be transferred or can be cut the no. of employee ( If anyone wants to quit). In this step the HR manager should play the vital role in analyzing and balancing the HR demand and supply as well as the right action plan should be taken for it.

Rules Regarding consideration

a) Consideration must be real and something of valuable in the eye of law.

b) Consideration must move at the desire of the promisor: The act must be done at the desire of the promisor. Without the desire of the promisor no consideration can be valuable. It regards that the consideration must be moved from promise only not from other or stranger to contract.

c) Consideration may move from the promise or third persons: The act which constitutes a consideration may be moved by the promise or any other person on his behalf to enforce a promise. But in English law it must be from the promise not from other.

d) Consideration may be of past, present or future.

e) Consideration must be lawful: When a party to an agreement promises to do something the acceptors must get something in return which must be legal and have the values in the eye of law. An illegal consideration is not supposed to be a contract. It is void.

f) Consideration need not be adequate(satisfactory) : Consideration need not be adequate to the promise. The contract ....... is depend upon consideration. So quantum of the consideration is decided by the parties to the contract. The adequacy of consideration is determined by the facts, circumstances and necessities and nature of cases.

Chapter-9 ( Free Consent ) Define free consent

Consent means agree to do something. Two or more parties are said to consent when they agree upon the same thing in the same sense. It is the meeting of mind. The agreement without any control is free consent. Only meeting of minds are not sufficient to be the contract whether there must be the real and free consent of the parties. It is obtained by free and pure will of the parties from their own accord, consent is said to be free when it is not caused by coercion, fraud, undue influence, mispresentation and mistake. If there is no free consent then there will not be any contract, so it is created for the sake of due and lawful consideration, not to lose anything. Free consent provides meeting of minds, enforceability and legal remedy for the contracting parties on their agreement.

Define Coercion

Coercion is the act of forcing or threatening someone to do something against law. It is a threat or force used by one party against another for compelling to enter into an agreement. In such condition the consent is not free. NCA states that " When somebody has detained or threatened to detain property or has threatened to commit any act forbidden by the law for causing any person to enter into contract against his will, the person is said to have caused coercion." If A compels B to enter into an agreement by causing harm or treating to commit harm as against the life and property of B or his persons or third person. The contract between A and B is caused by coercion.

Chapter-7

Consideration

Define consideration and describe rules regarding consideration?

Consideration cab be defined as a price of promise, which is bought by the next parties (promise). When a party to an agreement promises to do something he/she must get something in return which must be valuable in the eye of law. This something is defined as consideration which may be price, reward, payment or value for which the promise of the other is carried.

According to Justice palterson : consideration means something, which is of some value in the eye of law, it may be some benefit to the planting or some detriment to the defendant.

For example: A agree to sell a house to B for Rs 2 lakh. For As promise, the consideration is Rs. 2 lakh and for Bs promise, the consideration is the house.

Rules Regarding consideration

a) Consideration must be real and something of valuable in the eye of law.

b) Consideration must move at the desire of the promisor: The act must be done at the desire of the promisor. Without the desire of the promisor no consideration can be valuable. It regards that the consideration must be moved from promise only not from other or stranger to contract.

c) Consideration may move from the promise or third persons: The act which constitutes a consideration may be moved by the promise or any other person on his behalf to enforce a promise. But in English law it must be from the promise not from other.

d) Consideration may be of past, present or future.

e) Consideration must be lawful: When a party to an agreement promises to do something the acceptors must get something in return which must be legal and have the values in the eye of law. An illegal consideration is not supposed to be a contract. It is void.

f) Consideration need not be adequate(satisfactory) : Consideration need not be adequate to the promise. The contract is depend upon consideration. So quantum of the consideration is decided by the parties to the contract. The adequacy of consideration is determined by the facts, circumstances and necessities and nature of cases.

Chapter-9 ( Free Consent )

Define free consent

Consent means agree to do something. Two or more parties are said to consent when they agree upon the same thing in the same sense. It is the meeting of mind. The agreement without any control is free consent. Only meeting of minds are not sufficient to be the contract whether there must be the real and free consent of the parties. It is obtained by free and pure will of the parties from their own accord, consent is said to be free when it is not caused by coercion, fraud, undue influence, mispresentation and mistake. If there is no free consent then there will not be any contract, so it is created for the sake of due and lawful consideration, not to lose anything. Free consent provides meeting of minds, enforceability and legal remedy for the contracting parties on their agreement.

Define Coercion

Coercion is the act of forcing or threatening someone to do something against law. It is a threat or force used by one party against another for compelling to enter into an agreement. In such condition the consent is not free. NCA states that " When somebody has detained or threatened to detain property or has threatened to commit any act forbidden by the law for causing any person to enter into contract against his will, the person is said to have caused coercion." If A compels B to enter into an agreement by causing harm or treating to commit harm as against the life and property of B or his persons or third person. The contract between A and B is caused by coercion.

3) Job Evaluation: Job evaluation is the process of determining the value of each job in relation to all jobs within the organization. Job evaluation seeks to rank all the jobs in organization and place them in hierarchy that will reflect the relative worth of each job. It has many objectives towards the organization. It is completely concern with job rather than employee.

Describes the uses/ Importance of Job Analysis? ( IQ) The results derived from job analysis can be used as a foundation and an essential ingredient for all the functions and areas of human resource management.

i) Human resource planning:

The information derived from job analysis helps the HR planner to estimate the HR requirements of an organization. Effective HRP can only take place when job requirements are taken into consideration.

ii) Recruitment, Selection and Placement: The job analysis plays vital role in recruitment, selection and placement of personnel in an organization. With the job analysis , the description and job specification provides the foundation for recruitment ,selection and placement.

iii) Training and development: The job analysis information helps in determining the content and subject matter of training and development. Need of training and development are identified with the help of job description. Training and development program must bridge the gap between the level at which an employee is today and the level his job requires him to do at present. This difference can be calculated through the help of job analysis.

iv) Performance Appraisal: The standards of performance for employees can be set on the basis of job analysis and actual performance can be compared with these standards. It helps the management in judging the worth of employee objectively. Such assessment is the basis for awarding promotion effecting transfer or assessing training needs. v) Job evaluation and Compensation: Job evaluation is the process of determining the value of each job in relation to all jobs within the organization. It ranks and rates the job. By these means, a compensation package can be developed for each job, equitable pay structure can be ensured, and the level of wages within the organization.

vi) Job redesign: Job analysis is simply provides the information on the job and the required qualification to accomplish it. This types of information enable the organization to redesign jobs to improve the performance of employee. Job analysis also plays the vital role for the health, safety of the employee.

Chapter-4

Recruitment, Selection and Socialization

Recruitment. Define recruitment and mention the factor affecting the recruitment. Recruitment is the process of finding qualified people and encouraging them to apply for the jobs in the organization. It finds out right people for the right position at the right time, it is the major aspects of acquisition which brings employee and employers close to each other. The goal to recruit is to receive enough qualified candidates from whome the desired people may be selected. The quality of HR depends upon the quality of recruit.

According to Decenzo and Robbins: Recruitment is the discovering of potential candidates for .......... actual or anticipated organizational vacancies.

Factor Affecting Recuritment

i) Image of the organization. ii) Image of the job. iii) size and Growth of the organization iv) Organizational policies v) Government and Union Restriction vi) demand and Supply vii) Unemployment rate viii) Cost

Selection

Selection is the ........... process of choosing qualified personnel for a particular position from the applicants. It involves various steps by which the candidates are short listed and finally selected to the most suitable candidates for vacant post. It is concerned with both hiring as well as rejecting the applicants. It is ultimately leads to employment of person who posses the ability and qualification to perform the jobs.

According to French selection is the process of choosing among people who apply for work with an organization.

Selection Tests

Define selection tests and describes the various types of selection test.

A selection tests is a device that uncovers the information about the candidates, which are not known through application blank. These tests are used to screen the best qualified candidates which can measure certain abilities, aptitudes, and skills that provides objectives information on how well the applicant can be expected to perform the job. It is the deep evaluation of a candidate.

There are several types of test which are in practice they are given below:

i) Achievement Test: Achievement tests are there to determine how well an individual can perform tasks related to the job. These test measure a persons potential in a given area of job. These are also known as proficiency test and work simple test. This types of skill are already achieved by candidates through their education and experience. For example, a typing tests may measure the typing performance of a typist in terms of speed, accuracy and efficiency.

ii) Personality Test: This test tend to get certain personality factor of a candidates to the organization. The personality dimension include emotional maturity, self confidence, tact, decisiveness, sociability, objectivity, patience, initiative etc, of the candidates. This test leads the organization whether the candidate have good personality or sick personality.

iii) Aptitude Test: Aptitude test means the potential which an individual has for learning the skill required to do a job efficiently. It measure the learning capacity of the candidates. It determines whether the candidates will be capable of learning the job or not. Example of such test are Machanical aptitude test, clerical aptitude test and differential aptitude test.

iv) Intelligence Test: These tests measure capacity for comprehensive, reasoning, word fluency, verbal comprehension, number, memory and space. Such tests are generally quite good indicators of a candidates ability to learn quickly those jobs that involves conceptual thinking and problem solving.

v) Interest Test: This test are used to identify the likes and dislikes of candidates in relation to work, job, occupation, hobbies, and recreational activities. This test measure the correlation between the interest of candidates in a job and job success.

vi) Situational Test: These test evaluate a candidates in terms of facing the situation and condition that may arise during the job. In such test the candidates are asked to solve critical situation of the job. The examiners observe the candidates in the areas of initiating, leading, proposing valuable ideas, oral communication skills, coordinating and concluding skills.

Selection Interviews

Define interviews and describes the various types of selection interview.

Interview can be defined as a communication, conversation or verbal interaction between two or more people in order to capture the inner capabilities, communication skill and psychological factor of the candidates. It provides the better tools for the HR selection process. The factual data of the applicant

given in the application blank can be checked and more information may be obtained from the candidates.

There are several types of selection interviews they are given below:

a) Structured Interview: The structured interview uses a set of standardized question that are asked to all applicants. It is also called direct approach because it has comprehensive questionnaire structure. Some types of question are asked to all the candidates, so that comparisons among applic ants can easily be made. This types of interview is preplanned and structured which has high validity and reliability because standardized evaluation forms are used to rate the candidate.

b) Situation Interview: This types of structured interview are taken to evaluate, how applicants might handle specific job situation. The situation are far more particular. The candidates are asked what his or her behavior would be in a given situation. This types of interview has great advantages to the interviewer to select the candidates. The question asked in situation interview may be hypothetical, related to job knowledge or work sample test.

c) Behavioral Interview: In behavioral interviews, applicants are required to give specific example of how they have performed a certain procedure or handled a problem in the past.

d) Unstructured Interviews: It is also known as nondirective interview on which, no any form to follow, no preplanned question, so interview can be taken in various direction as per interviewers wish. It is the conversation between interviewer and candidates, the question are arises as per the response of candidate and candidate are also free to expose their idea in the given subject matter. The question may be different for different candidates, so that comparison may be difficult among the participators.

Socialization

Define socialization with its purpose.

Socialization can be defined as the process of adoption of a selected candidate into organization culture and work environment. For a new employee they feel unfamiliar, anxious and insecure. To reduce this types of problem the organization needs socialization. It is the ongoing process of instilling in all employees the prevailing attitudes, standards, values and pattern of behavior that are expected by the organization and its department. It is designed to provide new employees with the information needed to function comfortably and effectively in the organization. Socialization process provide the information to the employee about the daily work routine, a review of the organization history, purpose, operation, product and service and a detailed presentation of the organization policies, work rules and employee benefit.

According to Decenzo and Robbins: Socialization is a process of adoption that takes place as individual attempt to learn values and norms of work roles.

Purpose of socialization

i) Familiarizing with the organization.

ii) Creating Favorable attitude: Through socialization program, management seeks to create favorable attitudes towards the organization, its policies, and its personnel. Socialization creates the fitting environment to the employee and organization rules, norms and policies. iii) Reducing anxiety : A new employee generally feel anxious while joining he organization. They worry about how well they will perform on the new job. Through a effective socialization process the anxiety of new employee can be throughout by giving the right information about organization policies, history, norms, values and working environment.

iv) To increase employees performance: The work performance depends on knowing what to do or not to do. Understanding the right way to do a job indicates proper socialization. As a result employee performance and quality of work improve.

v) To screen out unsuitable employee vi) To increase organizational stability.

Chapter- 5

Training and Development

Human resource development

Define human resource development why it is important to organization?

Human resource development can be defined as a continuous process to ensure the development of employee competencies, dynamism, and effectiveness in a systematic and planned way to achieve higher quality and higher level of productivity. It is one of the major function and important aspect of HRM. As we know that organization always run in a dynamic environment and it has to cope with the changing forces of environment to achieve its objectives effectively. Coping with the environment depends upon how far the organization is able to develop and utilize its HR. HRD always aims to enhance the ability of an organization to compete and adopt to a changing competitive environment. It is the major function of HRM of developing, increasing capabilities, improving the performance of employee for future growth and changes as well as for the current job.

Important of HR development

HR development is concerned with increasing knowledge, skills and capacities of employee ultimately aimed at developing competencies of people in an organization. Without proper objectives organization cant achieve its objectives effectively. Thus HRD has created its own need in every organization. The importance of HRD are given below:

i) Develop competencies: The basic need for HRD is to develop competencies in HR at all level in the organization. Competent employees are necessary for all organization for the success of internal and external operation. The all function of HRD aimed to develop the competencies of its employee which ultimately helps to ensure other function.

ii) Increase productivity: Higher competent people leads the higher level of productivity. HRD ensures the development of employee competencies, dynamism, and effectiveness in a systematic and planned way to achieve higher quality and higher level of productivity. Increasing productivity along with reducing its cost make the organization competent in the market too.

iii) Increase commitment: HRD provides the opportunity to discover, develop and use their potentials in employee, which increase commitment in them. It heightens employee moral, reduce absenteeism and lobour turnover, and increase job satisfaction.

iv) facilitate environmental adaptation: HRD equips employee to respond to changing environmental forces. Employee must be involved in HRD program to upgrade, increase competencies to use ........ dynamic and new technology. It enhance the ability of an organization to compete and adapt to a changing competitive environment.

v) Managerial succession: HRD increase the skill, knowledge and capabilities of the employee. Thus, it facilitates managerial succession to higher level when the need arises from internal sources because It is sometimes, impossible to recruit skilled manpower from external sources.

Training

Define training and write its benefit.(why it is important?)

Training is the act of increasing the knowledge and skill of an employee for doing a particular job. Training provides skill to new or present employee to perform their job effectively. It is a systematic and organized procedure by which employees learn technical knowledge and skill for a definite purpose. It is the teaching and learning of activities, which improves and changes the employees knowledge, skill, behavior and attitude toward the requirement of job and organization. Thus training bridges the differences between the job requirement and employees present specification.

According to Edwin B. Flippo training is the act of increasing the knowledge and skill of an employee for doing a particular job.

Benefit of Training

i) Improve productivity: Training are intends to increase the knowledge and skill of the employee in the performance of a particular job. Thus it ultimately leads increasing in quality and quantity of output.

ii) standardization of procedure: With the help of training the best available procedure of performing the work can be standardized and taught to all employees. This minimizes the errors of the employee because they work with great care and better understanding.

iii) Less supervision: a well trained employee is self- confident in his work because he knows what to do and how to do. In such circumstance the supervision is lessened.

iv) economic operation: A better trained employee will be able to make better and economic use of materials and equipment, in such situation, the chance of wastage, rate of accident and damage will be minimum. Thus it helps in reducing per unit cost of production.

v) Quick learning: A well planned and systematically organized training program reduces the learning time. The qualified instructor will..... help the employee to acquire the skill and knowledge to do a particular job quickly.

Approaches/ Method of determining training need

Describe the various method that should be used while determining training needs.

The foundation of all training is the training need. Training need are those aspects necessary to perform the job in an organization in which employees lacking attitude, knowledge and skilled are studied and

analyzed. It indicates the difference between employees desired performance and actual performance. The method of determining training needs are given below:

i) training need survey: a training need survey is seeking opinion on what knowledge and skill is required for a particular job or class of performer. This is a direct questioning survey to collect opinion about employees training needs. This survey may be conducted and asked to experts to provide their opinion in order to improve the performance of employee. In such approach the data are collected directly and that are analyzed and categorized in some fashion. This approach is fast, inexpensive and most adapted approach but the data are based on opinion and not necessarily supported by objective performance data.

ii) competency study: A competency study is also a training need survey which is far more base on the opinion of expert as to the desired competencies of the performer in question. It is relatively quick and result in a broad consensus on training needs. In this approach the source of information must be the people who have performed the job, managed the job and possibly been recipients of jobs output, that data are analyzed to calculate the training needs. This types of approach involves broad participation and result in consensus but it is difficult to relate competencies and the resulting knowledge and skill requirements to job output and organization performance. However this approach is popular in the most of organization.

iii) Task analysis: This method collects and analyzed information of every task in the organization. It is used for task level needs where training needs of concerned jobholder is determined to perform that task properly. The job description and job specification plays the vital role for acquiring the relevant result on specific task, duties, skills required on the job. The primary source of task analysis is the performer itself, it ranks and analyzed the performance of good performer simultaneously the not good one . Such data are collected through observation and interview and that are analyzed in systematic way to find out the knowledge and skill that should be upgraded to the employee for the better performance of job. Such types of method clearly identify the required task and required knowledge and skill but it requires a lot of time and effort.

iv) Performance Analysis: Performance analysis is relatively new but proven process for determining training needs and improving individual and organization performance. This method refers to both organizational and individual employee performance analysis. This method identifies the differences between the planned performance( Standard) and actual performance. The main concept of this method is that the difference between desired performance and actual performance is the individuals training needs. This approach requires time, skill, and management commitment however it can directly

and significantly impact organization performance as well as produce relevant training program. In such method the data are collected through observation and interview and the main source of data are document containing relevant performance data ( production figure, sales figure, labour cost and scrap) and the people, the difference are analyzed to determine training which is ultimately aimed to improve organization performance.

Training Method

On the job training

( important question)

This is one of the most effective types of training which can be defined as learning by doing and learning while working . On this types of training the trainee is trained on the job at his/her workplace, this enables employee to get training under the same working condition, and with the same processes, materials and equipments they are using. This makes the training most effective and easy to learn under the supervision and guidance of qualified trainer. It is relatively cheaper and less time consuming and makes easiness to the trainee as they are working in that environment where they are getting training but the overall productivity may be low while the employees develop their skill on particular job. It includes the following training program:

i) Apprenticeship program: Apprenticeship program is a structured process by which trainee becomes skilled worker through in- the- job training. It is widely used method in which each employee learn by working with those employees who are already skilled in their jobs. Such program generally start with classroom training focusing on theory and on auxiliary skill needed to perform the job then trainee are allowed to perform only limited tasks. Slowly and gradually the tuff task are given to encourage them , after that they become able on performing job properly. The example of skill can be achieved through apprentice training are : electrician, plumbing, accounting, nursing etc. In such program the period of apprenticeship is pre-determined and does not allow for individual differences in learning time.

ii) Internship training: In this method, the trainee is interned in organization for a specified period and works as an employee. It is also a form of on- the- job training on which the practical knowledge and experience is given to the trainee along with theoretical knowledge to make them skilled and qualified for performing the job. In terns work in organization for a specified period and get real world exposure. The student of technical, medical and management subject usually go for internship program.

As per apprenticeship program the interned program is just intend to get exposure to real world not for providing the job.

iii) Job instruction training( JIT): JIT is a systematic approach to on- the- job training which was developed during world war II to prepare supervisors to train operatives. This method clearly goes far beyond just telling but includes preparation, interaction, showing, illustrating, trying the new skill, asking question, observation and follow up. It is the step by step training , those step include : - preparing the trainees by telling them about the job and overcoming their uncertainties. - Presenting the instruction, giving essential information in a clear manner. - having the trainees tryout the job to display their understanding. - Placing the workers into the job with a designated resource person to help if needed.

Off- the- Job Training

All the job training that are taken place from outside the job place are include in off- the- job training. Under such method, training is separated from the job situation which focuses on learning the materials related to their future job performance. Thus, the trainee can concentrate on learning rather than spending time in performing it. Off- the- job training covers some techniques they are given below:

i) Classroom lectures and conferences: there are certain aspects of all the jobs that can be learned better in the classroom than on the job. Many organization use lecture and conferences for delivering training in many types of knowledge and skills. They are most useful when philosophy, concept, attitudes, theories and problem solving activities must be learned. The lecture and conference are suitable to convey the information to huge groups. In fact even the on- the-job training approaches use lecture/ conference as part of their overall approach. The effectiveness to this program will be maximizing the chances for exchanging idea and views between the trainer and trainees, and the success of such techniques depends on the leadership qualities of the person who leads the group.

ii) Audio- Visual Aids: audio- video material such as films, videos are also used in skill training program. They can provide information and explicitly display skills that are not easily presented by other techniques. In such types of technique the trainee may not feel boor as in lecture, it is far more better and widely using techniques now a day, because of its effectiveness. Video program provides a live work situation. However the effectiveness of this method depends on how closely such films are related to

the specific learning objectives. The limitation of this techniques is the lack of interaction between the trainer and the trainee.

iii) Simulation exercise: a simulator is any kind of equipment or techniques that duplicates as nearly as possible, the actual condition encountered on the job. The basic idea behind simulation is to construct a situation that closely represents the actual one. Astronauts receive part of their training in simulators. Simulator is very useful and even necessary when on-the-job practice could result in a serious injury, a costly error or the destruction of the valuable materials. It includes case exercise, experiential exercise, complex computer modeling and vestibule (entrance) training.

iv) Programmed instruction: This is a method of self- instruction in which training material is presented in the form of programmed text or manual. The material to be learned is presented in organized logical sequences from simple to complex level of instruction, thus trainee goes through these units by answering question. It can facilitate trainees to learn at their own pace, and provides immediate feedback.

Concept of Management Development

Define management development, with on-the-job development.

Management development can be defined as any attempt to improve managerial performance by imparting knowledge, changing attitudes or increasing skills. It is a systematic process of improving managerial effectiveness through which managers develop their abilities to manage. It is designed to improve the overall effectiveness of manager in their present position and to prepare them for greater responsibility. Thus it is concerned with both present and future performance of mangers. According to Dcenzo and Robbins : Management development is future oriented training focusing on personal growth of employee.

Techniques of Management Development

1) On- the- Job Development:

The development of managers ability in the same working situation at their own working environment is known as on- the job development. It is the learning by doing in the real working environment. It consist the following program and techniques:

a) Coaching: This is one of the most popular management development techniques where effective senior managers teach the new managers. It is an activity of guiding managers to grow and improve their competence on a day- to day basis. The coach gives right direction, advice, criticism and suggestion and assign specific task to improve their abilities. The main objectives of this techniques is to increase employee motivation by providing more open lines of communication with their superiors, concrete feedback on area needing improvement, positive reinforcement for what they do well, and specific goals for change.

b) Understudy Assignment: Understudy assignments involve assigning a potential manager to work for a more experience manager often on an assistant to basis. The effectiveness of understudy assignment depends on the willingness and ability of the higher level manager to share experience and to transfer knowledge to the understudy manager. Such types of training makes the potential manager competent and its solve the problem of lack of competent people due to promotion, transfer, retirement and resignation of present managers.

c) Job Rotation: Job rotation is a systematic process of moving trainee managers from one job/depart to another job/depart to expand their skill, knowledge and abilities. It is designed to prepare managers to take on additional responsibilities by providing them with experience in different areas of organization. The managers will learn new ideas and gain new information underlying various job, such new ideas helps them in specific problem solving, It also reduces the monotony in work. Such types of technique is more costly for an organization.

d) Committee Assignment: It is a system in which manager is appointed to committee team which provide an opportunity for the employee to share in managerial decision making, to learn by watching others, and to investigate specific organization problem. This techniques also develop skills in working with other in a team. In such technique the trainee have the opportunity to acquire the knowledge of various aspect of business.

2) Off- the- Job Development:

a) Sensitivity training: It is technique of changing behavior through group process. In such technique the unstructured group of participants interact in a fee and open environment with each other and get informed each other truthfully of how their behavior is being seen and to interpret the kind of feeling it produces. The main objectives of such technique is to provide managers with increased awareness of their own behavior and of how other perceive them. Through such development the trainee increase his/her openness with others, increase tolerance for individual differences and enhance the listening skill.

b) Transactional Analysis( TA) : This techniques focus on viewing the interaction between individual and between groups as transaction and thereby develops their managerial skills and abilities. This technique is based on the concept that each person has a three- dimensional behavior pattern base on three ego state.: parent, child, and adult. In TA theory the parents and child ego state feel and react directly while the adult state thinks logically before acting. Thus the managers are encourage to engage in adult state behavior. It generate better understanding of problem, skill in interpersonal competence.

c) Lecture courses: This is the popular method to bring all participants to a common level of knowledge. This is the best technique to present and explain series of facts, concept and principle in short time. It gives opportunities for managers to acquire knowledge and develop their conceptual and analytical abilities.

d) Simulation exercise: a simulator is any kind of equipment or techniques that duplicates as nearly as possible, the actual condition encountered on the job. The basic idea behind simulation is to construct a situation that closely represents the actual one. Astronauts receive part of their training in simulators. Simulator is very useful and even necessary when on-the-job practice could result in a serious injury, a costly error or the destruction of the valuable materials. It includes case exercise, experiential exercise, complex computer modeling and vestibule (entrance) training.

Chapter-6

Motivation

Define motivation:

Motivation is the willingness to do something to achieve organizational goal and at the same time to satisfy individual needs. It is an inner state of our mind that activates, directs and sustain our behavior. Thus motivation can be defined as the force within the person that affects his or her direction, intensity and persistence of voluntary behavior. In such a way motivation consist of three different aspects, the first one is direction, which means it is goal oriented, second intensity which refer to the amount of effort of the employee and last one is persistence which refers to the length of time spent for his/her work. So these three aspect determine the motivation of the employee in an organization. Employee in the organization are motivated by different factors such as monitory, incentives, extra responsibility, promotion etc.

According to Robbins: Motivation can be defined as the willingness to exert high level of effort toward organizational goals, conditioned by the efforts ability to satisfy some individual needs.

Maslows Hierarchy of Need Theory

Describe Maslows Hierarchy Theory.

One of the most well known theory of human motivation is Maslows need hierarchy. It is based on the needs of the people that appear in a hierarchical fashion. According to this theory lower ordered needs are experienced first which must be satisfied before higher order needs are perceived. This theory is based on following assumption.

Unlimited Wants Unsatisfied need is motivator

Hierarchy of importance: Need have priority and they are arranged according to a hierarchy of importance. There are five needs proposed by Maslow in hierarchical fashion, they are given below:

i) Physiological needs: The first needs that occurs in human beings is the physiological needs. These needs can be defined as the basic needs which include food, water, clothing, sex etc. These needs are related to the survival and maintenance of human life. So it should be satisfied first, and these needs can be satisfied by wage, salary, in an organization.

ii) Security and safety Needs: these needs come second in the hierarchy order. They are concerned with the physical safety and economic security which include safety of person and property, job security, old age provision, security from risk etc. these needs can be satisfied in the workplace by job continuity and adequate insurance and retirement benefits.

iii) Social needs: Human beings lives in a society or in group. So they prefer to live in such society which love them most. These needs include belongingness, friendship, love, affection, association and social acceptance.

iv) Esteem and Ego needs: these needs include self- esteem and public esteem, self esteem means esteem in the eyes of (self, confidence, self respect etc.) public esteem means esteem or image in the eyes of public as praise, power, prestige, appreciation, recognition etc. In such a way these needs are concerned with prestige and respect of the individual. Maslow has proposed this needs in higher order needs.

v) Self- actualization Needs: these needs are concerned with the desire to become what one can become. Self development and being creative is the broadest sense of the world. These needs are psychological and infinite. This needs become important to an individual once he is reasonably satisfied with the esteem needs. The manager can ....... help employees to satisfy self actualization needs by providing challenging job, encouraging creativity and allowing risky decision making.

Further maslow has categorized these five needs into two categories one is lower order needs and another one is higher order needs as primary needs which are finite, these should be satisfied in any

condition, these needs include physociological and security or safety needs. They are infinite but they are satisfied only after lower- ordered needs are satisfied.

Alderfers ERG theory of Motivation.

Describe ERG theory of Motivation.

The propunder of ERG theory is Clayton Alderfer. In this theory he categorized Maslows five needs into three broad perspective, which consist existence (E), Relatedness (R) and growth (G) . Thus ERG theory is the sum of existence, relatedness and growth.

i) Existence Need: Existence need also refer to Maslows physiological and safety needs, which include the need for human survival i.e food, shelter, social and economic safety etc.

ii) Relatedness Need: relatedness needs are concerned with satisfying interpersonal relationship. Such need can be fulfilled by interacting with other people, receiving public recognition and through the feeling of interpersonal safety. These needs correspond to Maslows belongingness/ social need.

iii) Growth Needs: Growth needs are concerned with continued desire for personal growth and development. They consist of a persons self esteem through personal achievement as well as the concept of self-actualization presented in Maslows theory.

ERG theory doesnt propose that people move up or down in hierarchy of need in a fashion that described by Maslows. Instead ERG theory proposed that it is possible for more than one needs may be achieved at the same time for the employee motivation. Not only that this theory also describe the new concept on human motivation, which is a satisfactory- progression concept and a frustration- regression concept.

McCllands theory of Need (Achievement)

Describe the achievement theory of Motivation.

The motivation theories described so far look at the individuals primary needs and their relative importance in life. However just fulfilling of primary needs is not sufficient for one, people have secondary needs that are learned, parental style and social norms. In this theory Mclelland focuses on three important aspect of motivation they are given below: i) Need for achievement: it concerned with those people who have strong desire and determination to do something better or more efficiently that it has been done before. People with high need of achievement want to accomplish challenging goals effectively through their own effort. Such people want to take the risk and want to get immediate feedback also. They seek situation where they can attain personal responsibility for finding solution to problem. Thus they prefer working alone rather than in a group because of their strong need to assume personal responsibility for tasks.

ii) Need for Affiliation: It refers to a desire to establish and maintain friendly and warm relation with other and avoid conflicts and confrontation. It is similar to Maslows belongingness need and Alderfers relatedness need. People having such needs prefer to work in a group which include interaction with other. They can effectively accomplish the interacting job like sales.

iii) Need for power: Need or Power refers to a desire to control others to influence their behavior. People having such needs prefer to stay in competitive and status position. They want to maintain their prestige. They are likely to make more suggestion in meeting, evaluate situation, and communicate effectively.

In this theory McClland proposed three needs which must be learned rather than instinct( character). As a result of life experience these needs are acquired over time. He also focuses that a respective working environment should be created for a particular people having a particular needs.

Vrooms Expectancy theory

Define expectancy theory of motivation.

Expectancy theory explains motivation in terms of the expectation that people have about their ability to perform effectively on the job and about the kinds of rewards they expect to obtain if they perform the job effectively. According to this theory the strength of an expectation is a power factor of motivation. People are motivated by attractiveness of the outcome and they work hard because they anticipate more rewards in future. Thus, this theory focuses on three relationship that are given below:

i) Effort- to performance expectancy: It refers to a persons perception of the probability that effort will lead to successful performance. Expectancy is defined from the probability range between 0.0 to 1.0. If we believe our effort will lead to higher performance, then the expectancy is very strong perhaps a probability 1.0 where 1.0 equals obsolete certainty that the outcome will occur. In other hands when a person is not certain about the desired performance level than his/her expectancy is very low perhaps it may be 0.0. This theory focuses on E-P expectancy which is necessary condition for the existence of high levels of work motivation.

ii) Performance to Outcome Expectancy: The performance to- outcome expectancy refers to a persons perception of the probability that performance will lead to certain other outcomes. If a persons think a high performer is certain to get a pay raise then expectancy is closed to 1.0 . On the other hand if the individual perceives that there is no certainty of high pay even after high level of performance than P-O will be closed to 0.0. According to this theory, the more strongly a person believes that positive outcomes will follow from effective performance, the more motivated they will be to perform effectively.

iii) Outcome Valances: the term valances refers to the anticipated satisfaction or dissatisfaction that an individual feels toward an outcome. Pay raises, promotion and recognition might have positive valances, where as fatigue, stress, frustration might have negative valances. It range from (-1) to (+1). When an individual gets high level of satisfaction from his/her outcome, they are more likely to be motivated.

Ultimately this theory provides a clear way for increasing employee motivation by altering the persons EP expectancies, P-O expectancies and outcome valances. For a high level of motivation all three sources of expectancy model should be high.

Equity Theory

Define equity theory of motivation.

This theory states that individual are motivated by their desire to be treated equally in their work relationship. The motivation of employee is influenced by the extent to which they feel they are being treated fairly and equitably by the organization. Individual always want to avoid inequalities compared to other and they are motivated to resolve these inequalities. According to this theory individual in compare themselves to another in terms of their input- outcome ration. They first evaluates themselves and compare the result with other. Input are individuals contribution to the organization such as: education, experience, effort and loyalty. Outcomes are what the individual receive in return such as: pay, recognition, social relationship etc.

If the person find these ration to be equal or nearly equitable than he/she experience a feeling of equity, but if the ratio are not nearly equitable, then inequality exists and the person will be motivated to take some action to resolve such inequality. The process of equity theory can be shown as:

i) ii) iii) iv) v)

Self evaluation Evaluation of others Comparing of self with others. Feeling of equity/ inequity Action to reduce inequity.

Frustration

Frustration refers to the psychological phenomenon which may be occurred, due to the difficulties, conflicts to their goal directive activities. Thus, frustration is the feeling caused by a sense of privation (lack of something), deprivation(blocking or interfering with) or conflict in relation to their goal directive activities.

According to Richard M. Strees Frustration refers to a psychological reaction to an obstruction or impediment to goal oriented behavior.

Causes of frustration:

i) ii) iii)

When an individual is unable to fulfill his/her needs, frustration occurs. When a motivated drive is blocked before a person reaches a desired goal, frustration occur. It occurs due to lack of interpersonal relation.

iv) When people are assigned to job that have contrasting characteristics, unequal degree of status, and frequently foster completion.

v)

It occur due to lack of co-ordination.

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