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REVISION EXRECISE 1 Question 1 : Word Classes (20 Marks) (a) Read the text below and answer the

questions that follow. State the word class of each word in bold in the column provided. An example is given.

One day six years ago, Mei Fong (0)wet herself in a busy street in Tsim Sha Tsui, Hong Kong. She was horribly (1) embarrassed. Mei Fong, now 55, first suffered from dribble incontinence after childbirth. Urine would dribble out each time she laughed, sneezed, coughed or even ran.

Incontinence, defined as an (2) involuntary leakage of urine, is a problem that affects both genders, (3) although women are affected approximately twice as often as men. Pregnancy, childbirth and age are the primary culprits. But men, women and children can all be incontinent due to injury, weak pelvic-floor muscles, birth defects and strokes.

According to Dr Nor Azhari Md Zam, from the Department of Urology at Singapore General Hospital, the most common types of urinary incontinence are stress (4) incontinence when there is an involuntary leakage on exertion or sneezing or coughing and urge incontinence, where the patient has a sudden urge to void and is unable to get to the toilet in time. Urge incontinence is not a disease in itself. It is a symptom of several diseases, (5) hence an evaluation by a urologist is necessary, says Dr Azhari.

Urge incontinence is (6) normally related to an overactive or oversensitive bladder. (7) Some patients may relate the triggering of symptoms or worsening symptoms to specific irritants such as certain foods, drinks or the environment, such as cold weather.

Coffee, chocolate and cola drinks contain caffeine, which is diuretic that can increase urine production, and (8) this may worsen the symptoms in patients with overactive bladders. Treatment for overactive bladders (9) includes lifestyle changes or behavioural therapy and medications, says Dr Nor Azhari. The latest therapy is the injection of botox (10) into the bladder, making the bladder less sensitive. Mei Fong developed urinary incontinence probably because she didnt do urethra -contracting exercises after childbirth. So three years ago, she began following her doctors instruction to do regular pelvic exercises and her condition has improved markedly.

Source: Readers Digest, October 2007

No. (0) (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) wet embarrassed involuntary although normally incontinence hence Some this includes into

Word

Word Class verb

(10 marks) (b) Each of the following sentences contains a word class error. Correct the error by rewriting the sentence. Use word class grammar terminology to explain the error. An example is given. Example: (0) They chant that beautiful sing every morning. Correction : They chant that beautiful song every morning. Explanation : The adjective beautiful should precede a noun instead of a verb. (1) Popcorn is crunchy, tastes and has fewer kilojoules than other snacks. Correction : ___________________________________________ Explanation : ___________________________________________ Though exercise may be the last thing on your mind, youll probably feel much good afterwards. Correction : ___________________________________________ Explanation: ___________________________________________

(2)

(3)

If one person can make a different, imagine what the largest continent in the world can do. Correction : ___________________________________________ Explanation: ___________________________________________

(4)

I was touched by his love and dedicate towards refugees in Cambodia and around the world. Correction : ___________________________________________ Explanation: ___________________________________________

(5)

Im angry that no one from the shopping complex came to our aid immediately. They were slowly to act. Correction : ___________________________________________ Explanation: ___________________________________________ (10 marks)

Question 2: Verbs and Tenses (20 marks) (a) Each of the sentences below contains an error. (i) Correct the error by rewriting the sentence. (ii) Provide the rule to explain each error. An example is given. (0) The rubber tappers can taps and gathers latex from the rubber trees everyday. Correction : The rubber tappers can tap and gather latex from the rubber trees every day. Rule : The verb tap and gather after the use of the modal can should be in the base form. (1) The children were working in the supermarket after they failed the examination. Correction: __________________________________________________ Rule (2) : __________________________________________________

Azman is bathing when the telephone rang. Correction: __________________________________________________ Rule : _________________________________________________

(3)

Two thirds of the students in the college is women. Correction: __________________________________________________

Rule (4)

: _________________________________________________

More people died in bed than anywhere else. Correction :__________________________________________________ Rule : _________________________________________________

(5)

I am sure he didnt meant to distract those girls. Correction :_________________________________________________ Rule : _________________________________________________

(b)

(10 marks) Fill in the blanks with the correct forms of the verbs in the brackets in the passage below. State the tenses of the verbs which you have filled in. Write your answers in the column provided in the table. An example is given.

The establishment of the Cabinet Committee for Sports chaired by Deputy Prime Minister Tan Sri Muhyiddin Yassin, which involves 10 ministries, (0) ___________ (underline) the Governments seriousness in developing sports. Football, hockey, badminton, squash, bowling, gymnastics, aquatics and athletics (1) ____________ (identify) as the eight core sports.

The Road to London 2012 programme, however (2) ____________ (focus) on a few selected sports namely badminton, cycling, diving and archery. The athletes in these sports (3) ______________ (train) hard to achieve Malaysias first gold in the Olympics. This would be history in the making for us.

Malaysia (4) ______________ (excel) in sports in the past. No doubt we can do better but we must acknowledge those who have trained and worked hard in making Malaysia proud. In Beijing 2008, the Malaysian contingent (5) __________ (win) a silver medal in badminton through Datuk Lee Chong Wei.
Adapted from Making a name in international sports by Dato Mohd Yasin Mohd Salleh, The Star, 21 November 2009

No. (0) (1) (2) (3)

Verb underline identify focus train

Verb Form underlines

Verb Tense Simple Present

(4) (5)

excel win

(10 marks) Question 3: Phrases and Clauses (15 marks) (a) Complete the sentences given using the types of phrases as stated in the bracket. An example is given. Example: (0) The run down house is an historical landmark of the state. (Noun Phrase) (1) The car floated _________________________________________ (Prepositional Phrase) (2) The dogs dragged the rubbish _____________________________ (Adverbial Phrase) (3) He finally remembered that he was _________________________ (Adjectival Phrase) (4) She gave him _________________________________________ (Noun Phrase) (5) _________________________________ people lived in harmony. (Prepositional Phrase) (5 marks)

(b)

State whether the dependant clauses in the sentences below are adverbial, adjectival or noun clauses and provide their syntactic functions. Write your answers in the columns provided. An example is given.

No. (0) Example:

Sentence

Type of dependent clause

Syntactic function

I was late to school because the bus broke down. (1) The lecturer announced that the

Adverbial

Adverbial

assembly had been cancelled. (2) Fatimah left the party after she received the phone call. She is the doctor whom I have worked with before. Adults who abuse children will be punished. He screamed frightfully as if he had seen a ghost.

(3)

(4)

(5)

(10 marks)

Question 4: Cohesive Devices (10 marks) (a) Read the text below. State the referent of each word in bold in the column provided. An example is given.

That happened a day or two before the cyclone came that cut into the rice like fine steel. It was an awful (0) thing, coming so swiftly, without a moment's warning in which to light a holy candle or set a piece of blessed palm burning. Old madame wept openly and said her beads, just as her son Didier, the New Orleans (1) one, would have done. If such a thing had happened to (2) him planting cotton up in Natchitoches, Alphonse, he would have raved and stormed like a second cyclone, and made his surroundings unbearable for a day or two. But Alce took the (3) it differently. He looked ill and gray after it, and said nothing. His speechlessness was frightful. Only (4) she whose heart which he had yearned for understood his true feelings. Clarisse's heart melted with tenderness; but when she offered her soft, purring words of condolence, he accepted (5) them with mute indifference. Then she and her nnaine wept afresh in each other's arms.
Adapted from an extract from At The Canadian Ball by Kate Chopin

Cohesive Device (0) thing (1) one (2) him (3) it

Referent The damage caused by the cyclone on the rice

(4) she (5) them (5 marks)

(b)

State whether the words or phrases in bold in the following sentences are logical, lexical or grammatical devices. An example is given. Sentence Example: The bank refused to give the company more time. Consequently, it went bankrupt. The man and his companion are arguing on the street. The latter is in tears as she is talking to him. Snatch thieves are getting bolder and bolder these days. The police should act firmly against them before things get worse. Cohesive device logical

No. (0)

(1)

(2)

(3)

We walked to the field. There we were able to practise our vocals without disturbing others.

(4) (5)

My friends intend to go overseas to further their studies. They find studying abroad more challenging. Never be afraid to laugh at yourself. After all, laughter is good for the soul. (5 marks)

Question 5: Sentence Types and Patterns (20 marks) Read the following text carefully and answer the questions that follow.

From Cuddle Chemical to Love Drug When oxytocin is released in the brain, it increases trust, decreases anxiety and somehow helps joyously connect mother to baby and lover to lover. No wonder its often called the cuddle chemical or the love drug. New research suggests that drugs made to stimulate oxytocin could be useful to treat everything from anxiety disorders to autism.

Oxytocin is both a hormone and a neurotransmitter. It produces uterine contractions during labour and later spurs the letdown of milk for nursing. In fact, many pregnant women are given a synthetic version of the hormone during childbirth to speed things along and most of them were

shocked by this revelation. In the brain oxytocin has different actions than in the uterus. Most famously, research on mouse like voices has shown that it is involved in creating pair bonding. In prairie voles, oxytocin seems to wire in a connection between one particular partner and pleasure. Prairie voles are monogamous creatures but promiscuous montane voles dont hav e much of these crucial chemicals in their brains pleasure areas. Since for them any partner goes, at least in voles, oxytocin and vasopressin are the stuff that love is made off. Although there has been much speculation that humans taking oxytocin together would fall in love, in experiments this hasnt happened in either women or men.
Adapted from Borneo Post, Nature and Health, 28 November 2009: 5.

(a)

Identify four simple sentences, three compound sentences and three complex sentences from the text. Simple sentences (1) ___________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________ (2) ___________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________ (3) ___________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________ (4) ___________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________

Compound Sentences (1) ___________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________ (2) ___________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________ (3) ___________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________

Complex sentences

(1)

___________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________

(2)

___________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________

(3)

___________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________ (10 marks)

(b)

(i) Analyse the following sentences according to their elements. Parse and elements as follows. An example is given. S - subject V - verb iO - indirect object A adverbial dO - direct object

label

the

C - complement Example (0)

S V iO A /My mother/ has stored/ the grain/ in the wooden tub./

(1) (2) (3) (4) (5)

Travelling without any luggage is a very strange experience. The postman gave my neighbour a stack of letters this morning. Michael is driving his father to Penang tomorrow. I found the coincidence hard to believe. Space exploration is ultimately about human dreams. (5 marks)

(ii)

Construct one sentence of your own for each of the following sentence patterns. An example is given. Example:

(0) (1) (2) (3) (4)

SV SVO SVCA SVOC

He died. ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________

SVOOA -

(5)

SVA

___________________________________________ (5 marks)

Question 6: Reporting structures (15 marks) Transform the following sentences from reporting speech to reported speech. For each transformation, state one rule, other than the change in punctuation marks, that you have applied in the reported clause. You should provide evidence from the clause to support the rule you have stated. Class, read your notes for the exam, the teacher said. The teacher told the class to read their notes for the exam. Rule Evidence : Change in reporting verb and pronoun. : said is changed to told, and your is changed to their . (1) Aisyah said, You must return your mothers call as soon as possible. Transformation : _____________________________________ _____________________________________ Rule Evidence (2) : : _____________________________________ _____________________________________

Example (0) Transformation

: :

They asked, Are we going for the camp at Kuala Kubu this morning? Transformation : _____________________________________ _____________________________________ Rule Evidence : : _____________________________________ _____________________________________

(3)

I lost my beautiful Omega watch, Mr. Bakar said. Transformation : _____________________________________ _____________________________________ Rule Evidence : : _____________________________________ _____________________________________

(4)

Watch out! There are ants under this tree! said Alex to Ruhiya.

Transformation

_____________________________________ _____________________________________

Rule Evidence (5)

: :

_____________________________________ _____________________________________

The students said, We did our work last night and worked till the wee hours of morning. Transformation : _____________________________________ _____________________________________ Rule Evidence : : _____________________________________ _____________________________________

(15 marks)