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Estimacin del AOF (Absolute Open Flow) del Reservorio.

Simulacin de Reservorios

Estimacin del AOF (Absolute Open Flow) del Reservorio The absolute open flow (AOF) potential of a well is the rate at which the well would produce against zero sandface back pressure. It is used as a measure of gas well performance because it quantifies the ability of a reservoir to deliver gas to the wellbore. Deliverability tests make possible the prediction of flow rates against any particular back pressure, including AOF when the back pressure is zero. This result is illustrated on the following inflow performance relationship (IPR) plot.

1. Types of Deliverability Tests. There are a number of tests which can be conducted in order to calculate the deliverability of a well as described below. 1.1. Conventional Back Pressure Test The conventional back pressure test is conducted by flowing a well at different rates. Each rate is sustained until the radius of investigation has reached the outer edge of the drainage area and pressure stabilization has been reached. This type of test is not practical for low permeability reservoirs because the time to reach pressure stabilization for each rate is excessive. 1.2. Isochronal Test A fundamental reason that the conventional test is theoretically sound is that the radius of investigation is constant for each flow period. In order to uphold this principle, the isochronal test takes advantage of the fact that the radius of investigation is a function of time and not flow rate. An isochronal test is conducted by flowing a well at several different flow rates for periods of equal duration, normally much less than the time required for stabilization. A shut-in, long enough for the pressure to reach essentially static conditions, is performed between each flow
Docente: Ing. Daro Cruz 1

Estimacin del AOF (Absolute Open Flow) del Reservorio.

Simulacin de Reservorios

period. In addition, an extended flow rate, long enough to reach pressure stabilization, is required. In tight reservoirs the length of time required to reach pressure stabilization between flow periods could make the isochronal test impractical. 1.3. Modified Isochronal Test The modified isochronal test is an isochronal test which requires that each shut-in between flow periods, rather than being long enough to attain essentially static conditions, should be of the same duration as each flow period. It also requires an extended flow period. 1.4. Single Point Test A single point test consists only of an extended flow period. They require an estimate of the degree of turbulent flow in the formation. This estimate is often based on information provided by other wells in the same formation or calculated from reservoir and fluid properties. 2. AOF Flow Conditions. 2.1. Extended Flow. Normally an isochronal test includes one flow rate that is extended to stabilization and a stabilized pressure and flow rate point is determined. This point is the extended flow pressure and flow rate for the test. Single point tests do not include the multirate portion of a test and consist of only an extended rate and pressure. 2.2. Stabilized Shut-in. Stabilized generally refers to a test in which the pressure no longer changes significantly with time. For AOF tests, the stabilized shut-in pressure is a pressure that reflects the average reservoir pressure at the time. It is either measured during the test or determined from the interpretation of the data. 2.3. Stabilized Flow. In high permeability reservoirs or wells with small drainage areas, it may be possible to flow the well until stabilization during the extended flow period of a deliverability test. In these cases, the stabilized pressure and flow rate point is the extended flow point. Many tests, however, are not flowed to stabilization because of time constraints (especially in tight reservoirs). An extended flow and stabilized shut-in are still performed at the end of these deliverability tests so that the buildup data can be analyzed and from that the stabilized rate calculated. Stabilized flow can be determined by calculation or by creating a model of the reservoir,
Docente: Ing. Daro Cruz 2

Estimacin del AOF (Absolute Open Flow) del Reservorio.

Simulacin de Reservorios

doing a forecast at a specified pressure, and finding the point when the rate has stabilized (usually at 3 months, 6 months, or 1 year) . 3. Types of Analyses. Two types of analysis are available, the simplified analysis or the laminar-inertial-turbulent (LIT) analysis. LIT analysis is more rigorous than simplified analysis and is usually only used in tests where turbulence is dominant and the extrapolation to the AOF is large. However, in most cases the simplified analysis is sufficient to determine the AOF and deliverability. 3.1. Pressure Method. For both the simplified and LIT analysis, two pressure options are available, the pressure squared or the pseudo-pressure approach. 3.2. Pressure Squared The pressure squared approach is the more traditional method, and is often used because it is easier to understand and calculate. However, it is only valid for medium to low pressure ranges but is just as accurate as the pseudo-pressure approach in this range. 3.3. Pseudo-Pressure Using pseudo-pressure will be more accurate than the pressure squared approach, especially when dealing with a high pressure system, where gas viscosity (mg) and compressibility (cg) cannot be assumed to be constant. Thus, pseudo-pressure works for all pressure ranges, although it is more difficult to calculate and requires more computational time. 3.4. Simplified Analysis The simplified analysis is based on the following equation:

Pressure squared:

Pseudo-pressure:
The analysis of a modified isochronal test using the simplified method is illustrated below. For the modified isochronal test, pws must be used instead of pR because the duration of each shutin period is too short to reach static conditions.
Docente: Ing. Daro Cruz 3

Estimacin del AOF (Absolute Open Flow) del Reservorio.

Simulacin de Reservorios

The data is plotted on a log-log plot of Dp2 versus qst where Dp2 is defined as:

The flow and shut-in periods of equal duration provide the information required to plot four points. A straight line, called the transient deliverability line, is drawn through these four points. The duration of the last flow rate is extended until the pressure response has stabilized. This information is used to plot another point called the stabilized point. A line parallel to the transient deliverability line is drawn through the stabilized point. This is called the stabilized deliverability line. If the extended flow period does not reach pressure stabilization, a stabilized point can be found by calculation from a buildup test.

Docente: Ing. Daro Cruz

Estimacin del AOF (Absolute Open Flow) del Reservorio.

Simulacin de Reservorios

The parameter n can be determined from the slope of the line as follows:

Thus, slope is equal to 1 / n, and n is called the inverse slope. The other parameter, C, can be determined using n and the coordinates (qst and pR) of any point on the stabilized deliverability line (e.g. the stabilized point) as follows:

Note that C and n are considered to be constant for a limited range of flow rates. In theory, it is expected that this form of the deliverability relationship will be used only for the range of flow rates used during the test. However, in practice it is used indiscriminately for a wide range of rates and pressures.

Docente: Ing. Daro Cruz

Estimacin del AOF (Absolute Open Flow) del Reservorio.

Simulacin de Reservorios

4. LIT Analysis. The LIT analysis is used with dealing with high rate wells where turbulence is a major factor. Only the pseudo-pressure approach can be used in this situation since pressures are in a higher range due to the turbulence effects. LIT analysis is defined by the following equation: Note that the pseudo-pressure squared terms (a qst and b qst2) are equivalent to skin due to damage (sd) and skin due to turbulence (sturb). The coefficients a and b are defined in the example below. The analysis of an isochronal test using the LIT method is illustrated below.

5. Procedimiento para la estimacin del rea de la Estructura mediante el Sistema de Grillado o Mallado. 1. Objetivos. 1.1. Objetivos Generales. Determinar el Potencial AOF del Reservorio. Determinar la productividad optima del reservorio. Determinar la distribucin del potencial del reservorio. Determinar la distribucin optima del reservorio. 1.2. Objetivos Especficos. Determinar el nivel de referencia o Datum. Realizar la correccin de presiones al nivel de referencia. Calcular las constantes C y n del mtodo de Fetckovick para cada pozo.
Docente: Ing. Daro Cruz 6

Estimacin del AOF (Absolute Open Flow) del Reservorio. Determinar el AOF de cada pozo. Obtener C y n promedio. Obtener el AOF del Reservorio. 2. Informacin.

Simulacin de Reservorios

Para la realizacin de la presente prctica dispondremos de la siguiente informacin: El plano estructural del reservorio con el que se cuenta es el siguiente:

20/64 24/64 28/64 32/64 40/64

6.52 13.75 13.05 12 4.75

5780 5420 5200 4850 3880

6862 6771 6723 6667 6540

12.21 17.74 22.17 27.65 34.87

303 364 543 658 854

53.5 54.8 53.6 53.5 52

24.82 20.52 24.49 23.79 24.49

0 0 0 0 0

Docente: Ing. Daro Cruz

Estimacin del AOF (Absolute Open Flow) del Reservorio.

Simulacin de Reservorios

YIELD 24/64 28/64 32/64 40/64 48/64 52/64 15.1 3.2 11.9 12 11.9 11.9 5500 5372 5141 4625 4022 3601 7035 6921 6732 6356 5925 5639 14 17.9 24.6 34.2 42.7 47.4 376 475 644 868 1035 1150 54.1 53 53.1 52.6 52.2 52.1 26.92 26.52 26.11 25.28 24.21 24.01 2.7 2.2 2.2 1.3 2.7 3.5

24/64 32/64 40/64 48/64 52/64 28/64

24 12 12 12 14 24

5627 5438 5155 4751 4297 5587

7101 7052 6998 6930 6851 7088

16.2 27.5 37.4 49.1 60 19.4

409 673 868 1101 1459 503

53.11 52.1 52 51.1 NM 52.9

25.24 24.47 23.21 22.40 24.32 25.91

3.6 3.0 4.0 3.0 NM 3.6

24/64 32/64 40/64 44/64

24 15 15 52

5811 5730 5527 5428

7025 6921 6722 6630

14.48 26.17 41.18 45.48

409 660 1025 1176

52.1 50.8 51 49.7

28.24 25.22 24.89 25.86

2.4 2.5 2.5 2.8

Docente: Ing. Daro Cruz

Estimacin del AOF (Absolute Open Flow) del Reservorio. 3. Herramientas y/o Ecuaciones a Utilizar.

Simulacin de Reservorios

Para el clculo del AOF utilizaremos el mtodo propuesto por Feitkovich, el cual nos dice que para cada pozo:

qg C Pr 2 Pwf 2
Donde: Qg = Caudal de gas, PCS Pr = Presion esttica de reservorio, PSI Pwf = Presin de fondo fluyente, PSI C = ndice de flujo n = ndice de turbulencia

Y C y n son obtenidos tanto de forma grfica como analtica. Para obtener el AOF de cada pozo tenemos que tomar en cuenta que Pwf = 0 psi, por lo tanto:

qg C Pr 2 Pwf 2 Pwf 0 AOF C Pr 2

Don de la lectura del AOF podemos realizarla de forma grfica, mediante el ajuste de los puntos obtenidos en la prueba de produccin para cada pozo, de la siguiente manera:

Pr2

AOF
Docente: Ing. Daro Cruz

Log(q) 9

Estimacin del AOF (Absolute Open Flow) del Reservorio.

Simulacin de Reservorios

Y el clculo de C y n lo podemos hacer mediante el ajuste de los puntos realizados previamente de la siguiente manera:

n C

log q 2 log q1 log P 2 log P1 qg

Pr

Pwf

2 n

Pwf 0 AOF C n Pr 2

Para calcular los ndices C y n para todo el reservorio Feitkovich propone el siguiente mtodo de C y n promedio para el reservorio con los datos de las 4 pruebas o ms realizadas a los pozos:

q1 (105 ) C (105 ) n q1 (106 ) C (106 ) n _______________ qtotal

q2 (105 ) C (105 ) n q2 (106 ) C (106 ) n _______________ qtotal

q
# datos
n C
_ _

q
# datos

log qt (106 ) log qt (105 ) log 106 log 105 qt (106 )


_

(106 ) n
3.1. Correccin de las Presiones de Prueba. Los datos registrados en cada una de las pruebas que tenemos fueron hechos a diferentes profundidades, para poder realizar nuestro mapa isobrico se debe llevar todos nuestros datos hacia un nivel de referencia o DATUM, Para esto realizamos la proyeccin de los pozos 1 2 4 que se encuentran sobre un mismo eje y podemos realizar la reconstruccin de nuestro anticlinal y haciendo pasar por el centro de gravedad del mismo un recta horizontal obtenemos nuestro Datum, luego
Docente: Ing. Daro Cruz 10

Estimacin del AOF (Absolute Open Flow) del Reservorio.

Simulacin de Reservorios

realizamos la conversin de las presiones encontrando un P para cada pozo con la gravedad especfica del mismo.

Probador

DATUM

DATUM

Docente: Ing. Daro Cruz

11

Estimacin del AOF (Absolute Open Flow) del Reservorio. 4. SELECCIN DE INFORMACION

Simulacin de Reservorios

La grafica de volumen equivalente de gas de condensado en tanque ser utilizada para determinar el equivalente de crudo a gas mediante su gravedad especifica. El mapa estructural nos servir para determinar las alturas de pozos y el nivel del contacto agua gas 5. CONSTRUCCION DE LOS PLANOS ISOS Utilizaremos 2 modelos Productividad Optima. de simulacin Iso-AOF, Iso

Iso- AOF.- En este modelo generaremos 1 mapa isopaco de todo el campo. Iso Productividad ptima.- De igual manera se generara 1 mapa isopaco de todo el campo. Para la resolucin del problema se construir una Grilla Ortogonal de dimensiones 2x 2 cm a una escala de 1cm = 50000 mts. 6. PLANILLA DE CLCULO El formato que se utilizar se deja a consideracin debido a las variaciones existentes en la presente prctica: 7. Resultados. Como se puede apreciar los resultados que mas nos interesan en la siguiente practica son: La determinacin del AOF del Reservorio. Determinar la productividad optima del Reservorio. No obstante los clculos referidos al clculo del AOF y cualquier clculo auxiliar que se realice debern estar en esta seccin. 8. Conclusiones. En esta seccin debern hacer todas las consideraciones necesarias sobre la practica, es decir resultados, clculos aproximaciones y cada detalle que vean conveniente. 9. Anexos. Esta seccin deber contener todas las grficas de grillas utilizadas para todos los sistemas de grillas o mallas.
Docente: Ing. Daro Cruz 12