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Parikh Jay D.

In fulfillment for the award of the Degree Of

ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION Under the Guidance of Prof. Chintan Dave


Gujarat Technological University, Ahmedabad

May, 2013


Date: This is to certify that dissertation entitled BLOWROOM CUSTOMISED MACHINE CONTROL PANEL has been completed by Parikh Jay D. (090170111054) under my guidance in the fulfillment of the degree of Bachelor of Engineering in Electronics and Communication (Semester 8th) of Gujarat Technological University during the Academic year 2012-2013.

Project Guides:

Head of Department:

Prof. Chintan Dave Asst. Professor, EC Department

Prof. Mihir Shah Assoc. Professor, EC Department



This is to certify that dissertation entitled BLOWROOM CUSTOMISED MACHINE CONTROL PANEL has been completed by Parikh Jay D. (090170111054) under my guidance in the fulfillment of the degree of Bachelor of Engineering in Electronics and Communication (Semester 8th) of Gujarat Technological University during the Academic year 2012-2013.

Project Guides:

Head of Department:

Mr. Paras Chudasama Electronics Department, Truetzschler India Pvt. Ltd.

Mr. S. K. Dash Electronics Department, Truetzschler India Pvt. Ltd.



I take immense pleasure in thanking Mr.S.K.Dash, General Manager of Electronics Department, Truetzschler and Mr. Minesh Shah for allowing me to carry out this project work in the industry. I wish to express my deep sense of gratitude to my external Guide, Mr. Paras Chudasama and Mr. Krunal Patel for their guidance and useful suggestions, which is helping me to carry out the project work. Needless to mention that Prof. Chintan Dave who had been a source of inspiration and for his timely guidance in the conduct of my project work for all his valuable assistance in the project work. Finally I would like to thank our respected Head of the Department Dr. Mihir V. Shah for his kind support and cooperation.



Early machines were controlled by mechanical means using cams, gears, levers and other basic mechanical devices. As the complexity grew, so did the need for a more sophisticated control system. Automotive plants were confronted with change in manufacturing techniques. Thus, PLCs were introduced that provided an easy way to reprogram the wiring rather than actually rewiring the Control system.

I have used SIEMENS PLC to control Blowroom Machine.( In Textile Industries the number of machines arranged in a line on series to perform all the function to form a uniform lap form cotton bale is called blowroom line).I have used FBD(functional block diagram) method of Programming. Actually Blowroom Machine Contain 5 types of different machineries named Bale opener, Pre cleaner, Fine cleaner, Mixer and Beater. Here in my mimic I have implemented programme of BO-E, CL-P and MPM.



Acknowledgement Abstract Table of Contents List of Figures List of Tables List of Abbreviations Chapter 1: INTRODUCTION TO PROJECT 1.1 Brief idea of the Project Chapter 2: PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLER (PLC) 2.1 Overview 2.2 PLC Block Diagram 2.3 PLC Languages 2.4 Advantages in Comparison with Relay Based System 2.5 Applications of PLC Chapter 3: INTRODUCTION TO BLOWROOM 3.1 Overview 3.2 Block Diagram of Blowroom

4 5 6 8 8 9 10 10 12 12 13 14 16 16 17 17 18

Chapter 4: PROGRAMMING IN LOGO! SOFT COMFORT 4.1 Introduction to LOGO! 4.1.1 User Interface 4.1.2 Programming Languages 4.2 Function Block Diagram (FBD) 4.3 Programme of BO-E, CL-P, MPM in logo

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Chapter 5: HARDWARE 5.1 Components to be used in project 5.1.1 Programmable logic controller 5.1.2 Switched mode power supply 5.1.3 Motor protection circuit breaker 5.1.4 Miniature circuit breaker 5.1.5 Contact terminal 5.1.6 Wires 5.1.7 Power contactor 5.1.8 Lamps 5.2 I/O control circuit

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5.3 Power supply circuit 5.4 Power control circuit 5.5 Mimic layout 5.6 Hardware images

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Chapter 6: CONCLUSION Chapter 7: FUTURE EXPANSION References

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List of Figures
Fig 2.2.1 Block Diagram of PLC Fig 3.2.1 Block Diagram of Blowroom Fig 4.1.1 Logo Fig 4.1.2 User interface of logo Fig 4.3.1 Bale opener Fig 4.3.2 Pre cleaner Fig 4.3.3 MPM Fig 5.1.1 PLC Fig 5.1.2 SMPS Fig 5.1.3 MPCB Fig 5.1.4 MCB Fig 5.1.5 Contact terminals Fig 5.1.6 Power contactor Fig 5.2.1 Input control circuit Fig 5.2.2 Output control circuit Fig 5.3.1 Power supply circuit Fig 5.4.1 Power control circuit Fig 5.5.1 Layout: Top view of mimic Fig 5.5.2 Layout: Inside view of mimic Fig 5.6.1 Top view of mimic Fig 5.6.2 Inside view of mimic 13 18 20 21 26 27 29 31 32 33 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 40 41 42

List of Tables
Tab 4.2.1 Basic Blocks used in FBD 22


BCP-Blowroom Control Panel BO-E-Bale opener CL-P- Pre cleaner FBD-Function Block Diagram MPCB-Motor Protection Circuit Breaker MCB-Miniature Circuit Breaker PLC-Programmable Logic Controller SMPS- Switched mode power supply



1.1 Brief idea of the Project

Automation is the use of control systems and information technologies to reduce the need for human work in the production of goods and services, in the scope of industrialization. Automation is a step beyond mechanization. Whereas mechanization provided human operators with machinery to assist them with the muscular requirements of work, automation greatly decreases the need for human sensory and mental requirements a well. Automation plays an increasingly important role in the world economy and in daily experience. The dictionary definition of automation is The technique of making an apparatus, a process, or a system operated automatically. We define automation as The creation and application of technology to monitor and control the production and delivery of products and services.

PLC controller logic is use for automation in basic five steps Developing conventional circuit diagram Converting into block diagram Programming Installation of program and hard ware Testing

As per our requirement conventional circuit diagram are develop which is used in industry to run the conventional system by using this circuit diagram. It can make control logic for PLC. By studying the conventional circuit that can develop the block diagram of this conventional circuit.
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Using that block diagram the programming for the PLC is quite easy. As per
the functionally in the programming software more and more logic can be developed in short duration. For the automation of any machine is to install the program in to hardware of PLC and connect it to components in Control Panel. Finally the testing which gives the result of Whether Control Panel is working properly or not.

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A PLC or Programmable Logic Controller is a user friendly, microprocessor specialized computer that carries out control functions of many types and levels of complexity. Its purpose is to monitor crucial process parameters and adjust process operations accordingly. It can be programmed, controlled and operated by a person unskilled in operating computers. Essentially, a PLC's operator draws the lines and devices of ladder diagrams with a keyboard onto a display screen. The resulting drawing is converted into computer machine language and run as a user program. PLC will operate any system that has output devices that go on and off (Discrete, or Digital, outputs). It can also operate any system with variable (analog) outputs. The Programmable Logic Control can be operated on the input side by ON/OFF devices or by variable (analog) input devices. Control engineering has evolved over time. In the past humans was the main method for controlling a system. More recently electricity has been used for control and early electrical control was based on relays. These relays allow power to be switched on and off without a mechanical switch. It is common to use relays to make simple logical control decisions. The development of low cost computer has brought the most recent revolution, the Programmable Logic Controller (PLC). The advent of the PLC began in the 1970s, and has become the most common choice for manufacturing controls. Programmable Logic Controllers have been gaining popularity on the factory floor and will probably remain predominant for some time to come. Most of this is because of the advantages they offer.

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2.2 PLC Block Diagram

Fig 2.2.1 Block Diagram of PLC A Programmable Controller is a specialized computer. Since it is a computer, it has all the basic component parts that any other computer has; a Central Processing Unit, Memory, Input Interfacing and Output Interfacing. A typical programmable controller block diagram is shown in Figure.

Modularized components of PLC The typical system components for a modularized PLC are: 1) CPU The Central Processing Unit (CPU) is the control portion of the PLC. It interprets the program commands retrieved from memory and acts on those commands. In present day PLC's this unit is a microprocessor based system. The CPU is housed in the processor module of modularized systems.
2) Input and output modules

Input and output (I/O) modules are specified according to the input and output signals associated with the particular application. These modules fall into the categories of discrete, analog, high speed counter or register types. Discrete I/O modules are generally capable of handling 8 or 16 and, in some cases 32, on-off type inputs or outputs per module.
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3) Programming unit.

The programming unit allows the engineer or technician to enter and edit the program to be executed. In its simplest form it can be a hand held device with a keypad for program entry and a display device (LED or LCD) for viewing program steps or functions.
4) Power supply.

The power supply specified depends upon the manufacturer's PLC being utilized in the application. In some cases a power supply capable of delivering all required power for the system is furnished as part of the processor module. If the power supply is a separate module, it must be capable of delivering a current greater than the sum of all the currents needed by the other modules. 5) Memory Memory in the system is generally of two types; ROM and RAM. The ROM memory contains the program information that allows the CPU to interpret and act on the Ladder Logic program stored in the RAM memory. RAM memory is generally kept alive with an on-board battery so that ladder programming is not lost when the system power is removed. This battery can be a standard dry cell or rechargeable nickel-cadmium type. Newer PLC units are now available with Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory (EEPROM) which does not require a battery.

2.3 PLC Languages

IEC 1131-3 is the international standard for programmable controller programming languages. The following is a list of programming languages specified by this standard: Ladder diagram (LD) Sequential Function Charts (SFC) Function Block Diagram (FBD) Structured Text (ST) Instruction List (IL) One of the primary benefits of the standard is that it allows multiple languages to be used within the same programmable controller. This allows the program developer to select the language best suited to each particular task. All Five languages briefly described below:

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Ladder Logic Ladder logic is the main programming method used for PLC's. As mentioned before, ladder logic has been developed to mimic relay logic. The decision to use the relay logic diagrams was a strategic one. By selecting ladder logic as the main programming method, the amount of retraining needed for engineers and trades people was greatly reduced. The first PLC was programmed with a technique that was based on relay logic wiring schematics. This eliminated the need to teach the electricians, technicians and engineers how to program - so this programming method has stuck and it is the most common technique for programming in today's PLC. Sequential Function Charts (SFC) SFC has been developed to accommodate the programming of more advanced systems. These are similar to flowcharts, but much more powerful. This method is much different from flowcharts because it does not have to follow a single path through the flowchart. Function Block Diagram (FBD) FBD is another graphical programming language. The main concept is the data flow that start from inputs and passes in block(s) and generate the output. Structured Text (ST) Programming has been developed as a more modern programming language. It is quite similar to languages such as BASIC and Pascal. Structured Text (ST) is a high level textual language that is a Pascal like language. It is very flexible and intuitive for writing control algorithms. Mnemonic Instruction There are other methods to program PLCs. One of the earliest techniques involved mnemonic instructions. These instructions can be derived directly from the ladder logic diagrams and entered into the PLC through a simple programming terminal.

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2.4 Advantages in Comparison with Relay Based System

PLC can be easily programmed. In the case of relay systems a lot of requiring is required and to achieve such changes, a hard-wired relay panel has to be modified. PLC does not suffer from the problem of the wear and fatigue experience by the moving parts in the electromechanical devices. Cost is reduced in PLC due to elimination of hardwiring. PLC can be interfaced with computer system and other intelligent devices. PLC provides fast response without impairing the safety of the system. Time spent in the commissioning of a new PLC system is less and the costof installation is less. High reliability, small space requirements, computing capabilities Expandability

2.5 Applications of PLC

Automobile industry: Automatic drill, assembly and test equipment painting facilities and shock absorber test bays. Plastic industry: Blow injection, thermal-molding machine, and synthetics production systems. Heavy industry: Molding equipment, industrial furnaces, rolling mills, and automatic pit shaft temperature control system. Chemical industry: Proportioning and mixing systems. Food and Beverage industry: Bravery systems, centrifuges. Machinery: Packing, woodworking, custom made machine, machine control, machine tools, drilling mills, fault alarm centers and welding technology. Building services: Elevator tech., Climate control, ventilation. Lighting control (outside and inside lighting), Door/gate Control, Shutter, sun blind and awning control, Watering and sprinkler system control. Transport system: Conveyor systems, hoisting platforms. Elevators, Silo works, Automatic Dry feeders, transport and sorting, Equipment, high bay wave houses.

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3.1 Overview
What is Blowroom Line? In Textile Industries the number of machines arranged in a line on series to perform all the function to form a uniform lap form cotton bale is called blowroom line. These lines are mainly of two types depending upon the manufacturer; 1. Conventional Blowroom Lines 2. Modern Blowroom Lines There are mainly four operations of a blowroom; 1. Opening 2. Cleaning 3. Mixing & Blending 4. Lap formation. 1. Opening: a) to open the compressed bales of fibers. b) To make the cotton tuft as small as far as possible. 2. Cleaning: To remove dirt, dust, broken seeds, broken leaves, and other foreign materials from the fiber. 3. Mixing & Blending: To make good value of yarn and to decrease production cost mixing and blending is done. 4. Lap or flocks formation: To transfer opened and cleaned fiber into sheet form of definite width and length which is called lap.

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3.2 Block Diagram of Blowroom

Fig 3.2.1 Block Diagram of Blowroom

Different Blocks of a Blowroom are discussed as below; 1) Bale Opener: Bale Opener Machine is the first major machine in blowroom line for ring spinning. Object: i. To open the tuft of cotton. ii. To mix & blend the fiber. iii. To remove a considerable amount of trash from fiber which is taken out by fan. iv. To act as a reserver box for the next machine.
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2) Pre Cleaner: A pre-cleaner is a device which is installed in the intake system of an engine before the Fine cleaner. It removes much of the contamination and dirt from the incoming feed material. 3) Fine Cleaner: Fine cleaner machine is an important machine in ring spinning for cleaning and opening impurities from cotton. This machine is set normally after porcupine opener machine. 4) Mixer: Mixer part is used for mixing cotton and man-made fiber. 5) Beater: A beater is a weaving tool designed to push the weft yarn securely into place. 6) Card: The card is the machine which is used for carding. In the card we put lap from blow room and after carding we get carded sliver. This is second stage machine operation in conventional spinning line. Carding may be defined as the reduction of an entangled ways of fibers to a filmy web by working between surfaces clothed with sharp wire point. The blow room only opens the raw material to flocks where as the card opens it to the stage of individual fibers. This enables the eliminations of impurities and good performance of the other operation.

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4.1 Introduction to LOGO!

Fig 4.1.1 Logo!

LOGO! Soft Comfort is available as a programming package for the PC. This software provides many features, for example: A graphic interface for offline creation of your circuit program by means of Ladder Diagram (contact chart / circuit diagram) or Function Block Diagram(function chart) Simulation of circuit program in PC
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4.1.1 User Interface

Fig 4.1.2 User Interface of LOGO!

1. Menu bar 2. Standard toolbar 3. Programming interface 4. Info box 5. Status bar 6. Constants &Connectors, Basic functions, Special functions 7. Programming toolbar.

4.1.2 Programming Languages

LOGO! Soft Comfort provides you with two options of creating circuit programs: Function Block Diagram (FBD): It is use by the programmers who are familiar with the logic boxes of Boolean algebra. Ladder diagram (LAD): Ladder Diagram is used by the programmers who are used to working with circuit diagram
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4.2 Function Block Diagram (FBD)

When all the logic gates required to complete a program are placed, connected and simulated the entire configuration is called a Functional Block Diagram. Each new program in implemented in a new FBD window. A function block diagram (FBD) is a block diagram that describes a function between input variables and output variables. A function is described as a set of elementary blocks. Input and output variables are connected to blocks by connection lines. An output of a block may also be connected to an input of another block. Inputs and outputs of the blocks are wired together with connection lines, or links. Single lines may be used to connect two logical points of the diagram:

An input variable and an input of a block An output of a block and an input of another block An output of a block and an output variable

The connection is oriented, meaning that the line carries associated data from the left end to the right end. The left and right ends of the connection line must be of the same type. Multiple right connection also called divergence can be used to broadcast information from its left end to each of its right ends. All ends of the connection must be of the same type.

Table 4.2.1 Basic Blocks used in FBD Name of Blocks Input Symbol Description
These are simply the switches used to activate the circuit components. A program can have any number of inputs depending on the requirement. These are the output devices if the circuit diagram. They can be a motor, LED, or any such device. But for programming we consider a bulb as the output. . A program can have any number of outputs depending on the requirement.
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This block represents the AND gate for series combination of components in the circuit. This block shows OR gate for parallel combinations. This block has four inputs and the output is high when any one of the input is high. This block has four inputs and it has high output if any one of the input is low. This block has four inputs and the output is high when all the inputs are low. This block has only one input and it gives the complemented output. This gate has high output when the inputs are at odd terminals i.e 0,1 and 1,0 The output is not switched on until a configured delay time has expired. The output with off delay is not reset until a defined time has expired. The on/off delay function block is used to set an output after a configured on-delay time and then reset it again upon expiration of a second configured time.









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An input pulse increments or decrements an internal value, depending on the parameter setting. The output is set or reset when a configured threshold is reached. The direction of count can be changed with a signal at input Dir. A signal at input S sets output Q. A signal at input R resets output Q.


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4.3 Programme of BO-E, CL-P, MPM IN LOGO

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Fig 4.3.1 BO-E

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Fig 4.3.2 CL-P

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Fig 4.3.3 MPM

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Fig 4.3.4 PLC Messages

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5.1 Components to be used in Project
Since this an Automation project applied at the textile industries, we need to use some electrical components along with the digital logic to meet our targets. These components are required to run high voltage motors and spinning machines for the blowroom. They help in handling high voltages and fluctuations in the power supply hence saving the costly devices and machines from damage. Main Components that I have used in the project are listed below; 1. Programmable Logic Controller 2. Siemens SMPS 3. Motor Protection Circuit Breaker 4. Miniature Circuit Breaker 5. Toggle Switches 6. Contact Terminals 7. Wires of various resistances 8. Power contactors 9. Lamps

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5.1.1 Programmable Logic Controller A programmable logic controller (PLC) or programmable controller is a digital computer used for automation of electromechanical processes, such as control of machinery on factory assembly lines, amusement rides, or light fixtures. PLCs are used in many industries and machines. Unlike general-purpose computers, the PLC is designed for multiple inputs and output arrangements, extended temperature ranges, immunity to electrical noise, and resistance to vibration and impact. Programs to control machine operation are typically stored in battery-backed-up or non-volatile memory. A PLC is an example of a hard real time system since output results must be produced in response to input conditions within a limited time, otherwise unintended operation will result.

Fig 5.1.1 PLC

5.1.2 SMPS-Switched Mode Power Supply Here I have used SIEMENS SMPS to convert 230V AC TO 24V DC.
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Fig 5.1.2 SMPS 5.1.3 Motor Protection Circuit Breaker A Motor protection circuit breaker is an automatically operated electrical switch designed to protect an electrical circuit from damage caused by overload or short circuit. Its basic function is to detect a fault condition and, by interrupting continuity, to immediately discontinue electrical flow. Unlike a fuse, which operates once and then must be replaced, a circuit breaker can be reset (either manually or automatically) to resume normal operation. Circuit breakers are made in varying sizes, from small devices that protect an individual household appliance up to large switchgear designed to protect high voltage circuits feeding an entire city.

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Fig 5.1.3 MPCB

5.1.4 Miniature Circuit Breaker It automatically switches off the electrical circuit during abnormal condition of the network means in over load condition as well as faulty condition. The fuse does not sense but Miniature Circuit Breaker does it in more reliable way. MCB is much more sensitive to over current than fuse.

Fig 5.1.4 MCB

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5.1.5 Contact Terminals With the help of the contact terminals we will be able to join our panel with the machinery which is located quite far from the place. Or we can also connect other panel with the current one using contact terminals.

Fig 5.1.5 Contact Terminals

5.1.6 Wires All the electrical components are interconnected using different types of wires of different resistances and diameters. In our project BLUE wires represent DC supply and RED wires represent AC supply while BLACK wires represent high voltage supply.

5.1.7 Power Contactor A power contactor is an electrically controlled switch used for switching a power circuit, similar to a relay except with higher current ratings. A contactor is controlled by a circuit which has a much lower power level than the switched circuit. Contactors come in many forms with varying capacities and features. Unlike a circuit breaker, a contactor is not intended to interrupt a short circuit current. Contactors range from those having a breaking current of several amperes to thousands of amperes and 24 V DC to many kilovolts. The physical size of contactors ranges from a device small enough to pick up with one hand, to large devices approximately a meter (yard) on a side.

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Fig 5.1.6 Power Contactor

5.1.8 Lamps I have used three different colours of lamps to indicate different types of output.

Fig 5.1.7 Lamps

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5.2 I/O Control Circuit

Fig 5.2.1 Input Control Circuit

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Fig 5.2.2 Output Control Circuit

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5.3 Power Supply Circuit

Fig 5.3.1 Power Supply Circuit

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5.4 Power Control Circuit

Fig 5.4.1 Power Control Circuit

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5.5 Mimic Layout

Fig 5.5.1 Top View of Mimic

Fig 5.5.2 Inside view of mimic

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5.6 Hardware images

Fig 5.6.1 Top view of mimic

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Fig 5.6.2 Inside view of mimic

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CHAPTER 6 Conclusion
Here we can see that blowroom is made by basically five blocks which are Bale opener, Pre cleaner, Fine Cleaner, Mixer and Beater. We have to synchronize all this blocks to make proper working of blowroom. To do this work we are using Programmable Logic Controller which we can say A Brain of blowroom. By making programme of all these five blocks and Implementing in PLC and by making proper hardware configuration we can control whole Blowroom panel.

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CHAPTER 7 Future Expansion

Right now I have made a programme of three blocks named Bale opener, precleaner, and MPM. In future I will make a programme of all five blocks and control whole blowroom machine line.

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1. John W. Web and Ronald A. Reis programmable logic controllers principles and applications. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Programmable Logic Controller by W. Bolton 7. logic controller 8.

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