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PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT Vol.4,No.

3, Summer 1995
Primed in U.S.A.

TOTAL

QUALITY MANAGEMENT: A LITERATURE REVIEW AND AN AGENDA FOR FUTURE RESEARCH*


L. AHIRE, ROBERT LANDEROS, AND DAMODAR Y. GOLHAR

SANJAY

Departmentof Management,Haworth Collegeof Business, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo,Michigan 49009, USA
Total quality management (TQM) is a revolutionary approach to effective management. The research in TQM has emerged from practical needs of organizations embracing this philosophy, and the literature is mostly conceptual and practitioner-oriented. There is a lack of sound theoretical framework classifying past efforts and guiding future research. To fill the void, a study of the published TQM literature is undertaken. A review, classification, and analysis of the research in TQM spanning the last two decades is presented. A total of 226 TQM-related articles are identified from 44 refereed management journals published from 1970 to 1993. These articles are then classified and analyzed using the following two-dimensional scheme: ( 1) article orientation (conceptual, case study, empirical, analytical, simulation, and overview) and (2) article focus using the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award criteria. The analysis of the literature presents pertinent developments in each of the seven criteria. In addition, it provides future research directions as well as a ready reference of the TQM literature. The suggestions for research should guide future developments in the TQM field and help transform it into a formal discipline. (QUALITY MANAGEMENT; THE MALCOLM BALDRIGE NATIONAL QUALITY AWARD, CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT)

1. Introduction

[Industry leaders] believe business and academia have a shared responsibility to learn, to teach, and to practice total quality management [TQM]. If the United States expects to improve its global competitive performance, business and academic leaders must close ranks behind an agenda that stresses the importance and value of TQM (Robinson et al. 199 1) . [Academicians] enthusiastically welcome [this] invitation [by industry] to collaborate with academia in teaching and research about total quality management ( Singhal and Hayes 1992 ) . This unprecedented exchange between the chairmen of American Express, Ford Motors, IBM, Motorola, Proctor & Gamble, and Xerox and two academic leaders from the Production and Operations Management Society sums up the current state of affairs in the practice, research, and teaching of TQM in the United States. With the exception of Japan, the situation appears to be very similar in many other industrial nations. We need a detailed synthesis of the literature to better understand the evolution of current TQM philosophy.
* Received August 1993; revisions received June and December 1994, accepted January 1995. 277 1059-1478/95/0403/277$1.25
Copyright 0 1995, Production and Operations Management Society

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TQM is an integrative management philosophy aimed at continuously improving the quality of products and processes to achieve customer satisfaction. Simply stated, it is the building of quality into products and processes and making quality a concern and responsibility for everyone in the organization. TQM is based on the premise that customers (both internal and external) are the focus of all activities of an organization, and all improvements in quality must be directed toward customer satisfaction. Unfortunately, many adherents of TQM embrace this philosophy without understanding either its impact on short- and long-term management practices in their organizations or the extent of the commitment required at all levels. In fact, TQM applications have preceded the theoretical framework, just as they did for quality circles (Griffin 1988). The TQM literature is replete with practitioner-oriented do-everything-right articles and case studies. Only recently have researchers used empirical studies to examine TQM implementation in detail (Garvin 1986; Lascelles and Dale 1989b; Modarress and Ansari 1989; Harber, Marriott, and Indrus 199 lb; Ebrahimpour and Withers 1992; Benson, Saraph, and Schroeder 199 1; Schroeder, Sakakibara, Flynn, and Flynn 1992; Harber, Burgess, and Barclay 1993a; Kowalski and Walley 1993; Longenecker and Scazzero 1993). The TQM field has yet to develop a theoretical and empirical base, and it lacks a systematic analysis of current body of literature to help identify an agenda for future research. In the only published TQM literature review, Flynn ( 1992) does not provide a holistic framework to synthesize the emerging field; neither does she establish a research agenda. Hence, we need a systematic synthesis of published research. Such a literature review will help researchers and practitioners understand the development of the field, and it will guide future development by identifying gaps between the actual and potential needs of the users of the TQM philosophy and its current status. Our main objective is to provide a synthesis of TQM articles published between 1970 and 1993.

2. Scope of Study We set out to identify research published in refereed journals. We limited our search for TQM articles to refereed journals because of the rigorous professional peer review these papers undergo prior to publication. Because most of the researchers in this field before the 1.970s focused mainly on quality control, our search was further restricted to articles published since 1970. Only after 1970 did TQM start receiving acceptance as a general management philosophy rather than being considered a narrow discipline related to engineering and quality control. We followed this four-step procedure to identify relevant TQM research papers as follows: 1. We compiled a list of important keywords (Table 1) . Even though the nine keywords represent a limited set, they provide for an adequate search to identify the salient articles in the area of TQM .

TABLE
Key Words

Continuous quality improvement Quality management Total quality Total quality control Total quality management TQC TQM World class manufacturing Zero defects

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2. Our primary emphasis for the search was to identify articles with a management focus. Therefore, using the keywords, we searched four computerized databases (ABIINFORM, WILSON-DISK, INFOTRAC, and ERIC) to identify TQM articles. 3. All three authors reviewed each article identified in step 2, first independently and then jointly. Article screening began with the identification of literature focused on an integrated view of managing and improving the quality of products and processes by an organization. For example, several articles were solely devoted to leadership, organizational behavior, or quality control but were written outside the context of TQM; therefore, they could not be classified as TQM articles and were eliminated from further consideration. Thus, we only considered articles that examined one or more aspects of TQM and maintained a broader TQM perspective. We provide a list of the journals in which these articles appeared (Table 2). 4. We scrutinized bibliographies of the articles passing step 3 to identify any other relevant articles we may have missed in our computerized search. Again, for newly identified articles, we repeated step 3. Additionally, we searched for relevant TQM articles in journals we found during the cross-reference that were not included in the databases. This four-step procedure ensured a thorough, though not comprehensive coverage of the field. Even though our intention was to exhaustively review the TQM literature, five factors prevented us from achieving this goal. First, we limited the search to nine keywords: TQM is an emerging field that borrows from many diverse disciplines-other combination of keywords may have resulted in a different set of articles. Second, we focused the search on refereed academic journals and excluded articles published in practitioner publications (e.g., Business Week), books and monographs (we provide an illustrative list of TQM books and monographs in Appendix A), and treatment of the subject in production or operations management textbooks (Tillery and Rutledge 199 1). Furthermore, articles without a TQM focus, although appearing in specialized journals focusing on quality (e.g., Technometrics, Journal of Quality Technology) were also excluded. Third, we focused our review on the field of management and eliminated some discipline-specific articles (e.g., health care, information systems) and those in specialized journals (e.g., Total Quality Environmental Management). Fourth, we limited our review to articles in English. Fifth, we excluded TQM literature published after 1993. Even with these limitations, we identified 226 TQM articles to examine. To synthesize the seemingly diverse knowledge, we needed a coherent scheme for classifying these articles. We used a two-dimensional classification based on the articles orientation, its focus.
3. Classification by Orientation

Our initial analysis of the articles showed us that they were written with one of the following orientations: overview, conceptual, case study, empirical, analytical, or simulation. Because TQM is an integrative approach to managing quality of products and processes, some articles present a holistic treatment of all its aspects; these we classified as Overview. Conceptual articles include topics such as prescriptive models and methods for implementing TQM and opinions of researchers on various aspects of TQM. When the article presented a detailed study of a few organizations (less than IO), we classified it as a Case Study. On the other hand, we classified an article based on a field study of a large number of organizations as Empirical. If the focus of the article was on analytical modeling of various aspects of TQM (e.g., cost models), we classified it as Analytical. Finally, we classified articles with simulated experiments as Simulation. We summarize the results of this classification in Table 3, and give a detailed breakdown of each articles orientation in Appendix B. Authors of 27 overview articles deal with general aspects Of TQM . For example, Garvin ( 199 1) examines the various aspects of the Baldrige criteria, providing insight into the overall process assessing an applicant orga-

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TABLE Journals Included

2 Search

in the TQM Literature

Academy of Management Journal Academy of Management Review Administrative Science Quarterly Advanced Management Journal Australian Journal of Management Business California Computer Computers Columbia Decision European Harvard Horizons Management Review and Industrial Engineering and Operations Research Journal of World Business Sciences Journal Business

of Operational
Review

Research

of Engineering Management IEEE Transactions IEEE Transactions on Reliability IIE Transactions Industrial Engineering Industrial Management Interfaces International Journal of Operations and Production Management International Journal of Purchasing and Materials Management International Journal of Production Research International Journal of Quality and Reliability Management International Journal of TechnoIogy Management
Journal Journal Journal Journal Journal Journal Journal Journal

of Business Strategy of Manufacturing and Operations of Marketing


of Marketing Research

Management

of Operations Management of Operations Research Society of Quality Technology


of Small Business Management Planning Review Science Logistics

Long-Range Management Management Naval Omega

Research

Production and Inventory Management Production and Operations Management Public Utilities Fortnightly SAM Advanced Management Sloan Management Review Technometrics Journal

Journal

nization and discussing each of the seven areas of the Baldrige Award in depth. Overview articles range from insights into the Baldrige criteria (Garvin 199 1; Easton 1993)) comparison of Japanese versus U.S. quality practices (Ebrahimpour 1985; Handfield 1989;

TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT: LITERATURE REVIEW TABLE 3


Frequency of Reviewed Articles by Orientation and Focus
Articles Reviewed* Orientation Conceptual Case study Empirical Analytical Simulation Total Frequency 107 56 29 6 1 199 FOCUS Primary Secondary Primary Secondary Primaly Secondary Primary Secondary Primary Secondary Primary Secondary L 17 I1 15 II 5 5 0 0 0 1 37 28
I&A

281

Article Foci?

SQP
13 5 14 7 2 2 1 0 1 0 31 14

HRM

MPQ

QOR

CFS

Total 153 71 112 61 42 21 8 2 2 3 317 158

20 5 9 8 1 2 1 0 0 1 31 16

26 20 22 11 11 6 1 0 0 0 60 37

52 10 34 7 19 0 4 1 1 0 I10 18

6 7 9 8 0 3 0 I 0 0 15 19

19 13 9 9 4 3 1 0 0 1 33 26

* We classified additional 27 articles as Overview; therefore, we reviewed 226 articles in total for this literature survey. t L, leadership; I&A, information and analysis; SQP, strategic quality planning; HRM, human resource management; management of process quality; QOR, quality and operational results; CFS, customer focus and satisfaction.

MPO,

Flynn 1992), comparison of the quality approaches proposed by the TQM gurus (Kathawala 1989)) linkages of TQM to an organizations strategic position (Madu and Kuei 1993; Zairi 1993), practices of TQM in American firms (Kano 1993; Price and Chen 1993), coverage of TQM in production or operations management textbooks (Tillery, Rutledge, and Inman 1993), and philosophical discussions of TQM (Robinson et al. 199 1; Cole 1992; Singhal and Hayes 1992 ) . We can see that the major emphasis in published TQM research has been on conceptual articles ( 107), followed by case studies (56 articles). This is consistent with the fact that TQM has been recognized only recently by industries as a powerful competitive strategy (Madu and Kuei 1993 ). TQM is a long-term, on-going program with real payoffs accruing years after its implementation (Krantz 1989; Erickson 1992). Therefore, the broad database necessary for empirical testing TQM theories is only beginning to be generated. This is reflected in empirical research being the topic of fewer (29) relatively recent articles. Least attention has been focused on the analytical modeling of the TQM process, with only 6 of the 226 articles falling into this category (Table 3). One reason could be the complex interactions of technical and human processes at work at both micro- and macro-levels of management. 4. Classification by Focus

In our initial stages of research, we considered three possible frameworks for categorizing the existing TQM literature: International Organization for Standardization (ISO 90009004) standards, American National Standards Institute/American Society for Quality Control (ANSI/ASQC Q90 through 494) standards, and the Baldrige Award standard. The ISO and the ANSI/ASQC standards take the form of conformance instruments for existing quality systems and are not as broad as the Baldrige Award standard to act as a framework for the TQM field. For example, the Baldrige Award process addresses competitive factors such as customer and market focus, results orientation, and continuous improvement either not addressed in the IS0 and ANSI/ASQC standards or addressed differently (see Reimann and Hertz 1993 in Appendix A). Therefore, we decided to use the Baldrige Award standard as our basis for categorizing the literature. The Baldrige Award standard offers two possible frameworks for classifying TQM literature: the 10 core values and concepts underpinning the Award, and the 7 award criteria.

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Even though the core values and concepts constitute the underlying basis for integrating an organizations operational performance requirements with its customers needs and expectations, they are not delineated objectively in the Baldrige Award standard. Therefore, interpreting the core values and concepts could lead to a biased categorization of the TQM literature. Nevertheless, the 10 core values and concepts are embodied in the 7 criteria in the award framework: ( 1) leadership, (2) information and analysis, (3) strategic quality planning, (4) human resource development and management, (5 ) management of process quality, (6) quality and operational results, and (7) customer focus and satisfaction. Furthermore, a total of 28 subcategories in the 7 award criteria permitted us to make an objective categorization of the existing TQM literature (Figure 1). Thus, we chose the award criteria framework to classify the literature we reviewed. The Baldrige Award criteria were also used in A Report of The Quality Leadership Steering Committee and Working Councils ( 1992) to examine the scope of TQM research. (This reference is cited in Appendix A.) With the exception of overview articles, each paper has a primary focus on one or more aspects of TQM as defined by the Baldrige criteria. In addition to a primary focus on one or more of these seven areas, an author may deal with the remaining areas of TQM at a less comprehensive level as secondary focus (Table 3). To ensure high-classification reliability, each article was carefully reviewed by the three authors, first independently and then jointly, and a majority rule was used to finally classify the articles. Interestingly, after some initial disagreements, the authors started identifying the primary and secondary foci of an article with increasing consistency and agreement. In Appendix B, we list the 226 TQM articles with their primary and secondary foci identified with the letter P or s. We present our analysis of the published research arranged by focus in the following section. We emphasize articles with a primary focus in respective areas to help researchers and practitioners easily identify relevant literature. While all reviewed articles contribute

Adapted

from the Malcolm FIGURE 1. TQM

Baldrige

National

Quality

Award

Criteria

(1993)

Literature

Review

Framework.

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uniquely to a particular field, for simplicity and clarity only a few pertinent articles illustrating important developments in each area are cited. This analysis underpinned our suggestions for future research in TQM .
4.1 Leadership

Senior management acts as a driver of TQM implementation, establishing values, goals, and systems to satisfy customers needs and expectations and improve organizational performance. According to the Baldrige criteria, this category examines top managements leadership and involvement in creating and sustaining a customer focus, while maintaining clear and visible quality values. We identified 37 articles with a leadership focus (Table 3). The critical leadership role of top management was illustrated in several diverse organizations including Philips, U.K. (Ham and Williams 1986)) Xerox, Inc., u .s .; (Kennedy 1989), and Dow-Corning Pty Ltd., Epping, Australia (Chapman, Clarke, and Sloan 199 1). The authors concluded that senior executives must provide a vision of customer orientation, clear and visible quality values, and high performance expectations. They emphasized the importance of executive leadership while developing and sustaining the quality function, the quality mission, goals, and plans. Also, these authors asserted that through their constant personal involvement, senior executives must reinforce quality values in their organizations (Juran 198 la, 198 1b, 1993; Tregoe 1983; Longenecker and Scazzero 1993 ) . The specific leadership roles needed by top management to improve an organizations quality performance were delineated as ( 1) designer, (2) teacher, and (3 ) steward (Senge 199 1). As a designer of an organizations vision, the top leader must define governing ideas and set policies, strategies, and structures that translate these ideas into business decisions. Lascelles and Dale ( 1989b, 1990) found a paucity of recognition of this top management role in the u .K. and stress the critical need for a change from the traditional transactional (reactive) style to a transformational (proactive) style of leadership. Stalk, Evans, and Schulman ( 1992) further underlined the importance of the designer role by describing CEOS as champions of their organizations: only as such could they ( 1) focus the entire companys attention on developing capabilities to serve customers, (2) identify and authorize the infrastructural investments on which strategic capabilities depend, and (3) insulate individual managers from any short-term penalties caused by long-term improvements. As a teacher, the top leader must help employees realize their perceptions of the organizations strategies and operations and orient them toward this vision. Ebrahimpour ( 1985) recommended training and development for top management in enhancing quality consciousness and conveying commitment to quality. In other words, to be effective teachers, top executives must educate themselves. As a steward, the top leader must be committed to serving the organization, rather than assuming power. Top managements role as a steward for sustaining a quality culture in organizations was reflected in three case studies: Asahi, Japan Breweries Ltd. (Nakajo and Kono 1989)) Australian computer Manufacturers (Hames 199 I), and the Australian banking industry (Dawson and Patrickson 199 1). From another perspective, Garvin ( 1984) concluded from a survey that Japanese manufacturers produce better products with more consistent quality using the principle of anything worth doing in the area of quality is worth overdoing conveyed by top managers. Confirming the notion, Ebrahimpour ( 1985) observes a general lack of concern for quality in traditional American companies because of lack of commitment by the top management.
4.2 Information and Analysis

Fundamental to TQM is collecting relevant information from all phases of an organizations operations and using it to monitor and improve quality. With a view to improving

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operational and competitive performance, the Baldrige Award assesses the scope, validity, analysis, management, and use of data and information. It places a major emphasis on the adequacy, accuracy, and timeliness of key information relating operational performance with internal and external customer satisfaction. It recognizes the value of comparing an organizations performance in various business processes with leading competitors and noncompetitors with similar operations. The importance of the expanded role of information technology and information systems in integrating information from inside and outside (e.g., suppliers, customers, competitors) is also identified in this category. Of the 226 reviewed articles, 3 1 have a primary focus on information and analysis (Table 3 ) . Generally, these articles focus on four information issues: strategic importance, integration, use, and characteristics. Traditionally, information systems departments have viewed their role as compilers of financial data. However, in the context of TQM, information technology (hardware) and information systems (software) design must provide useful information to decision makers to improve an organizations performance. In other words, information management must be viewed as a strategic weapon instead of a tactical function. Willborn ( 1986) discussed the role of information technology as an aid to quality assurance. Riehl ( 1988) presented a comprehensive strategy for applying innovative telecommunications technology to enhance an organizations information-sharing ability. The strategic relevance of information systems was demonstrated by Wal-Marts decision to invest in satellite communication technology to achieve fast, accurate information dissemination as a means of surpassing K-Mart in pricing and market share (Stalk, Evans, Schulman 1992). Babbar ( 1992) developed a dynamic model for incorporating continuous feedback and input from customers into strategic quality planning for a facilities-based service organization. The integration of information within an organization has been examined at two levels: across an organization and within the manufacturing function. Chang ( 1989) and Ross ( 199 1) presented processes for integrating quality information systems with market research, product design, product planning, process development, quality planning, and production operation planning. Similarly, Water and Vries ( 1992) developed an integrated information system to determine quality policies and help other functions set up and implement quality plans. From a manufacturing perspective, Suresh and Meredith ( 1985), Savage and Tannock ( 1989 ), and Ashmore ( 1992 ) presented frameworks to incorporate quality-related information into the manufacturing functions of preproduction, production, and postproduction phases. Additionally, Karp and Ronen ( 1992) developed an analytical model of the information needs for manufacturing systems based on information theory and entropy measurement and show that smaller lot-size production leads to lesser information needs. Authors examined the use and analysis of information from several perspectives. Schneider ( 1992) discussed the role of the finance function in implementing TQM. He suggested that the finance function could contribute directly to TQM by ( 1) acting as a pivotal source of information and analysis in benchmarking, (2) quantifying costs of nonconformance to quality, (3) identifying nonvalue-added activities through activitybased accounting, and (4) participating in cross-functional quality action teams. Hosseini and Fard ( 199 1) described the design, development, and implementation of a decisionsupport-system to store, categorize, and analyze quality characteristics of numerous components. Saraph, Benson, and Schroeder ( 1989) identified such major elements as the timeliness of quality data, the extent to which quality data are used for supervisor and managerial performance review, and the availability of good quality data. From another perspective, Miller ( 1992) described an effort to obtain feedback on customers product perceptions in real time and to incorporate this continuous feedback into an information system. Two major benefits of obtaining real-time data are reliable, objective information

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on market and customer trends and the immediate availability and use of information for more efficient customer satisfaction. Finally, to enhance information usefulness, the importance of timely, reliable, and adequate information has also been noted (Garvin 1983; Ebrahimpour 1985; Savage and Tannock 1989; and Babbar 1992). 4.3 Strategic Quality Planning The aim of TQM is to define product quality from the customers viewpoint. Organizations that can strategically plan and organize their resources are able to meet or exceed customers expectations. According to the Baldrige Award, this category assessesan organizations planning process and its ability to integrate all key quality requirements into overtill business plans. The major components of this assessment are the thoroughness of strategy formulation (identifying the what and how of building competitive quality strength) and strategy deployment (translating the desired competitive quality strengths into activities such as human resource management, quality assurance in design and manufacturing). We found 3 1 articles with a primary focus on strategic quality planning (Table 3). The most important step in strategy formulation is to find out what the customer expects from the organization. Garvin ( 1987) defined quality along eight dimensions: performance, features, conformance, reliability, durability, serviceability, perceived quality, and aesthetics. Each organization must assess its capability to incorporate a subset of these dimensions of quality into each product. Wheelwright ( 198 1) compared the role of operations management in the overall strategy formulation in Japanese and U.S. organizations. He concluded that the top management must focus on long-term planning of operations capabilities, including quality. Relegating responsibility for quality to a tactical status renders it ineffective and hurts the organization in the long run. Juran ( 1978) provided an overview of how the Japanese employ strategic quality planning to identify precise customer needs. Market research, design review, model construction and testing, and trial runs were the suggested steps for new product quality assurance. Hendrick ( 1987) recommended an audit of the quality function throughout an organization before launching a TQM initiative. Such an audit provides a benchmark of the current performance against which future improvements can be compared. Translating identified customer needs into operational activities is a critical step in strategy deployment and requires an organization to establish effective infrastructure. In a study of quality-related decision making in six British companies, Dale and Duncalf ( 1985) observed that a more structured quality-oriented organization leads to more effective efforts toward increased quality. Using approaches such as quality function deployment helps the organization translate customer needs into actions through various functions such as design, manufacturing, and purchasing (Hauser and Clausing 1988). Organization for quality, in terms of functional responsibility, depends on the type of product and business. The literature contains evidence of different structures and mechanisms of good quality organization that have worked in diverse organizations (Ford and Coward 199 1; Dawson and Patrickson 199 1; Nakajo and Kono 1989). The interfunctional nature of strategic planning for quality is reflected in almost all the articles. Finally, only one author explicitly modeled the link between customer needs and production resource management ( Wacker 1989 ) . 4.4 Human Resource Management Human resource management is a key linkage in TQM and can be responsible for significant differences between the performances of organizations with similar technical capabilities. In this category, the Baldrige Award scrutinizes the process through which the workforce develops its potential for pursuing the organizations quality and operational performance objectives. The organizations efforts to build and maintain an environment

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conducive to full participation and personal and organizational growth are also examined. Accordingly, TQM demands that all aspects of human resource management (manpower planning, recruitment and staffing, training and development, performance appraisal, and rewards system management) assume strategic roles. At the level of the individual, this should be reflected in qualified employees with a sincere concern for good quality work, satisfied with the training, development, appraisal, and reward system, and willing to offer their best to the TQM implementation. At a group level, the performance of quality improvement teams, task forces, quality circles, and other groupings becomes important. At a macro-level, an effective human resource management policy will result in an organizational culture of cooperation, consensus, and participation. It will be reflected in well-coordinated, synergistic interactions of various human components among one another to execute other systemic processes of TQM such as quality assurance and customer satisfaction. Of the articles we reviewed, 60 have a primary focus on human resource management issues. All but 1 of the 11 empirical studies were published after 1988, indicating a recent shift toward field research. Generally, the articles focus on ( 1) participative management, (2) quality control circles, and (3) two-way effects of TQM and human resource management. TQM authors discussed participative management from several perspectives. Oliver ( 1988 ) reviewed the literature on the psychology of employee commitment. He identified four contextual factors (explicitness of performance target, revocability of ones actions, consequent publicity, and volition of actions) affecting commitment to working in a participative environment and discusses how organization of work, performance measurement, and employee involvement groups affect the commitment to quality. Harber, Marriott, and Indrus ( 199 la) focused on the relationship between employee participation, employee satisfaction, and performance. They concluded that employee participation is contingent upon demographic variables and employees level in the organizations hierarchy. Everett and Sohal ( 199 1) discussed the social and psychological dimension of andon (the human aspect of jidoka or the stop-the-line decision ). They identified factors responsible for over- and underutilization of the andon system and contended that because andon empowers shop floor employees, it improves their morale. Sonfield ( 1984) stressed the potential of participative human resource management to improve the effectiveness of small business operations. He recommended using a participative style of management with concern for employees, long-term employment, and long-term evaluation and promotion policies. Two empirical studies examine participative management. Ebrahimpour and Withers ( 1992 ) showed that firms using TQM have higher levels of worker involvement in quality efforts and greater use of TQM tools than the nOri-TQM firms. However, they cautioned that higher employee involvement by itself cannot account for better performance. In another study, Harber, Marriott, and Indrus ( 199 1b) concluded that training satisfaction increases with TQM implementation; however, satisfaction toward recognition, promotion, pay, and work conditions decreases. Additionally, several articles identified training and development at all levels as the single strategy to improve quality and productivity (Juran 198 la, 198 lb; Lee and Ebrahimpour 1985; Ebrahimpour 1985). However, none of the authors provided details of an effective training and development strategy that facilitates participative management. In another empirical study, Harber, Burgess, and Barchy ( 1993a) examined the outcome of adopting and implementing TQM as a cultural intervention in a large electronics enterprise. They found that TQM had a positive effect on an employees involvement in, commitment to, and perception of the organization. Additionally, Longenecker and Scazzero ( 1993) examined the perceptions of the organizations quality improvement process. They found that when management (at all levels) failed to create a climate for

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good quality by adjusting its style and ongoing management practices, TQM implementation was unsatisfactory. Cole ( 1980) and Juran ( 198 la, 1981b) are among the early Western advocates of quality circles as techniques to improve quality, productivity, and human relations. Schonberger ( 1983) compared and contrasted quality circles with six traditional Western employee participation programs: work simplification, zero defects, employee suggestions, value engineering-value analysis, industrial engineering-work study, and quality assurancequality control. Their findings suggested that plant configuration is one of the most important factors in improvement programs and that not much should be expected from quality circles. Nosow ( 198 1) concluded that selecting a technically competent supervisor skilled in interpersonal relations was absolutely critical for successfully implementing quality circles. From a different perspective, Hayes ( 198 1) suggested that in Japan quality circles were not as successful as perceived. A similar view was offered by the author of a longitudinal study, suggesting that because of the generic nature of group participation, quality circles are not effective in the long run (Griffin 1988 ) . Two-way eficts of TQM and human resource management are emphasized in some papers. Hostage ( 1975) discussed the eight human resource management components that helped Marriott Corporation to attain and maintain a high level of quality in its hotel operations (individual development, management training, manpower planning, detailed and accurate performance standards, career progression, opinion surveys, fair treatment, and profit sharing). He concluded that these components, if developed and implemented appropriately, should ensure a superior quality of operation in any service organization. Snell and Dean ( 1992 ) found a positive correlation between TQM and such human resource management practices as selective staffing, training, developmental appraisal, and externally equitable rewards for and comprehensive training of operations employees. 4.5 Management of Process Quality

The primary goal of TQM is to deliver goods or services that satisfy consumers needs and expectations. TQM works on the belief that the overall quality of products can be enhanced by improving the quality of the processes directly or indirectly related to their creation. In addition to manufacturing (a direct process), supporting functions such as marketing, finance, R&D, and human resource management play key roles in making the operations more effective. The competitive advantage of superior product quality (in terms of performance, conformance, features, and reliability) could be easily offset by higher prices and lower quality resulting from inefficient support functions. Therefore, the quality assurance and improvement efforts of an organization must encompass all phases of production ( preproduction, production, and postproduction) and all functional areas (purchasing, manufacturing, and support functions). The Baldrige Award recognizes this linkage by identifying four major focus areas for managing process quality effectively: design of products and services, production and delivery processes, support business processes, and suppliers quality performance. We identified 110 articles with a primary focus on the management of process quality. The general focus of these articles was on ( 1) quality assurance activities during various phases of production, (2) support function activities, and (3) broad comparisons of quality assurance approaches across organizations. In terms of an organizations quality assurance activities during the various production phases, the authors focused primarily on the preproduction (product design and development, qualification and testing, process parameters design, and procurement) and production stages. The literature with a product design focus includes discussions on various quality control-improvement techniques. For example, Benton ( 199 1 ), Bhote ( 1989 ) , and Robinson and Schroeder ( 1990 ) compared and contrasted statistical process

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control ( SPC) and the Taguchi method. The applications and mechanics of the Taguchi method are presented by Taguchi and Clausing ( 1990). Additionally, Robinson and Schroeder ( 1990)) Stein ( 199 1 ), and Benton ( 199 1) discussed limitations of spc toward improving quality and concluded that ( 1) SPC is useful only to monitor the quality of conformance and recognizes only the internal costs of quality (e.g., scrap and rework) and (2) the Taguchi method assumes that any deviation from the targeted quality represents a loss to the customer. However, they cited Taguchi methods complexity and its difficulty in quantifying the losses to society as its major limitation. Other quality tools [e.g., Shainin tools ( Bhote 1989 ), Poka- Yoke (Robinson and Schroeder 1990)] have not received as much coverage. Modarress and Ansari ( 1989) assessed the use of various nonstatistical tools (cause and effect diagrams and checklists) and statistical techniques (scatter diagrams, frequency histograms, control charts, sampling inspection plans, correlation-regression, analysis of variance, and design of experiments) by more than 200 u .s. manufacturing firms. They concluded that the potential for these techniques in all areas of business had not been adequately exploited. In another study, Ebrahimpour and Withers ( 1992) surveyed the SPC use by traditional American firms, American firms using Japanese quality techniques, and u .S .-based Japanese firms. They found a wide difference between the extent to which any of these techniques was used in traditional American firms as compared with the others. Finally, Newman ( 1988a, 1988b) and Giunipero and Brewer ( 1993) addressed the application of quality assurance activities to the procurement process. Support functions such as marketing, finance, accounting, and research and development have with a few exceptions received less research attention. Schneider ( 1992) discussed direct contributions of the finance function to TQM. Duncalf and Dale ( 1988) provided an analytical framework for identifying different management levels and functions in an organization, the type and frequency of quality-related information received and initiated by them, and their role in quality-related decision making. Wacker ( 1989) presented a comprehensive analytical model for performing cost-benefit analysis of various quality improvement strategies in a manufacturing organization and outlined the role of marketing and manufacturing in implementing these strategies. Several authors compared quality assurance approaches across various organizations. For example, Garvin ( 1986) compared Japanese with u .s. manufacturers to explain the disparity in their quality performance. He concluded that as the quality performance of an organization improves, the mix of quality problems and the quality-thinking framework also changes and suggests that attempts by u .S . firms to mimic Japanese quality practices without first adapting them to local conditions are unlikely to be completely successful. Additionally, Chen ( 199 1) surveyed quality functions and practices in Midwestern u .s. firms and noted differences in the types of problems faced by smaller firms implementing quality improvement compared to larger firms. Broad comparisons of the Japanese approach to the traditional u .s. approach to quality management were presented by Hayes (1981), Schonberger (1982), Tregoe (1983), Ebrahimpour and Schonberger (1984), Ebrahimpour ( 1985), and Lee and Ebrahimpour ( 1985). The main conclusion of these researchers was that the traditional approach of quality management ( pre- 1980s) in u .s. firms was more inspection oriented, and quality was considered by the U.S. companies as an operational or tactical issue. The Japanese, on the other hand, viewed quality management as a long-term strategy initiated, implemented, and monitored by top management. Also, the various techniques for problem solving and quality design used by the Japanese were recognized as crucial.
4.6. Quality and Operational Results

The quality and operational results category encompasses monitoring and improving quality performance based on objective measures of operational results. Within the criteria

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of the Baldrige Award, a measurement of quality results is determined in four dimensions: ( 1) product and service quality results, (2) company operational results, ( 3) business process and support service results, and (4) supplier quality results. In the literature, the authors of 15 articles dealt with quality results. Their primary concerns were ( 1) measurement of quality results, (2) quality results for specific firms, and (3) quality results across organizations. Measurement of quality results is the primary focus of four papers. Reddy and Berger ( 1983) suggested that world-class quality performance is the result of understanding the factors that determine quality and product performance. Fortuin ( 1988) described the design of performance indicators for monitoring TQM progress and their implementation pitfalls. In a similar vein, Plunkett and Dale ( 1987) concluded that many of the models used to indicate the cost of quality are inaccurate and misleading. Finally, Collier ( 1992 ) suggested that results alone are not enough within the context of total quality management and that long-term achievement should also be measured. In the quality results for specijicfirms category, Carr ( 1992 ) examined definitions for and measurements of the cost of quality as it applies to Xerox. Doran ( 1985) reported on a quality improvement program and the resulting improvements at an IBM manufacturing plant at Havant, U.K. Ham and Williams ( 1986) described the top management leadership and employee involvement that resulted in operational improvements at Philips International. The authors of four papers compared the results of quality initiatives across dzjizrent organizations. Fisher ( 1992) contrasted the quality and productivity improvements at four Australian TQM companies. He found no significant improvements in the overall performance of an organization. However, he reported improvements in internal and external quality factors and labor productivity. In a study of the chain saw industry, Chen ( 199 1) concluded that the cost of rework was less for firms that invested in employee recruitment, training, vendor management, quality management, capital, and measurement equipment. An investigation of British companies (automotive, chemical, computer, and finance sector) suggested that ineffective planning limits the quality of results from TQM processes (Newall and Dale 199 1) . Finally, in an analysis of the automotive industry, Cole ( 1990) suggested that firms need to focus on improving the quality of every work process as measured by the needs of internal and external customers. 4.7 Customer Focus and Satisfaction Customer focus and satisfaction form the most heavily weighted category among the Baldrige Award criteria. It encompasses an organizations knowledge of its customers, overall customer service system, responsiveness, and ability to meet customer requirements and expectations. Quality assurance activities must be driven by customers needs and expectations. If customers expectations are either identified incorrectly or misinterpreted, the final product will not possess the desired qualities. Hence, considerable marketing effort is needed to ensure that customers needs and expectations are correctly identified and met. However, because there are many dimensions to these expectations, it may be difficult to satisfy them all simultaneously. Therefore, organizations must focus on key dimensions that reflect customer needs. Once identified, needs must be translated into technical specifications. Next, product designs are transferred to manufacturing and service delivery-both responsible for producing products or delivering services that delight customers. The primary emphasis of the literature is on the translation of the needs and expectations into product design. A total of 33 articles had customer satisfaction as the primary focus (Table 3). These articles dealt with ( 1) defining the customer, (2) translating customers needs and expectations, and (3) producing goods that satisfy customers.

290

SANJAY L. AHIRE, ROBERT LANDEROS,

AND DAMODAR

Y. GOLHAR

The definition of customer was addressed in several reviewed papers (Sohal, Tay, and Wirth 1989; Baum 1990; Feldman 199 1). These researchers extended the definition to include employees as internal customers and suggested that such an extension would reduce departmental factionalism. Turney ( 199 1) recommends that customers be classified as primary (direct) and secondary (indirect) users of products and services. The role of design engineering in TQM is translating customers needs and expectations into usable specifications and processes. Hauser and Clausing ( 1988) discussed the use of a house of quality to help interdisciplinary management teams identify and translate the product attributes (perceived important by the customers) into design priorities and production parameters. Similarly, Ham and Williams ( 1986)) Denton ( 199 1) and Miller ( 1992) stressed the need to include customers needs and expectations in the process. Additionally, Lauglaug ( 1992) argued that research and development (R&D) personnel need to take a more active role in what has traditionally been the domain of marketing. By doing so, R&D and marketing personnel can help their organization become more effective in translating customer needs. Shepetuk ( 199 1) noted an increasing demand for new and improved products and suggested organizations use interdisciplinary design teams to determine customers needs and expectations so that they are included in the final product. Kristensen ( 1992) observed that production personnel should communicate directly with external customers to determine their needs and expectations to improve product quality and acceptance. To see if customers needs and expectations are addressed by producers of intermediate goods, Lascelles and Dale ( 1989a) examined customer satisfaction from the point of view of the buyer-seller relationship. Their conclusion was that buyers (customers) should review their purchase specifications, communication linkages, and organizational roles to ensure that suppliers have a thorough understanding of their expectations. However, the buyer and supplier have equal responsibility for clear communication of the buyers needs and expectations. Some of the authors recognize that customer satisfaction depends on meeting dynamic needs and expectations. Because the dimensions of quality are dynamic from the customers viewpoint, Takeuchi and Quelch ( 1983) argued that even well-designed, defectfree products may not fit customers perception of high quality. To guarantee customer satisfaction, organizations must monitor changes in customers view of quality. Furthermore, customers needs and expectations are closely tied to the perceived value of the product. Zeithaml ( 1988) proposed a model suggesting a gap between actual price of a product and its perceived value. Hence, the pricing of products should include customers nonmonetary costs (e.g., time and effort) to reduce their perceived monetary sacrifice. This will increase the perceived value of the product. Sasaki ( 1988) suggested that customers do not only buy the product but also buy its utility; and if customers are dissatisfied with the product or its utility, they do not repeat the purchase. Aly, Maytubby, and Elshennawy ( 1990)) while stressing the importance of designing products that meet customer expectations, argued that product design should not be subrogated to the needs of the design engineers when they develop specifications or processes.
5. Directions for Further Research

Our review of contemporary TQM literature has led us to the conclusion that the research has been unbalanced, tilting heavily toward concept development and prescriptive writing (Table 3). Lately, a few published empirical studies have undertaken hypothesis generation and theory testing (Benson, Saraph, and Schroeder 199 1; Modarress and Ansari 1989; Harber, Marriott, and Indrus 199 1b; Snell and Dean 1992; Schroeder, Sakakibara, Flynn, and Flynn 1992; Roth and Miller 1992; Ebrahimpour and Withers 1992). However, to transform TQM into a formal, rationally evaluated discipline, additional empirical research in this direction is certainly required. One should not, of course,

TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT: LITERATURE REVIEW

291

underestimate the contribution of exploratory and situational research. Often, a case study identifies which aspects of TQM work in a given situation, but generalization of the findings may not be possible. Hence, more balance between the two approaches should result in the rapid maturation of the field. While there are opportunities for TQM research in a variety of disciplines, it is our objective to concentrate on a research agenda for the operations management community. We discuss the major research issues we identified as important but not adequately covered in the existing empirical literature. Although we attempt to identify the relevant research issues, ours is not an all-inclusive list of TQM concerns. For additional discussion of research issues, see the Summary of the NSF Workshop on Quality and Organizational Transformation ( 1993) and A Report of the Total Quality Leadership Steering Committee ( 1992) listed in Appendix A. 5.1 Research in the Seven Categories of the Baldrige Award Existing TQM literature lacks an in-depth examination of issues related to the seven Baldrige Award categories. For example, the authors of most articles in the leadership category have generalized the leadership role and did not take into account either the effect of organizational context and the environment on the leadership role or the consequent variations in effectiveness of leadership styles. Again, for consistency, we use the framework of the seven Baldrige criteria to present our suggestions. The Baldrige criteria have been suggested by a leading research group for setting research agenda (A Report of the Total Quality Leadership Steering Committee 1992 cited in Appendix A).
5.1.1 LEADERSHIP.

Analysis of leadership elements required of the functional managers in TQM organizations . Analysis of the relative importance and interactions of the three roles of a top manager, namely, interpersonal (figurehead, leader, liaison), informational (monitor, disseminator, spokesperson ) , and decisional (entrepreneur, disturbance handler, resource allocator, negotiator) across various TQM firms and across industries l Measurement of top management commitment and involvement
l

5.1.2 INFORMATIONANDANALYSIS
l

Structural changes in information


tOTQM

management

function to enhance its contribution

. Interactions of the information management function with other functional areas (e.g., design, production, marketing) l Impact of factors such as organizational size, complexity, industry type, and existing information management structure on appropriate benchmarking strategies l Application of quantitative and qualitative techniques to select processes to be benchmarked
5.1.3 STRATEGICQUALITYPLANNING

Linkage between corporate level strategy and quality strategy Role of functional managers in formulating and executing the quality strategy l Use of various decision analysis techniques to improve effectiveness of the quality strategy formulation process l Interfhm and interindustry comparisons of approaches to quality strategy formulation and execution 5.1.4 HUMANRESOURCEMANAGEMENT l Impact Of TQM on planning and executing such human resource management functions as staffing, recruiting, training, appraisal, and compensation; and vice versa l Contingency models to assessthe impact of contextual factors like organizational size, complexity, and technology on the effectiveness of human resource management strategies in a TQM environment
l l

292
l

SANJAY L. AHIRE, ROBERT LANDEROS, AND DAMODAR Y.GOLHAR

Impact of TQM on roles and responsibilities of different levels of management example, middle managers and supervisors in manufacturing firms) Factors influencing the effectiveness of quality groups
5.1.5 MANAGEMENTOFPROCESSQUALITY

(for

l l

Quality assurance of postproduction operations and their interactions with the preproduction and production phases Role of support functions (marketing, finance, R&D) in TQM implementation and quality assurance in these functions Relationship between TQM system components and actual product quality Dynamic planning and execution of interfunctional TQM strategies Customer-supplier linkages in new product development Organizational and environmental determinants of effective design and innovation Measurement of quality performance and comparison along various dimensions such as firms own past performance and performance with benchmarks Linkage between quality results and overall business results Time lag between the implementation of quality strategies and the realization of quality results Impact of dynamic factors (e.g., organizational size, technology, industry forces) on
OVerall

5.1.6 QUALITYANDOPERATIONALRESULTS
l l l

l l

TQM

effeCtiVeneSS

5.1.7 CUSTOMERFOCUSANDSATISFACTION
l

Roles of, and interactions among, different functions in identifying customer needs and translating them into operational plans Factors (internal and external) determining an organizations effectiveness in identifying and translating customer needs into operational strategies

5.2 Integrated Model


TQM, as an interdisciplinary field, draws heavily from developments in diverse fields such as operations management, organizational behavior, human resource management and marketing. However, only the three case studies of Newall and Dale ( 199 1)) Ham and Williams ( 1986 ) , and Doran ( 1985 ) included a discussion of six of the seven Baldrige criteria; none examined all seven criteria together. Hence, to provide a holistic framework for TQM implementation, an attempt should be made to examine all seven categories jointly. This would require empirical research identifying items associated with the seven categories and investigating specific linkages between them (e.g., quality assurance and human resource management). Greater understanding of the interdependence among the strategies will help practitioners and researchers identify the ones that are critical for successful TQM implementation.

5.3 Measures of Efectiveness Evaluation of quality efforts in an organization should be an ongoing process. Thus far, only one empirical study has resulted in instruments for measuring the effectiveness of TQM constructs ( Saraph, Benson, and Schroeder 1989 ) . Furthermore, these researchers did not identify all the important constructs. Hence, to monitor the progress of quality management strategies, the elements of critical measures of performance should be identified and operationalized. Further, it is important to know how the various TQM strategies impact the quality of the goods and services provided. Moreover, the relationship between the TQM strategies and traditional measures of an organizations performance (e.g., earnings per share, stock price, and return on investment) should be examined.

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5.4 Environmental Related Issues The impact of variables such as organizational size, technological change, and culture on the effectiveness Of TQM strategies needs to be explored. Benson, Saraph, and Schroeder ( 199 1) presented one of the first attempts to examine the impact of organizational size and culture on TQM implementation. An international comparison study of TQM implementation should explore corporate culture issues. It is also important to examine the strategies identified by firms to manage and incorporate technological changes in the
TQM environment.

Considering the diversity of the TQM strategies and the interdependence among them, the research agenda will be well served by interdisciplinary research teams. For example, customer satisfaction has long been considered the domain of marketing. However, the TQM philosophy requires an interdisciplinary approach, linking marketing with design, production planning, production, and distribution to delight customers. Also, as pointed out by the industry leaders and academicians, it is equally important for the business community and academia to work together and learn from each other when exploring these issues (Robinson et al. 199 1; Singhal and Hayes 1992).
6. Conclusion

The purpose of our research was to provide a topology of the TQM literature and identify directions for future research. We achieved our goals through a rigorous exam.ination of the TQM literature that identified 226 refereed articles. We used a two-dimensional scheme to classify the articles: article orientation and article focus as defined by the Baldrige Criteria. We organized this diverse body of literature by article orientation and primary and secondary research foci (Appendix B). We presented a synthesis of pertinent published articles for each category of the Baldrige criteria. The review, classification, and analysis of the existing TQM literature we present shows that until recently the primary focus has been on conceptual, practitioner-oriented, doeverything-right types of articles and case studies. Only recently have a few large-scale data-based research articles been published. For TQM to grow into a formal field of study, a proper balance must be struck between conceptual research and case studies on one hand and empirical and analytical research on the other. Hence, the research focus should shift toward more realistic effectiveness testing of many strategies in a multitude of settings. The framework for classification and analysis we used will be useful for monitoring the progress of research into each aspect of TQM. Further work on the research agenda we identified will expedite the creation of a much needed theoretical base for TQM and transform it into a rationally developed and evaluated formal discipline; thus successfully meeting the challenge given it by industry leaders (Robinson et al. 199 1) .
The authors thank Professor Harry V. Roberts (University of Chicago), four anonymous reviewers, and Professor David J. Flanagan (Western Michigan University) for their comments and recommendations.

Appendix A. Illustrative List of TQM Books and Monographs


A Report of The Total Quality Leadership Steering Committee and Working Councils

( 1992), The Proctor &

Gamble, Cincinnati, OH.


BARKER, T. B. (1985), Quality By Experimental Design, Mercer Dekkner, New York. BERRY, T. H. (199 I), Managing The Total Quality Transformation, McGraw-Hill, New York. CAMP, R. C. (1989), Benchmarking The Search For Industry Best Practices That Lead To Superior Performance, ASQC, Quality Press, Milwaukee, WS. CIAMPA, D. (1988), Manufacturing New Mandate, John Wiley & Sons, New York. DEMING, W. E. (1986), Out of Crisis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Center for Advanced

Engineering Study, Cambridge, MA.

294
F!ZIGENBAUM, FLOOD, R. FUNK,

SANJAY L. AHIRE, ROBERT LANDEROS,

AND DAMODAR

Y. GOLHAR

A. V. (199 I), Total Quality Control, McGraw-Hill, New York. L. (1993), Beyond TQM, John Wiley & Sons, New York.
L. (1992),

JEFFREY

The Teamwork

Advantage;

An Inside Look

At Japanese

Product

and Technology

Productivity Press, Norwalk, MA. GEORGE, S. AND A. WEIMERSKIRCH (1994), Total Quality Management; Strategies and Techniques Proven at Todays Most Successful Companies, John Wiley & Sons, New York. GITLOW, H. S. AND S. J. GITLOW (1987), The Deming Guide to Quality and Competitive Position, PrenticeHall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ. GOETSCH, D. L. AND S. DAVIS (1994), Introduction to Total Quality, Merrill, New York.
Development,
JOHANSSON, JURAN, H., P. MUHUGH, F. M. GRYNA A. J. PENDLEBURY AND W. A. WHEELER III (1993),

Business

Process

Reengineering,
J. M. AND

John Wiley & Sons, New York.


National Quality (1993), Quality Planning and Analysis, Award (1993) National Institute of Control and Improvements,

Malcolm

Baldrige

McGraw-Hill, New York. Standards and Technology, MacMillan, New York.

Gaithersburg, MD. Mitra, A. (1993), Fundamentals


MOEN, R. D., T. W. NOLAN AND

of Quality
(1994),

L. P. PROVOST

(199 l), Improving

Quality

Through

Planned

Experimentation,
OMACHONU, V. K. AND

McGraw-Hill,
J. E. Ross

New York.
Principles

of Total

Quality,

St. Lucie Press, Delmy

Beach, FL.
PAUL, GABRIEL A. (1987), Quality Process Management, REIMANN, C. W. AND H. S. HERTZ (1993) The Malcolm

Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.


Baldrige National Quality Award and IS0 9000 D@rences, National Institute of Standards and

Registration:

Understanding

Their Many Management;

Important

Technology, Washington, DC.


ROSS, J. E. (1993) Total Quality SASHKIN, M. AND K. J. KISER

(1993), Puttin!

Text, Cases and Readings, Total Quality Management TQM,

To Work, Four

St. Lucie Press, Delray Beach, FL. Berrett-Koehler, San


Practical Revolutions in

Francisco, CA.
SHIBA, S., A. GRAHAM AND D. WALDEN

Management, Productivity Summary of the NSF Workshop


TAGUCHI, G., E. A. ELSAYED

(1993), A New American Press, Portland OR.


on Quality
T. HSIANG

and Organizational

Transformation Engineering

(1993), National Science


in Production Systems,

Foundation, Washington DC.


AND

(1989), Quality

McGraw-

Hill, New York.


TENNER, A. R. AND I. J. DETORO (1992), Total Quality WOLLSCHLAEGER, L. J. (1991), The Quality Promise,

Management, Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA. Marcel Dekker, New York. and Primary
(P) and Secondary (s) Foci

Appendix

B. TQM

Articles

by Orientation

Focus* Author(s) Abernathy, Clark, and Kantrow 198 1 Aggarwal 1993 Aldridge, Taylor, and Dale 1991 Aleo 1992 Allen and Oakland 1988 Allen and Oakland 199 la Allen and Oakland 199 1b Aly, Maytubby, and Elishennawy 1990 Arinze and Sylla 1990 Ashmore 1992 Ashton and Cook 1989 Axline 199 1 Babbar 1992 Bamett 199 1 Baum 1990 Becker 1993 Belohlav 1993 Benson, Saraph, and Schroeder 199 1 Orientationt L I&.4 SQP
HRM

MPQ
P

QOR

CFS

C 0

cs cs
E cs E C C C cs C C C cs 0 cs E S P P P P P S S P P P S S P S P S P P S P P S P S P P P P

TOTAL

QUALITY

MANAGEMENT:

LITERATURE

REVIEW

295

Appendix B. (Co&d) Focus* Author(s) Benton 199 1 Berry, Zeithaml, and Parasuraman 1985 Berry, Zeithaml, and Parasuraman 1988 Bhote 1989 Bognossian 1988 Bolwijn and Kumpe 1990 Bullington and Bullington 1991 Bushe 1988 Butman 1992 Buxey 1991 Carman 1993 Carr 1992 Carson and Carson 1993 Chang 1989 Chang and Lin 199 1 Chapman, Clarke, and Sloan 1991 Cheema, Griffiths, and Towill 1991 Chen 1991 Chen 1992 Chen and Tang 1992 Chevalier 199 1 Cieri, Samson, and Sohal 1991 Cole 1980 Cole 1990 Cole 1992 Cole, Bacdayan, and White 1993 Collier 1992 Cornick and Barre 199 1 Dale and Duncalf 1985 Dale and Lees 1985 Dawson and Patrickson 199 I Denton 1991 Deshpande, Dusting, and Younger 1986 Dooyoung and Min 1993 Doran 1985 Draaijer 1992 Drayton 199 1 Duncalf and Dale 1988 Durity 1991 Easton 1993 Ebrahimpour 1985 Ebrahimpour 1988 Ebrahimpour and Lee 1988 Ebrahimpour and Schonberger 1984 Ebrahimpour and Withers 1992 Eldred 1991 Erickson 1992 Orientationt
C C E C C C C cs cs cs cs cs C C C cs cs cs E C E cs C C 0 C C C cs E cs cs E C cs cs 0 cs 0 0 0 cs E C E cs C P S P S P S P P S S P S P S S P S P P P P P P S P P P P S P S P P P P P S S S P P S S P P P P P P P S P P P P P P P S P S P P P P P P P P S S S S P P P P P S P P

I&A

SQP

HRM

MPQ P

QOR

CFS

P P

P P

S S S P S S

P P P P P

296

SANJAY L. AHIRE, ROBERT LANDEROS,

AND DAMODAR

Y. GOLHAR

Appendix B. (Co&f) Focus* Author(s) Ettorre 1993 Everett and Sohal 199 1 Fah 1988 Feiring 1993 Feldman 199 1 Ferdows and Demeyer 1990 Fine 1986 Fisher 1992 Flohr 1974 Flynn 1992 Ford and Coward 199 1 Fortuin 1988 Fuld 1992 Furukawa, Ikeshoji, and Ishizuchi 1982 Garvin 1983 Garvin 1984 Garvin 1986 Garvin 1987 Garvin 1991 Garvin 1993 Giltow and Hertz 1983 Giunipero and Brewer 1993 Griffin 1988 Ham and Williams 1986 Hames 199 I Hammons 1992 Handfield 1989 Hannah 1987 Harari 1993a Harari 1993b Harari 1993~ Harari 1993d Ha&r, Marriott, and Indrus 1991a Ha&r, Marriott, and Indrus 1991b Ha&r, Burgess, and Barclay 1993a Harber, Burgess, and Barclay 1993b Hardaker and Ward 1987 Harmon 1988 Hart, Schlesinger, and Maher 1992 Hauser and Clausing 1988 Hayes 198 1 Heath 1989 Heiko 1989 Hendrick 1987 Hosseini and Fard 199 1 Hostage 1975 Hsing-Wei and Tosirisuk 1991 Huckett 1985 Orientation?
C C cs C C E A cs CS 0 CS C C A C E E C 0 cs C C E cs cs cs 0 C C 0 C C C E E C cs C C C C cs C C cs cs C cs S P P P S P P S P P S P P P P P S S S P S S P P P P P S S P P P P P P S S P P P S P P P P S P P P P P P P P P S S P S S P P P S P S P P S P P S P S

I&A P

SQP

HRM

MPQ

QOR

CFS

P P

P P P P

TOTAL

QUALITY

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LITERATURE

REVIEW

297

Appendix B. (Conrd) Focus* Author(s) Instone and Dale 1989 Ishikure 1988 Juran 1978 Juran 198la Juran 198lb Juran 1993 Kano 1993 Karp and Ronen 1992 Kathawala 1989 Kennedy 1989 KIauss and Wolter 1990 Knight, Beningfield, and Kizzort 1987 Knorr and Thiese 199 1 Kolesar 1993 Kordupleski, Rust, and Zahorik 1993 Kowalski and Walley 1993 Krantz 1989 Kristensen 1992 Kumar and Gupta 1993 Lascelles and Dale 1988 Lascelles and Dale 1989a Lascelles and Dale 1989b Lascelles and Dale 1990 Lauglaug 1992 Laza and Wheaton 1990 Lee and Ebrahimpour 1985 Leonard and Sasser 1982 Lewis 1992 Lin 1991 Longenecker and Scazzero 1993 Maani 1989 Mabert 1992 Madu and Kuei 1993 Magrath 1992 Marquardt 1992 McCarthy and Eishennawy 1991 Mears 1993 Melcher, Acar, Dument, and Khouja 1990 Miller 1992 Modarress and Ansari 1987 Modarress and Ansari 1989 Modarress and Ansari 1990 Myers and Ashkenas 1993 Nakajo and Kono 1989 New 1992 Newall and Dale 199 1 Newman 1988a Newman 1988b Niven 1993 Nosow 1981 Oliver 1988 Peak 1993 Orientation-f
cs cs C C C C 0 A 0 cs cs S C cs C E cs E cs 0 E E cs C 0 C E E C E C C 0 C 0 0 C C cs C E cs C cs C a C C cs C C C S P S P P P P S P P P P P P S P P P P S P S S P P S S S P P S P P S P S S S S S P S P P P P P S S S P P P P S S P S S P S P P P P P S S S P P P P P S S P P P P

L
P S

I&A

SQf

HRM S P P P P

MPQ S P P

QOR

CFS S

298

SANJAY L. AHIRE, ROBERT LANDEROS,

AND DAMODAR

Y. GOLHAR

Appendix B. (Contd) Focus* Author(s) Perkins and Perry 1992 Pignatiello 1988 Plunkett and Dale 1987 Plunkett and Dale 1988 Price and Chen 1993 Quigley and McNamara 1992 Rayner 1992 Reddy and Berger 1983 Rehder and Ralston 1984 Richmond and Blackstone 1988 Riehl 1988 Rienzo I993 Robinson and Schroeder 1990 Robinson et al. 199 1 Ross 1991 Ross and Shetty 1985 Roth and Miller I992 Safford, Gobell, and Suen 1990 Saraph, Benson, and Schroeder 1989 Sasaki 1984 Sasaki 1988 Saunders and Walker 199 1 Savage and Tannock 1989 Schneider 1992 Schonberger 1982 Schonberger 1983 Schroeder, Sakakibara, Flynn, and Flynn I992 Scott 1981 Senge 1990 Shepetuk 199 1 Shetty 1988 Showalter and Mulholand 1992 Singhal and Hayes 1992 Sloan 1992 Snell and Dean I992 Sohal, Tay, and Wirth 1989 Sonfield 1984 Sparks 1990 Sriraman, Tosirisuk, and Chu 1990 Stalk, Evans, and Schulman 1992 Stein 1991 Suresh and Meredith 1985 Sylla 1988 Taguchi and Clausing 1990 Takei 1986 Takeuchi 198 1 Takeuchi and Quelch 1983 Tillery and Rutledge 199 1 Orientationt
CS A 0 C 0 C 0 C C C C a C 0 C E E C E C C C C C C CS E C C C C 0 0 C E cs C C C C C C C C cs C C C S S P P P S S P P S P S S S P P P P S P P P P P S S P P P P P P P S S P P S P P P P P P P P P P P P P S S S S P P P P S S P S

I&n

SQP

HRM

MPQ P P P P P P P

QOR

CFS

P S S

S P P P

P P

S S

TOTAL

QUALITY

MANAGEMENT:

LITERATURE

REVIEW

299

Appendix B. (Confd) Focus* Author(s) Tillery, Rutledge, and Inman 1993 Tosirisuk 1990 Toth 1993 Tregoe 1983 Tumey 1991 Water and Vries 1992 Voss 1992 Wacker 1989 Wheelwright I98 1 Wilkinson and Witcher 1992 Willbom 1986 Zairi 1993 Zeithaml 1988 Orientation? L I&A SQP HRM MPQ QOR CFS

A cs C C C a A C 0 C 0 C

P P

S S P P P

P P P P P

S S P P P

P P

* L, leadership; I&A, information and analysis; SQP,strategic quality planning; HRM, human resource management; MPQ, management of process quality; QOR, quality and operational results; CFS,customer focus and satisfaction. t 0, overview; c, conceptual; cs, case study; E, empirical; A, analytical; S, simulation.

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AGGARWAL, S. (1993), A Quick Guide to Total Quality Management, Business Horizons, 36, 3, 66-68. ALDRIDGE, J. R., J. TAYLOR, AND B. G. DALE ( 1991), The Application of Failure Mode and Effects Analysis at an Automotive Components Manufacturer, International Journal of Quality and Reliability Management, 5, 10-14. 8, 3, 45-56.

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