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How Different Factors Affect the Respiratory System Abstract: The purpose of this report as to find the respiratory

differences between smoker and non-smoker, female and male, also athlete and non-athlete. Through testing the group found the tidal volume, inspiratory reserve volume, expiratory reserve volume, and the vital capacity. The height and weight of each subject was taken into consideration in order to ascertain the predicted vital capacity for each test subject in to compare and contrast with the data found by the group. Using this data it was determined that non-smokers had greater respiratory volume than smokers, males had greater respiratory volume than females, and athletes had greater then non-athletes. Introduction: This study was conducted in order to discover how different factors could affect respiratory system. In this case smoking vs. non-smoking, male vs. female, and athlete vs. non-athlete. Before the tests of small airway function was introduced in the late sixties and early seventies, it was established that smoking a cigarette results in the immediate increase in airway resistance and a decrease in expiratory flow. In another study 1,073 persons attending a screening center were tested using a single breath Na test. Of those studied 524 were current smokers. 35 percent were found to have an abnormal vital capacity. 47 percent were also found to have an abnormal slope of the alveolar plateau. Some of the affects smoking has on the respiratory system include, paralyzed cilia, lung cell change, and immune cell

changes. Cilia in the respiratory tract are responsible for keeping particles and germs out of the lungs. Without the cilia the lungs and respiratory passageways compensate by producing more mucus. Build up of mucus in the respiratory tract is expelled through coughing. Perennial or persistent coughing can weaken the lungs. Cadmium, nitrogen dioxide, and other substances in cigarette smoke can rupture and break down the alveoli sacs in the lungs; this can lead to a shortness of breath and lung disease. As for the immune system there is an increase in the number of lysosomes in smokers in order to break down all the foreign particles and debris, because of this the body of a smoker is more susceptible to illness. In regards to athletes lung function perimeters tend to have a direct relationship with lifestyle, for example exercise and non-exercise (

Wassermann 1995; Twisk 1998). Athletes have increased lung capacity in comparison to non-athletes due to regular exercise. Due to exercise the body becomes conditioned to run at a faster more efficient pace. The lungs are able to hold more air and circulate it at a faster rate than an inactive person. Male and female respiratory volume differs according to the anatomy of the subject. Males have larger respiratory capacity due to the fact that they have larger chest cavities and lungs, and require more oxygen due to there larger body mass. With females its the opposite given the fact that they tend to have smaller chest cavities and lungs, and require less oxygen due to there lesser body mass. The Hypothesis for this experiment is that smokers will have less respiratory volume than non-smokers, males will have greater respiratory

volume than females, and athletes will have greater respiratory volume than non-athletes. Materials and Methods -spirometer The spirometer was used to test the tidal volume, minute respiratory volume, expiratory reserve volume, vital capacity, inspiratory reserve volume. This experiment was conducted in a lab setting using different students as the test subjects. Step 1. Before using the spirometer count and record the subjects normal respiratory rate. Have the subject face away from you and count the number of times they inhale during a minutes time in resting position. Step 2. Measure the tidal volume (TV). TV is the volume of air inhaled and exhaled with each normal respiration, should be approximately 500 ml. To conduct the test inhale a normal breath, and then exhale a normal breath into the spirometer mouthpiece (do not force the expiration). Record and repeat the test twice and then record the average TV. Step 3. Calculate the subjects minute respiratory volume (MRV) using the formula. MRV= TV (respirations/minute)

Step 4. Measure the expiratory reserve volume (ERV). The ERV is the volume of air that can be forcibly exhaled after a normal expiration. Normally ranges

between 700 and 1200 ml. inhale and exhale normally two or tree times, then insert the spirometer mouthpiece and exhale forcibly as much air as you can. Record and then repeat the test twice then record the average ERV. Step 5. Measure the vital capacity (VC), or total exchangeable air in the lungs, it normally ranges between 3600and 4800 ml. use the formula VC= TV + IRV + ERV. Breathe in and out normally two or three times, then bend forward and exhale all the air possible. As you raise yourself to an up right position, inhale as fully as possible. Quickly insert the spirometer mouthpiece and exhale as forcefully as possible. Record and then repeat the test twice then calculate the average VC. Step 6. Calculate and record the inpiratory reserve volume (IRV), or the volume of air that can be forcefully inhaled after a normal inspirstion. Use the formula. IRV= VC (TV+ERV) Step 7. Using a predicted vital capacities chart for males/females, record the subjects predicted vital capacity according to their age and height. Then calculate and record the percentage of your findings vs. the predicted. Use the formula % Predicted VC= avg. measured VC / predicted value (100) Step 8. Calculate and record the respiratory volume using the formula. RV = VC (factor)

Results

Group

TV

MRV ERV

VC

IRV

Predicted % VC Predicted VC

RV

Smoker

566. 7 ml

850 0 ml 800 0 ml 900 0 ml 126 00 ml

1566. 7 ml 1833 ml 1200 ml 2100 ml

2866. 7 ml 3467 ml 3600 ml 4633 ml

733.33 ml 1134 ml

3320 ml

86%

716.7 ml

Nonsmoker Female

500 ml

3440 ml

101%

867 ml

450 ml

1950 ml

3440 ml

104%

900 ml

Male

700 ml

1833 ml

4660 ml

100%

1158. 25 ml

Athlete

500 ml

105 00 ml

2700 ml

4700 ml

1500 ml

3440 ml

47%

1175 ml

Nonathlete

767

840 8 ml

1717 ml

4033 ml

1549 ml

4065 ml

99%

1008. 25 ml

Discussion The results were conclusive with the original hypothesis, smokers had less respiratory volume then non-smoker s, males had greater then females, and athletes had greater than non-athletes. References www.sbg.ac.at/ipk/avstudio/pierofun/protocol/math-alveopi.pdf www.profiles.nlm.nih.gov/NN/B/C/C/W/_/nnbccw.ocr www.ajbrui.com/files/AJBR51_20911.pdf