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Solar cells generate direct current,so make sure that DPDT switch S1 is towards the solar panel side.

The DC voltage from the solar panel is used to charge the battery and control the relay.Capacitor C1 connected in parallel with a 12V relay coil remains charged in daytime until the relay is activated.Capacitor C1 is used to increase the response time of the relay, so switch-ing occurs moments after the voltage across it falls below 12V. Capacitor C1 also filters the rectified output if the battery is charged through AC power.The higher the value of the capacitor,the more the delay in switching.

Project Description: The main objective of developing this Solar Voltaic Lighting SystemsElectronics and communication project is to provide an emergency lighting system in all companies and homes, The main advantage of this project is to replace present or regular lighting system while using present power system we can have lot of problems with power failure and low power. In this application we have used solar energy for producing electricity and this solar energy can be converted to electrical power and it can be automatically stored in given batteries. Finally we can use this stored power in emergency situations depends upon the battery storage and solar energy.

PIR based energy conservation system

PIR Sensor Based Security System


JOHN JULY - 12 - 2011 13 COMMENTS

The circuit of an inexpensive and highly secure electronic security system is explained below. This electronic security system can be used in banks and other high security areas. A normal electronic security system will have a transmitter and a receiver. The transmitter sends out an IR laser and this will be received by the receiver. When an intruder walks past the device, the IR beam is cut and thus the alarm is activated. But, this system has some major disadvantages like limited range and poor line of sight. These disadvantages are eliminated through the PIR sensor circuit explained below.

Working
Instead of infrared or laser transmitters and receivers, PIR (Passive Infrared Radial) sensors are used in this circuit. The sensor is basically a pyroelectric device. When the device is exposed to infrared radiation, it generates an electric charge. The device is made of crystalline material. According to the change in the amount of infrared striking the element, there will be a change in the voltages generated, which is measured by an onboard amplifier.

The infrared light explained here refers to the light radiating from all objects in its field of view. The reason for not having a transmitter and receiver is that the device does not emit one, but only accepts the energy emitted from objects above absolute zero in the form of radiations. Thus the temperature will be different for a human working past a sensor, and that of a wall right in front of it. Thus the word passive is used in PIR to explain that it does not emit a radiation and receive it, but instead accepts the incoming infrared radiation passively. The block diagram of the PIR based security system is given below.

References
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. E. b. a. BIFM, July 2011. [Online]. Available: http://www.bifm.org.uk/ bifm/about/facilities. July 2011. [Online]. Available: http://www.cen.eu/cen/Sectors/ TechnicalCommitteesWorkshops/. E. a. M. Services, July 2011. [Online]. Available: http://www.manoda.com. N. T., K. D. and S. G., "Introduction to In, " [Online]. Available: http://www.ibuilding.gr/handbook/chapter1.pdf. U. Nations, "Framework Convention on Climate Change, " Kyoto Protocol, 2011. [Online]. Available: http://unfccc.int/kyoto-protocol/items/ 2830.php [Accessed 28 November 2011]. "The Kyoto Protocol, Essence and Goals, " UNFCCC, [Online]. Available: http://www.mtholyoke.edu/~danov20d/site/goals.htm [Accessed 28 November 2011]. S. Shah, Sustainable Practice for the Facility Manager, ISBN: 978- 1405135573: Blackwell Publishers, 2007. [CrossRef]

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E. Gossauer and A. Wagner, "Post-occupancy Evaluation and Thermal Comfort: State of the Art and New Approaches, " Energy, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 151-175, 2007. [CrossRef] J. Sinopoli, "Occupying yourself with Energy and Occupancy, " August 2010. [Online]. Available: http://www.automatedbuildings.com/news/aug10/ articles/sinopoli1/.

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10. T. Teixeira, G. Dublon and A. Savvides, "A Survey of Human- Sensing: Methods for Detecting Presnece, Count, Location, Track, and Identity, " ACM Computing Surveys, vol. V, 2010. 11. R. Akbas, C. Clevenger and J. Haymaker, "Temporal Visualization of Building Occupancy Phase, " in ASCE International Workshop on Computing in Civil Engineering, Pittsburgh, 2007. [CrossRef] 12. I. Christopher Hedley (MD, "International Total OCcupancy Cost Codes, " 2006. 13. Multiple, Assessing Building Performance, ISBN:0-7506-6174-7 ed., W. F. Preiser and J. C. Vischer, Eds., Oxford: Elsevier, Butterworth Heinemann, 2005. 14. D. Maniccia, "Predicting wasted Lighting Energy through Occupancy Monitoring, " in 38th Illuminating Engineering Society of North America, 1993. 15. A. Mahdavi, "People as Power Plants - Energy Implications of User Behavior in Office Buildings, " in International Energiewirtschaftstagung (IEWT), Vienna, 2007. 16. R. Dodier, G. Henze, D. Tiller and X. Guo, "Building Occupancy detection through Sensor belief Networks, " Energy and Buildings, vol. 28, no. 9, pp. 1033-1043, 2006. [CrossRef] 17. L. Lopesa, S. Hokoia, H. Miuraa and K. Shuheib, "Energy efficiency and energy savings in Japanese residential buildings-research methodology and surveyed results, " Energy adn Buildings, vol. 37, no. 7, pp. 698-706, July 2005. [CrossRef] 18. Z. Yu, F. Haghighat, B. C. M. Fung and H. Yoshino, "A decision tree method for building energy demand modeling, " Energy and Buildings, vol. 42, no. 10, pp. 1637-1646, 2010. [CrossRef] 19. J. F. Nicol, "Characterising Occupant Behaviour in Buildings: Towards a Stochastic Model of Occupant use of windows, lights, blinds, heaters and fans, " in 7th International Building Performance Simulation Association Conference, Rio de Janeiro, 2001. 20. A. D. Galasiu and G. R. Newsham, "Energy savings due to occupancy sensors and personal controls: A pilot field study, " in 11th International European Conference, Lux Europa, Istanbul, 2009. 21. D. Wang, C. C. Federspiel and F. Rubinstein, "Modeling occupancy in single person offices, " Energy and Buildings, vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 121- 126, June 2005. [CrossRef] 22. T. Alien, "ALN-9634 TIE Inlay, " 24 November 2011. [Online]. Available: http://www.falkensecurenetworks.com/PDFs/DS-ALN-9634TIE.pdf. 23. GS1, "Class 1 Generation 2 UHF Air Interface Protocol Standard "Gen 2", " GS1, The Global Language of Business, [Online]. Available: http://www.gs1.org/gsmp/kc/epcglobal/uhfc1g2/[Accessed 08 August 2012]. 24. A. Technology, "ALR-8800 Enterprise RFID Reader, " [Online]. Available: http://www.alientechnology.com/docs/products/DS-ALR-8800A4.pdf [Accessed 08 August 2012].

25. A. Technology, "ALR-8611-C High Performance RFID Antenna, " [Online]. Available: http://www.aisci.de/upload/default/Datenblaetter/Alien/ALR- 8611-C.pdf [Accessed 08 August 2012]. 26. Dobkin and Daniel, "RFID Basics: Backscatter Radio Links and Link Budgets, " EE Times, 02 October 2007. 27. F. Manzoor, D. Linton, M. Loughlin and K. Menzel, "RFID based Efficient Lighting Control, " International Journal of RF Technologies: Research and Applications, p. Accepted for publication., 2012. 28. The control of artificial lighting is a key parameter to be considered in buildings towards energy and cost savings. Efficient, need-based control of building lighting through occupancy detection using Passive Infrared (PIR) sensors has become a reliable and well established approach. However, the use of onlyPIR sensors for occupancy monitoring does not offer much savings and depends upon a building's type and use, and its occupancy levels. Accuracy of occupancy monitoring greatly affects building lighting control strategy and hence, percentage savings. Besides considering lighting control based on occupancy detection using PIR sensors, this paper presents a data fusion approach of passive RFID based occupancy monitoring with PIR. The proposed methodology provides an estimated 13% of electrical energy savings in one open plan office of a University campus building. Practical implementation of RFID gateways provide real-world occupancy profiling data to be fused with PIRsensing towards analysis and improvement of building lighting usage. 29. Published in: RFID Technology (EURASIP RFID), 2012 Fourth International EURASIP Workshop on 30. Date of Conference: 27-28 Sept. 2012
31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. Page(s): 83 - 88 Print ISBN: 978-1-4673-2602-5 INSPEC Accession Number: 13135968 Conference Location : Torino Digital Object Identifier : 10.1109/RFID.2012.10

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Author(s)

42. Manzoor, F. Univ. Coll. Cork (UCC), Cork, Ireland Linton, D. ; Loughlin, M.

NSPEC: CONTROLLED INDEXING



building management systems energy conservation infrared detectors lighting control

radiofrequency identification radiotelemetry sensor fusion

INSPEC: NON CONTROLLED INDEXING



PIR sensors RFID gateways RFID technology artificial lighting control building lighting control strategy cost savings data fusion approach electrical energy savings passive RFID based occupancy monitoring passive infrared sensors university campus building

AUTHOR KEYWORDS

Energy Efficiency Lighting Control Occupancy Monitoring Occupant Density PIR RFID

The device contains a special filter called a Fresnel lens, which focuses the infrared signals onto the element. As the ambient infrared signals change rapidly, the on-board amplifier trips the output to indicate motion. We can say that the PIR sensor is a human body sensor because it is only activated when a human or animal walks past the sensor. The PIR sensor is the heart of the project. We can design the project in such a manner that as soon as the burglar or intruder walks past the sensor, the alarms would turn on and the whole lighting system could turn on.

PIR Sensor D204B PIR sensor is used in this project. The PIR sensor is the heart of the project. Two Stage Amplifiers Two stage OP-amp: LM 324 is used as two stage amplifier. The signal from the PIR sensor is very low so this signal is amplified by using LM324.LM324 is a quad OP-amp. First two op-amps act as amplifiers. Comparator The comparator compares the signal from the amplifier and a reference voltage.3 rd and 4th OP-amp of LM 324 act as comparator. Transistor Switch Whenever the output of comparator make HIGH Q1 transistor gets ON and relay will be energized causing the alarm and lamp to turn ON. Power Supply Power supply converts 230 Volt AC into 12 Volt DC and 5 Volt DC. IC 7812 is used as the 12 Volt voltage regulator and a 5v zener diode act as the 5 Volt voltage regulator.

BIOMEDICAL PROJECT TITLES:


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Biofeedback/Stress Epilepsy Sonography Eye Development Hospital Use Ergonomic A system for objective balance Health measures of Weighing Biomedical Electro Electro Plethysmography Automatic Add Multi-IV Pulse Device Short Audible Fiber Colorimeter Patient Blood Blood-flow Automatic EEG ECG EMG Coordination Electro Telemetry Internet Personal Face Personal Biometric Pre-processing Biometric Personal Human Treadmill MRI Thermal Depth Biomedical of Application Therapy Anesthesia for Identification Gait Based Analysis of Identification and Identification access the security on Live and Iris Detection Based Verification Based Recognition Based control iris With Telemetry on Multiple and on Biometric Monitor Monitor Monitor Performance & & & monitoring gas optic transmission of biomedical Range Controller Medical on medicine mixing Fluid rate for Telemetry chamber announcement for feed mechanical of intravascular ultrasound of an Exhaled Breath Drop Condensate Connecting probe ultrasound patient for functions related Pharmaceutical card to quality to improve biopsy System for use During

Management Monitor Device Exercise System yield probe of life design Oculogram Gustogram system ventilator system monitor Quadaplegics System Thermometer parameters system analyzer meter Defibrillator Analyser Analyser Analyser Tester retinogram PC System Features Tracking Handwriting system image system Recognition Recognition Phantom Device Monitor Virtual-Reality industry

Interactive Spiro Blood Blood-flow Mind Incubator Syringe Pacemaker Bio-Tele Heart Respiration Pressure Drips Home Calorimeter Sweat Walking Distance Monitor Measurement Healthcare Beat infusion gas

audiometer meter analyzer meter Switch Pump monitoring Monitor Monitor Monitor Monitor Device System