Sie sind auf Seite 1von 44

PROJECT REPORT ON

DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF PIFA ANTENNAS


SUBMITTED TO

UNIVERSITY OF MUMBAI
FOR THE DEGREE OF

BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING
IN

ELECTRONICS AND TELECOMMUNICATION 2011-2012

SUBMITTED BY ANKUSH KAIDALWAR NILUS DSOUZA DORISON LEMOS JESIEL KINY

UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF MRS. ASHWINI KOTRASHETTI

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & TELECOMMUNICATION ENGINEERING,

DON BOSCO INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY,


KURLA (WEST), MUMBAI- 400 070.

Design and Development of PIFA Antennas


A Project Report submitted in the partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Bachelor of Engineering in Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering

By

Ankush Kaidalwar Nilus Dsouza Dorison Lemos Jesiel Kiny

Under the Guidance of

Ashwini Kotrashetti

Don Bosco Institute of Technology,


Department of Electronics & Telecommunication Engineering, Kurla (West), Mumbai- 400 070. (2011-2012)

Certificate

This is to certify that following students of final year Engineering in Electronics & Telecommunication discipline have satisfactorily completed the project work entitled Design and Development of PIFA Antennas in the partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Bachelor of Engineering in Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering during academic year 2011-2011

Project Team Members :

1. Ankush Kaidalwar B. E. 81 2. Nilus Dsouza 3. Dorison Lemos 4. Jesiel Kiny B. E. 82 B. E. 83 B. E. 86

Project Guide

Head of the Department

Principal

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
We take this opportunity to thank all those who have been enormously helpful in the preparation of this Project Book on Design & Development of PIFA Antennas. We acknowledge our gratitude to all people who have made this journey fruitful. In particular we are grateful to our Project Guide Mrs. Ashwini Kotrashetti for her invaluable suggestions, highly constructive comments, insights and expertise which contributed greatly to the success of this project. Without her watchful guidance it would have been impossible to meet our deadlines .She has been a source of inspiration and a pillar of support. We would like to thank Mrs. Freda for guiding in simulation of the project. We thank Ms. Komal Shinde of RF lab for her ever helpful hand. We would like to thank our Head of Department (EXTC) Mrs. Prathiba Dhumane and our Project Coordinator Mr. Sudhakar Mande for his clear guidelines as well as their timely advice and support and for sharing his experience and knowledge that helped us in focusing our efforts and formulating constructive methodology. Their valuable direction helped us to perform better. Finally we would like to express our special thanks to all our team members who have worked on this report and who were always forthcoming with insights and useful softwares. With the invaluable assistance of these honorable individuals this project is completed.

CONTENTS
Abstract.. List of Figures. List of Tables iii iv v

1.0 Introduction
1.1 PIFA.. 1

2.0 Literature Survey


2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 Antenna Parameters Microstrip Antenna.. PIFA.. M-PIFA... 3 8 10 13

3.0 Proposed Antenna


3.1 3.2 PIFA.. M-PIFA 16 16

4.0 Design and Analysis


4.1 4.2 Analysis of PIFA Analysis of M-PIFA. 17 18

5.0 Simulation
5.1 5.2 RFSIM 99.. HFSS. 20 21

6.0 Fabrication 7.0 Testing. 8.0 Conclusion 9.0 References......

30 32 35 36

ii

ABSTRACT

The objective of the work presented in this literature is to Design and develop test two types of Inverted F-Antennas operating at 2.4GHz. The antennas are designed for a return loss of greater than -10dB. Simulate of the design using HFSS simulator. Fabricate the antenna designs on an FR4 substrate using printing technology. Test the antennas using a network analyzer.

iii

LIST OF TABLES
TABLE 8.1 DESCRIPTION Comparison between PIFA and M-PIFA PAGE 35

iv

LIST OF FIGURES
FIGURE DESCRIPTION 2.1 2.2 2.3 4.1 4.2 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 5.10 5.11 5.12 5.13 5.14 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 Patch Antenna PIFA Antenna M-PIFA Antenna PIFA Analysis M-PIFA Analysis RFSim 99For Characteristic Impedance of 100 RFSim 99For Characteristic Impedance of 50 Patch Antenna Patch Antenna Designed In HFSS Return Loss of Patch Antenna Radiation Pattern of Patch Antenna PIFA Dimensions PIFA HFSS Simulation PIFA HFSS Simulation Screenshot Return Loss of PIFA in HFSS M-PIFA Dimensions M-PIFA Cross-section M-PIFA HFSS Screenshot M-PIFA Return Loss Fabricated PIFA Antenna Fabricated M-PIFA Antenna Fabricated Ground Plane with SMA connector of PIFA Fabricated Ground Plane with SMA connector of M-PIFA Return loss for PIFA Return loss for M-PIFA Superimposed Return loss of PIFA and M-PIFA Superimposed Radiation Pattern of PIFA and M-PIFA PAGE 9 13 14 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 24 25 26 26 27 28 28 29 29 30 30 31 31 32 33 33 34

1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1 PIFA (Planar Inverted F Antenna)


The planar inverted F antenna is popular for portable wireless devices because of its low profile, small size, and built-in structure. The basic PIFA consists of a ground plane, a top plate element, a feed wire feeding the resonating top plate, and a DC-shorting plate that is connecting the ground and the top plate at one end of the resonating patch. Planar Inverted F Antennas are attractive for use in small communication terminals such as handheld radios, aircraft and mobile communications because of their low profile conformal structure and appreciable electrical characteristics. Hence these antennas are also widely researched for utilization in different protocol applications such as Bluetooth, ZIGBEE, WLAN, Wi-Fi etc PIFA can be considered as a kind of linear Inverted F antenna (IFA) with the wire radiator element replaced by a plate to expand the bandwidth. One advantage of PIFA is that can be hiding into the housing of the mobile when comparable to whip/rod/helix antennas. Second advantage of PIFA is having reduced backward radiation toward the users head, minimizing the electromagnetic wave power absorption (SAR) and enhances antenna performance. Third advantage is that PIFA it exhibits moderate to high gain in both vertical and horizontal states of polarization. This feature is very useful in certain wireless communications where the antenna orientation is not fixed and the reflections are present from the different corners of the environment. In those cases, the important parameter to be considered is the total field that is the vector sum of horizontal and vertical states of polarization. Narrow bandwidth characteristic of PIFA is one of the limitations for its commercial application for wireless mobile. The shorting post near the feed probe point of usual PIFA types is good method for reducing the antenna size, but these results into the narrow impedance bandwidth. [9] 1

The commercial need for low cost and low profile antennas for mobile phones has drawn the interest of many researchers. While wire antennas, like the small helix and quarter-wavelength monopole, are predominantly used in mobile

communication terminal applications, patch antennas are still the subject of research. Among the built-in antennas, the Planar Inverted-F Antenna is one of the most promising designs for handset applications due to its low profile, high efficiency and radiation characteristics, as well as the low SAR values resulting from the use of this antenna. Its narrow bandwidth, however, and the poor performance when the operators hand is placed much closed to the radiating element have, prevented extensive application in mobile phones.

2.0 LITERATURE SURVEY


2.1 Antenna Parameters

An antenna is a transformer between a transmission line and free space. To describe an antenna, we must characterize its properties as a transmission line load (input impedance) and the distribution of the electromagnetic energy that it radiates into space (radiation pattern). There are a number of key parameters and concepts that we can use to describe antenna properties. We will first consider antennas as transmitters, and then we will use the reciprocity theorem to determine the receiving properties of an antenna. [9] 2.1.1 Directivity. It is the ratio of radiation intensity in a given direction from the antenna to the radiation intensity averaged over all directions. OR It can also be defined as the directivity of a non-isotropic source is equal to the ration of its radiation intensity in a given direction over that of an isotropic source.

If the direction is not specified it implies the direction of maximum radiation intensity. Then,

Where, D = directivity (dimensionless) D0= max directivity U= radiation intensity (watts/unit solid angle) Umax=max radiation intensity (watts/unit solid angle) Prad=total radiated power (watts) 3

D is used to compare the radiating power of other antenna with isotropic antenna.

2.1.2 Gain. It is an actual or realized quantity which is less than the directivity due to ohmic losses in the antenna. In transmitting, these losses involve power fed to the antenna which is not radiated but heats the antenna structure. A mismatch in feeding the antenna can also reduce the gain. Directivity describes only directional property, while gain describes efficiency of the antenna as well as directional property. It is defined as the ratio of radiation intensity in a given direction to radiation intensity that would be obtained if the power accepted by the antenna were radiated isotropically. (Dimensionless) The gain of an antenna is a passive phenomenon - power is not added by the antenna, but simply redistributed to provide more radiated power in a certain direction than would be transmitted by an isotropic antenna. An antenna designer must take into account the application for the antenna when determining the gain. High-gain antennas have the advantage of longer range and better signal quality, but must be aimed carefully in a particular direction. Low-gain antennas have shorter range, but the orientation of the antenna is relatively inconsequential. For example, a dish antenna on a spacecraft is a highgain device that must be pointed at the planet to be effective, whereas a typical Wi-Fi antenna in a laptop computer is low-gain, and as long as the base station is within range, the antenna can be in any orientation in space. It makes sense to improve horizontal range at the expense of reception above or below the antenna. Thus most antennas labeled "omnidirectional" really have some gain. In practice, the half-wave dipole is taken as a reference instead of the isotropic radiator. The gain is then given in dBd (decibels over dipole) [9]. 4

2.1.3 Radiation Pattern. An radiation pattern or antenna pattern of an antenna pattern is defined as a mathematical function or a graphical representation of the radiation properties of the antenna as a function of space co-ordinates. In most cases, the radiation pattern is determined in the far field region and is represented as a function th directional coordinates. The pattern of an ideal isotropic antenna, which radiates equally in all directions, would look like a sphere. Many nondirectional antennas, such as

monopoles and dipoles, emit equal power in all horizontal directions, with the power dropping off at higher and lower angles; this is called an omnidirectional pattern and when plotted looks like atorus or donut. The radiation of many antennas shows a pattern of maxima or " lobes" at various angles, separated by "nulls", angles where the radiation falls to zero. This is because the radio waves emitted by different parts of the antenna typically interfere, causing maxima at angles where the radio waves arrive at distant points in phase, and zero radiation at other angles where the radio waves arrive out of phase. In a directional antenna designed to project radio waves in a particular direction, the lobe in that direction is designed larger than the others and is called the "main lobe". The other lobes usually represent unwanted radiation and are called "sidelobes". The axis through the main lobe is called the "principle axis" or "boresight axis"[9].

2.1.4 Beam width.

Half power Beam width (HPBW) : Half power Beam width is defined as the angular distance between two points on the radiation pattern of main lobe those are 3dB below the major lobe level.

First null Beam width (FNBW) : First null Beam width is the angular distance between the two points on each side of the major lobe where the radiation drops to zero.

Note: Beamwidth is usually expressed in degrees. It is usually expressed for the horizontal plane, but may also be expressed for the vertical plane

2.1.5 Polarization.

The polarization of an antenna is the orientation of the electric field (E-plane) of the radio wave with respect to the Earth's surface and is determined by the physical structure of the antenna and by its orientation. Thus, a simple straight wire antenna will have one polarization when mounted vertically, and a different polarization when mounted horizontally. "Electromagnetic wave polarization filters are structures which can be employed to act directly on the electromagnetic wave to filter out wave energy of an undesired polarization and to pass wave energy of a desired polarization [9].

2.1.6 Radiation Resistance.

The antenna is a radiating device, in which the power is radiated into space in the form of electromagnetic waves. Hence there must be power dissipation which may be expressed as

If it is assumed as all this power appears as electromagnetic ( or radio) waves, then the power can be divided by square of the current ) i.e.

at the point where it is fed to the antenna and obtained a fictitious resistance called radiation resistance. 6

The radiation resistance (Rr) thus defined as that fictitious resistance which when substituted in series with the antenna, will consume the same power as it is actually radiated . From circuit point of view, the antennas appear to the transmission lines as a resistance Rr called the radiation resistance. It is not related to any resistance in the antenna itself but is a resistance coupled from space to the antenna terminals. It can be viewed as the equivalent resistance to a resistor in the same circuit [9].

2.1.7 Efficiency.

The efficiency of an antenna relates the power delivered to the antenna and the power radiated or dissipated within the antenna. A high efficiency antenna has most of the power present at the antenna's input radiated away. A low efficiency antenna has most of the power absorbed as losses within the antenna, or reflected away due to impedance mismatch. The losses associated within an antenna are typically the conduction losses (due to finite conductivity of the antenna) and dielectric losses (due to conduction within a dielectric which may be present within an antenna). The antenna efficiency (or radiation efficiency) can be written as the ratio of the radiated power to the input power of the antenna:

Efficiency is ultimately a ratio, giving a number between 0 and 1. Efficiency is very often quoted in terms of a percentage; for example, an efficiency of 0.5 is the same as 50%. Antenna efficiency is also frequently quoted in decibels (dB); an efficiency of 0.1 is 10% or (-10 dB), and an efficiency of 0.5 or 50% is -3 dB. The power supplied to the antenna terminals which is not radiated is converted into heat. This is usually through loss resistance in the antenna's conductors, but can also be due to dielectric or magnetic core losses in antennas (or antenna systems) using such components. Such loss effectively robs power from the 7

transmitter, requiring a stronger transmitter in order to transmit a signal of a given strength [9].

2.2 Microstrip Antenna:-

Microstrip antennas and planar inverted-F antennas are increasing in popularity for personal wireless applications. The advantage of these two types of antennas is their low-profile structure. Therefore they are good candidates for embedded antennas in handheld wireless devices. This chapter describes the two antennas and examines various models of analysis performed in the past as well as the antenna characteristics. A design procedure is also illustrated for each antenna type.

A class of antennas that has gained considerable popularity in recent years is the microstrip antenna. A typical microstrip element is illustrated in Figure There are many different types of microstrip antennas, but their common feature is that they consist of four parts: A very thin flat metallic region often called the patch; A dielectric substrate; A ground plane, which is usually much larger than the patch; and A feed, which supplies the element RF power. Microstrip elements are often constructed by etching the patch (and sometimes the feeding circuitry) from a single printed-circuit board clad with conductor on both of its sides. The length of the patch (L) is typically about a third to a half of a free-space wavelength (), while the dielectric thickness is in the range of 0.003 to 0.5. A commonly used dielectric for such antennas is polytetrafluoral ethylene (PTFE), which has a relative dielectric constant of about 2.5. Sometimes a low-density cellular honeycomb material is used to support the patch.

[Fig.No.2.1] Patch Antenna

This material has a relative dielectric constant near unity and usually results in an element with better efficiency and larger bandwidth [2] but at the expense of an increase in element size. Substrate materials with high dielectric constants can also be used. Such substrates result in elements that are electrically small in terms of free-space wavelengths and consequently have relatively small bandwidth [2] and low efficiency [3]. The reasons microstrip antennas have become so popular include the following: 1. They are low-profile antennas. 2. They are easily conformable to nonplanar surfaces. Along with their low profile this makes them well suited for use on high-performance airframes. 3. They are easy and inexpensive to manufacture in large quantities using modern printed-circuit techniques. 4. When mounted to a rigid surface they are mechanically robust. 5. They are versatile elements in the sense that they can be designed to produce a while variety of patterns and polarizations, depending on the mode excited and the particular shape of patch used. 6. Adaptive elements can be made by simply adding an appropriately placed pin between the patch and the ground plane. Using such loaded elements, the antenna characteristics can be controlled. These advantages must be weighed against the disadvantages which can be most succinctly stated in terms of antenna quality factor, Q. Microstrip antennas are high9

Q devices with Q values sometimes exceeding 100 for thinner elements. High-Q elements have small bandwidths. Increasing the thickness of the dielectric substrate will reduce the Q of the microstrip element and thereby increase its bandwidth. There are limits, however. As the thickness increases, an increasing fraction of the total power delivered by the source goes into a surface wave. This surface-wave contribution can also be counted as an unwanted power loss since it is ultimately scattered at dielectric bends and discontinuities. Such scattered fields are difficult to control and may have a deleterious effect on the pattern of the element [2]. One also needs to be aware that microstrip elements are modal devices. If the band of the element is so large that it encompasses the resonant frequencies of two or more resonant modes, the pattern is likely not to be stable throughout the band even though the VSWR at the input could be acceptably low. There are several theories for microstrip antennas that have varying degrees of accuracy and complexity. Among these, two give the best physical insight: the transmission-line model [7] and the Cavity model [5]. More rigorous and complex methods for analyzing the behavior of microstrip elements are the method of moments and finite-difference time domain. Of these, the simplest is the transmission-line model. The cavity model, though somewhat more complex, gives a deeper insight into the operation of microstrip antennas.

2.3 Planar Inverted F Antenna PIFA

The Planar inverted-F antenna (PIFA), as shown in Fig. 2-11(a), is currently in use as an embedded antenna in some radiotelephone handsets, especially in Japan. It is one of the most promising antenna types because it is small and has a low profile, making it suitable for mounting on portable equipment. The PIFA typically consists of a rectangular planar element, ground plane, and short-circuit plate of narrower width than that of the shortened side the planar element. The PIFA can be thought of as a combination of the inverted-F (IFA) and the short-circuit rectangular microstrip antennas (SC-MSA), as shown in Fig. 2-11. Both the IFA and SC-MSA have 10

small bandwidths, but the PIFA has sufficient bandwidth to cover popular communication bands (about 8%). The PIFA is an IFA with the wire radiator element replaced by a plate to increase the bandwidth. The IFA is known as a shunt -driven inverted-L antenna-transmission line with an open end [10]. The PIFA also can be viewed as a short-circuit microstrip antenna resonated with the TM100 dominant mode. The length of the rectangular element is halved by placing a short-circuit plate between the radiator element and ground plane at the position where the electric field of the TM100 mode is zero [2]. When the width of the short-circuit plate is narrower than that of the planar element, the effective inductance of the antenna element increases, and the resonant frequency becomes lower than that of a conventional short-circuit MSA having the same sized planar element [2]. As a result, the size of the short-circuit MSA can be further reduced. With the width of the shortcircuit plate reduced, the final structure resembles a PIFA. Studies on the conventional PIFA have been performed in recent years. However, no simple model providing a clear understanding of its behavior and characteristics exists 26 at the present time. Numerical analysis is the primary method for evaluating PIFA performance. This chapter presents the analytical characteristics of a PIFA when the width of the short-circuit plate and size ratio of the planar element are varied. The analysis assumes that the size of the ground plane is infinite or large enough to be considered as infinite.

The Inverted F Antenna (IFA) typically consists of a rectangular planar element located above a ground plane, a short circuiting plate or pin, and a feeding mechanism for the planar element.

The Inverted F antenna is a variant of the monopole where the top section has been folded down so as to be parallel with the ground plane. This is done to reduce the height of the antenna, while maintaining a resonant trace length. This parallel section introduces capacitance to the input impedance of the antenna, which is compensated by implementing a short-circuit stub. The stubs end is connected to the ground plane through a wire.

11

The ground plane of the antenna plays a significant role in its operation. Excitation of currents in the printed IFA causes excitation of currents in the ground plane. The resulting electromagnetic field is formed by the interaction of the IFA and an image of itself below the ground plane. Its behaviour as a perfect energy reflector is consistent only when the ground plane is infinite or very much larger in its dimensions than the monopole itself. In practice the metallic layers are of comparable dimensions to the monopole and act as the other part of the dipole [10].

The antenna/ground combination will behave as an asymmetric dipole, the differences in current distribution on the two-dipole arms being responsible for some distortion of the radiation pattern.

In general, the required PCB ground plane length is roughly one quarter (/4) of the operating wavelength.

If the ground plane is much longer than /4, the radiation patt erns will become increasingly multilobed. On the other hand, if the ground plane is significantly smaller than /4, then tuning becomes increasingly difficult and the overall performance degrades. The optimum location of the IFA in order to achieve an omni-directional farfield pattern and 50 impedance matching was found to be close to the edge of the Printed Circuit Board.

The mitre is used to avoid a right angle microstrip bend, which results in a poor current flow on the stub. The taper is needed in order to compensate the abrupt step transition encountered between the microstrip line feed and the antenna.

The omni-directional behaviour of the IFA with gain values that ensure adequate performance for typical indoor environments taking into account the standard values of the output power and receiver sensitivity of short range radio devices.

12

[Fig.No.2.2] PIFA Antenna

The omni-directional behaviour of the IFA with gain values that ensure adequate performance for typical indoor environments taking into account the standard values of the output power and receiver sensitivity of short range radio devices.

The polarization of the antenna is rather elliptical than linear since the axial ratio rarely reaches 20dB. Thus, the antenna has the ability to receive both vertically and horizontally polarized electromagnetic waves, which can be proven beneficial in indoor environments where depolarization is a dominant phenomenon and the choice of the best polarization difficult. Although, currently, many wireless systems are vertically polarized, it has been predicted that using horizontal antennas at both the receiver and the transmitter results in 10dB more power in the median as compared to the power received using vertical antennas at both ends of the link. The IFA bandwidth increases with its thickness. The input impedance of IFA can be arranged to have an appropriate value to match the load impedance without using any additional circuits [10].

2.4 Meandered Planar Inverted F Antenna M-PIFA

One other variation of the PIFA is introduced with the meander like structure; it has a further reduction in size while still maintaining adequate bandwidth. The meander

13

antenna is an antenna with the wire folded back and forth where resonance is found in a much more compact structure than can otherwise be obtained.

[Fig.No.2.3] M-PIFA Antenna

The bandwidth still maintained and the size is only an eighth of a wavelength long. The meander PIFA is modification of the conventional PIFA design that is slightly reduced in size from the conventional PIFA. It uses several slits cut laterally in the PIFA radiating element. These slits effectively act to increase the electrical length of the antenna and allow for reduced overall antenna volume.[10] The impedance matched between the feed and meander line antenna is being achieved by adjusting the width and length of the open end of the microstrip. The radiation resistance, bandwidth, and efficiency drop off as size is decreased, and tuning becomes increasingly critical.[7] Impedance matching can be implemented by tapping much like tapping is accomplished in the F-antenna.

Advantages of M-PIFA over conventional PIFA Small size Easy integration to a wireless device Inexpensive 14

low SAR

Techniques to increase the Bandwidth for PIFA

Bandwidth is affected very much by the size of the ground plane. By varying the size of the ground plane, the bandwidth of a PIFA can be adjusted. For example, reducing the ground plane can effectively broaden the bandwidth of the antenna system. To reduce the quality factor of the structure (and to increase the bandwidth), can be inserted several slits at the ground plane edges. frequency. Adjusting the location and the spacing between two shorting posts. Excitation of multiple modes designed to be close together or far apart depending on requirements Using stacked elements it will increase the Bandwidth [10]. Use of thick air substrate to lower the Q and increase the bandwidth. resonant lengths close to main resonant

15

3.0 PROPOSED ANTENNA

The project aims to design simulate fabricate and test two types of Inverted F-Antennas operating at 2.4GHz.

The antennas are to be designed for a return loss greater than -10dB and omnidirectional radiation pattern.

The antenna will be fabricated using printing technology.

Specifications

3.1 For PIFA:Operating Frequency: - 2.4GHz Radiation pattern:- Omnidirectional Return Loss: - Less than -10dB.

3.2 For M-PIFA:Operating Frequency: - 2.4GHz Radiation pattern:- Omnidirectional Return Loss: - Less than -10dB.

16

4.0 DESIGN AND ANALYSIS

4.1 Analysis of PIFA

Substrate specifications Track Width for feed (w)= 0.515mm Track Height (h) = 1.6mm Dielectric Permittivity ( ) = 4.7

)(

Since the PIFA is quarter wave antenna we take

cm

17

[Fig.No.4.1] PIFA Analysis

4.2 Analysis of M-PIFA

The width of feed stub and matching stub of PIFA and M-PIFA remains the same

Hence only the meandered line is analyzed.

[10]

)(

[7]

18

Using the design procedure we get following values

d=2.25mm s=5.8mm l=0.70mm w=0.515mm

[Fig.No.4.2] M-PIFA Analysis

19

5.0 SIMULATION
The softwares used for simulation are:

5.1 RF Sim99 5.2 HFSS 13

5.1 RF Sim99

This software was used to find the width of the stubs and feedline of PIFA antenna. By using FR4 as a dielectric medium with dielectric constant 4.7 and impedance of 100 the width of the antenna is determined. And by using FR4 with a dielectric constant 4.7 and impedance of 50 the width of the feed point is determined.

[Fig.No.5.1] RFSim 99For Characteristic Impedance of 100 20

[Fig.No.5.2] RFSim 99For Characteristic Impedance of 50

5.2 HFSS 13

HFSS 13 is an advanced version of ansys software. In order to get acquainted with HFSS simulation software a patch antenna was designed and simulated. The return loss and radiation pattern for Patch Antenna was observed. PIFA Antenna was designed and its return loss and radiation pattern were observed. HFSS 13 software was also used for simulation of PIFA Antenna.

21

5.2.1 Simulation of Patch Antenna

[15]

c = 3*10^8 = 4.4 fo = 2.4GHz h = 1.579mm

[Fig.No.5.3] Patch Antenna

)(

[7]

[8]

(( ) (( ) )

[10]

22

[10]

Following the above Design Procedure We get the dimensions of Patch Antenna:-

Length (L) =3.01cm Width (W) = 3.8cm Height of Substrate (H) = 1.579mm By solving we get:

L= 3.01cm W = 3.8cm h = 1.579mm c=310^8 r = 4.4 fo = 2.4GHz

[Fig.No.5.4] Patch Antenna Designed In HFSS

23

[Fig.No.5.5] Return Loss of Patch Antenna

[Fig.No.5.6] Radiation Pattern of Patch Antenna

5.2.2 Design of PIFA and M-PIFA Antennas

In order to make the antenna resonate at the required operating frequency the length of the radiating element is altered. 24

The stub length was arrived by Trial and Error method during simulation. The width of feed stub was found out to be 2.8mm

The return loss was also improved by Trial and Error method.

5.2.2.1 Design of PIFA Antenna

RFSIM 99 is used to find the width of the stubs and feedline of PIFA antenna. In order to improve performance of our antenna and get maximum return loss the dimensions of stub were improved by trial and error method.

Width of Stub Antenna = 0.515mm (For 100) Width of Feed Antenna = 2.8mm (For 50)

[Fig.No.5.7] PIFA Dimensions

25

[Fig.No.5.8] PIFA HFSS Simulation

[Fig.No.5.9] PIFA HFSS Simulation Screenshot

26

[Fig.No.5.10] Return Loss of PIFA in HFSS

.2.2.2 Design of M-PIFA Antenna

The width of the antenna was determined by RF Sim99 Software The design of stub of M-PIFA antenna was done by trial & error method in HFSS.

The width of feedline and stub of PIFA and M-PIFA remains the same

Width of Stub Antenna = 0.515mm (For 100) Width of Feed Antenna = 2.8mm (For 50)

d=2.25mm s=5.8mm l=0.70mm w=0.515mm 27

[Fig.No.5.11] M-PIFA Dimensions

[Fig.No.5.12] M-PIFA Cross-section

28

[Fig.No.5.13] M-PIFA HFSS Screenshot

[Fig.No.5.14] M-PIFA Return Loss

29

6.0 FABRICATION

The fabrication of antenna required generating photo plots. The photo plots were made using AutoCAD drawings. The antenna was fabricated.

[Fig.No.6.1] Fabricated PIFA Antenna

[Fig.No.6.2] Fabricated M-PIFA Antenna 30

The antenna needed a panel SMA connector to which co-axial cable can be connected.

[Fig.No.6.3] Fabricated Ground Plane with SMA connector of PIFA

[Fig.No.6.4] Fabricated Ground Plane with SMA connector of M-PIFA

31

7.0 TESTING
The antennas were tested for return loss using Rhode & Schwartz network analyzer. The test setup is shown in fig (7.2). The return loss measured is shown in fig (7.1) and fig (7.2) for the PIFA and M-PIFA respectively. The radiation patterns of the antennas were also measured by using network analyzer.

Network Analyzer Connections

A VSWR bridge is connected to the RF input and RF output ports. The antenna is directly connected to the VSWR Bridge for testing purposes. The network analyzer has to be properly calibrated before it can be used for testing.

[Fig.No.7.1] Return loss for PIFA 32

[Fig.No.7.2] Return loss for M-PIFA

[Fig.No.7.3] Superimposed Return loss of PIFA and M-PIFA

33

[Fig.No.7.4] Superimposed Radiation Pattern of PIFA and M-PIFA

34

8.0 CONCLUSION

Two types of PIFA antennas were designed at the same operating frequency of 2.4 GHz, simulated, fabricated and tested for return loss and radiation pattern.

Parameter Dimensions Return loss Radiation pattern

PIFA 5.5cmx6.1cm <-30dB omnidirectional

M-PIFA 6.2cmx4.6cm >-20dB omnidirectional

[Table no 8.1] Comparison between PIFA and M-PIFA

35

9.0 REFRENCES
1) J.R. James et al., Microstrip Antenna Theory and Design, Peter Peregrines, New- York: 1981.

2) Y.T. Lo and S.W. Lee, Antenna Handbook, Van Nostrand Reinhold Company Inc., New-York: 1988.

3) N. Das, S.K. Chowdhury, and J.S. Chatterjee, Circular Microstrip Antenna on Ferromagnetic Substrate, IEEE Trans. Ant. Prop., vol. AP-31, no. 1, Jan. 1983, pp. 188-190.

4) Y.T. Lo, D. Solomon, Theory and Experiment on Microstrip Antennas, IEEE Trans. Ant. Prop., vol. AP-27, no. 2, March 1989, pp. 137-145.

5) A.G. Derneryd, A Theoretical Investigation of the Rectangular Microstrip Antenna Element, IEEE Trans. Ant. Prop., vol. AP-26, no.4, July 1978, pp. 532535.

6) R.E. Munson, Conformal Microstrip Antennas and Microstrip Phased Arrays, IEEE Trans. Ant. Prop., vol. AP-22, no. 1, Jan. 1974, pp.74-78.

7) EM Talk, "Microstrip Patch Antenna", (Theory and simulation of microstrip patch antenna).

8) Hong-Twu Chen, Kin-Lu Wong, and Tzung-Wern Chiou PIFA With a Meandered and Folded Patch for the Dual-Band Mobile Phone Application

9) Hans Lohninger, "Learning by Simulations: Physics: Coupled Radiators". vias.org, 2005. (ed. Interactive simulation of two coupled antennas)

10) P N Calla, Alok Singh, Amit Kumar Singh, Sandeep Kumar, Triloki Kumar Empirical Relation for Designing the Meander Line Antenna 36