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58-E0049/A, 58-E0049/B Instrument for Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity and Rebound Hammer Tests

INSTRUCTION MANUAL

INSTRUZION MANUAL

Instrument for Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity and Rebound Hammer Tests


Mod.

pg

58-E0049/A, 58-E0049/B

Rev. 0 27 giu 2000

INDICE

Introduction ................................................................................................................................. page 3 Description .................................................................................................................................. Use of Instrument ....................................................................................................................... Recharging of battery and turning off Instrument .................................................................. Test procedure and interpretation of results ........................................................................... 4 4 21 22

INSTRUZION MANUAL

Instrument for Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity and Rebound Hammer Tests


Mod.

pg

58-E0049/A, 58-E0049/B

Rev. 0 27 giu 2000

INTRODUCTION
The use of ultrasonic testing on building materials, in particular reinforced concrete, dates back to more than 50 years ago (the first tests were made in Canada and U.K. in 1945). Since that time, technological developments have allowed the transformation of such testing from a complex laboratory test to simple in-situ testing. Controls ultrasonic pulse velocity tester represent one the most advanced models available today, it not only allows highly accurate ultrasonic tests to be performed, but can also perform rebound hammer test with an electronic rebound hammer fitted (only for model 58-E0049/B) and automatically combine the ultrasonic and rebound hammer results so as estimate the compressive resistance of the concrete (both models). In this way, many of the inaccuracies associated with the rebound hammer test are corrected and the user obtains information which it is impossible to get with only ultrasonic testing (estimate of compression strength). This instrument extends the field of applications of ultrasonic and rebound hammer non destructive testing and guarantees a high level of accuracy and reliability of results.

DESCRIPTION
The apparatus consists of: N 1 electronic instrument, battery operated, with display, keyboard and connectors N 2 54 kHz probes, one of which has a sampling button N 2 connection cables for probes with BNC plugs N 1 connection cable for sampling button, with jack connector N 1 Calibration bar N 1 jar of contact paste for ultrasonic testing N 1 Serial cable for PC connection N 1 Carrying case N 1 Mains lead for mains operation and/or battery charging N 1 C0181/H electronic test hammer (only 58-E0049/B) Accessories (only for model 58-E0049/B) C0181/F1 Calibration anvil for test hammer

Complete instrumentation 58-E0049/B

INSTRUZION MANUAL

Instrument for Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity and Rebound Hammer Tests


Mod.

pg

58-E0049/A, 58-E0049/B

Rev. 0 27 giu 2000

TECHNICAL CHARACTERISTICS
Ram memory: 32 kByte Bumper memory: 16 kB Program memory: 64 kB Resolution A/D: 12 bit Ultrasonic resolution 0.1 sec. Rebound hammer resolution 0.1 rebound index Accuracy 1 digit Battery 6V - 4Ah On board battery charger Rear illuminated display 4 x 20 characters Touch membrane keyboard with 5 screened keys Standard RS 232 serial output (transmission 9600 baud, 8 data bit, 1 stop bit, no parity). N D E

F G

B H P I O L C Front panel of 58-E0049 M (only model 58-E0049/B)

USE OF INSTRUMENT
Switch on the instrument by placing the on/off switch (A) to on. The display will show: CONTROLS SpA COMBINED TESTER FOR ULTRASONIC AND REBOUND TESTS After a few seconds the display will show the main menu;

TEST SELECTION ULTRASONIC PULSE VEL From which it is possible to select the desired test using the "5" and "6" keys. The available tests are: ULTRASONIC PULSE VEL = ultrasonic test to determining the velocity of propagation of ultrasonic sounds across the concrete. CRACK DEPTH EVAL = determination of crack depths in concrete using ultrasonic waves. REBOUND NUMBER = rebound hammer test using the 58-C0181/H electronic test hammer (only available on model 58E0049). CALIBRATION = calibration menu for checking the calibration. MEMORY / RS232 = menu which allows management of data contained in the memory.

INSTRUZION MANUAL

Instrument for Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity and Rebound Hammer Tests


Mod.

pg

58-E0049/A, 58-E0049/B

Rev. 0 27 giu 2000

Once the desired test has been selected, confirm with "4ENTER" so as to access the required menu. The instrument is fitted a rear-illuminated display. Normally this illumination is off so as to increase battery life. To switch the illumination on, before selecting the test, press the "MODE" and "5" keys together. Likewise press mode and "6" key to switch the illumination off. Now we will consider the available functions.

REBOUND NUMBER
This function is only available on model 58-E0049/B when fitted with the electronic rebound hammer 58-0181/H (concrete hammer connector).

Electronic rebound hammer 58-C0181/H (only model 58-E0049/B) Before proceeding with the following instructions, we recommend that the rebound hammer rod is in its rest position, releasing the hammer by applying a pressure on the point of the rod. With reference to performing the test and analysing the results, refer to the relative paragraph in this manual.

Connection of the 58-C0181/H From the main menu select REBOUND NUMBER, the display will show: TEST A.XXX ANGLE 0 COMBINED TEST= YES [ ESC ]=>Previous [MODE]=>Next Test A (test area) indicates the numerical code which identifies a group of measurements in a test area. The instrument has a memory capacity for 130 test areas, each area can contain up to 20 rebounds hammer readings, 10 ultrasonic pulse velocity readings (see later) and all the pre-set parameters. Therefore test area is the memory file, identified by a number assigned to it. Use the "5" key to vary the number indicated by the cursor and the "6" key to move from one digit to another. Once the desired test Area has been selected, confirm with 4ENTER to move to the next field ANGLE, that is the hammer impact angle. Using the "5" and "6" keys it is possible to select one of the following angles +90, +45, 0, 45, 90 (+90 signifies impact angle vertically upwards, 0 horizontal and 90 vertically downwards). Press 4ENTER to confirm the desired angle and pass to the next field.

INSTRUZION MANUAL

Instrument for Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity and Rebound Hammer Tests


Mod.

pg

58-E0049/A, 58-E0049/B

Rev. 0 27 giu 2000

The next field allows the operator to indicate if the Test Area refers to a combined test or not. When the cursor flashes on COMBINED TEST= press the "5" and "6" keys to select between YES and NO. If the combined test is selected, a C will appear on the display next to Test Area. Press 4ENTER to confirm the selection, the cursor will return to Test A. By pressing the ESC3 key, it is possible to return to the main menu at any moment. Press the MODE key to proceed to the next step. If the Test Area selected has been previously used, and therefore contains readings that have not been cancelled, upon pressing MODE the display will show: GROUP FULL Followed by: OVERWRITE ? no[ESC] yes[ENT] The operator in this way is advised that the selected test Area is already full and he has the possibility to cancel and over write the data present in that group (overwrite = yes) or to select another group (over write = no).

Non-combined Test When a non-combined test is selected, the display shows: TEST A.XXX ANGLE YY [ ESC ]=>Previous [MODE]=>Next [ENT ]=>Start test Where: XXX YY

is the selected area is the impact angle

By pressing ESC3 return to previous menu. By pressing MODE access to the setting menu which allows the input of parameters for elaborating the readings. These are described below: AVERAGE: two selections are possible for the way the average is calculated: M1 calculates the average of all the recorded readings; M2 discards the highest and lowest readings and calculates the average of the remaining readings. allows the setting of the measurement unit in MPa, kg/cm2, psi and N/mm2. The compressive resistance is estimated by correlation with experimental tests and therefore is only and indicative value. A more accurate estimate can be made by plotting the characteristic correlation curve of the concrete being investigated with a series of destructive and non destructive (rebound hammer) test on suitably selected samples. is the proportional multiple time factor used in the calculation of the resistance to take into account of the age of the concrete. This is initially set as 1. The table below suggest some coefficients that have been obtained by experimentation. They are offered as a guide and are not binding. It is possible, for the operator to establish his own time factors. Age (up to: days) Time Factor 7 1.2 50 1 100 0.94 200 0.87 400 0.79 800 0.7

UNIT:

TIME FACTOR:

CORRECTION FACTOR: is the proportional multiple Factor used in the calculation of the resistance to take into account external factors such as humidity which could affect the readings. This is initially set as 1. The use of this factor is left at the discretion of the operator based on local experience. The factor can be set at a value between 0.10 and 1.99. TYPE: indicates the type of sample, Cube or Cylinder in which to express the readings in.

INSTRUZION MANUAL

Instrument for Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity and Rebound Hammer Tests


Mod.

pg

58-E0049/A, 58-E0049/B

Rev. 0 27 giu 2000

To make the above mentioned settings use the "5" key to vary the values displayed and the "6" key to move from one digit to another. The "4ENTER" key allows the operator to move to the next field whilst the "ESC" key returns to the setting menu. Once the last of the above settings has been made, the screen will once again show:

TEST A.XXX ANGLE YY [ ESC ]=>Previous [MODE]=>Setting menu [ ENT ]=>Start test Then press the "4ENTER" key to start the series of readings; the display will show:

TEST A.XXX ANGLE YY TOTAL READINGS: 0 REBOUND NUMBER _ _._ S=**** Rm=**** ZZ where: XXX YY Total readings Rebound number S Rm ZZ

is the selected test area is the impact angle shows the number of readings made and stored in the selected test Area. Initially this is zero and increases automatically during the testing phase. shows the rebound number of the hammer, when the hammer is in its rest position there is no reading (__._). indicates the standard deviation of the readings made (this is calculated and shown from the 7th reading upwards). indicates the average rebound number (calculated following the method selected) and is calculated and shown from the 7th reading upwards. indicates the type of average selected, M1 or M2.

b Electronic rebound hammer 58-C0181/H (only 58-E0049/B) with impact rod (a) in rest position (b) IMPORTANT: If the rebound hammer is not in its rest position when the operators enters this menu, the instrument will immediately record a reading which will correspond with the last reading made with the hammer.

Make tests with the impact rod of the hammer on the surface of the concrete to be tested following the procedure described in the chapter dedicated to the test method and interpretation of results. At this stage it is only necessary to remember that it is recommended that more than 9 readings are made in each test Area so that reliable results can be achieved. Every impact leads to an up dating of the screen. The number of readings made (TOTAL READINGS=) is up dated when the hammer is returned to its rest position. As stated previously, the standard deviation and average are only calculated and shown from the 7th reading upwards. The rebound readings (up to 20 readings) and the pre-set test parameters are stored in the selected Test Area at the end of the testing.

INSTRUZION MANUAL

Instrument for Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity and Rebound Hammer Tests


Mod.

pg

58-E0049/A, 58-E0049/B

Rev. 0 27 giu 2000

After 20 readings, the instrument automatically closes the Test Area and proceeds with the elaboration of the test data. This is also possible by pressing "ESC3" before reaching 20 readings. The display will show: TEST A.XXX ANGLE YY **** TEST RESULTS **** ZZ MEAS s = AAAA BBB S=CCCC Rm=DDDD EE where: XXX YY ZZ AAAA BBB CCCC DDDD EE

is is is is is is is is

the test Area where the readings are stored the impact Angle the number of readings made the estimated compressive strength in the selected engineering units the selected engineering units the standard devition of the stored readings the average rebound number, calculated in base of the selected method the method for calculation the average (M1 or M2).

The results remain on screen until the "4ENTER" key is pressed and the following screen appears: TEST A.XXX ANGLE YY

[ ESC ]=>Finish [MODE]=>RS 232 By pressing the "MODE" key the tests of that test Area are transmitted to the RS232 Serial port (connector C). See chapter relative to the RS232 port for more detailed information. By pressing the "ESC3" key, the readings made in that test area are stored, after which the instrument will automatically increase the test area number by one so it is possible to proceed with a new group of readings.

ERROR MESSAGES
When the results are shown, one of the following error messages may appear: NO DATA !!! = no reading has been made NOT ENOUGH DATA !!! = less than 9 readings have been made OFF STANDARD !!! = where at least 20% of readings vary from the average by 6 or more units. In this case the International Standards indicate that the readings should be discarded and the test repeated.

In anycase the readings are memorized along with the error message but the test data is not elaborated.

Combined test
If a combined test is to made (ultrasonic pulse velocity and rebound hammer), the rebound readings must be made first, followed by ultrasonic pulse velocity readings. The two sets of readings of the combined test must be stored in the same test area, the display shows: TEST A.XXXC ANGLE YY [ ESC ]=>Previous [MODE]=>Setting menu [ ENT ]=>Start test where: XXX YY

is the test Area followed by C which indicate combined test is the impact Angle

Press "ESC3" to return to previous menu. Press "MODE" to advance to the setting menu to set the type of average: M1 the average of all the readings made; M2 for the average with the highest and lowest readings being discarded. Note: As opposed to the traditional rebound hammer test, for combined tests the following selection are not possible:

INSTRUZION MANUAL

Instrument for Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity and Rebound Hammer Tests


Mod.

pg

58-E0049/A, 58-E0049/B

Rev. 0 27 giu 2000

measurement unit; time factor, correction factor etc.; because the only value used in the elaboration of the test results is the average rebound number which will be combined with the ultrasonic pulse velocity (see later). To make settings use the "5" and "6" keys. Press "ESC3" at the end of the selection, the screen will show:

TEST A.XXXC ANGLE YY [ ESC ]=>Previous [MODE]=>Setting menu [ ENT ]=>Start test Then press "4ENTER" to start the series of readings. The display will show:

TEST A.XXXC ANGLE YY TOTAL READINGS: 0 REBOUND NUMBER _ _._ S=**** Rm=**** ZZ where: XXX YY Total readings Rebound number S Rm ZZ

is the test Area followed by C which indicates combined test is the impact Angle = shows the number of readings stored in the test area. This is zero at the beginning and the number is up dated automatically during testing. shows the rebound number at the moment of impact. When the hammer is in its rest position, no reading is given (_ _._). indicates the standard deviation of the readings made (this is calculated and shown from the 7th reading upwards). indicates the average rebound number (calculated following the method selected) and is calculated and shown from the 7th reading upwards. indicates the type of average selected, M1 or M2.

IMPORTANT: If the rebound hammer is not in its rest position when the operators enters this menu, the instrument will immediately record a reading which will correspond with the last reading made with the hammer. Make tests with the impact rod of the hammer on the surface of the concrete to be tested following the procedure described in the chapter dedicated to the test method and interpretation of results. At this stage it is only necessary to remember that it is recommended that more than 9 readings are made in each test Area so that reliable results can be achieved. Every impact leads to an up dating of the screen. The number of readings made (TOTAL READINGS=) is up dated when the hammer is returned to its rest position. As stated previously, the standard deviation and average are only calculated and shown from the 7th reading upwards. The rebound readings (up to 20 readings) and the pre-set test parameters are stored in the selected Test Area at the end of the testing. After 20 readings, the instrument automatically closes the Test Area and proceeds with the elaboration of the test data. This is also possible by pressing "ESC3" before reaching 20 readings. The display will show: TEST A.XXXC ANGLE YY **** TEST RESULTS **** ZZ MEAS R0= AAAA S=BBBB Rm=CCCC DD where: XXX is the test Area where the readings are stored YY is the impact Angle ZZ is the number of readings made AAAA is the estimated compressive strength in the selected engineering units BBBB is the selected engineering units CCCC is the standard devition of the stored readings DD is the average rebound number, calculated in base of the selected method (R0 and Rm coincide with readings made with 0 impact angle)

INSTRUZION MANUAL

Instrument for Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity and Rebound Hammer Tests


Mod.

pg

10

58-E0049/A, 58-E0049/B

Rev. 0 27 giu 2000

The results remain on screen until the "4ENTER" key is pressed and the following screen appears: TEST A.XXXC ANGLE YY

[ ESC ]=>Finish [MODE]=>RS 232 By pressing the "MODE" key the tests of that test area are transmitted to the RS232 Serial port (connector C). See chapter relative to the RS232 port for more detailed information. By pressing the "ESC3" key, the readings made in that test area are stored, after which the instrument will automatically increase the test area number by one so it is possible to proceed with a new group of readings.

ERROR MESSAGES
When the results are shown, one of the following error messages may appear: NO DATA !!! = no reading has been made NOT ENOUGH DATA !!! = less than 9 readings have been made OFF STANDARD !!! = where at least 20% of readings vary from the average by 6 or more units. In this case the International Standards indicate that the readings should be discarded and the test repeated.

In anycase the readings are memorized along with the error message but the test data is not elaborated.

ULTRASONIC PULSE VELOCITY TEST


Sensors for ultrasonic pulse velocity test (one with sampling button)

Sensors for Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity test (one with sampling button)

Introduction
To perform ultrasonic tests, the two sensors must be connected to the instrument; the receiver to connector I receiver and the transmitter to "emitter", selecting between the two energizing voltages: 0.5 kV (connector G) and 1.5 kV (connector F). The higher voltage is recommend when the distance between the probes is high or if the concrete under examination is not very homogeneous (eg. cracked concrete); the lower voltage is preferable if the concrete is homogeneous and the distance between the probes is not great. The two probes are identical, therefore they can be used as either transmitter or receiver. One of the probes is fitted with a sampling button, which must be connected to pulse sampler (connector H) using the cable fitted with jack connectors supplied with the instrument. Three further connectors are provided for the connection of an oscilloscope (optional). The oscilloscope, whilst not indispensable, allows the visualization of the wave form of the signal read by the receiver allowing the operator to evaluate the entity of the wave. This may prove necessary in the presence of external noises in order to verify the correctness of the value shown on the display. The connection must be made using sleeved cables with BNC connectors (the same type used for the probes). Connect signal (connector L) to CH1 of the oscilloscope; connect trigger (connector D) to the trigger input and connect stop (connector E) to CH2. Set the oscilloscope so that it can operate with an external trigger. Refer to the oscilloscope manual for detailed information on its use. Normally the wave form can be seen on channel1, whilst channel 2 shows a window with a count of delay (start signal on the left, stop signal on the right).

INSTRUZION MANUAL

Instrument for Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity and Rebound Hammer Tests


Mod.

pg

11

58-E0049/A, 58-E0049/B

Rev. 0 27 giu 2000

From the main menu, select ULTRASONIC PULSE VEL., the display will show: TEST A.XXX R=YYY

[ ESC ]=>Previous [MODE]=>Next Test A (test Area) shows the test area where the readings will be stored. The memory has a capacity to store up to 130 test areas, each of which can contain 20 rebound hammer readings and 10 ultrasonic pulse velocity readings. Therefore, the test area is the file in the memory, which is identified by a number assigned to it. To set this number use the "5" key to vary the digit on which the cursor flashes and the "6" key to pass from one digit to another. When scrolling through the available test areas, between those already used, those that refer to a combined test are countersigned by a C. As stated previously, to make a combined test, the rebound hammer readings must be made before those of the ultrasonic pulse velocity. Therefore, if the ultrasonic readings are to be combined with rebound readings already made, the appropriate test area must be recalled. By selecting a C type test area, the display shows the corresponding average rebound number referred to the hammer in position 0 (i.e. R0) calculated from the rebound hammer tests. This parameter is shown in the field R = YYY. By selecting a test area not denominated with C, two possibilities are available. 1 In field R the operator can insert via the keyboard a rebound number which has been obtained from other concrete test hammers so as to perform a combined test. In field R the operator can select 00.0. In this case the display will shows UPV (ultrasonic pulse velocity), thus the test area will not be for a combined test, but a simple ultrasonic pulse velocity test. To set this number use the "5" key to vary the digit on which the cursor flashes and the "6" key to pass from one digit to another.

It is possible to return to the main menu at any moment by pressing "ESC3". Press the "MODE" key to advance to the next step. If the test Area selected has already been used, therefore it contains data that has not been cancelled, the display will show the message: GROUP FULL Followed by: OVERWRITE ? no[ESC] yes[ENT] In this way the operator is warned that the test area selected is already full and can be cancelled (over write = yes) or another test area can be selected (over write = no).

Combinet test
When the operator selects the combined tests for ultrasonic pulse velocity, the display shows: TEST A.XXX R=YY.Y [ ESC ]=>Previous [MODE]=>Setting menu [ ENT ]=>Start test where: XXX

is the selected test area. If countersigned by C it is a combined test for which the rebound hammer index number has been calculated. YY.Y is the relative rebound index. Press "ESC3" to return to previous menu.

INSTRUZION MANUAL

Instrument for Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity and Rebound Hammer Tests


Mod.

pg

12

58-E0049/A, 58-E0049/B

Rev. 0 27 giu 2000

Press "MODE" to advance to the setting menu which allows the setting of the parameters used in the data elaboration. These parameters are as follows: UNIT: allows the setting of the measurement unit in MPa, kg/cm2, psi and N/mm2. The compressive resistance is estimated by correlation with experimental tests and therefore is only an indicative value. A more accurate estimate can be made by plotting the characteristic correlation curve of the concrete being investigated with a serial of destructive and non destructive (combined) tests on suitable selected samples.

CORRECTION FACTOR: is the proportional multiple Factor used in the calculation of the resistance to take into account external factors such as humidity which could affect the readings. This is initially set as 1. The use of this factor is left at the discretion of the operator based on local experience. The factor can be set a value between 0.10 and 1.99. TYPE: Allows the selection of the type of cement between PORTLAND and ALTOFORNO (Blast furnace). Indeed the correlation curve changes with the type of cement used (see chapter relative to interpretation of test results).

To make the settings use the "5" and "6" keys. Press "ESC3" at the end of the selections. The display will show: TEST A.XXX R=YY.Y [ ESC ]=>Previous [MODE]=>Setting menu [ ENT ]=>Start test Then press "4ENTER" to start a series of readings. The display will show: TEST A.XXX R=YY.Y l=0.000 m T=ms v= m/s MEAS.N. ZZ pulse rate NN/s where: XXX YY.Y l

T V ZZ NN

is the test area followed by C which indicates combined test. is the relative rebound index. is the distance between the probes in m. This parameter must be introduced by the operator and allows the calculation of the propagation rate of the ultrasonic waves. Use the "5" key to change the digit on which the cursor flashes. Press "4ENTER" to pass from one digit to another. is the time in msec for the ultrasonic wave to pass from the transmitter to the receiver probe. is the velocity of propagation of the ultrasonic waves in m/sec calculated by v [m/s] = [m] / T[s]. Since the velocity depends upon the distance, an accurate value of I should be used. is the number of readings stored. (pulse rate) indicates the number of pulses per second emitted by the transmitter probe. It is possible to select between 1 and 10 pulse per second using the "6" key.

Whilst in this menu, the operator can hear a ticking of the pulses emitted by the probe. In order to make readings it is necessary to spread a small layer of contact paste on the face of the two probes, and/or on the surface of the sample under examination and then press the probes onto the surface. A small pressure must be applied to the probes; by varying this pressure the time visualised by the instrument will show small variations, in particular, if a high pressure is applied the visualised time will fall slightly. When the two probes have been positioned, it is necessary to input the distance between them in the instrument using the keyboard. In this way the real value of the velocity of the ultrasonic waves across the sample is displayed, expressed in m/ sec. The instrument can emit between 1 and 10 pulses per second through the transmitter probe, and it is possible to vary the pulse rate in real time as described previously. It is useful to use a fast pulse rate if an analogical oscilloscope (optional) is connected to the instrument, or if one prefers rapid up-dating of the /sec. value shown on the display. However, with a fast pulse rate the battery will have a shorter autonomy due to the increased energy requirement. Therefore, it is recommended, in normal conditions, to work with a pulse rate of 1 or as slow as possible, which reduces the instability of the signal caused by electrical noise. The selected pulse rate remains indicated on the screen.

INSTRUZION MANUAL

Instrument for Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity and Rebound Hammer Tests


Mod.

pg

13

58-E0049/A, 58-E0049/B

Rev. 0 27 giu 2000

It is possible to memorize up to 10 readings in the selected test area. To memorize the current reading, press the sampling button on one of the two probes, or press the MODE key. We recommend that readings are made when the visualized value is stable and the distance set between the probes is correct. Each time a reading is stored, the counter on the screen is automatically up dated (MEAS. N). IMPORTANT: ensure that the sampling button is connected to the instrument. Upon reaching 10 readings, the instrument automatically closes the test area and elaborates the data. This can also be done by pressing "ESC3" before reaching 10 readings. The screen will show: TEST A. XXX R=YY.Y ****TEST RESULTS**** SELECT AVERAGE= MX Before elaborating the results the type of average must be selected. M1 is the average of all the readings made. M2 is the average of the readings excluding the lowest and highest readings. Whilst to calculate the average in M1 one reading is sufficient, in M2 at least 4 readings are necessary. Use the "5" and "6" keys to make the selection and press "4ENTER" to proceed with the elaboration of the results which are presented as follows: TEST A. XXX R=YY.Y ****TEST RESULTS**** ZZ MEAS. Vm=AAAA m/s COMBINED s=BBBB CC Where: XXX is the test area followed by C which indicates combined test. YY.Y is the relative rebound index. ZZ is the number of readings made. AAAA is the average velocity read, calculated by M1 or M2. BBBB CC is the result of the combined test, that is the estimated compression resistance and the relative measurement unit calculated from the combination of the result of the tests made with the test hammer and that from the Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity tests. The results remain visualized until the 4ENTER key is pressed and the following screen appears: TEST A. XXX [ ESC ]=>Finish [MODE]=>RS 232 By pressing the "MODE" key the tests of that test Area are transmitted to the RS232 Serial port (connector C). See chapter relative to the RS232 port for more detailed information. By pressing the "ESC3" key, the readings made in that test area are stored, after which the instrument will automatically increase the test area number by one so it is possible to proceed with a new group of readings. R=YY.Y

ERROR MESSAGES
When the test results are visualized, the error message NO DATA !!! may appear if no readings have been memorized before the elaboration.

Non-Combined Tests
When the standard ultrasonic pulse velocity test (i.e. non-combined) is selected, the display shows: TEST A.XXX R=UPV [ ESC ]=>Previous [ ENT ]=>Start test where: XXX R=UPV is the selected test area = Standard Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity test

Press "ESC3" to return to previous menu.

INSTRUZION MANUAL

Instrument for Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity and Rebound Hammer Tests


Mod.

pg

14

58-E0049/A, 58-E0049/B

Rev. 0 27 giu 2000

Press 4ENTER to access test menu, this is: TEST A.XXX R=UPV l=0.000 m T=ms v= m/s MEAS.N. ZZ pulse rate NN/s

where: XXX l

T V ZZ NN

is selected test Area is the distance between the probes in m. This parameter must be introduced by the operator and allows the calculation of the propagation rate of the ultrasonic waves. Use the "5" key to change the digit on which the cursor flashes. Press "4ENTER" to pass from one digit to another. is the time in msec for the ultrasonic wave to pass from the transmitter to the receive probe. is the velocity of propagation of the ultrasonic waves in m/sec calculated by v [m/s] = [m] / T[s]. Since the velocity depends upon the distance, an accurate value of I should be used. is the number of readings stored. (pulse rate) indicates the number of pulses per second emitted by the transmitter probe. It is possible to select between 1 and 10 pulse per second using the "6" key.

Whilst in this menu, the operator can hear a ticking of the pulses emitted by the probe.

Contact paste for Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity tests.

In order to make readings it is necessary to spread a small layer of contact paste on the face of the two probes, and/or on the surface of the sample under examination and then press the probes onto the surface. A small pressure must be applied to the probes; by varying this pressure the time visualised by the instrument will show small variations, in particular, if a high pressure is applied the visualised time will fall slightly. When the two probes have been positioned, it is necessary to input the distance between them in the instrument using the keyboard. In this way the real value of the velocity of the ultrasonic waves across the sample is displayed, expressed in m/ sec. The instrument can emit between 1 and 10 pulses per second through the transmitter probe, and it is possible to vary the pulse rate in real time as described previously. It is useful to use a fast pulse rate if an analogical oscilloscope (optional) is connected to the instrument, or if one prefers rapid up-dating of the /sec. value shown on the display. However, with a fast pulse rate the battery will have a shorter autonomy due to the increased energy requirement. Therefore, it is recommended, in normal conditions, to work with a pulse rate of 1 or as slow as possible, which reduces the instability of the signal caused by electrical noise. The selected pulse rate remains indicated on the screen. It is possible to memorize up to 10 readings in the selected test area. To memorize the current reading, press the sampling button on one of the two probes, or press the MODE key. We recommend that readings are made when the visualized value is stable and the distance set between the probes is correct. Each time a reading is stored, the counter on the screen is automatically up dated (MEAS. N). IMPORTANT: ensure that the sampling button is connected to the instrument.

INSTRUZION MANUAL

Instrument for Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity and Rebound Hammer Tests


Mod.

pg

15

58-E0049/A, 58-E0049/B

Rev. 0 27 giu 2000

Upon reaching 10 readings, the instruments automatically closes the test area and elaborates the data. This can also be done before reaching 10 readings by pressing "ESC3". The display will show:

TEST A. XXX R=UPV ****TEST RESULTS**** SELECT AVERAGE= MX

Before elaborating the results the type of average must be selected. M1 is the average of all the readings made. M2 is the average of the readings excluding the lowest and highest readings. Whilst to calculate the average in M1 one reading is sufficient, in M2 at least 4 readings are necessary. Use the "5" and "6" keys to make the selection and press "4ENTER" to proceed with the elaboration of the results which are presented as follows:

TEST A. XXX R=UPV ****TEST RESULTS**** ZZ MEAS. Vm=AAAA m/s

where: XXX ZZ AAAA

is the selected test area. is the number of readings made. is the average velocity read, calculated by M1 or M2.

The results remain on the screen until 4ENTER is pressed and the following screen appears:

TEST A. XXX [ ESC ]=>Finish [MODE]=>RS 232

R=YY.Y

By pressing the"MODE" key the tests of that test Area are transmitted to the RS232 Serial port (connector C). See chapter relative to the RS232 port for more detailed information. By pressing the "ESC3" key, the readings made in that test area are stored, after which the instrument will automatically increase the test area number by one so it is possible to proceed with a new group of readings.

ERROR MESSAGES
When the test results are visualized, the error message NO DATA !!! may appear if no readings have been memorized before the elaboration.

CRACK DEPTH EVALUATION function


Ultrasonic testing also allows the estimate of crack depths in concrete. The two probes must be connected to the receiver and emitter connectors, selecting the energising voltage of 0.5 or 1.5 kV (see previous chapter for choice criteria). Both probes are identical and can be used as either transmitter or receiver. One of the probes is fitted with a sampling button which must be connected to the pulse sampler connector using the supplied cable with jack connectors. When this menu is accessed, the display shows:

DEPTH CRACK EVAL.

[ESC]back [ENT]next

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Press the ENTER key to advance to the next screen or ESC to return to the previous screen. The next screen is as follows: DEPTH CRACK EVAL. b = XXX mm [ESC]back [ENT]next

XXX

is the reference distance between the probes expressed in mm arbitrarily selected by the operator.

Use the "5" key to set the value and the "6" key to move from one digit to another. Confirm the value with 4ENTER to move the next screen: DEPTH CRACK EVAL. 2b TIME= ms 4b TIME= ms The emitter probe will emit the characteristic ticking sound and it is possible to start the test. Place the two probes, one each side of the crack under examination, at the distance 2b. The transit time will be shown on the 2b TIME line on the display. With the probes in the correct position and the transit time and adequately stable, press the sampling button or the "MODE" key. The transit time is thus memorized and remains visualized on the screen. Now place the probes, one each side of the crack, at a distance of 4b and proceed as above. The display will show the test result: DEPTH CRACK EVAL. **** TEST RESULT *** C = XXX mm [ENT]next C is the test result, that is the crack depth in mm. Press 4ENTER to end the test. Then press 4ENTER again to make a new test or "ESC3" to return to the main menu. NOTE: For the correct execution and interpretation of this test we recommend the operator makes reference to the reference standard and relative biography.

CALIBRATION FUNCTION
Verifying the calibration Using this menu, it is possible to verify, and if need be correct, the calibration of both the ultrasonic pulse velocity and the electronic concrete hammer. The display shows:

CALIBRATION Test selection: UPV In this mode the selection is UPV, that is ultrasonic pulse velocity. Press keys "5" and "6" to select the rebound hammer (HAMMER) mode or to return to UPV. Once the correct selection is displayed, press 4ENTER to advance to the next screen.

Calibration of the Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity


Connect the two probes to the receiver connector (I) and the emitter connector (G or F) selecting the energising voltage of 0.5 or 1.5 kV: The two probes are identical and can be connected to either connector. It is not necessary to connect the sampling button (H). The display will show: CALIBRATION ULTRASONIC PULSE VEL Transit time XXX.X s

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That is, the transit time of the ultrasonic pulses between the two probes is displayed in m/sec. It is possible to hear the characteristic clicking with a pulse rate of 10 per second.

Reference bar Place the reference bar, the two ends suitably smeared with contact paste, between the two probes and read the transmit time on the display. To obtain an accurate reading, a slight pressure should be applied to the probes, they should be kept perfectly still and the bar must be central to the probes. If the reading varies sensibly from that indicated on the reference bar (more than 0.2/0.4s) it is possible to adjust the reading of the instrument as follows: with the bar and probes held perfectly in position, use the "6" (decrease) and "5" (increase) keys to adjust the reading to that indicated on the reference bar. When this has been done, the new calibration must be confirmed by pressing the 4ENTER key three consecutive times. The screen will show Store Calibration ? Press "ESC3" to abort the operation and not store the calibration, or "MODE" to memorize the new calibration (the message Stored will appear on the screen). Press "ESC3" to exit from the calibration menu.

Calibration of Electronic Test Hammer (only model 58-E0049/B)


Connect the electronic test hammer 58-C0181/H to the concrete hammer connector (M). Before proceeding further, place the hammer in its rest position, releasing the hammer mechanism by applying a slight pressure on the impact rod. The following screen will be shown: CALIBRATION DIGITAL HAMMER Rebound number XX.X When a rebound reading is made, its value will remain on the screen until the hammer mechanism is released again. If such readings are made on a reference sample (eg. Calibration Anvil) it is possible to verify the correctness of the calibration of the hammer.

Calibration Anvil for Concrete Test Hammer (optional)

If the reading is sensibly different from that of the reference anvil (more than 2 units) it is possible to adjust the calibration as follows: Check the rebound number shown on the display and use the "6" (decrease) and "5" (increase) keys to adjust the reading of the instrument to that of the reference anvil. Make several other readings to check the validity of this new calibration. If no further adjustment is necessary, the new calibration must be confirmed by pressing the 4ENTER key three consecutive times. The screen will show Store Calibration ? Press "ESC3" to abort the operation and not store the calibration, or "MODE" to memorize the new calibration (the message Stored will appear on the screen). Press "ESC3" to exit from the calibration menu.

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MEMORY / RS 232 function Introduction


The instrument has a memory for up to 130 Test Areas which can contain ultrasonic Pulse Velocity test readings, rebound hammer reading and/or those of combined tests. Using the memory / RS232 menu it is possible to access all the data present in the memory, display them on the screen and download them to a PC through a RS 232 Serial Port (connector C). When this menu is accessed the screen shows: MEMORY/RS232 Select TEST AREA: XX YY XX is the selected test area from which it is possible, following the instructions given below, to display all the stored data with relative results and/or download them to a PC. shows the type of test made in that particular test area. This can be R (rebound number), C (combined), U (ultrasonic pulse velocity) or EMPTY (i.e. no data).

YY

The test area can be selected using the "6" and "5" keys. The "ESC3" key is used to return to the previous menu. To confirm the desired test area, press 4ENTER, the screen will show: TEST AREA: XX Test type: YY Download XX YY is the selected test area from which it is possible, following the instructions given below, to display all the stored data with relative results and/or download them to a PC. shows the type of test made in that particular test area. This can be R (rebound number), C (combined), U (ultrasonic pulse velocity) or EMPTY (i.e. no data).

Using the "5" and "6" keys the following selections are possible: download the PC via the RS232 Serial Port delete cancel all data in selected test area view to visualize all data of selected test area.

Once the desired mode has been selected, confirm with 4ENTER. A further confirmation is requested via the "MODE" key. The operation can be aborted at any time by pressing "ESC3".

Download option
To download the data to a PC via the RS232 serial port this must first be connected using the cable supplied as standard with the machine. Connect the RS232 port (connector C) to the serial port (COM) of the PC. To receive the data we recommend that TERMINAL (windows 3.1 and 3.11) or Hyper terminal (Windows 95 and 98) is used. Consult the instruction manual of the program used for its correct use. The input parameters must be set as follows: 9600 baud, 8 data bit, 1 stop bit, no parity. The PC must be ready to receive the data before the command is given to the instrument to transmit the data. The data is in ASCII format, thus once received by the PC, is accessible through any text editor (eg. Word, Excel, Notepad, Wordpad, etc.). Below are some examples of data transmissions. Example 1: test Area n. 2, Utrasonic test with 6 readings, Average M1. ** ULTRASONIC PULSE VELOCITY TEST ** TEST AREA: 2 R=UPV T(microsec) l(m) v(m/s) 38.0 0.150 3947 38.0 0.150 3947 36.8 0.150 4076 36.7 0.150 4087 37.5 0.150 4000 37.3 0.150 4021 AVERAGE VELOCITY= 4013 m/s M1

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Example 2: test Area n.4, Ultrasonic pulse rate with 10 readings: selected average M2. ** ULTRASONIC PULSE VELOCITY TEST ** TEST AREA: 4 R=UPV T(microsec) l(m) v(m/s) 55.4 0.200 3610 55.5 0.200 3604 56.2 0.200 3559 55.3 0.200 3617 54.2 0.200 3690 54.1 0.200 3697 54.5 0.200 3670 54.5 0.210 3853 54.5 0.210 3853 53.9 0.210 3896 AVERAGE VELOCITY= 3698 m/s M2

Example 3: test Area n.5, combined test with manual introduction of rebound number 32.1 (naturally the impact angle is 0), 4 ultrasonic pulse velocity readings, correction factor = 1.00, tipo di cemento = Portland, result of combined test = 24.0 Mpa. ** COMBINED ULTRASONIC AND REBOUND HAMMER TEST ** TEST AREA: 5 ANGLE 0 degrees REBOUND NUMBER R0=32.1 T(microsec) l(m) v(m/s) 56.4 0.225 3989 56.6 0.225 3975 56.2 0.225 4004 55.8 0.225 4032 AVERAGE VELOCITY= 3999 m/s M1 CORRECTION FACTOR=1.00 CEMENT TYPE: PORTLAND sigma=24.0 MPa

Example 4: test Area n.7, rebound test with impact angle +90, 6 readings with M1 average, correction factor = 1 (for both) test results refer to a concrete cube. Since 6 readings are not enough to elaborate results (at least 9 necessary) the error message NOT ENOUGH DATA appears. ** REBOUND NUMBER TEST ** TEST AREA: 7 ANGLE +90 degrees REBOUND NUMBER 51.2 20.9 26.1 26.5 37.4 9.2 AVERAGE= 28.6 M1 S=13.1 TIME FACTOR=1.00 CORR. FACTOR=1.00 TYPE= CUBE NOT ENOUGH DATA !!

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Example 5: test Area n.8, rebound test with impact angle 0, average M2 time factor = 1 correction factor 11.01, test results refer to concrete cube. The results are out of standard in this series and relative message appears and test result is not given. ** REBOUND NUMBER TEST ** TEST AREA: 8 ANGLE 0 degrees REBOUND NUMBER 57.3 36.1 57.3 34.9 25.7 53.6 52.9 72.3 72.3 18.9 35.0 58.6 46.7 AVERAGE= 48.2 M2 S=13.1 TIME FACTOR=1.00 CORR. FACTOR=1.01 TYPE= CUBE OFF STANDARD !!

Example 6: test Area n.9, rebound test with impact angle 0 - average M2, correction factor = 1 (for both) results refer to concrete cube. Sigma represents the test result expressed in the pre-selected engineering units in this case MPa). ** REBOUND NUMBER TEST ** TEST AREA: 9 ANGLE 0 degrees REBOUND NUMBER 25.6 25.4 37.5 26.6 16.6 35.3 45.4 35.1 35.6 AVERAGE= 31.5 M1 S= 8.1 TIME FACTOR=1.00 CORR. FACTOR=1.00 TYPE= CUBE sigma= 25.9 Mpa

Example7: test Area n.10, combined test with rebound test made with hammer C0181/H connected to instrument, average for rebound hammer M1, 4 ultrasonic readings taken, average M1, correction factor of combined test = 1, cement type = Portland. Sigma represents the test result expressed in the pre-selected engineering units (in this case MPa). ** COMBINED ULTRASONIC AND REBOUND HAMMER TEST ** TEST AREA: 10 ANGLE 0 degrees REBOUND NUMBER 22.7 25.7 26.6 20.4 21.7 29.7

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12.5 16.9 31.7 26.0 AVERAGE= 23.4 M1 S= 5.5 R0=23.4 T(microsec) l(m) v(m/s) 46.7 0.200 4283 47.1 0.200 4246 47.0 0.200 4255 47.4 0.200 4219 49.2 0.200 4065 AVERAGE VELOCITY= 4213 m/s M1 CORRECTION FACTOR=1.00 CEMENT TYPE: PORTLAND sigma=25.0 MPa

View option
The view option allows the operator to visualize all the readings of a particular test Area with a format and management similar to the download option. Due to the limited space on the display (4 rows x 20 characters) at is necessary to use the "5" key to scroll the text. To return to the previous menu press "ESC3".

Delete option
The delete function allows the operator to cancel a test Area. Once the area has been selected press 4ENTER to proceed with the cancellation. An extra confirmation is required by pressing "MODE". Then press "ESC3" to return to the previous menu.

BATTERY RECHARGING
The instrument is supplied with a 6V - 4A rechargeable battery and on board battery charger. To recharge the battery connect the mains cable supplied as standard to connector B on the front of the instrument and to a suitable mains supply. When the batteries are low they should be recharged, when this is in process the red led will light up on the front panel. (led O) When the charging is finished, this takes up to 12 hours, the green led (P) will light up. The instrument will automatically stop recharging once the batteries are fully charged, therefore the instrument will not be damaged if left connected to the mains supply. We recommend that the batteries are always fully recharged and not partially charged in order to prolong the battery life. Avoid complete discharge of the battery! If the instrument is to remain idle for a long time, remember to recharge it periodically (at least once a month) to avoid complete discharge of the battery. When the battery is completely recharged it has an autonomy of approximately 40 hours in stand by, in use the autonomy will depend upon the type of tests being made and working conditions (particularly temperature). The Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity test uses more energy than the test hammer, as does the use of a high pulse rate compared to a low pulse rate (1 per sec), continuous use instead of discontinuous use, and the use of the back lighting of the screen. Important When the battery charge is low the red warning led lights and the display may become lighter and the reading of the characters more difficult. It may also become impossible to perform Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity tests.

SWITCHING OFF THE INSTRUMENT


Use the on-off switch (A) to turn off the instrument when the display is on the main menu (i.e. the menu of the selection of the functions).

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TEST PROCEDURE AND RESULT INTERPRETATION ULTRASONIC PULSE VELOCITY TEST


The given information represents just a brief summary of testing procedure and interpretation. For more information please refer to the specialised literature and to national standards (e.g. BS 4408 Part 5, and prEN12396). The ultrasonic test is a non destructive test based on the reading of ultrasonic pulse velocity across concrete. Transducer arrangement Although the direction in which the maximum energy is propagated is at right angles to the face of the transmitting transducer,it is possible to detect pulses which have travelled through the concrete in some other direction. It is therefore possible to make measurements of pulse velocity by placing the two transducers on either opposite face (direct transmission), or on adjacent faces (semi-direct transmission), or the same face (indirect or surface transmission). (see Figure)

NOTE 1: It may be necessary to place the transducers on opposite faces but not directly opposite each other. Such arrangement shall be regarded as a semi-direct transmission. (see Figure b) NOTE 2: The indirect transmission arrangement is the least sensitive and should be used, when only one face of the concrete is accessible, or when the quality of the surface concrete relative to the overall quality is of interest. NOTE 3: The semi-direct transmission arrangement has a sensitivity intermediate between the other two arrangements and should only be used when the direct arrangement cannot be used. Path length and pulse velocity measurement For direct transmission, the path length is the distance between the transducers and when possible, the accuracy of measurement of the path length should be + 1% and the accuracy shall be recorded. For semi-direct transmission, it is generally found to be sufficiently accurate to take the path length as the distance measured from centre to centre of the transducer faces. The accuracy of estimating of path length is dependent upon the size of the transducer compared with the centre to centre distance and it shall be estimated. For direct and semi-direct transmissions the pulse velocity shall be calculated from the formula:

V =
where:

L T

V is the pulse velocity, in km/s L is the path length, in mm T is the time taken by the pulse to transverse the length, in s. The resultant determination of the pulse velocity shall be expressed to the nearest 0,01 km/s or to three significant figures.

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With indirect transmission there is some uncertainty regarding the exact length of the transmission path, because of the significant size of the areas of contact between the transducers and the concrete. It is therefore preferable to make a series of measurements with the transducers at different distances apart to eliminate this uncertainty. 1. To do this, the transmitting transducer shall be placed in contact with the concrete surface at a fixed point P and the receiving transducer shall be placed at fixed increments x along a chosen line on the surface. The transmission times recorded should be plotted as points on a graph showing their relation to the distance separating the transducers. The slope of the best straight line drawn through the points (tan) shall be measured and recorded as the mean pulse velocity along the chosen line on the concrete surface. Where the points measured and recorded in this way indicate a discontinuity, it is likely that a surface crack or surface layer of inferior quality is present and a velocity measured in such an instance in unreliable.

2.

Evaluation of homogeneity and uniformity of concrete


Drawing a grid on the concrete member and measuring the transit time in the grid points it is possible to evaluate the concrete homogeneity. It is important to make use of diagrams to clearly represent the test results and to demonstrate the mean quality of the concrete.

Presence of cracks, voids, deteriorated regions


When an ultrasonic pulse travelling through concrete meets a concrete-air interface there is a negligible transmission of energy across this interface (due to diffraction and reflection) so that the transit time is necessarily longer than in similar concrete with no defects. It is possible to make use of this effect locating defects, voids, deteriorated regions and cracks. If the length of the defect is very small it is impossible to make significant evaluation (e.g. it is impossible to reveal voids with length smaller than the head diameter).

Correlation of pulse velocity and strength


It should be realised that the important physical properties of materials which influence pulse velocity are the elastic modulus and the density. In concrete these properties are related to the type of aggregate, its proportion [in the mix] and its physical

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properties and the physical properties of the cement paste, which relate. mainly, to the original water/cement ratio [of the mix] and the maturity of the concrete. On the other hand, the strength of concrete is more related to W/C ratio than to aggregate type and proportions of aggregate and paste Thus correlations between the pulse velocity and strength of concrete are physically indirect and have to be established for the specific concrete mix. For an unknown concrete; the estimation of strength, on the basis of pulse velocity alone, is not reliable.

Estimation of time for formwork striking and prestressing


If some small doors are preset in the concrete moulds, it is possible to control the process of hardening in the concrete structure.

Estimation of dynamic elastic modulus


From measurement of ultrasonic waves velocity it is possible to calculate the elastic dynamic modulus as follows:

E D = V 2Q

(1 + ) (1 - 2 ) 1-

Where: V = velocity in km/s Q = concrete density in kg/m3 n = Poissons ratio (for high strength concrete n = 0,15; for low strength concrete n = 0,30) ED = Dynamic elastic modulus MN/m2 From the following diagram it is possible to evaluate the elastic module.

Note the velocity of the ultrasonic waves in the concrete under examination, enter the diagram on the horizontal axis and trace a line vertically upwards to intersect the static and dynamic curves. Read across horizontally in order to read the corresponding static and dynamic elastic moduli.

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REBOUND HAMMER TEST How to use the concrete hammer


1. When the test hammer is stand-by position, the plunger head (11) is practically inside the housing. To eject the plunger, press the plunger head (11) on any hard surface until it is released.

carborundum stone

2. Prepare the test surface by removing if necessary - the grout or plaster that covers the surface with the carborundum stone supplied with the concrete hammer. Rest the plunger head (11) at right angles to the surface and press the concrete hammer in a continuous and even manner against the surface until the internal hammer strikes (7). Do not press pushbutton (19) under any circumstances when taking readings. The push-button is pressed to retain the plunger in the housing on completion of testing.

3. After impact, the hammer (7) rebounds moving a reference pointer (6) with it; the harder the concrete the farther it will move. The electronic hammer 58-C0181/H acquire the rebound value and convert it into an electric signal that is elaborated and displayed by the main unit. For details see the first section of this guide. 4. To carry out another test, repeat the operations indicated in point 2.

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Scheme of a traditional non electronic hammer

Criteria for selecting impact points and surface preparation


1. Impact points selection. If possible, test vertical surfaces. One should avoid joints, honeycombs and porous areas. One should also take great care with walls that are less than 10 cm thick and columns that are less than 12 cm thick since they could give misleading concrete hammer readings on account of their resilience. With low-grade concrete placings, decreasing values will be read as one proceeds to test from bottom to top. For this reason, it will be necessary to carry out several tests in various points to obtain a reliable mean. 2. Surface preparation. Any plaster or coating covering the concrete should be removed as a first step. Slightly uneven surfaces caused by wooden forms can be removed with the carborundum stone that is supplied with the instrument (22). One should always bear in mind, therefore, that the test surface can be used only when all the grout has been removed with a grinder and the concrete exposed. Old, and consequently hardened, concrete will also have to have the surface ground down to a depth of 10 mm which corresponds to an area which will suffice to carry out from 5 to 10 impact tests with the concrete hammer. We recommend that a 750 W grinder be used a grinding wheel diameter of 120 mm approximately and at a speed of 6000 r.p.m.

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3. Once the test surface has been prepared (at least 10 sq.cm), one proceeds to strike the surface in at least 5 places. The 3 "R" mean value of the 5 or more readings is established by eliminating those that are no way near the others and substituting them with the other strikes. It is advisable to repeat strikes that differ from the others by more than 5 points. Low values usually correspond to strikes made in porous areas, whilst high values may correspond to strikes on large pieces of aggregate. 4. Tables I and II give the "Wm" probable compression strength mean and the "Wmin" minim compression strength values in the various measurement units. We recommend that the "R" mean value be calculated to an accuracy of 1/2 scale unit and the "W" values to the nearest ten. Cube compression strength values can also be calculated, even if only roughly, using graphs 3a - 3c which can be stuck on the concrete hammer.

Calibration curves validity limits


The concrete hammer calibration curves have been traced on the basis of measurements taken on a large number of cubes wich were first checked with a concrete hammer and then compression tested on a test machine. All cubes used were made with concrete consisting of good quality aggregate and Portland cement. Before carrying out the compression test, each cube was blocked between the plates of the test machine and then tested by effecting 10 strikes with the concrete hammer on the surface of one side. Experience has shown that the calibration curve is in no way affected by the cement content, granulometric composition, aggregate diameter and water/cement ratio. Differences were noted on the other hand in the following cases: 1. Small-sized artificial stones products or concrete made with unusual compositions. In these cases it is considered advisable to carry out a series of preliminary tests to determine the relationship between the rebound value and the quality of the material. 2. Concrete made of not very strong, light-weight or cleavable aggregate. In this case the actual strength of the concrete is lower than that corresponding to the calibration curve (e.g. pumice stone, exspanded clay, gneiss, etc.). When in doubt, the relationship between the rebound value and actual strength will have to be experimentally assessed. 3. Concrete made of gravel with excessively smooth and polished surface that is of no use for high strength concrete. Since the rebound value in this case depends entirely on the mortar, it is difficult to establish the strength of the concrete. 4. When dirty or clayish aggregate is used, one has a repetition of point 3 above. 5. Concrete that is poor in sand content and has a low water/cement ratio, inadequately processed with the consequent honeycomb formation which cannot be seen from outside but which will most definitely negatively affect rebound values. 6. Concrete from which the form has just been removed or wet concrete. The surface should be allowed to dry before carrying out concrete hammer tests. 7. Very old, dried out concrete. The surface is always disproportionately hard and, consequently. The concrete hammer reading is higher than the actual value. In this case, one should grind down the surface for a depth of about 10 mm and carry out the hardness tests taking care not to strike the larger pieces of aggregate.

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Table I
Cube compression strength in respect of R rebound value (R = number read on the concrete hammers 26 scale). = 0 N.B. 1)

All values indicated in the table have been obtained from measurements made on a large number of test cubes which were subsequently broken under compression on a test machine. The values given in the 7 days section of the table correspond to the probable strength after 28 days based on an R rebound value obtained by testing products or cubes after 7 days. = Rebound value reading obtained with the concrete hammer = Strength mean value = Minimum strength value.

2)

R Wm Wmin

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Table II
Cylinder compression strength as a function of the rebound "R" value (R = number read on the concrete hammers "26" scale). = 0 N.B. 1) All values indicated in the table have been obtained from measurements made on a large number of test cylinders subsequently broken under compression on a test machine. 2) The values indicated in the 7 days section of the table correspond to the probable strength after 28 days based on an "R" rebound value obtained by testing products or test cylinders after 7 days. R = Rebound value reading obtained with the concrete hammer Zm = Strength mean value Zmin = Minimum strength value.

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Cube comparison tests


When it is possible to carry out this exercise, one can compare the following; the results obtained by testing the cube with the concrete hammer; the result obtained by taking the cube to breaking point on a compression machine; the result obtained by testing the product with the concrete hammer. Obviously the cube and product must have been made with the same mix and tested after the same period of time.

The cube is tested with the concrete hammer by blocking it between the platens of a test machine taking care not to exceed the 40 kN (4000 kgf) load. The strikes must be evenly distributed over the two opposite surfaces of the test cube. In normal conditions, the three results should correspond approximately.

Concrete hammer verifications and calibration. Calibration anvil


1. The C0184 calibration anvil illustrated here beside can be used to check if the concrete hammer is functioning properly. It should be placed on a stable surface like a rugged table or a concrete floor. 2. The concrete hammer, when fitted in its seat, should to give readings between 78 and 82. If the concrete hammer indicates readings below 78, in spite of a proper calibration, it is most probably dirty and should therefore be cleaned. All concrete hammers should be subjected to regular anvil tests.

Combined test
The combined Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity rebound hammer test method for the non-destructive compressive cube resistance allows a more accurate estimate of the resistance compared with that of the rebound hammer test alone. This instrument refers to the procedure of the combined test and experimentation illustrated in rapport No. 69 published by the CUR Dutch Research Institute titled "Non destructive testing of concrete". Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity, rebound hammer and compression tests were carried out on 771 20 cm concrete cubes (313 made with Portland cement and 458 made with Blast furnace cement). A mathematical correlation was made between the 20 cm cube resistance; ultrasonic pulse velocity and rebound number. The mathematical relationship is of the fourth grade and is as follows: f20 = AV4 + BV3 + CV2 + DV + ER4 + FR3 + GR2 + HR + JV3R2 + KV2R2 + LVR3 + MV2R + nVR2 + pVR +q Where: f2 = Compressive 20 cm cube resistance (MPa) V = ultrasonic pulse velocity of examined concrete (in km/s) R = Average rebound number for examined concrete (adimensional) The validity ranges and statistic coefficients obtained by experimentation are given below.

Portland cement
Resistance range considered 10.8 to 59.8 N/mm2 Correlation coefficient r = 0.953; Standard deviation S = 3.3 MPa

Blast Furnace Cement


Resistance range considered 10.3 to 42.5 N/mm2 Correlation coefficient r = 0.864; Standard deviation S = 3.3 MPa The research was later completed by repeating the previous study and using the same type of concrete in 15 cm cubes. This second study phase resulted the realisation that the above mentioned formulae can be correctly used for 15 cm cubes, the compressive strength f15 (in MPa) is achieved by using a multiplying factor of 1.16. In otherwords f15 = f20 x 1.16. in this case the standard deviation increases from 3.3 MPa to (3.32 +sk2)1/2 where sk is the standard deviation of the correlation between the experimental compressive resistance between 20 and 15 cm cubes. sk is equal to 3.3 MPa therefore s = 4.7 MPa2 This instrument is designed to give results automatically in f15.

MANUALE D'ISTRUZIONI INSTRUCTION MANUAL


NOTE

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