Sie sind auf Seite 1von 126
REPUBLIC OF KENYA MINISTRY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION Medium Term Plan

REPUBLIC OF KENYA MINISTRY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION Medium Term Plan for 2008 – 2012

FINAL DRAFT

March 2008

i

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

It is globally recognized that science, technology and innovation is essential for the economic growth and competitiveness of all nations. Science, technology and innovation is also a key component of social integration, sustainable development and poverty eradication based on equity, freedom, justice, governance, peace and prosperity. At the international level, Science, technology and innovation acts as a tool of international co-operation and solidarity. It is useful for knowledge and information and facilitating globalization with human development while concomitantly strengthening national governance and acting as a vector of common heritage and international cooperation and solidarity.

In the context of the overall national planning horizon, there is a very strong relationship between the social, economic and political pillars of the Kenya Vision 2030. As the foundation upon which the pillars spring the implementation of the relevant ST&I, it must be successfully delivered in order to achieve the goals of the Vision. Economically, developments in ST&I, especially biotechnology, value – addition, manufacturing, Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) will result in industrial and entrepreneurial development with new products and services, and areas of economic growth.

In terms of human welfare that underpins the social pillar, increased ST&I capabilities will help in addressing the challenges associated with poverty reduction and hunger by raising agricultural productivity and contribution to economic development. They will determine the ability to provide clean water, good health, adequate infrastructure, and safe food and also support the creation of high quality and better paying jobs, produce generics and help to dramatically cut the cost of healthcare to the poor. Generally ST&I will help achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).

ST&I capabilities will also be critical in ensuring sustainable development associated with natural resource management and disasters. ICT will increase access to education by facilitating virtual learning. ST&I capabilities will also promote sustainable development, especially:

Social

integration

by

stopping

exclusion

and

marginalization,

through

ii

equality of scientific, educational and cultural opportunities

Development, conservation and sustainable management of biodiversity

Sharing the opportunities and benefits of the knowledge society and economy

Development and strengthening of local and indigenous knowledge and culture

Empowerment of women

The contribution of ST&I to political stability and to domestic and international security are many. Over time, economic growth fuelled by ST&I will increase social cohesion, stability, and democratization and eradicate conflicts in communities arising from wants. The capabilities will increase the ability of citizens to participate in democratic processes such as elections as related to economic advances and provide tools for checking not only government performance, but also the ability of anti-social groups that thrive.

This Science, Technology and Innovation Sector Medium Term Plan has been prepared as part of the implementation of Vision 2030. The plan covers the 2007 – 2012 period and aims to:

Integrate science, technology and innovation (ST&I) policy into the broader framework of major economic strategies and policies, linking ST&I to national economic, social objectives and political goals;

Reform ST&I institutions and the environment in which they operate

Develop sound creative and innovative human capital with entrepreneurial skills;

Translate ST&I policy into improved production capacity, increased productivity and competitiveness

Maximize the reach and impact of scientific and technological knowledge and information as tools for participatory development

Promote the ethical dimension of scientific and technological development

Contribute to and promote international scientific and technological co- operation.

The plan recognizes that there exists great research and development potential in the

iii

areas of agriculture, health, engineering, basic sciences, forestry and environmental sciences. In addition, existing training institutions for the mid-level technical personnel will enable Kenya to re-inventing itself in order to focus more and more on the role of Science, Technology and Innovation (ST&I) in socio-economic development. This plan prioritizes the social and regional equity in the development of technological infrastructure, technical and entrepreneurial skills as well as define and supportive policies, institutional and legal frameworks that address government aspirations. Specific areas of focus include the development of innovative ideas into products, processes and services, measures aimed at creating jobs, safeguarding the environment against disasters and mitigating the effects of climate change.

ST&I Challenges

Kenya faces a myriad number of challenges including enhancing the role of ST&I in the national development agenda. Currently, more than 60% of the Kenyan population is aged between 18 and 35 years. It is this group that efforts must be focused on in order to create high quality, knowledge intensive jobs and thus harness their potential fully. Globally, Kenya has to overcome globalization of trade that has made it harder particularly for third world nations to use tangible or intangible trade barriers to protect domestic industry, knowledge, and technological innovation. Mid-level technical personnel do not have effective coordination and often lack critical resources and infrastructure to enable them effectively develop and integrate ST&I. The institutions are also unable to acquire, maintain and retain modern equipment as well as personnel. They have weak linkages with the productive sector, and the regional and international counterparts.

Lack of an integrative policy framework to facilitate effective integration of ST&I into the economy is an issue that needs urgent action. The productive sector does not have commensurate expertise that constitutes graduates from respective institutions. This makes it to incur higher costs in re-training staff for effective service delivery. Inadequate entrepreneurship skills mean that this cadre of expertise faces a barrier in the creation of ST&I technology-based enterprises within the economy. Purveyors or developers of knowledge which constitute research institutions and universities have strong familiarity with the processes of new knowledge generation and offer expertise in governing interactive learning. However, they are heavily inclined

iv

towards public service particularly in agriculture and health. They have not succeeded in creating an overall system of learning and problem solving within which the capacity for knowledge flow and the creation of new knowledge is improved. In addition, knowledge broker’s especially professional organizations are not actively contributing to new knowledge creation.

As far as expatriates are concerned, the challenge will be to attract foreign talents into the country, especially professionals, middle-level skilled personnel and entrepreneurs. This will be necessary to complement indigenous talents, for example, in R&D required by high technology industries, as well as the services sector. Foreign workers are employed in lower-skilled and lower value-added jobs, where Kenyans are not available, nor interested. The challenge is to reduce dependence on foreign workers over time. There is a need to promote automation, improve the work environment to make it more conducive for Kenyans to be employed and enhance flexibility in entry levels to allow for appropriate remuneration.

Human Resource

To adequately deal with the issue of human resource, the country will ensure adequate, high quality and relevant graduates. This will include creation of a core mass of a human resource base that supports ST&I development and sustainability. Various challenges in capacity building will need to be addressed at the stages of pre-employment and during employment: To competently develop skilled and knowledgeable workforce various components will be considered. They include; stakeholders’ expectations, performance-based compensation system, planning for human resources, basic requirements at pre-employment, review of human capital, and legislative environment.

While pursuing issues of women and persons with disabilities vis avis ST&I, there will be equitable sharing of resources and development opportunities between gender with a move towards more investments in attracting and sustaining females. Affirmative action will be taken to provide greater opportunities for the utilization of the ST&I capabilities and the talents of the persons with disabilities.

v

Science, Engineering and Technology (SET) Skills

There has been a recent decline in the supply of SET graduates. This has impacted negatively on the demand for adequate human resources. Unless something drastic is done, the long-term growth prospects of the country will be hampered. There is also waning interest for SET by potential trainees who constitute the youth. There is need to deliberately train Kenyans in Science, Engineering and Technology. This will be boosted by reviewing all curricula to incorporate enabling skills, particularly critical thinking, creativity, innovation, problem-solving and decision-making; and instituting benchmarking processes at all levels of the education system to standardize best practices in the education curricula. In addition workforce in the 17- 23 age group will be considered with a view to making them adequately endowed with skills in targeted industries like ICT; biotechnology; Halal industry; petrochemicals; education; tourism, including health and eco-tourism. A spirited attempt must be made to identify factors contributing to the mismatch in supply and demand of skilled and competent human resources; and promotion of the effectiveness of skills training programmes to enhance the employability and productivity of the labour force.

Collaboration

The linkages between knowledge purveyors with the business system are generally weak. Knowledge generation in the Kenyan context is heavily supported by development partners who influence priorities of these organizations. As a result, the ST&I activities of intermediate organizations are not aligned to national priorities. Facilitation is needed to ensure that knowledge between the industry and the academia is shared in order to contribute towards more market-driven R&D. International co-operation in science and technology is important for meeting a broad range of global challenges, for benefiting from globalization and for implementing large-scale research projects.

Establishing networks between institutions of higher learning, alumni and industry to enhance career development, training and strengthening the internship programme for students at the tertiary level is of paramount importance.

Strategic Thrusts

In order to give enough impetus to the role of ST&I, five strategic thrusts were

vi

developed. They include; Strengthening the Technical Capacities and Capabilities, Developing and Retaining Highly Skilled Human Resources, Intensification of Innovation in Priority Sector, Enhancing ST&I Awareness and Strengthening the ST&I Performance Management Framework. Under these thrusts are identified programmes, projects and their respective activities.

Enabling Sectors

Facilitation of ST&I will be undertaken to strengthen capabilities and capacities, avail adequate human resource skills, increase transition to Science, Technology and Technology Skills and intensify innovativeness for competitiveness. Towards this end, enabling sectors will include Infrastructure, Human Resource development, Trade, Industry and Manufacturing, and Information Communication Technology. Essentially enabling sectors will be exploited to avail a sound Technological foundation and innovation as well as the technological learning processes in order to enhance proper design and management of all facets of infrastructure. Supply of adequate and competent human resource necessary for rapid ST& I development will be emphasized. Global competitiveness and innovativeness are needed for leapfrogging trade, industry and manufacturing products and services while ICT will the necessary stimulation and support needed for simplifying information search and registration procedures, narrowing the digital divide and enabling and empowering communities to gain access to scientific and technological opportunities.

Innovation

Kenya does not have a National Innovation System that would adequately address issues of appropriate and responsive intellectual property rights regimes. The existing system does not effectively serve critical national needs. Challenges range from accessibility to the IPR regimes and benefits that accrue from innovators work. Public awareness is necessary to create the required support for ST&I investments which many times require large outlays with long payback periods. The extent to which IPR enables harnessing of indigenous knowledge and resources must be spelt out. It is noted that great room exists for improvement.

Of major importance will be the reorganization of the exiting strictures governing the ST&I sector to realize the Kenya National Innovation System (KNIS). The KNIS will provide an opportunity to articulate means for the promotion of coherence and

vii

integration among national activities targeted at enhancing the role of ST&I in the proposed Kenya Vision 2030 goals. It will also be aimed at establishing and sustaining Kenya’s pride of place in the generation and management of science, technology and innovation. In order to realize a KNIS there will be review, development and implementation of various legal, institutional and regulatory frameworks with the aim of creating various management organs and offices; starting at Ministerial level, SAGAs and independent bodies as appropriate.

Implementation of the Medium Term Plan

This MTP will be implemented through identified programmes and projects as well as within a framework of identified line Ministries, SAGAs, Autonomous bodies, lead agencies and Stakeholders.

viii

TABLE OF CONTENTS

E X E C U T I V E

S U M M A R Y

II

TABLE OF CONTENTS

IX

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

XI

GLOSSARY OF TERMS

XIII

LIST OF FIGURES

XVI

1 SITUATIONAL ANALYSIS

1

1.1

IMPORTANCE OF SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION TO ACHIEVEMENT OF KENYA VISION 20301

1.3.

AN OVERVIEW OF THE OVERALL KENYAN ST&I SECTOR CHALLENGE

2

1.4.

SECTORAL ST&I CHALLENGES IN KENYA

5

1.4.

STRATEGIC PRIORITIES AND PROSPECTS FOR 2008 – 2012

14

1.4.1. Strengthening Technical Capacities and Capabilities

14

1.4.2. Developing a Highly Skilled Human Resource Base

17

1.4.3. Intensification of Innovation in Priority Sectors

17

1.4.4. Enhancing Science, Technology and Innovation Awareness

18

1.4.5. Strengthening the STI Performance Management Framework

19

2 FLAGSHIP PROGRAMMES FOR VISION 2030

20

2.1 INTRODUCTION

20

2.2 STRATEGIC THRUST ONE: STRENGTHENING TECHNICAL CAPACITIES AND CAPABILITIES

21

2.2.1 Strategy One: Improve production processes

21

2.2.2 Strategy Two: Improve capacities and capabilities of ST&I Institutions

32

2.2.3 Strategy Three: Improve ST&I Infrastructure and equipment

35

2.2.4 Strategy Four: Developing Capacity and Capabilities for New And Emerging

Technologies

36

2.3

STRATEGIC THRUST TWO: DEVELOPMENT OF HIGHLY SKILLED HUMAN RESOURCES

41

2.3.1 Strategy One: Increase ST&I personnel and Improve ST&I skills

41

2.3.2 Strategy Two: Enhance technopreneurial skills and support services

47

2.4

STRATEGIC THRUST THREE: INTENSIFICATION OF INNOVATION IN PRIORITY AREAS

49

2.4.1

Strategy One: Increase funding for ST&I

49

2.4.2

Strategy Two: Improve collaborations and linkages in ST&I

51

2.4.3

Strategy THREE: Improve knowledge transformation and strengthen the IPR

regime

52

2.4.4

Strategy FOUR: Map and protect indigenous knowledge and technology

53

2.4.5

Strategy FIVE: National ST&I Reward and Recognition System

54

2.4.6

Strategy SIX: Quality Assurance and Standards

55

2.5

STRATEGIC THRUST FOUR: SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION AWARENESS

56

2.5.1

Strategy One: Enhancing the Level and Depth of Public Awareness of ST&I To

Facilitate Support For The Sector and Utilization of its Outputs

57

2.6 STRATEGIC THRUST FIVE: STRENGTHENING THE SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION PERFORMANCE

MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORK

59

2.6.1 Strategy One: Facilitate Targeted Performance for Effective Implementation Of

ST&I Interventions

59

2.7

COORDINATION WITH ONGOING ST&I PROJECTS

61

3 OTHER PROGRAMMES

62

4 KEY ENABLING SECTORS FOR SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION

64

4.1

INTRODUCTION

64

ix

4.2

SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION KEY ENABLING SECTORS ROLE

64

4.2.1 INFRASTRUCTURE SECTOR

64

4.2.2 EDUCATION SECTOR

65

4.2.3 LABOUR AND EMPLOYMENT SECTOR

65

4.2.4 TOURISM SECTOR

66

4.2.5 AGRICULTURE SECTOR

66

4.2.6 SOCIAL EQUITY AND POVERTY REDUCTION SECTOR

66

4.2.7 MACRO-ECONOMIC FRAMEWORK SECTOR

67

4.2.8 MANUFACTURING SECTOR SECTOR

67

4.2.9 GOVERNANCE, SECURITY AND RULE OF LAW SECTOR

68

4.2.10 WHOLESALE & RETAIL SECTOR

68

4.2.11 INFORMATION COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY (ICT) SECTOR

68

4.2.12 FINANCIAL SERVICES SECTOR

69

4.2.13 POPULATION AND URBANIZATION SECTOR

69

4.2.14 Health SECTOR

69

4.2.15 Environment, Water and Sanitation SECTOR

70

4.2.16 Gender, Youth and Vulnerable Groups SECTOR

70

5 . STRENGTHENING THE KENYA NATIONAL INNOVATION SYSTEM,

 

2008-2012

71

5.1

INTRODUCTION

71

5.2. PROPOSED POLICY, LEGAL, REGULATORY AND INSTITUTIONAL REFORMS

72

5.2.1 Strategic Policy Objective 1

72

5.2.2 Strategies to Implement Policy

72

5.2.3 Strategic Policy Objective 2

72

5.2.4 Strategies to Implement Policy

72

5.2.5 Strategic Policy Objective 3

73

5.2.6 Strategies to Implement Policy

73

5.2.7 Strategic Policy Objective 4

73

5.2.8 Strategies to Implement Policy

73

5.4

INSTITUTIONS

73

5.4.1

POLICY INSTITUTIONS

74

5.4.2

REGULATORY INSTITUTIONS

75

5.4.3

IMPLEMENTING INSTITUTIONS

75

5.4.4

FUNDING ST&I

76

6.0. IMPLEMENTATION FRAMEWORK OF THE MEDIUM TERM PLAN _ 78

6.1 MEDIUM TERM PLAIN IMPLEMENTATION MATRIX, 2008-2012

81

x

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

AG

Attorney General

 

ASAL

Arid and Semi-Arid Lands

CBOs

Community Based Organizations

ERS

Economic Recovery Strategy

ERSWEC

Economic Recovery Strategy for Wealth and Employment Creation

FDI

Foreign Direct Investment

 

GIS

Geographic Information System

HES

Higher Education Sector

HIV/AIDS

Human

Immuno-Deficiency

Virus/Acquired

Immune

Deficiency

Syndrome

HR

Human Resources

 

HRM

Human Resources Management

ICT

Information and Communication Technology

 

IEC

Information, Education and Communication

IPR

Intellectual Property Rights

 

IRTK

Indigenous ST&I Resources and Traditional knowledge

 

KAM

Kenya Association of Manufacturers

 

KARI

Kenya Agricultural Research Institute

KEMRI

Kenya Medical Research Institute

 

KEPSA

Kenya Private Sector Alliance

KEPHIS

Kenya Plant Health Inspectorate Services

 

KIPI

Kenya Industrial Property Institutes

KIPO

Kenya Industrial Property Organization

KIRDI

Kenya Industrial Research and Development Institute

 

KSH/Ksh.

Kenya Shillings

 

xi

KIPPRA

Kenya Institute of Public Policy and Research Analysis

LA

Lead Agency

M&E

Monitoring and Evaluation

MDG

Millennium Development Goals

MIC

Middle- Income-Country

MoST

Ministry of Science and Technology

NACSTI

National Commission for Science, Technology and Innovation

NCST

National Council for Science and Technology

NMK

National Museums of Kenya

NMK-IPR

National Museums of Kenya – Institute of Primate Research

NESC

National Economic and Social Council

NGO

Non-Governmental Organization

PAC-ST&I

Presidential Advisory Committee on ST&I

PPP

Public – Private Sector Partnership

RSEs

Researchers, Scientists and Engineers

R&D

Research and Development

SMEs

Small and Medium Enterprises

S&T

Science and Technology

SAGA

Semi-Autonomous Governmental Agency

ST&I

Science, Technology and Innovation

xii

GLOSSARY OF TERMS

Benchmarking - “Total Quality Tool” used to measure and compare your work processes with those of other organizations. The goal of benchmarking is to increase your organizations performance by the best practices of your organization benchmarking partners. Since best practice is always evolving, benchmarking should be applied at least annually

Biosensors - Devices that that use biological materials to detect, record, and transmit information regarding a physiological change or process.

Business Incubator - An economic development organization designed to accelerate the growth and success of entrepreneurial companies through an array of business support resources and services that could include physical space, capital, coaching, common services, and networking connections.

Centre of Excellence - A physical or virtual centres of research or learning which concentrate existing capacity and resources to enable researchers and academic staff to collaborate across disciplines and institutions, on long-term projects that are locally relevant and internationally competitive in order to enhance the pursuit of research and teaching excellence and capacity development.ʺ

Climate Change - The variation in the Earthʹs global climate or in regional climates over time. It involves changes in the variability or average state of the atmosphere over durations ranging from decades to millions of years. These changes can be caused by dynamic process on Earth, external forces including variations in sunlight intensity, and more recently by human activities

Commercialization - The exploitation of knowledge or other thing for financial gain

.

Competitiveness - The realization of a set of institutions and economic policies supportive of high rates of economic growth in the medium term.”

Copyright – A form of protection provided by the law to the authors of “original works of authorship,” including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works.

Data base - Collection of information organized in such a way that a computer

xiii

program can quickly select desired pieces of data. You can think of a database as an electronic filing system.

Genomics - The study of all of the nucleotide sequences, including structural genes, regulatory sequences, and noncoding DNA segments, in the genetic constitution of an organism

Innovation - The process of making improvements by introducing something substantially different, introducing a change that increases value, customer value, or producer value. The term innovation may refer to both radical and incremental changes to products, processes or services. The often unspoken goal of innovation is to solve a problem. Innovations are intended to make someone better off, and the succession of many innovations grows the whole economy. Since innovation is also considered a major driver of the economy, the factors that lead to innovation are also considered to be critical to policy makers

Intellectual Property - A product of the intellect that has commercial value, including copyrighted property such as literary or artistic works, and ideational property, such as patents, appellations of origin, business methods, and industrial processes.

Material Transfer Agreement - Research materials (such as cell lines, plasmids, proteins, transgenic animals, and other materials) are often exchanged between OSU and other non-profit research institutions and commercial entities. Material Transfer Agreements (MTAs) define the legal rights of the entity donating the material as well as those of the recipient with respect to the material and any derivatives.

Materials Science - The study of the characteristics and uses of the various materials, such as metals, ceramics, and plastics that are employed in science and technology

Patents - An intellectual property right relating to inventions, that is, to advances made in a technical field.

Research - Process of a systematic investigation or or experimentation, examination gathering information, testing, and evaluation, aimed at developing or contributing to generalizable knowledge, the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws. It involves a studious inquiry or 3: the collecting of

xiv

information about a particular subject

Science – In the broadest sense, science refers to any systematic knowledge or practice. In a more restricted sense, science refers to a system of acquiring knowledge based on the scientific method, as well as to the organized body of knowledge gained through such research

Science and Technology Park - A property development designed for a concentration of high tech, science, or research related businesses. It is organized and managed by specialised professionals, whose main aim is to increase the wealth of its community by promoting the culture of innovation and the competitiveness of its associated businesses and knowledge-based institutions.

Technology – The Practical application of knowledge especially in a particular area, the capability given by the practical application of knowledge, a manner of accomplishing a task especially using technical processes, methods, or knowledge or the specialized aspects of a particular field of endeavor. This branch of knowledge also deals with the creation and use of technical means and their interrelation with life, society, and the environment, drawing upon such subjects as industrial arts, engineering, applied science, and pure science.

Technology Platform - A group of technologies that can be collectively applied to a diverse range of product, process and service applications (that is, applications are not limited to a single vertical product or industry sector)

Technopreneur - A person who organizes, operates, and assumes the risk for a high technology business venture.

Trademark - A word, phrase, symbol or design, or a combination of words, phrases, symbols or designs, that identifies and distinguishes the source of the goods of one party from those of others.

xv

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1:

ST&I Strategic Priorities and Thrusts for Kenya Vision 2030

Figure 2:

Proposed Kenya National Innovation System

xvi

1

SITUATIONAL ANALYSIS

1.1 Importance of Science, Technology and Innovation to Achievement of Kenya Vision 2030

Globally, it is recognized that social and economic growth of any country is largely a result of the transformation of knowledge, science and technology into goods and services. Rapid developments in ST&I, especially biotechnology, manufacturing, Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) have resulted in new products and services, new ways of learning and doing things. Application of ST&I results in new sources of growth and provides high quality and better paying jobs. ST&I also plays an important role in industrial and entrepreneurial development, poverty reduction, including meeting Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Therefore, harnessing ST&I can provide the necessary interventions required to address challenges facing a country.

Integration of ST&I in national production processes is central to the success of Government’s policy priorities and programmes as outlined under Kenya Vision 2030. This is particularly important within the context of demands of global economic competitiveness, sustainable development and equity concerns. Development of the necessary scientific and technological infrastructure as well as the technical and entrepreneurial skills is an essential prerequisite to the transformation Kenya into a knowledge-based society. Development of innovative ideas into products, processes and services is highly dependent on a well defined and supportive policy, institutional and legal framework that effectively addresses citizen needs and aspirations. This includes measures aimed at creating jobs, safeguarding our natural environment against natural disasters, climate change and other human induced disasters, as well as promoting regional and gender equity. International co-operation in science and technology is important for meeting a broad range of global challenges, for benefiting from globalization and for implementing large-scale research projects.

1

1.3. An Overview of the Overall Kenyan ST&I Sector Challenge

In Kenya, the challenges to which the ST&I sector must respond include developing a stronger national innovation systems, ensuring sustained development of human resources in science and technology; the relative contribution made by the private and public sectors; addressing the changing role of intellectual property rights and global-scale issues that call for enhanced international co operation in science and technology, and efficiently and sustainably harnessing our available natural resources for the benefit of all Kenyans. Other challenges include enhancing the role of ST&I in national development in general and productive sectors of the economy in particular. Given that more than 60% of Kenya’s population is aged between 18 and 35 years, focused efforts are required to create high quality, knowledge intensive jobs to harness the potential of this age group.

More recently, the globalization of trade has made it harder particularly for third world nations to use tangible or intangible trade barriers to protect domestic industry, knowledge, and technological innovation. For Kenya to benefit, it must enhance the global competitiveness of its exports using ST&I. Also the accelerated emergence of an information society and breakthroughs in the life sciences are having tremendous impacts on the activities of businesses and government and on the way people live, study, and work. These are challenges that must be resolved through the development and application ST&I in Kenya.

Recognizing the critical role of ST&I in national development, Kenya has over the years established many S&T institutions and has made significant strides in Research and Development (R&D). There exists research and development in the areas of agriculture, health, engineering, basic sciences, forestry and environmental sciences. It has also put in place technical training institutions for the mid-level technical personnel. However, most of the ST&I institutions are not effectively coordinated and often lack critical resources and infrastructures to enable them effectively develop and integrate ST&I. The institutions are also unable to acquire, maintain and retain modern equipment as well as personnel. They have weak linkages with the productive sector, and regional and international counterparts. Lack of an integrative policy framework to facilitate effective integration of ST&I into the economy is an issue needing urgent action.

Skills

acquired

from

Kenyan

training

institutions

do

not

often

match

the

2

requirements of the productive sector. This imposes high costs on investors who have to retrain new staff. Further, the products of human resource development institutions are often not imbued enough with entrepreneurship skills. Thus, they are geared to looking for jobs instead of creating them. This acts as a barrier in creation of ST&I technology-based enterprises within the economy. Of equally great concern is the apparent lack of alignment of skills with national priority areas. Greater efforts are needed to ensure an adequate supply of scientific and technological skills by:

acquiring and retaining highly skilled staff;

strengthening policies to enhance awareness and public understanding of science, especially among youth;

improving the quality of scientific and technological learning, encouraging individual creativity and broadening opportunities and support for students to pursue ST&I studies;

adapting curricula to changing skill demands, including interdisciplinary knowledge and managerial/entrepreneurial skills, and

developing partnerships with industry.

Against a background of growing demand for human resources in ST&I, the recent decline in the number of science and engineering graduates is of great concern and could hamper the long-term growth prospects of the country. The challenge of meeting demand for S&T talent is made all the more difficult by waning interest in science among youth, the gender gap among S&T graduates (notably at the doctorate level), the rapid ageing of the workforce in the public research sector, market disincentives to research careers, and the globalization of higher education and research systems

In addition measures will be taken to pursue reforms in the human resource management policies of public research organizations to improve their responsiveness to changes in research priorities and funding, to help renew the research workforce, and to encourage mobility between the public and private research sectors that limit the contribution of S&T personnel to innovation in industry, in particular in SMEs will be removed. Incentives for business R&D in small firms and educational training partnerships are among the measures that will be taken to stimulate business demand for S&T graduates and enhance their capacity

3

to innovate, as well as provide young graduates with the right skills to work as researchers in industry.

Another emerging challenge is that of appropriate and responsive intellectual property rights regimes. These are important in facilitating innovation. However, in the Kenyan context there are challenges that constrain local innovators from benefiting from their work. Some of the key issues include the accessibility of the regime as well as the extent to which it enables harnessing of indigenous knowledge and resources. Although some work has been done in this regard, there is great room for improvement.

The level of public awareness of ST&I benefits and how they could benefit from it needs enhancement. Public awareness is necessary to create the required support for ST&I investments which many times require large outlays with long payback periods. It is also important in facilitating increased public utilization of ST&I in their daily activities.

Given the scarcity of resources, lack of an adequate knowledge base on what programmes are being implemented in the ST&I sector, their outputs and beneficiaries is a clear disincentive in arguing for more resources to the sector. It also is a major challenge in effective benchmarking with peer and aspirational countries aimed at effective and efficient utilization of resources.

4

1.4. Sectoral ST&I Challenges in Kenya

Achievement of the overall Kenya Vision 2030 goals and the Medium Term Plan 2008 – 2012 goals will be through programmes, projects and initiatives implemented in the twenty (20) sectors identified and shown in Table 1.1. These programmes, projects and initiatives will be targeted at sector challenges, from which the science, technology and innovation interventions are derived. In this regard, ST&I will be integrated into the sectors identified by ensuring that they have access to the necessary technology platforms to promote productivity growth, enhance investment efficiency as well as increase citizen participation in the said sector.

The strategic technology platforms are defined as “a group of technologies that can be collectively applied to a diverse range of product, process and service applications (that is, applications are not limited to a single vertical product or industry sector).” They build upon an array of underpinning scientific knowledge and skills (such as those being developed in universities and through investment). By identifying and developing platforms that leverage Kenya’s unique strengths, we will create distinctive, significant and durable competitive advantages in Kenyan industry and society in general.

The Strategic Technology Platforms selected for Kenya are sufficiently broad in scope that they are realistically expected to feed into a variety of products, processes and services. At the same time, they are sufficiently narrow to define a set of competencies that will be built up within Kenya, and uniquely within Kenya, so that they will establish and defend competitive positions. The ST&I Strategic Intervention Platforms articulated in Table 1.1 shall be mechanisms for:

Selecting areas of research for funding;

Setting technopreneurship-focused applied research agenda;

Creating technopreneurship and industry-led clusters, involving small and large firms, both indigenous and foreign-owned;

Simulating research in industry, or funded by industry, or commissioned by industry with State support;

Attracting targeted Foreign Direct Investment; and focusing activities of government agencies in creating knowledge- based economy.

5

As illustrated in Table 1.1, each of the said sectors will require access to the necessary technology platforms as well as the policy, institutional, legal, regulatory and funding support to optimize its utilization of technology for enhanced national output and improved social welfare for Kenya’s citizens.

6

Table 1.1:

Sectoral ST&I Challenges and Supportive Strategic Technology Platforms

SECTOR

ST&I CHALLENGE

ST&I INTERVENTIONS

STRATEGIC TECHNOLOGY PLATFORMS

Tourism

Matching the range and quality of products and services to tastes and preferences (matching supply with demand) to enhance competitiveness

Development of targeted new products and services

Generate information and data for improved processess

Eco-tourism technologies

Identify technologies for improving service delivery and value addition

Medical tourism technologies

Develop and implement quality standards and benchmarking norms for tourism industry

Security surveillance systems

Development of training facilities and centres of excellence for the tourism industry.

ICT technologies

Promotion of innovations in products, processes and services in tourism.

Marketting technologies

Preservation of biodiversity for tourism

Promotion of technology based businesses in tourism

Communications technologies

Matching skills development with tourism industry demand

Development acquisition and transfer of technologies to support development of niche tourist products

Database technologies

Packaging technologies

 

Support accreditation of selected strategic medical facilities to target the growing medical tourism industry to support promotion of medical tourism in the country

Identify and develop indigenous resources and knowledge targetting the tourism industry

Design and development of integrated visitor information system (IVIS)

Support design and development of a one stop tourism adventure at the Nairobi Game Park for international travellers on transit via Jomo-Kenyatta International Airport

Generate and disseminate information and data on natural resource management and climate change specific to the drying of lakes in the Rift Valley and melting of ice on Mt. Kenya

Assess the impact of tourism facilities on biodiversity

Provision of high quality skills for the industry

Support the development of national training and testing standards

Agriculture

Value addition to agricultural products through processing and preservation

Agricultural R&D for improved products and production processes

Ingredient technology

Identify, review and facilitate mainstreaming of technologies in support of agroprocessing and agribusiness.

Food microstructure

Enhancing productivity and safety

Flavour and quality

Quality of agricultural inputs, research, extention services and production technologies

Enhance productivity of the value chain

Post Harvest technologies

Technologies for converting farm waste into commercial products

Pathogen control systems including risk analyses methodologies

Integrity of agricultural industry players

Assess and advice on the capabilities and capacities of meteorological services vis a vis the demands in the agricultural sector

Value addition to farm waste

High pressure technologies

How to improve the prediction of weather for farming

Develop simple on-farm technologies for preserving agricultural products

Food irradiation

Support generation and dissemination of marketing information and technologies

Robotics and information Technology

 

Skills development and upgrading for workers in agriculture

Reduced input farming systems

Reduce supply side inefficiencies and improve market access

Development of skills in agro-processing

Agriculture technology-based enterprises.

Waste reduction and management technologies

Environmental modelling technologies

Diagnostics, Genetics and breeding technologies

Environmental impact assessments

Market intelligence of consumer behaviour

SECTOR

ST&I CHALLENGE

ST&I INTERVENTIONS

STRATEGIC TECHNOLOGY PLATFORMS

     

Meteorological and technologies

Instrumentation and metrology technology

Packaging technologies

Wholesale &

ST&I application for enhanced efficiency in wholesale and Retail supply chain

Improve process efficiency for MSMEs

Market intelligence

Retail Trade

Skills development in technology based business for MSMEs

Information technology

 

Facilitate development, acquision and application of production, processing and market access technologies and skills

Management Information Systems

Supply-demand chain tracking technologies

Provide technology based business incubation support services

Instrumentation and metrology technology

Facilitate development acquision and application of one stop shop technologies and unified taxation system to reduce cost of doing business

Packaging technologies

Manufacturing

Development of technical capacities and capabilities in manufacturing

Support R&D, technology transfer (through licensing, joint venture, etc) and design and development capacities and capabilities

Strengthen linkages for knowledge generation and use within industry, universities, research institutions and other knowledge intermediaries.

Design technologies

Processing/ fabrication of existing, new and advanced materials

Instrumentation and metrology

 

Cost-saving production processes

Integration and miniaturization technologies

Develop and support technology-based enterprises

ICT, telematics and logistics technologies

Support skills development and upgrading in manufacturing

Packaging technologies

Advice, source and support application of efficient state - of – the - art technology and environmentally friendly techniques

Integrate cleaner production techniques

Provide technology based business incubation support services

Assessment and characterization of materials requirements for various manufacturing subsectors

Financial

ST&I application for institutional efficiency and commercial justice, macro economic performance and competitiveness

Assessment, development, acquisition and application of comprehensive financial information management system technologies

Specialized banking infrastructure

Services

Advanced banking software technology development

R&D support in banking technology to promote efficiency in provision of banking services

 

Support the broadening of the technology base for modernization and upgrading of existing banking networks

Management Information Systems

Bank networking technologies

Identification, acquisition and deployment of robust anti-fraud technology

ICT

Skills development in banking expertise, regulatory oversight and efficiency in allocating and managing banking assets

Risk assessment and management technology

Instrumentation and metrology technology

Education

Develop SET skills for global competitiveness

Mainstream Science, Engineering and Technical basic education

Information and communication technology

Policy review in the education sector

Virtual learning technologies;

Curriculum development and review to ensure quality and relevance

Curriculum development and delivery technologies

Science, technology and innovation communication and advocacy

Increase ST&I co-curriculla activities in basic education

Quality control and standardization technologies

Review the national TIVET qualification framework to increase TIVET education pathways

SECTOR

ST&I CHALLENGE

ST&I INTERVENTIONS

STRATEGIC TECHNOLOGY PLATFORMS

     

Laboratory and workshop technologies

Instrumentation and metrology technology

Health

ST&I for improving the cost effectiveness and efficiency of the health care delivery system

Development of a comprehensive health service delivery management information system

Genomics

Support development and implementation of electronic multi-purpose cards to support realization of health care objectives and link the sector to other service sectors

DNA chips, biomaterials

Determination of the quantity, quality and spatial distribution of herbal and traditional medicines

Promote efficiency in delivery of health services

Bioinformatics

Facilitate international certification of strategic health facilities to support international collaborative R&D and the development of medical tourism

Mapping and documentation of herbs with medicinal value

Proteomics

Gene chip technology

Demonstrating the efficacy of herbal and traditional medicine

Knock-outs and transgenics

R&D in the efficacy of herbal medicine and traditional medical practices

Robotics

Mainstreaming herbal and traditional medicine into the national health care system

Skills development and upgrading for indegenous knowledge

Biosensor

Develop curricular in herbal medicine and traditional knowledge

Bio-remediation

Improve capacities and capabilities for curative and preventive health

Communication and advocacy on the science and art of traditional knowledge

Instrumentation and metrology technology

Drug design, development and delivery

Facilitating an efficient and high quality health care system of International standards

Facilitate brain gain in the medical profession

Create web enabled data base applications for monitoring drug delivery and other medical supplies countrywide

Diagnostics and therapeutic

Telemedicine

Support development, acquisition, adaptation and diffusion of state of the art medical technology

Marketing

Skills development and upgrading

Packaging technologies

ST&I personnel recognition awards

Benchmark and harmonize the Kenyan health system with international standards

Environment,

ST&I for Environmental management and Biodiversity conservation

Support R&D in environmental management

Sensor technology

Water and

Support policy development in Environmental management

Instrumentation and metrology technology

Sanitation

 

Environmental management technologies

Maritime technologies

Biotechnology

Information and communication technology

Marketing technologies

Production and processing

technologies and

systems for environmental products

Nuclear technology

Geological exploration technologies

Geographic Information Systems (GIS)

Packaging technologies

ST&I for provision of early warning systems and knowledge based mitigation for natural and technological emergencies

Support development of early warning systems and knowledge based mitigation for natural and technological emergencies

Forecasting technologies

Irrigation infrastructure

Energy and water efficient irrigation technologies

Irrigation technologies

SECTOR

ST&I CHALLENGE

ST&I INTERVENTIONS

STRATEGIC TECHNOLOGY PLATFORMS

 

ST&I for enhanced water security and basic , food and ecological sanitation

Development, acquisition and transfer of technologies for basic, food and ecological sanitation

Instrumentation and metrology technology

Water security assessment

 

Modern and efficient technologies in water management and use

Skills development and upgrading in water research and management

Support policy formulation for harmonizing ST&I issues in sectors dealing with the water resource

Research in ocean water desalination

Develop, acquire, transfer and diffusion of technologies in solid and liquid waste management

Natural resource management

Support research in forest, natural resource management and biodiversity conservation

Remote Sensing

Biodiversity conservation

Support multi-disciplinary scientific research and development in marine and coastal management

GIS

GPS

Support policy development in Natural Resource management

Seismology

Infrasound Technology

Meteorology

Instrumentation and metrology technology

Packaging technologies

Capacity and capabilities for mineral resource exploration and exploitation

Skills development and upgrading

Mining and mining safety technologies

Knowledge based mining, mineral processing and related

technologies

Mineral processing technologies

 

Assessment for mineral quantities and value

Packaging technologies

Resource based human conflict in the mining zones

Determination of the national mineral resource base

Acquisition of technology for mining and value addition in mineral processing

Remediation technologies

Value addition to mineral processing

Gender, Youth

Increasing interest in SET among the youth and vulnerable groups

Provision of targeted and relevant SET skills

ICT

and Vulnerable

Support technology based business incubation

Laboratory and workshop technologies

Groups

Increase effective participation of men, women, youth and disadvantaged groups in ST&I

Increasing access to and relevance and quality of SET skills

Business support services for technology based enterprises

Design technologies

Biotechnology

Packaging technologies

Governance, Security and Rule of law

Using ST&I to enhance the integrity, transparency and accountability electoral processess.

Develop, acquire and transfer relevant ICTs that increase the efficiency and ensure the integrity of the electoral process

Mapping technologies

Instrumentation and metrology technology

Develop and update ICTs based database of citizens, registered voters and information on the electoral process

Technical skills training in the electoral process

ICT

   

Sensor technologies

SECTOR

ST&I CHALLENGE

ST&I INTERVENTIONS

STRATEGIC TECHNOLOGY PLATFORMS

 

Using ST&I to forster democracy, public participation in governance, transparency, accountability, ethical and results-oriented government Institutions

Develop, acquire and transfer relevant ICTs that increase the efficiency and ensure the integrity of the public information process

Security and barrier construction technology

Crowd management technologies

Develop and update ICTs based database of taxes and public resource utilization and services to citizens,

 

Technical skills training in the electoral process

Provision of information to policy makers for decision making

Support development of legal and regulatory framework that facilitate service delivery

Skills development and upgrading for improved public administration and service delivery

Evidence based decision making by policy makers

Internal, external and transnational security threats

Promote the establishment of security related programmes in TIVET and university institutions with special emphasis on technologies and space science initiative to address the question of security in the country

Develop technology-based security surveilance systems

Non intrusive crime prevention and detection

ST&I application in addressing and enforcing the Rule of law

Using ST&I to increase efficiency and effectiveness in enforcing the rule of law

Develop, acquire and transfer technologies for crime prevention and detection

Increase the technical skill for crime prevention and detection among law enforcement personnel

Information &

Provision of technologies

Creation of ICT legal and regulatory framework that facilitate ST&I

Communication Networks technologies

Communicatio

n Technologies

Capacity and capability in ICT

Development of a supporting ICT infrastructure;

Electronics and hardware technologies

Development of value added services and creation of local content;

Software development technologies

 

Deployment of e-government for improvement of public service delivery to citizens, private organization and businesses;

Bioinformatics and simulation technologies

Packaging technologies

Leverage ICTs in operations of Small and medium Enterprises;

Mechatronics

Develop ICT capacity that sustainably supports ICT industry;

Public, Private Partnership in development of national ICT infrastructure

Supporting development of BPO raw infrastructure and software through ST&I products and services

Providing technological capacity and capabilities for business process offshoring

Assessment of the national skills for BPO

Skills development and upgrading

Technology based business offshoring infrastructure

Support the development of computerbased business processes

Mainstream ST&I in BPO policy review

SECTOR

ST&I CHALLENGE

ST&I INTERVENTIONS

STRATEGIC TECHNOLOGY PLATFORMS

Housing and

Provision of planning and construction technologies

Support the acquisition of building technologies

Materials Science technologies

Infrastructure

Develop technologies for building construction and works of civil engineering

Nanotechnology

Capacity and capability building for high-tech infrastructure design and development

Capacity building in Design and development

ICT

Technologies for exploitation of locally available building materials

Construction technologies

 

Assessment of availability of building materials

Acoustic technologies

Develop technologies for utilization of in-situ building materials

Design and maintenance technologies

Develop technology-based security surveilance systems

Intermodality of transport technologies

Use GIS technologies planning and management

Telematics for transport technologies

Develop information and data application system

Land-use development technologies

Skills development and certification for experts and contractors in the building and construction industry

Mechatronics

New and renewable energy technologies

Provision of the transport infrastructure

Develop intelligent transport information systems

Intelligent systems technologies

Capacity and capability in transport infrastructre

Support mitigation against deterioration of infrastructure

Instrumentation and metrology technologies

 

Improvement in the efficiency, effectiveness and safety of the transport system

Increase energy production

Improvement of efficiency in energy use and conservation

Diversify energy sources

Support of Research and development for efficient energy production, use and conservation

Reduce high fuel and energy cost

Facilitate research in waste management and utilization of the same for energy production

 

Support research in exploration and exploitation of alternative energy sources

Develop and upgrade skills in energy production, conservation and use

Development, acquisition or transfer of technologies of alternative energy sources

Labour and

Aligning skills development with labour market requirements

Promote development of technological learning schemes

ICT

employment

Carry out national skills audit that includes TIVET

Productiovity measurement technologies

Sector

Technological learning within local enterprises

Technological learning

Intrumentation and metrology technologies

Fostering innovative workforce

Support development of large scale domestic contractors

Quality assurance and standardisation technologies

 

Occupational safety and health

Safety and health technologies

Virtual learning technologies

Population and

ST&I support for the understanding of population dynamics

Support implementation of integrated population registration and management system

ICT

Urbanization

Support development and implementation of nation land information management system

Modelling technologies

Functioning national land management system

Support formulation and implementation of strategic development and investment plans for six metropolitan regions

Forecasting technologies

GIS

 

Integrated population management technologies

Environmental management technologies

Disaster and emergency management technologies

SECTOR

ST&I CHALLENGE

ST&I INTERVENTIONS

STRATEGIC TECHNOLOGY PLATFORMS

Macroeconomic

Increase domestic component of national investment

Establish the ST&I contribution to GDP

ICT

framework for

Identify and support development of new economic growth areas

Economic crime prevention and detection technologies

MTP

Determination of ST&I contribution to economic growth

Integrated information and data management on macroeconomic variables

Support the development and implementation of credit referencing

Analytical technologies

 

Improve the design of macroeconomic variables computing system

Database technologies

Support the development of data collection, analysis and computiong methodologies for macroeconomic variables

GIS

Asset management technologies

Reduction in information Assymmetry

Targeted acquisition of skills and technology through contracting of foreign firms

Social Equity

Access to better/appropriate technologies that enhance equity and poverty reduction

Technologies for mapping poverty and its various dimensions

ICT

and Poverty

Technology based enterprises that exploit regional resource endowments

Mapping technologgies

Reduction

Access to SET skills for innovation and employment creation

Develop technoprenueships based on regional resource availability to increase household incomes and gender parity

Packaging technologies

Instrumentation and metrology

ST&I for poverty profiling

Develop, acquire and transfer cheap but effective household level technologies that save on time and costs particularly to women

Provide skills training facilities for youth and lifelong learning at local and regional level

Processing and fabrication technologies

Targeted last step manufacturing (Assembling) technologies

Support development of NSDI infrastructure for improved access to public services profile and information

Recycling technologies

Carry out ST&I Community outreach programmes to support application of science and technology

1.4. Strategic Priorities and Prospects for 2008 – 2012

The Government of Kenya recognizing the importance of ST&I and the challenges facing the sector proposes to undertake a number of measures to leverage it for the benefit of the Kenyan people. These measures covering the 2008 – 2012 period are articulated under five key strategic thrust areas, namely:

Strengthening the Technical Capacities and Capabilities

Developing Highly Skilled Human Resources

Intensification of Innovation in Priority Sectors

Enhancing ST&I Awareness

Strengthening the ST&I Performance Management Framework

Note//explain in relationship with the 1 st thrust

1.4.1. STRENGTHENING TECHNICAL CAPACITIES AND CAPABILITIES

Kenya’s overall STI capacity and capability is currently weak in comparison with competitor and aspirational countries. In view of this, a need exists for it to strengthen its overall ST&I sector. To this end, the country will focus on creation of better production processes, with strong emphasis on technological learning focusing on technologies and processes enhancing national competitiveness and enable creation of quality jobs. Capacities of ST&I institutions will be enhanced through advanced training of personnel, improved infrastructure, equipment, and through strengthening linkages with actors in the productive sectors. A programme targeting provision of ST&I infrastructure will be implemented over a period of three years to the tune of Kshs

In order to support Kenya’s entry into frontier research a programme supporting cutting edge research in agro-processing, biotechnology, ICT, laser and material sciences will be implemented. It is expected that the capacity of local firms, particularly micro, small and medium scale enterprises (MSMEs), to identify and assimilate new and existing knowledge to increase regional and global competitiveness will be enhanced. In this regard various programmes to upgrade the skills and technical competencies of both workers and owners of MSMEs aimed at

14

increasing

implemented.

their

productivity

and

level

of

technology

utilization

will

be

Measures to enhance capacity to effectively leverage indigenous resources and knowledge will be aggressively put in place. Development of targeted comprehensive infrastructure via industrial and science parks will be prioritized. These will focus on establishing niches for Kenya and also increasing the volume of high technology manufactured exports emanating from Kenya.

15

Figure 1.1:

ST&I Strategic Priorities and Thrusts for Kenya Vision 2030

Figure 1.1: ST&I Strategic Priorities and Thrusts for Kenya Vision 2030

1.4.2. DEVELOPING A HIGHLY SKILLED HUMAN RESOURCE BASE

Skilled human resource requirements relate to sufficiency and skills competence. While Kenya has a pool of talented human resource, there exists a shortage of skilled workforce in many ST&I fields that support the national priority sectors. To develop a highly skilled human resource base, measures to improve the national pool of skills and talent relevant to the needs of national priority areas will be put in place.

To this end a National Skills Inventory and Audit Survey will be implemented to form a basis for targeted long term development of a human resource base supportive of the ST&I sector in accordance to UNESCO’s ST&I standards. On the basis of this, a National Critical Skills Development Strategy will be formulated for implementation by 2009. The number of researchers, scientists and engineers will be increased focusing on national priority sectors. The current transition rate from secondary level education to university will be increased and the postgraduate training strengthened, particularly in science and technology. It is expected that the level of numeracy and literacy at all levels of the education system will be substantially increased by 2012.

1.4.3. INTENSIFICATION OF INNOVATION IN PRIORITY SECTORS

The Kenyan economy exhibits limited levels on innovation required to foster increased output and productivity improvements necessary for employment and wealth creation. Compared to their peers, Kenyan firms have lower levels of productivity which must be enhanced. In this regard a biannual National Innovation

Survey will be implemented to determine the incidence of innovation in the national priority areas as well as determining the impediments to increased innovation in the those sectors. Further, to intensify innovation, funding for basic and applied research at higher institutions of learning and for research and development in

37

collaboration with industries will be increased to Kshs

billion in 2012. Furthermore, measures will be taken to coordinate research activities to ensure synergy, avoid duplication and focus on national priority sectors as well as

new and emerging technology areas.

In this regard, proven technical knowledge produced in industries and tertiary institutions, including universities, will be transformed into technologies and protected as intellectual property rights. In this regard high technology exports as a

17

proportion of manufactured exports in Kenyan economy will be targeted to increase from 3.1% in 2005 to 25% in 2012. In order to promote greater efficiency in various national priority sectors, promote international competitiveness and assure consumer acceptance, a programme to promote standardization and quality assurance in the various sectors will be implemented to strengthen existing system and bring them up to par with international best practice. Indigenous knowledge and technology, which is part of our national heritage, remains unmapped and has exposed our national heritage to misuse by external interest groups. Measures will be taken to identify and protect this heritage. In order to encourage innovation and other scientific endeavors, a system of national recognition will be established to honor innovators.

1.4.4.

AWARENESS

ENHANCING

SCIENCE,

TECHNOLOGY

AND

INNOVATION

A

strong foundation and basic understanding of ST&I, and its universal importance

is

needed to make the breakthroughs or commercialize applications that will ensure

the prosperity of the country.

Appreciation and awareness, among policymakers and the general public on the importance of science, technology and innovation in Kenya and its implication in everyday life, including the ethical and moral, legal, social and economic aspects is low. In view of the importance of STI in society, efforts must be made to promote awareness of new ideas and discoveries to the general public. A key goal of activities under this thrust will be to imbue a culture of creativity, innovativeness and continuous learning in Kenya supportive of ST&I uptake and utilization. Under this plan, measures create and deepen STI awareness amongst policy makers and implementers and particularly in the social sphere will be put in place. Multisectoral initiatives to develop STI solutions to address current and future development problems will be publicized and showcased.

From professional associations to community science networks; from non-profits to big business; and from ECD, primary and secondary schools to universities and technical institutes, the programme will create and nurture a passion for learning, creativity, technology and innovation.

18

1.4.5.

FRAMEWORK

STRENGTHENING

THE

STI

PERFORMANCE

MANAGEMENT

There is general ineffectiveness in the coordination of the national ST&I system, leading to inefficient resource utilization. Furthermore, there is lack of adequate information to facilitate regional and international benchmarking and track the implementation of ST&I activities. Therefore, under this plan, an understanding of the utilization of resources in the ST&I sector to contribute to national development is critical. A framework to collate and disseminate information on the resources employed by the sector and their effectiveness will be put in place. It will focus on timely tracking of the implementation of various programmes/initiatives under this plan aimed at realizing its overall objectives.

The coordination of ST&I activities will also seek to leverage the activities of international organizations working in the country for the furtherance of national ST&I objectives.

19

2

FLAGSHIP PROGRAMMES FOR VISION 2030.

2.1

Introduction

The global economy, including Kenya, is undergoing rapid development into a knowledge-based economy, where technology, driven by skills and innovation, will be among the key determinants to enhance efficiency, productivity and competitiveness. In this respect, science technology and innovation have become important enabling tools, leading to changes in the comparative advantage and competitiveness of economies worldwide. The Situation Analysis has identified strategic issues that impact on the effective development and utilization of ST&I. This Chapter outlines the programmes and projects that will implement the proposed interventions to achieve the ST&I goals as given in the Vision 2030. The programmes will be implemented in the five year period of this Medium Term Plan. The programmes will also implement the Science, Technology and Innovation policy and Strategy developed by the stakeholders in the ST&I sector. Kenya harnesses science, technology and innovation in all aspect of its social and economic development in order to foster national prosperity and global competitiveness. Science, technology and innovation will be mainstreamed in all the sectors of the economy through carefully-targeted investment programmes.

The programmes are organized under five main strategic thrusts that address the strategies for promoting science, technology and innovation as spelt out in the Vision 2030. These are:

Strengthening technical capacities and capabilities

Development, utilization and retention of highly skilled human resources

Intensification of innovation in priority sectors

Increasing ST&I awareness and public participation

Strengthening the ST&I Performance Management Framework

20

2.2

Strategic Thrust One: Strengthening Technical Capacities and Capabilities

The goal of this strategic thrust is to strengthen Kenya’s overall ST&I capacity and

capability and increase the capacity of local firms to identify and assimilate existing

knowledge in order to increase competitiveness. This will focus on creation of better

production processes, with strong emphasis on technological learning. The capacities

of STI institutions will be enhanced through advanced training of personnel,

improved infrastructure, equipment, and through strengthening linkages with actors

in the productive sectors.

2.2.1 STRATEGY ONE: IMPROVE PRODUCTION PROCESSES

ST&I FOR EFFICIENT PRODUCTION PROGRAMME Technology Assessment Project

There is a wide disparit

y in technological capacity and capability between Kenya and the industrialized

nations making competitive production and participation by Kenyan companies

difficult. This is as a result of lack of inadequate assessment of the potential

technological areas that Kenya can competitively participate in and develop a market

niche for her products. The objective of this project is therefore to make an

assessment of Kenya’s technological competitiveness and apply technologies that

will support the production processes in national growth priority areas.

The main players in implementing the technologies assessment project will be the

Ministry of Science and Technology, Ministry of Trade and Industry (MoTI), KIRDI,

KAM, KEPSA, Research Institutes, Tertiary Institutions, KIPI and Universities.

KENYA TOURISM RESEARCH PROGRAMME The Kenya Tourism Research Programme is aimed providing the industry with

relevant, accurate and up to date information to improve the Kent tourism industry’s

competitiveness in the national and international marketplace as a long-term, high

quality and sustainable tourism destination. The overall purpose of the programme

is to furnish enhanced information for decisions to assist tourists and residents in

pre-planning visits, aid tourism business in gaining and maintaining a competitive

edge and allow tourism professionals to adopt a more long-term and sustainable

21

approach to tourism development in the Country. The project will support consultancy and advisory services to the tourism and hospitality industry, improving the efficiency and effectiveness in the utilization of Kenya’s Tourism resources, establishing and updating databases on tourism aspects such as accommodation, attractions, visitor safety and numbers, passenger visits and spending statistics, and visitor profiles together with sources of survey information and provide for accessible, user friendly reference points for tourism research and information The programme will be implemented under the following projects.

Kenya Tourism Research Audit Project

This project will collect, exchange, analyze and communicate existing tourism studies and research programmes in Kenya

The main players in implementing this project will be the Ministry of Science and Technology, Ministry of Tourism, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ministry of Information and Communication, KEPSA, Research Institutes, Tertiary institutions and Universities

Develop Internet Technology Project

This project will cover the development of a Kenya tourism research website to facilitate wider industry access to Kenya tourism research studies complete with a Search Engine to ensure visits to the site are maximized.

The main players in implementing this project will be the Ministry of Science and Technology, Ministry of Tourism, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ministry of Information and Communication, KEPSA, Research Institutes, Tertiary institutions and Universities

Internet Geographic Information Project

This project will establish detailed specifications for the development of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) on the Internet, creating interactive maps for both tourism professionals and visitors; a full audit and evaluation of existing technological capability of tourism operators. It will also examine databases for the networking requirements of tourism operators and identify key stakeholder mapping needs (via survey and focus group work with visitors and tourism industry professionals)

22

The main players in implementing this project will be the Ministry of Science and Technology, Ministry of Tourism, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ministry of Information and Communication, KEPSA, Research Institutes, Tertiary institutions and Universities

Kenya Tourism Activity and Trends Monitoring Project

The objective of this project is to establish a shared tourism activity and trends monitoring service to measure over time tourism industry performance in Kenya. Trends monitoring will provide reasons for downturn or growth to enable the industry can intervene with tactical measures when appropriate. The project will be implemented under the following components:

The project will cover the publication of regular research reports and publicize widely to tourism stakeholders via industry extranets, an annual trends analysis of the visitor market and a national Tourism Performance Review for distribution to public and private sector industry partners.

It will also measure the evolution of the market and explore the new research areas

identified with partners and establish an operational character for local tourism operators to allow them to adjust their action programmes on new product development, information, promotion and communication to effectively targeted at this market.

The main players in implementing this project will be the Ministry of Science and Technology, Ministry of Tourism, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ministry of Information and Communication, KEPSA, Research Institutes, Tertiary institutions and Universities

Kenya Tourism Niche Markets Development Project

A number of niche markets have been identified. The overall aim of this project is to

investigate the potential for the future actions in terms of product development and

marketing programmes.

The project will cover Cultural Tourism component to investigate the tourism impact

23

of museums and heritage sites across Kenya; Rural Tourism component to address a range of questions including how tourism and recreation impact on the rural economy, the range and character of rural tourism products in Kenya, the market potential of rural tourism in Kenya, the factors (both supply and demand related) limiting tourism growth in this area, the physical development needed to increase the economic impact of the tourism market, the contribution of rural tourism to conservation; Sports and Activity Tourism component to investigate the potential of developing coherent and complementary offers, including how to extend some elements of the sports/activities offer to transit tourists, thereby increasing the economic contribution of the latter.

The main players in implementing this project will be the Ministry of Science and Technology, Ministry of Tourism, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ministry of Information and Communication, KEPSA, Research Institutes, Tertiary institutions and Universities

Energy Technologies Project

The energy programme will cover research and advisory framework for energy sources for electricity generation, improved energy use efficiency and, alternative and renewable energy. Clean energy production component will focus on research and development of technical and commercial feasibility of the production of electricity and various new products.

The component on improved energy use efficiency will focus on developing key energy use efficiency technologies to achieve production and save energy for both conventional and unconventional resources while minimizing environmental impacts. The alternative and renewable energy component will be implemented with the aim of advancing and adapting technology for alternative energy sources like water, wind, sun, geothermal, nuclear energy, gas, oil, coal, domestic waste and biomass so they account for a larger portion of the energy mix. The comparisons will be in engineering process, energy supply, demand for energy sources, ecological assessment, safety aspects and economic importance among other parameters. The fossil fuels and nuclear energy options will be weighed up with the results of the fact that Kenya has come up with national energy data for the application of the Model

24

for Analysis of Energy Demand. Fluctuating supply from hydroelectric sources, economic climate of increasing prices for fossil fuels that are highly polluting and contribute to greenhouse warming leave Kenya with two options. One is geothermal potential of 2000 MW being realized yesterday and the nuclear energy option being seriously taken into account in the context of the national energy plan.

The project will ensure availability of low cost, clean and sustainable energy sources to meet the energy requirements of the Vision 2030. Of immediate interest is setting up the necessary organs to realize the nuclear and biofuel options. In the short term the aim will be to increase the human resource base, the medium term is to have the necessary infrastructure in place and identify possible sites for building the nuclear power plants and biofuel systems for energy generation.

The main players in implementing the energy technologies project include Ministry of Science and Technology, Ministry of Trade and Industry, Universities, Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources, NEMA, Ministry of Energy, KIRDI, Ministry of Roads and Public Works, Manufacturing sector, KENGEN, Office of the President, KPLC, IPP and Cleaner Production Centre.

Niche Areas of the Manufacturing Sector Project

The aim of this project is to develop technical capacities and capabilities in manufacturing as well as, identify, develop and promote niche areas in advanced manufacturing technology, namely, computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing/computer- aided engineering (CAD/CAM/CAE), industrial automation, robotics, and machinery and equipment; and aerospace-related technology, advanced materials which are also recognized as key technology areas in strengthening the technological development capability and generating new sources of growth for the country.

Niche areas in manufacturing technology will ensure a competitive advantage over other players in technology development in the world and will attract public-private partnership arrangements

Main players in implementing the niche areas of the manufacturing sector will be the Ministry of Science and Technology, Ministry of Trade and Industry, Universities, Manufacturing sector, Tertiary Institutions, Kenya Association of Manufacturers, Kenya Private Sector Alliance, building and construction industry.

25

Engineering Design and Development Initiative

Kenya’s manufacturing sub-sector use relatively old technologies. Moreover, only 7 per cent of its manufacturing technologies are sourced within the country. The rest, 93 per cent is imported. Therefore, for the manufacturing sector to become competitive there is an urgent need for manufacturing engineering design and development. Manufacturing design will be aimed at furthering the development of competitive products and systems while manufacturing development will entail cost and quality for manufacturing competitiveness.

The objective of this initiative will, therefore, be to develop and promote capacity in design, development and production of machineries, equipment and tools required by industry for manufacturing. The initiative will also ensure research, training and building of capacity for engineering design and development. The main players in implementing the initiative include, MOST, Ministry of trade and industry, Ministry of education, KIRDI, Institution of Engineers of Kenya IEK and Universities

Biotechnology Initiative

The objective of this project is to develop and promote biotechnology for efficient and rapid industrial, agricultural and health transformation.

The biotechnology project will ensure the development of biomaterials, including polymers, metals, ceramics and composites, which are produced synthetically or biologically, for use in the efficient treatment and management of diseases with growth potential in bio-generics and molecular diagnostics for diseases, as well as vaccines for tropical diseases. The project will also ensure the development of biosensors, which represent a powerful new evolutionary field in analytical measurement technology. The commercial application of biosensors is in the areas of healthcare, industrial process control, agriculture, veterinary medicine, defense and environmental pollution monitoring;

Biopolymers, which are biologically produced polymers with unique functional uses, such as stabilizers, thickeners, gallants, binders, dispersants, lubricants, adhesives and drug delivery agents. The main beneficiary of biopolymers is the food processing industry. Other industries which will benefit include cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, packaging, paper and textiles. Advances in plant genetics and fermentation and purification technologies can eventually influence a shift towards the application of more biopolymers than synthetic petroleum-based polymers. The

26

project will lead to growth in industrial biotechnology, including the development of biocatalysts for foods, chemicals and pharmaceuticals, and bio-generic manufacturing.

Agriculture biotechnology, with nutra-ceutical and cosme-ceutical products as a potential area. In addition, the application of plant biotechnology will be aimed at increasing crop yields, producing pest and drought resistant strains.

The rise in crude oil prices will provide opportunities for the country to develop alternative sources of fuel, for example, biodiesel. Challenges in adopting biotechnology include the high costs of development, lack of availability of funds to finance more sophisticated and expensive health care, the fear of litigation and lack of a national biotechnology strategy to address six key themes that emerged from the national biotechnology policy which are biotechnology in the community, ensuring effective regulation, biotechnology in the economy, Kenyan biotechnology in the Global market, resources for biotechnology and finally maintaining momentum and coordination.

In this regard, a National Biosafety Authority and associated legislation for the enhancement of the implementation and coordination of the national biosafety framework and strategy will be established during the plan period to ensure that the potential risks and opportunities from the introduction of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are accurately assessed and managed effectively.

The project offers opportunities to partner with industry and establish PPPs as well as promote essential foreign investment to add value to Kenyan biotechnology and in developing key regional and international markets. The main players in implementing the biotechnology project include Ministry of Science and Technology, Ministry of Trade and Industry, Universities, Ministry of Health, Ministry of Agriculture, Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries, KARI, KEMRI, NMK-IPR, KEFRI, KIRDI, Ministry of Energy, KEPHIS, KAM, ERC.

Food Security and Agriculture Project

Kenya will continue to face challenges that will require focused research into new genotypes to cater for areas like the Arid and Semi Arid of the country. We need to develop appropriate technologies for irrigation to cover dry or marginalized areas which could guarantee sustainable food security

27

The main objective of this project is to develop new cultivars technologies and practice appropriate technology for maximum crop yield and food security.

The main players in implementing this project include Ministry of Science and Technology, Ministry of Trade and Industry, Universities, Ministry of Health, Ministry of Agriculture, Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries, KARI, KEMRI, NMK- IPR, KEFRI, KIRDI, Ministry of Energy, KEPHIS, KAM, ERC.

Value Addition Initiative

The aim of the project is to develop and promote value addition and agro-processing technologies to ensure high value exports through efficient and effective production.

The project will;

Ensure low cost production and processing, high productivity and quality of agricultural produce and products as well as encourage growth of rural non- farm enterprises.

Ensure the exploitation of indigenous foods for consumption and commercialization and will attract public-private partnership arrangements.

Ensure value addition to farm waste as well as assess and advice on the capabilities and capacities of meteorological services vis a vis the demands in the agricultural sector

Reduce supply side inefficiencies and improve market access

Develop skills in agro-processing

The main players in implementing the Value addition and Agro-processing Project include Ministry of Science and Technology, Ministry of Agriculture, Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries, KARI, KIRDI, Universities, Kenya Association of Manufacturers, Kenya Private Sector Alliance, NMK.

Health Initiative

The need to create new medicines, vaccines and diagnostics requires the application of new cutting edge technologies and state-of-art laboratory facilities. Such technologies include Molecular biology, Genomics, Proteomics, nanobiotechnology and Bioinformatic sciences.

The aim of this initiative is therefore to develop the Kenyan health system to international standards through ST&I.

It will ensure standards improvement and research in multi-sectoral health issues

28

including infectious diseases, reverse engineering, warning systems, neglected diseases, and nutrition, HIV/AIDS, malaria, TB and emerging infections;, mainstreaming of herbal and traditional medicine into the national health care system and demonstration of their efficacy. In addition, it will ensure commercial production of traditional plants for medicinal use and streamlining of the inter- sectoral and public-private sector partnerships in hi-tech medical technologies and improvement of cost effectiveness and efficiency of the health care delivery system.

The main players in implementing the Health Initiative project include Ministry of Science and Technology, Ministry of Health, Universities, KEMRI, NMK-IPR, Kenya Association of Manufacturers, Federation of Kenya Employers (FKE), Central Organization for Trade Unions (COTU), National Aids Control Council (NACC), herbal medicine practitioners and Kenya Private Sector Alliance (KEPSA).

Information and Communication Technology Initiative

The aim of this project is to develop high tech vibrant, affordable and globally competitive ICT infrastructure and technology that will ensure efficient service delivery in all sectors of the economy including supporting the Business Process Outsourcing.

The project will help integrate information management and communication and also drive production systems. ICT sector will intensify training efforts to build capacity in ICT, facilitate development and growth of a robust ICT infrastructure, improve delivery of service through e-government strategy, provide a stable umbrella for public private sector growth, integrate and popularize the use of ICT and establish data sharing and value addition through national spatial data infrastructure and will attract public-private partnership arrangements. The ICT sector will also support development of BPO raw infrastructure and software through ST&I products and services and provide technological capacity and capabilities for business process offshoring.

Advancements in information and communication technology will provide an important infrastructure for information communication to farmers and other stakeholders in terms of current market prices, inputs, weather and other alerts.

The main players in implementing the Information, communication, technology project include Ministry of Science and Technology, Ministry of Trade and Industry, Universities, Ministry Information and Communication, E-Government Secretariat,

29

Ministry of Finance (GITS), Ministry of Agriculture, Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries, KEPSA, Kenya ICT Federation, Kenya ICT Board, the Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK) and KAM.

Development of a National Mineral Industry Project

The aim of this project is to build Capacity and capabilities for mineral resource exploration and exploitation, establish and implement Resource based human conflict mechanisms in the mining zones and determine the national mineral resource base. In addition, it will ensure efficiency in mining and value addition in mineral processing.

The main players in implementing the National Mineral Industry project include Ministry of Science and Technology, Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources, Universities, NEMA, Ministry of Energy, KEPSA, Ministry of Cooperative Development and KAM.

A National Water Research Development Project

The aim of the Project will be to intensify research, development and promotion in Indigenous technology in the water sector, Integrated Water Resource Management, Ecological sanitation, Water Information systems, irrigation technologies and Wetlands management.

The project will improve the quality and quantity of water using low cost and effective technologies and improve water use efficiency by households, agriculture and industry. The project will also support the water sector reforms to facilitate the mainstreaming of ST&I into the water sector.

The main players include Ministry of Science & Technology, Ministry of water and irrigation, Research institutions, other government ministries, and Universities.

Natural Resource Management Initiative

Natural resource management is challenging, and diverse stakeholders have increasingly polarized perspectives.

As policymakers create broad policy and specific programs in keeping with changing and often conflicting societal values and demands, there is a growing recognition that the knowledge base on which to make informed decisions is weak. With the high stakes surrounding resource decisions (locally, regionally, nationally, and globally), more stakeholders and interests are calling for scientific scrutiny and

30

involvement in making important resource allocation and management decisions. The aim of this project is therefore to integrate science, technology and innovation into land, marine and aquatic resource management decisions and policymaking and will attract public-private partnership arrangements.

Th