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Electronics engineering NIVAC- good precisional position SCARA good assembly IMPATT 10-1000GHz SULPHATION incomplete charging BJT

BJT on state BE,BC Forward biased,saturated Reduced collector current collector with low level impurity NIBBLE 2 byte NYBBLE 4 bit data word 6 of Freedom Solid Object STEP recovery generates harmonics PUSH-PULL eliminates even harmonics LOWER BACKLASH helical gear has lower backlash than linear LATCH SC flip flop S=0,C=0 invalid condition NAND S=1,C=1 invalid condition NOR BENCH CHARGE when battery is removed from vehicle Antimony lead residue of lead acid battery MONOLITHIC IC active and passive is fabricated at the same time, extensive, digital, current regulator only FILM IC better frequency response Thick film silk screening Thin film splutter FET thermionic valve

64 bits TRANSPUTER computer in a chip TRANSPUTER 32 bit WIEN Bridge audio frequency IP/IV Ha-Hw is always greater than 1 TTL advantage is propagation delay ECL- very high speed Walk through continuous programming Efficient and unlimited life solar cell Phototransistor best sensitivity Databus data line on line bus CMOS nanowatts- advantage CPU and microprocessor essential part: ALU and control unit Comparator no feedback Differentiator resistor as feedback Shunt regulator series line resistance Saturation negative half cycle is clipped Move decimal to the right multiply by 2 STROBOSCOPE measure speed using frequency ONDOGRAPH waveshape of voltage and current INVENTOR convert DC to AC The di/dt of SCR produces local hot spot The dv/dt of SCR produces false triggering

Sideband balance/symmetry odd harmonics Positive sway Push- pull- eliminates even order harmonics MAXWELL-WIEN use to measure inductor/inductances When the output swayed to the positive, the Q-point moved from the center to the saturation When the output swayed to the negative, the Q-point moved from the center to the cut-off EARLY EFFECT base width modulation; base width modified by collector current Ringing circuit provides undamped oscillation DRIFT EFFECT bouncing of electron from one atom to another from negative terminal to the positive terminal of a battery TICKEL CHARGING keep fresh and fully charged WAFER foundation of IC Microprogramming 5 bit BARKHAUSEN CRITERION if not met oscillation will stop Class C Amplifier RF amplification Einstein Relation mobility is proportional to drift current Mean time life of carrier the time require for the creation and destruction of electron Fermi Level probability of occupation of charge by an electron

FERMI-DIRAC DISTRIBUTION FUNTION principle that satisfactorily explain the acquisition of energy of different electron in a crystal at a certain temperature Static Characteristic characteristic of an object that is unvarying or almost constant with respect to time OP-AMP input impedance is equal to infinity hence input current is zero NAND LATCH Set=1, Reset=0 result to HIGH NAND LATCH Set=0, Reset=0 result to invalid NOR LATCH Set=1, Reset=1 result to invalid Multiplying binary numbersadder, subtractor, shift register Digital computer is sometimes called decimal computer because each decimal digit is converted in binary form JACK KILBY first IC (integrated circuit) TED HOFF first Microprocessor JK flip-flop divides freq by 2 MULTIVIBRATOR generates non-sinusoidal waveform 555 timers can be used as a multivibrator, astable multivibrator, voltage controlled oscillator BOLOMETER measures .by varying metallic resistance

THERMOMETER RESISTOR measures temperature PERMEAMETER measures permeability of ferromagnetic materials Advantages/characteristic of non-servo controlled: high repeatability, high operating speed, low cost, axis can be rotated only through hardware stop Light meter unit:LUX, illumination in point of an area SCADA assembly NIMAC measurable Prismatic linear Revolute Transducer high input Servocontrolled can be rotated through soft stop MONOSTABLE MULTIVIBRATOR can introduced delay i.e. 1 micro second to 1 milli second ECL low propagation time CMOS high packing density, low power dissipation (in terms of nanowatts) INVENTOR dc to ac Class C RF amplifier Buffer amplifier- low mismatch, low Volatile memory semiconductor ROM ELECTROHEATING hair pin form

Lead-acid battery lead peroxide, spongelead, sulfuric acid Transputer parallel processing CHOPPER fixed dc voltage to variable dc voltage Symmetry odd harmonics Monostable multivibrator 1 microsecond to 1 millisecond to 10 millisecond Monolithic IC passive and active component in 1 process Thin film ceramic Thick film alumina Anderson circuit upgraded Maxwell-Wien PHANTASTRON modified version of miller CANDELA unit of luminuous intensity(SI) or lux(MKS) Photoconductive cellphototransistor;photoresistor LCD over LED and CMOS over TTL extremely Low power dissipation Class A with transformer coupling 50 % efficiency Class C 85% PIN semiconductor sandwich by 2 metallic material Half power 3 db increase LED have higher internal resistance than photodiode CMOS nanowatt power dissipation Daisy chaining interrupt values Floating point maltissa,base and exponent

Diac 4 pair of SCR Clamper introduces dc voltage to ac Emitter follower common collector Common collector current amplifier Load impedance must match amplifier impedance in order to maximum power transferred to the load EPROM can be erased using ultraviolet light EAPROM LASER coherent, monochromatic Tickle charge fresh and fully charged ho smallest hybrid parameter h11 = V1/I1 1st IC jack kilby handshake input/output ports between comparator sulphation incomplete charging nibble 1 byte 4 bits CPU & MICROPROCESSOR composed of ALU and control unit Damping force moving Transformer coupling increases efficienc Hartley tapped inductor Colppitts tapped capacitor Nima gantry robot - - best precision 64 bit use in large computer 2 nibbles 1 bytes revolutes rotates

prismatic straight axis OP AMP gain is 1,000,000 Card reader 10000 Peak inverse voltage (PIV) maximum reversed voltage 4 to 100 ohm VR exp (1/3) L/C balanced SCS anode, cathode and 2 gate LASCR no gate Class c efficiency 85% Class A 50%, less distortion Half ADDER XOR and OR Roll off 40 db -40 dB/decade = -12 dB/octave 1kwh = 860 Kcal roll off decrease in gain due to frequency floating battery used in power supply, emergency light, telephone lines blown fuse when lamps light up Einstein relation mobility PIN diode used up to GHz range Permeameter measure permeability of ferrous materials Excess-3 larger than BCD by 3 Film IC passive component Three phase symmetry 2nd, 4th, 6th Lux luminance Positive temperature coefficient increase in temperature also increases resistance Series capacitor long TL Shunt reactance

Dead short most dangerous Inventor dc to ac Class B push pull Darlington pair base to base, collector Emitter to the 2nd base Comparator no feedback Sensitivity A/Af Differential amplifier same input zero output Cell capacity is measure in AMPERE-HOUR Thermal runaway Increase capacity of fuse overload Compiler store and re-use Gold doping less shortage time Enhancement only N-type MOSFET high positive SiO2 isolate/isolation DIAC schottky diode back to back Class C efficiency mostly 85% CC/emitter follower voltage gain cannot exceed unity S-C latch Decade counter 9 inputs the next input will reset dv/dt effect in SCR false triggering di/dt effect in SCR hot shot input terminal of opamp:inverting and non-inverting Gain of darlington multiply beta UJT diode and 2 resistor Bolometer measures temperature variation SI unit of luminance lux

Light meter uses lux as unit of measurement Thermal runaway increase in temperature of BC junction will increase the collector current and hence destroy diode Skin effect ac transmission 3 phase system has a 5th harmonic negative phase sequence of RBY Darlington pair CB amplifier D flip-flop convenient way in binary counting D flip-flop composed of JK and RS flip flop and inverter Thermal neutrons slow neutrons Phototube emits electrons when cathode is illuminated JK F/F divides frequency by 2 1 byte 2 nibbles 1 nibbles 4 bits saturation - VCE=0 cut-off - VCE= VCC power loss due to corona static V/I curve describe by BOLTZMANN Diode equation stroboscope measure speed at preset frequency damping force moving element Class B eliminate even harmonics Class A worse case condition when input is zero Microprogramming control step Transmission lines conductor atmospheric temperature

increases, length increases and stress decreases NIMAK gantry good precision 0.5 1 micron width of depletion region 0.5 micro meter width of depletion region of unbiased pn junction IMPATT used in Microwave( 10-1000GHz) Anderson bridge modified version of Maxwell-wien bridge ; used to measure inductance in term of known capacitance and resistance DE SAUTY bridged compares 2 capacitance of 2 air capacitor Heaviside-Campbell Equal ratio bridge used to measure self inductance in terms of mutual inductance Fermi level found in the forbidden gap Monolithic IC compact; used in computers Thin film IC used in sputtering ceramic substance Thick film IC used in silk screening alumina substrate 0- 1 micro ampere has a sensitivity of 1kilo-ohm/volts IC=Ie +Ico formula of CB amplifier I2L bipolar saturated logic Hays bridged Wien bridged oscillator stable sine wave audio generator

Lead acid cell consist of lead peroxide, sponged lead and dilute sulphuric acid SCARA uses assembly operation Sulphation incomplete charging Photodiode used in alarm control system and timing End effect base width modulation MILLER circuit used to convert step waveform to ramp waveform Phantastron modified miller circuit Bootstrap circuit used to produced constant current by maintaining constant voltage Tunnel diode impurity atoms may increase to 1 to 103 Relaxation oscillator interdependent circuit Class A maximum efficiency 50% Class B maximum efficiency 70% Class C minimum efficiency 85% Schottky TTL ha least propagation delay EAPROM Gallium Arsenide Infrared LED Full Adder add 2 binary and a carry input Varactor variable capacitor 1 10 milli second monostable 0.1 millisecond= 1kilo-ohm/volt

hay high phase angle, increase impedance class A less distortion class C distorted D flip flop RS,JK,inverter Attenuator decreases amplitude of signal Microprogramming oldest method CE amplifier 180 degrees outof-phase Sediment at the bottom of lead acid antimony and lead alloy Nickel-iron 21% iron, caustic potash, nickel hydroxide 1.21 ripple factor bridge discrete digital analog distortion electron flow Emitter-base collector Schottky fastest switching Drift bouncing of electron from negative to positive Anderson bridged solved unknown inductance using resistance and capacitance Power measure kilowatthr(KwH) SCR- pair with 4 layer Cut-off Vce=Vcc Flux-weber Calibration adjustment Schottky solve the problem of fast switching 6 degrees of freedom solid object CMMR = infinity(op amp ideal)

Subtractor- can be performed by an adder Silicon(14): 2 8 4(electron distribution) N=4 :4 subshell Tunnel diode 4 to 100 quality factor ratio of energy to dissipated factor rise time time between10% to 90% of the signal coil increase heat,increase current electric field unit : Newton/coulomb=volt/meter absolute permittivity unit:F/m linear distortion is caused by internal junction in transistor and external capacitance thermal neutron slow neutron microprocessor uses 3 buses comparative subtracting is used to simplify circuit (uses adder) PIV of halfwave rectifier is 2Vm if shunt capacitor is used Lead acid water is neither formed nor absorbed Reverse recovery time forward biased off state Zero power cannot be zero dB, zero cannot be defined in dB Oscillator positive feedback Voltage drop of aluminum is greater than copper because of high resistivity of aluminum ohmic resistance conductor if current is equally distributed on cross section of conductor

RC power factor is between 0 to 1 Magnetic deflection system used in CRT Transducer high input, low output EB-BC darlington pair Karel Capek coined robotics Anderson bridge determine inductance with known capacitance and resistance Maxwell Wien bridge determine inductance De sauty capacitance of air capacitor Heaviside Campbell measure self inductance given mutual inductance 2 nibbles 1 word Triac function as SCR Phototransistor photoresistor Schottky diode high switching Gating circuit rectangulart wave Daisy chaining interrupt values Floating point mantissa, base, exponent Step recovery generate harmonic Push-pull amplifier eliminates even order harmonics Multivibrator non-sinusoidal Colpitts Capacitor and tuned circuit Hartley - inductor and tuned circuit Op-Amp infinite impedance; current = 0

Eddy current damping most applicable Power loss due to corona bounded conductor Lead acid - not dependent on charge Capacitor is not dependent on plate thickness JK F/F over SC F/F toggle Capacity of cell ampere-hour Thermionic valve FET ho smallest h parameter LASCR similar to SCR except for the gate Early effect base width modulation; base narrowing; variation of width if the base Voltage gain of darlington pair multiply beta Most dangerous dead short end Miller circuit pulse ramp to Bootstrap constant current Nickel Iron cell nickel and powdered iron and its oxides and 21% of caustic potash TTL less propagation delay EAROM degrades memory D F/F binary counter Amplitude stabilization circuit reduce amplitude ; less distortion Fermi Dirac energy distribution function distribution function that satisfactorily GaAs LED infrared light (invinsible) Thermometer resistor measures temperature

2 SCR triac subshell=4 when n=4 gain of an op-amp 1000000 to produced current in a diode the voltage should be greater than 0.7 COPPER has the lowest resistivity at -273 K Schottky diode : Ptype:GOLD,SILVER,PLATINUM N-type:SILICON Sensitivity of 100mA = 1Kohm/volt Advantage of laser monochromatic and coherent Mica is a conductor the statement is false Voltage gain of CC always less than unity Is a factor of both torque and power speed Watt-hour is used as recording bevice 4 bits - nybble 1 byte 2 nibble ideal input impedance of an opamp is- infinite according to Barkhausen principle an op-amp will oscillate if its gain is 1 and phase inversion is zero TRANSFORMER COUPLING used to increase the efficiency of Class A amplifier Ideal noise factor zero Positive feedback causes oscillation Tapped coil colpitts

Tapped inductor Hartley CRYSTAL has the greatest frequency stability CRYSTAL has the simplest circuit Darlington pair and emitter follower has the same value of gain Pure resistive circuit has no transient because it has no stored energy Transient component capacitor and inductor Unique characteristic of CE phase inversion Unique characteristic of CC high current gain Half scale deflection 50% Ib=100 micro ampere, Ic=10 milli ampere range of beta is 1.01 up to 10 Thickness of depletion region 0.5 micrometer Monostable multivibrator increase time delay ASTABLE multivibrator produces oscillation Deacade counter count up to 9 and reset to start Output is low when 1 input or all input are high Boolean algebra was derived from logic An adder can be made XOR and OR gate Electronics engineering

Ferranti Effect sending voltage end is less than the receiving voltage end Schering Bridge used to measure unknown capacitance J.T. Bacon developed fuel cell in 1959 Reamaeur effect absorption of slow moving electron by intervening matter 108.8% - conductivity of pure annealed silcer 72.6% - conductivity of 99.9% gold 63% - conductivity of 99.5% aluminum Swinburnes test used to measures no load losses Cycle time time it takes a robot to move from 1 point to another Cyclotron used to change AC voltage frequency to another frequency SRS ( Spread Resistance Sensor) used to measure change in resistance of extrinsic semiconductor. OS memory contain BIOS which is used when starting a computer Stack memory that implement last in first out (LIFO) Solid grounding used for <660 V Resistance grounding for 3.3 11 kV Robot work envelop define the motion of rotation of axis

3 degrees of freedom addition of wrist 6 times NMOS slower than PMOS Converter transformer used for frequency from 100 Hz up to 150 KHz Carrier frequency transformer used for frequency from 20 KHz up to 20 MHz Quantum theory theory that explained the relation between matter and waves Geometry distance between features 2 3 micro meter minimum distance between features 1 micro meter minimum distance for advanced IC Ernest Rutherford static atom diameter measures 10 -14 meter Power amplifier less than 100 hz Skin effect present on high frequency only Capacitance no effect on small transmission line Decrease capacitance, no change on inductance increase transmitter tower height Orthogonal nulling refers to garaging the two adjustment of an ac bridge together in such a way that changing one adjustment changes the other in a special way, but changing the other does not change the first. Common drain buffer amplifier

Common source commonly used Wien bridge 0.5 1 % error Triangular wave rise and decay time are equal Phototube electronic tube that emits photo electron when cathode is illuminated Damping factor filter CMRR of op-amps 100 10000 CMRR of op-amps 40 80dB Zener diode mostly used volyage reference in voltage power supply Subtractor differential amplifier Rate of change first derivative of sine wave Voltage drop of selenium 1 Photocells selenium Waston saturated cell accurate reference standard cell for large laboratories 6.022 x 10 raise to 23 kg equal to universal atomic mass unit avogadros number the atomic mass unit in grams is inversely proportional to 3 to 8 inches diameter of wafer 6 electrodes 2 element three phase charge coupled devices has how many electrodes gap width between electrodes CCD charge transfer efficiency depends on soft stop each axis in servo controlled robot moves between

amplitude stabilization circuit minimizes distortion and reduces amplitude of oscillator, thus producing damped oscillations linear wave shaping when non linear signal is passed in a network with linear elements punch through effect occurs when the limit of common base voltage in the active region of amplifier is exceeded ferrite tubes VHF and UHF suppressor used in the input and output of transistorized HF amplifier anthropomorphic robot maneuverable electron ballistic studies of trajectories of projectiles of charge particles especially electrons under the influence of electric and magnetic field 50 ohms characteristic impedance of Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) 3.5 6 dB typical noise figure of MMIC persistor a superconducting thin film memory element which consist of superconducting inductor in parallel with switch element. Trinary logic logic which allow neutral state Fuzzy logic logic which values varies from totally true through neutral to totally false

Absorptance ratio of radiant energy absorbed by a body to an incident radiant energy Bimettalic strip for electric ions, this is the most useful for controlling temperature Gimmick capacitance small capacitance produced when twisting 2 insulated wires together Gratz rectifier 3 phase full waverectifier circuit which uses 6 rectifying element 4-100 ohms impedance of a voice coil analog linear changes digital discrete changes word 16 bits double word 32 bits tunnel diode negative resistance region zener diode constant voltage under varying current kilowatt hour recording instrument wire diagram shows values of components carbon negative temperature coefficient reverse recovery time time taken by the diode to operate in the reverse condition from forward conduction direct coupling less interference transformer coupling provide impedance matching

transconductance amplifier high input impedance, low output impedance dead space increase in input but constant output Hopkins disadvantage is the need of 2 identical shunt machine Surge absorber low voltage, high frequency ELECTRONICS Voltage divider - A series circuit in which desired position of the source voltage may be tapped off for use in equipment Magnet wire common name for enamel insulated wire Cable term that is used in generally used and applies to the larger size of conductor Tinning the process of applying thin coat of solder to materials prior to their being soldered 600 V working voltage of paper capacitor rarely exceed ____? 500 V what is the working voltage capacity of a dry electrolytic capacitor working voltage the maximum voltage that can be steadily applied to the capacitor without the capacitor breaking down is called ______ of the capacitor? 60 Hz or 400 Hz power transformer normally operates at ___ alternating current

perception 0 to 1 mA (AC 60 HZ) or 0 to 4 mA (DC) Surprise 1 to 4 mA (AC 60 HZ) or 4 to 15 mA (DC) Reflex action 4 to 21 mA (AC 60 HZ) or 15 to 80 mA (DC) Mascular inhibition - 21 to 40 mA (AC 60 HZ) or 80 to 160 mA (DC) Respiratory failure 40 to 100 mA (AC 60 HZ) or 160 to 300 mA (DC) Fatal over 100 mA (AC 60 HZ) or over 300 mA (DC) Electric shock refer to the jarring, shaking sensation you receive from contact with electricity Discharge them by shorting to the ground before working on electrical equipment containing capacitor, what should you do to the capacitor? E6010 deep welding, DCRP source E6011 deep welding, AC/DC source E6013 medium penetration welding, AC/DC source Ac supply is used in atomic hydrogen welding electrodes are long lived because? 2 or 3 hours general rule of thumb the motor loses 2 or 3 hours of its useful life for each hour run in a factored load CO2 shortening in MAG gas welding

Pure argon shielding used in TIG welding Orange, blue, gray color band of 1N368 diode Kuka spot welding robot robot with 6 degrees of freedom Solenoid movable core Relay fixed core SCARA assembly, servoed Z axis, direct motor new generation robot, man size Chromatic tachometer combination of watch and revolution counter Projection welding mass production of spot welding Spot welding dependent on resistance and forged pressure R=1, S=1 in RS F/F not possible absurd Transformer, rectifier and filter may not be included in power supply JFET usually reversed bias PN junction Kismet robot with facial expression Pleo toy dinosaur robot that has emotion Direct kinematics calculation of end effector values, orientation velocity and acceleration with joint values are known Inverse kinematics joint values are not known Flash welding application of pressure after welding Upset welding at joints

Percussion welding at arc High frequency welding application of rapid force after heating Hydroxide anode NiCad Cadmium hydroxide cathode NiCad MIG metal inert gas, for DC only SMAW shielded metal arc welding, for AC/DC 60000 psi max tension E60xx Magnetic audio tape track is parallel with edges Magnetic video tape track is diagonal wit the edges DC reverse (DC +) deep penetration DC straight (DC -) medium weld penetration Welding interval 1. squeeze interval 2. weld interval heat subinterval current is flowing cold subinterval current is not flowing 3. hold interval 4. release interval 5. standby consumable electrode disadvantage of MIG over CIG TIG non consumable tungsten 2/3 of heat heat produce at electrode Cartesian, anthropomorphic, SCARA used in assembly

Strobotac electronic flash device that measures rapid motion, uses few millionth of a second Barreter type/kind of bolometer that increase resistance when dissipated power increases Zero moment point (ZMP) technique algorithm used in Hondas ASIMO Dynamic balancing a more advance, robust than ZMP Island of automation approach which introduced factory automation technology into manufacturing by selective application of automation Level of automation degree of which a machine is automatic Stereo imaging use of 2 or more cameras to pinpoint an object in 3 dimensional space DC motor and stepper motor used in robotics because can withstand large overload 300 ohms resistance of human body at normal condition 100 ohms resistance of human body from temple to temple with broken skin self healing capacitor when arcing occur between the plates of two oil-filled capacitor, the oil tend to reseal the hole function switch multimeter switch at the lower left portion range switch lower center portion of multi meter

amplidyne dc generator used as high gain amplifier 10,000 gain of amplidyne tachometer measures mechanical rotation frequency stroboscope measures rotation frequency of recording devices and teletypewriter motors elastic nanotube promising early stage experimental technology of an actuator Cincinnati T3 used in machining process Forge welding oldest welding Exx1x used for all position Exx2x used for flat and horizontal surface/position Exx3x used for flat position Chain is formed of link (bones), actuator (muscle) and joint Piezo motor or ultrasonic motor alternative to dc motor as actuator Electroactive polymer class of plastic which change shape in response to electronic stimulation Robot arm called manipulator Air muscle simple yet effective and act similar to human muscle First generation robot computer power Second generation robot some level of AI Lead peroxide cathode of lead acid cell Cadmium hydroxide cathode of NiCad

CO2 fire extinguisher used in electrical fire Occurrence of blow hole dis advantage of carbon arc Floor mounted robot the base of the robot is connected to the floor Overhead welding position the most dangerous welding position Servo controlled robot robot driven by servo mechanism TIG tungsten Inert gas Smooth bead requirement in SAW Wave generator, flexi spline and circular spline component of harmonic drive High reliability harmonic drivers in robots 60 Kg capacity of ASEA IRb-60 tactile sensing a type of sensing used to determine the local shaped, position of a moving object Hand disguised as a regular gripper but with three or more finger and dextous finger similar to human hand Expert system computer system that uses AI Androids human robots Roboticist person working in the field of robotics Closer to 0 if Xc/R is closed to zero 45 degrees if Xc/R is 1

Dot Pitch image resolution can be represented by _______. CDs are not easily damage because NOTHING TOUCHES IT ROM easy to get but hard to put data RAM easy to get and put data Flash memory mass storage devices that provide the fastest access time Non interlaced Monitor animated graphics involving fast motion E6010 electrode is used for all position welding using DCRP, it produces a deep penetrating weld works well on dirty, rusted or painted metal E6011 electrode has the same characteristic with E6010 but can be used with AC and DC currents E6013 can be used with AC/DC. Produces medium penetrating weld with superior weld bead appearance