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Partial Discharge Monitoring on Rotating Machines using a Modular Instrument Approach

1.8MVA, 5.9kV Generator, 1905, RWE, Germany

Detlev W. Gross Power Diagnostix Systems GmbH Bruesseler Ring 95a, 52074 Aachen, Germany gross@pdix.com
Power Diagnostix www.pdix.com

JJ Walker Walmet Technologies (Pty) Ltd 47 Kei Street East, Three Rivers, Vereeniging, South Africa jerrywalker@walmet.co.za
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LH Marthinusen Rotating Machines Conference, 2008

Partial Discharges in Rotating Machines


The Insulation System of Rotating Machines widely tolerates Partial Discharges PD Activity serves as Indicator of various Problems of the Insulation System - Thermal Aging - Bar and Overhang Vibration - Contamination Thermal Power Plant, Taipei, Taiwan - Electrical Degradation Off-Line Measurements On-Line Measurements Continuous On-Line Monitoring
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Visualization of Partial Discharge Activity


Different established PD Graphs - Oscilloscope Type - Count Distribution Counts - -q-n Pattern - 3D Pattern
Charge Phase

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Resolution of Phase Resolved Pattern

Leonardo da Vinci, 1503

Francisco Guardi, 1763

ICMsystem 128 x 256


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16 x 64
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Defect Locations in Machine Slots


A: Imperfection of Field Semicon B: Delamination of the Main Insulation from the Winding C: Tape Layer Delamination D: Treeing in Layers E: Ground Wall Delamination, so-called Slot Discharge F: Internal Cavities (Voids)
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Void Discharge versus Voltage

Symmetrical Electrode Configuration - Multiple Voids of different Sizes -Void and Surface Discharge
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LH Marthinusen Rotating Machines Conference, 2008

Slot Discharges with Machine Bars

Asymmetrical Electrode Configuration - Predominantly in the negative Half Cycle - Often typical triangular Pattern - Slot Discharge versus Load Variation
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LH Marthinusen Rotating Machines Conference, 2008

Discharges of thermally aged main Insulation

Symmetrical Electrode Configuration - Similar Pattern for both Half Cycles - Often typical triangular Pattern - Cross-coupling of adjacent Phase
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Delamination at the Conductor

Non-symmetrical Electrode Configuration - Predominantly in the positive Half Cycles - Hydro Generator (Pump Storage) - Insulation De-Composites (White Powder)
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Global Vacuum Pressure Impregnation

Defect Mechanism with global Vacuum Impregnation - Thermal Stress causes Cracks - Initial State: Surface Discharge - Discharge Level: 10-50nC - Gap Grows
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Cont

- Discharge to the Pressure Finger - Final Stage: Floating Potential - Strong Streamer Discharge > 100nC
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Case Study
B A

Defect Mechanism with global Vacuum Impregnation - Initial Stage: A (Inception Voltage ~ 2kV) - Final Stage: B (Inception Voltage ~ 5kV) - Strong Streamer Discharge > 100nC
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Applicable Frequencies for PD Measurements


The Rise Time of the Electron Avalanche is determined by the gaseous Dielectric: Under Nitrogen Atmosphere, the Rise Time is about 1ns and, hence, causing a bandwidth of ~300MHz Under SF6, an electro-negative Gas, the Rise Time is approx. 200ps and the bandwidth is >2000MHz Various Effects reduce the Signal Bandwidth: Dispersion, Radiation, and Attenuation Reflection and band-pass Effects Thus, only a reduced Frequency Band is available for PD Measurements
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Properties of Stator Windings


Slot Section - Shielded Conductor - Attenuation - Low Impedance Overhang - Non-shielded - Cross-Coupling - High Impedance
Hydro Generator, Coo, Belgium

Turbine Generator, Salzgitter, Germany

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High Frequency Behavior of a Stator Winding


Modeling: Cable Sections of different Impedance Reflections with each Impedance change - Relevant above a certain Corner Frequency - Corner Frequency depends on the Slot Length - More than 80% of the Signal Energy is trapped within the Slot Section - Signal Radiation with the Overhang Section - Cross-Coupling
Slot Section: ZL ~ 10-20 Overhang: ZL > 100 Power Diagnostix www.pdix.com
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Useful Frequencies for PD Measurements


Low Frequency Range (< 1MHz) - Best Coverage of the entire Winding - Partly hampered by Noise Interference - Best Choice for Off-Line Tests Medium Frequency Range (2-20MHz) - Reasonable Coverage (Signal Transmission) - Moderate Noise Situation - Best Compromise for On-Line Monitoring High Frequency Range (20-500MHz) - Limited Coverage - Comparably low Noise Interference - Excellent Near-Field Detection
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Permanent Installation of Couplers


Standard Installation for Turbine and small to medium Machines: Couplers at the Machine Terminals Option for large Hydro Generators: Couplers on each Parallel Coupler Signal Combiner

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Permanent Installation of Couplers


Usage of existing Cable Couplers Small Hydro Generator GE Coupler at the busbar CC20B at the flex link
CC, Altamira, Mexico Pump Storage, Vianden, Luxembourg

Gas Turbine, Seabank, Bristol, UK 32MVA Hydro Pipe Turbine, Vienna, Austria

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Configuration for a single Machine


Machine is equipped with partial discharge couplers ICMmonitor offers local Gas Turbine, Seabank Power, Bristol, UK Display for Interpretation Alarm Relay output Direct Connection via serial Interface to a Notebook Remote Access via Modem or TCP/IP Interface

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Configuration for a Hydro Pump Storage


Generators Couplers ICMmonitor Local Telephone Network Local PC: ICMmonitor S/W Remote PC: ICMmonitor S/W
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G1

G2

G3

G4

Independent Scanning Local Storage Remote Mirror Storage External FTP Access
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Configuration for multiple Thermal PP


Generators Couplers ICMmonitor TCP/IP Intranet Local PC: ICMmonitor S/W TCP/IP Intranet Monitoring Center ICMpilot S/W
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G1

G2

G3

G4

Site 1

Site 2

Redundant Storage FTP File Sharing


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Configuration for a four motor-group


Motors Couplers ICMmonitor (12-channel) TCP/IP Interface with F/O link Local PC: (Control Room) ICMmonitor S/W
M1 M2 M3 M4

Independent Scanning Local Storage Remote Mirror Storage

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Networking multiple Instruments


ICMmonitor with Modem ICMmonitor with TCP/IP Interface Local Windows Server

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Networking multiple Instruments

ICMpilot Software
monitor pilot monitor ICM ICM ICM S/W S/W - remote trending phase-resolved measurement acquiredpattern data
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Recommended PD Testing Schedule


Installation of Couplers during the next available Outage Off-Line Partial Discharge Tests along with other Off-Line Measurements (tan , Polarization Index, etc.) On-Line Tests based on a Time Schedule according to the Risk Potential of the Machine Continuous On-line Monitoring on Machines of special Concern (Deterioration, Indispensability, etc.) Interpretation and Risk Assessment by external or inhouse Experts

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GOAL: Applying Condition Based Maintenance to prevent Failure


Power Equipment Failure is costly and can be disastrous...

Thank You!
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