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Atoms and Molecules / 3(1); 2013 / 1722 Review Article

Thirupathi M et al

Journal of Atoms and Molecules

An International Online Journal
ISSN 2277 1247

PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF PAEDERIA FOETIDA A RARE MEDICINAL PLANT A REVIEW M. Thirupathi*, D. Srinivas, K. Rajendar, D. Raju and K. Jaganmohan Reddy Plant Tissue Culture Laboratory, Department of Botany, Kakatiya University, Warangal, Andhra Pradesh, India. Received on: 16-01-2013 Introduction: Natural products chemistry has originated from mankinds curiosity about colour, taste, odor and cures for human, animal and plant diseases. A number of chemical substances accumulate and produced by the plants there is no role has yet been found in growth, photosynthesis, reproduction, or other "primary" functions. These are stable products of metabolism. Many thousands have been identified in several major classes. And all these are smaller molecules but exhibit great diversity in their types, structures and occurrence. Each plant family, genus, and species produces a characteristic mix of these chemicals, and they can sometimes be used as taxonomic characters in classifying plants. The present work aims to screening of different secondary metabolites in methanolic extracts and tabulated their presence or absence. Revised on: 25-01-2013 Accepted on: 02022013

Introduction Rubiaceous plants elaborate a wide range of secondary metabolites. Most pharmaceuticals are based on plant chemical structures, and secondary metabolites are widely used for recreation and stimulation. The genus Paederia contains 20- 30 species in worldwide generally distributed in Asia, commonly known as skunk vine like shrub, perennial climbing herb, in India it found in Himalayas from Dehradun east wards up to an altitude of 1800mt and also in Assam, Bihar, Bengal, Orissa and Andhra Pradesh[1]. Paederia foetida is native to both temperate and tropical Asia, from India to Japan and All rights reserved 2011 17

* Corresponding author Thirupathi M, Email:

J. Atoms and Molecules / 3(1); 2013 / 1722 South East Asia. It contains bitter taste with having foul smell. P. foetida may grow high in to the trees in a variety of habitats from msic hammocks to xeric sand hill communities, although it appears to prefer sunny flood plains and bottom lands even grow under water, tree gaps and other disturbed areas. Leaf shape variation of P. foetida in Japan reexamination of the small narrow leaf from Miyajima Islands[2]. P. foetida is potential medicinal plant, the uses of this plant in indigenous and diverse for many people they still form an important economic basis and are used in medicine, and also is used as remedy for diarrhea and dysentery and major chemical constituents are present in this plant[3-5]. P foetida also reported to have ethnomedicinal uses both in Bangladesh[6] and India[7]. The plant leaf extraction exhibit the antioxidant activity[8], antitussive activity[9]. Methanolic extracts of the leaves of P. foetida were screened for its anthelmintic activity against Pheretima posthuma and Tubiex tubifex[10]. The present work has taken up to screen of secondary metabolites in presence of methanolic extraction. Plant cells grown in culture have potential to produce and accumulate chemicals similar to the parent plant from which they were derived. There are numerous reports describing the production of diverse metabolites through cell line selection and or addition of precursor in to the production medium[11,12]. Secondary metabolites are biochemicals produced by plants in response to selection pressures, causing individual compounds to have very limited distributions and making them useful in determining the evolutionary relationships between taxonomic groups. Secondary metabolites are organic compounds that are not directly involved in the normal growth, development, or reproduction of an organism[13]. Presence of All rights reserved 2011

Thirupathi M et al secondary compounds influence the activities of organisms interacting with the plants and, over long periods of time, influences evolution of the species. These are very important plants used by humans; some of these compounds are being used as medicines, flavorings, or recreational drugs. Materials and Methods: The plant materials of P. foetida were collected from Mallur hills, Warangal District, Andhra Pradesh, India. The presence or absence of certain phytochemical substances namely alkaloids, ellagic acid, lignans, iridoids, methylinedioxy compound, tannins, triterpenoids was also tested using the standard phytochemical tests described by Harborne[14]. The available methanolic extracts of the shade dried plant material were used for this purpose[15]. Methanolic extraction: The plant material has been dried under shade and ground into fine powder using electric blender. 100g of powder was soaked in 500ml methanol for 48h with intermittent shaking. Then the solution is filtered and dried to collect the methanolic extract. This extraction process is repeated for two more times with the residue remained after filtration. This extract is stored at 40 c for further use. Alkaloids: A small quantity of the methanolic extract was dissolved in 1% HCl and tested with Mayers and Dragendroffs reagents. When a precipitate forms or when the solution become turbid, the reaction was considered as positive for the presence of alkaloids. The above reaction was confirmed by another test. The alcoholic plant extract was initially made acidic with 1% HCl and then alkaline with 28% NaOH. To the supernatant liquid was added equal volume of chloroform. Then 1% HCl was added followed by 18

J. Atoms and Molecules / 3(1); 2013 / 1722 Dragendroffs reagent. When the solution becomes turbid, the presence of alkaloids was confirmed. Ellagic Acid: Few drops of 5% Acetic acid followed by Soidum nitrate solution were added to the methonolic plant extract. Based on the amount of ellagic acid present, the solution developed yellow, olive brown, nigger brown, or deep chocolate colour. Otherwise, its absence was inferred. Lignans: Using Badounis test, the presence or absence of lignans was determined. In this, 2% furfuraldehyde was added to 2 ml of methanolic plant extract concentrate. When this was acidified with HCl, the development of red colour was taken as positive for the presence of lignans. Iridoids: To the concentrated methanolic plant extract was added 1 ml of Trim-Hill reagent. It was then heated for a few minutes. The presence of iridoids was inferred when the solution turned to blue, green or red. Methylinedioxy compounds: To the methanolic plant extract in a test tube was added a pinch of Gallic acid along with a few drops of con.H2SO4. The development of blue green colour was taken for the presence of methylinedioxy compounds. Steroids: Salkowski test was used to detect the presence or absence of steroids. Concentrated H2SO4 and chloroform were added to the methanolic plant extract in a test tube. When the wine red colour developed, the reaction was considered as positive and the presence of steroids was inferred. Tannins:

Thirupathi M et al

When 1% Potassium dichromate solution was added to an equal volume of concentrated methanolic plant extract, the development of calumnious precipitate indicated the presence of tannins. The presence of tannins was tested by performing another reaction also. In it, the plant extract was evaporated to dryness and it was then dissolved in distilled water. It was taken into two test tubes, to the first was added 1% gelatin solution and to the second, gelatin salt solution. A positive reaction for tannins was inferred only when a precipitate develops in both the cases. Triterpenoids: Libermann-Burchard test was adopted to know the presence or absence of triterpenoids and steroids. Con H2SO4 was added to the mixture of methanolic plant extract and acetic anhydride. Development of blue to bluegreen colour (sometimes violet colour) was construed for the presence of triterpenoids and also steroids. Results and Discussions: The phytochemical substances of the leaf extract of P. foetida were screening by qualitative chemical analysis which revealed are alkaloids, ellagic acid, iridoids, triterpenoids and steroids. The same was confirmed by using TLC(Thin layer Chromatography). Extracts were tested negative for lignans, methylinedioxy compound and tannins. The aerial parts of the plant contain iridoid glucosides (asperuloside, scandoside and paederoside). The plant is reported to contain asperuloside, paederoside and scandoside. Shreedhara[16] reported to quantify important markers(asperuloside 12, beta sistosterol 23 and lupeol 23) in leaves.

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J. Atoms and Molecules / 3(1); 2013 / 1722 An enzyme that splits paederoside to give a bad odour of sulphur containing methylmercaptan is released when the plant tissue is bruised. Some iridoid glycosides structures are shown below.

Thirupathi M et al P. foetida also contains alkaloids paederine (a-paederine and b-paederine) and an essential oil. The intense colour of the essential oil is due to methyl mercaptan. Linalool is the major component of the oil obtained from the stem, leaf and flower, together with aterpineol and geraniol. The leaf and stem also contain hentriacontane, hentriacontanol and ceryl alcohol, 2,3-dihydrobenzofuran, benzofuran and sulphur containing compounds dimethyl sulphide and dimethyl trisulphide, epifriedelinol, friedelin, sitosterol, stigmasterol and campesterol. Embelin has been isolated from the aerial parts. The leaf contains a mixture of fatty acids including non-ionic, capric, lauric, myristic, arachnidic and palmitic acids. The leaves are rich in vitamin C.

Scandoside (C16H22O11)

Paederine (C22H45N O9) Paederine drug with construction of venous and venous depots [17]. It was considered desirable to investigate the effect of paederine on the veins. Paederine doses which causes a define elevation of blood pressure also resulted in temporary increase in venous pressure of from 2.3 to 6.0 cm of water. In a few other experiments, no change in venous pressure was found after dosed too small to produced increased arterial pressure. The establishment of secondary products would be no more illusion if the biological and taxonomical knowledge accumulated in the last three decades was not available[18]. Almost all summary works concerning the biosynthesis of secondary products 20

Asperuloside (C18H22O11)

Paederoside (C18H22O11S)

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J. Atoms and Molecules / 3(1); 2013 / 1722 formulation and accumulation during changes in the plant development [19]. Screening of secondary metabolites present in P. foetida S.No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Compound name Alkaloids Ellagic acids Iridoids Lignans Methylinedioxy compound Steroids Tannins Terpenoids Remarks (+) Absent (+) Present (+) Present (-) Absent 4 (-) Absent (+) Present (-) Absent (+) Present 5 6 The preliminary screening study will be useful to further work in enhancement of secondary metabolites tin vitro level and use of them in pharmaceutical industries and in others. The characters may be useful to correlate the taxonomic position of plant species. Acknowledgement: Authors are grateful to Prof. A. Ragan, Head, Department of Botany, Kakatiya University and his scholars and Plant Systematic Laboratory, Department of Botany, Kakatiya University, Warangal. References: 1 Reddy K N. and Sudhakar Reddy C: First red list of medicinal plants of Andhra Pradesh, India - conservation assessment and management planning. Ethno Botanical Leaflets, 12: 2008, 103107. 3 2

Thirupathi M et al Hirokazu Tsukaya., Ryoko Imaichi and Jun Yokoyama: Leaf shape variation of Paederia foetida. In Japan: reexamination of the small, narrow leaf form from Island. J. Plant. Res. 119: 2006, 303-308. Chauhan Khushbu., Patel Anar., Patel Mayuree., Mawan carol., Solanki Roshni. and Adeshara Subodh: Paederia foetida Linn. As a potential medicinal plant Review. J. Pharma. Res. 3(12), 2010, 3135-3137. Afroz S., Alamgir M., Khan M T H., Jabber S., Nahar. and Choudhuri M S K: Anti diarrheal activity of the ethanol extract of Paederia foetida. Journal of Ethno pharmacology, 105(1-2), 2006, 125-130. Blatter E. and Caius J F: Indian medicinal plants. 2, 1981, 1297-1299. Hannan M A., Hasan M M., Masum M M., Karim M., Jahan and Rahmatullah M: An ethnobotanical survey of Nokhali district, Bangladesh. Journal of Complementary and Integrative medicine, 5(131), 2008, 12. Hynniewta S R. and Kuama Y: Herbal remedies among the Kasi traditional healers and village folks in Meghalaya. Indian journal of traditional Knowlwdge, 7(4) , 2008, 581-586. Hasnah Osman., Afidah A Rahim., Norhafizah M Isa. and Nornaemah M Bakhir: Antioxidant activity of and Phenolic content of Paederia foetida and Syzygium aqieum. Molecules. 14, 2009, 970-978. Nosalova G., Mokry J., Ather A. and Khan M T H: Antitussive activity of ethanolic extract of Paederia foetida (Rubiaceae family) in Non Anaesthetized cats. Acta. Vet. Brono, 76, 2007, 27-33. 21

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J. Atoms and Molecules / 3(1); 2013 / 1722 10 Yadu Nandan Dey: Evaluation of Anthelmintic activity of leaves of Paederia foetida. Int. Journal of Pharma and Biosc. 2(1) , 2011, 227-231. 11 Khanna P: Useful metabolites from plant tissue culture, fifty plant species-A review. X plant tissue culture association meet, Jaipur, 2-4 Feb, pp, 1985, 1-6. 12 Mulabagal V. and T Say H: Plant cell cultures - an alternative and efficient source for the production of biologically important secondary metabolites. International App. Sci. and Engineering, 2, 2004, 29-48. 13 Frankel Gottfried S. "The Raison d'Etre of secondary plant substances". Science 129 (3361), 1959, 14661470. 14 Harborne J B: Phytochemical methods: A guide to modern techniques of plant analysis Chapman and Hall: Newyark, 1984, 288p.

Thirupathi M et al 15 Jhansi lakshmi B. and Jaganmohan Reddy K: Screening of secondary metabolites in methonolic leaf and bark extracts of Gardenia resinifera and Gardenia latifolia. Biosci. Biotec. res. Comm. Vol 4. No. 1, 2011, 23-28. 16 Shrreedhara C S., Udupa N. and Shetty S: Quantification of Phytoconstituents of the leaves of Paederia foetida by HPTLC. International symposium for High Performance thin Layer chromatography HPTLC, 2011, p10u230. 17 Arnolo Iglauer. and Mark D. Altscule. The effect of paederine on the venous system. J.chin. invest.19(3) , 1940, 503514. 18 Bell E A.and Charlword Secondary plant products. verlag, NewYark: 1980, 674.s B V: springer-

19 Runeckles V C. and Conn E E: Metabolism and regulation of secondary metabolites. Academic press, Newyark. 1974, 249.

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