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Journal of Electrical and Control Engineering

(JECE)

Modelling of Overhead Lines and Underground Cables Components for Harmonic Analysis Using Artificial Neural Network
Abderrazak Gacemi, Mohamed Boudour, Tayeb Kermezli, Hamza Houassin
Industrial & Electrical Systems Laboratory (LSEI) University of Sciences & Technology Houari Boumediene, USTHB El Alia, BP.32, Bab Ezzouar 16111, Algiers, Algeria
mboudour@IEEE.org Abstract-A practical method is developed using ANN to select optimal number of segment constituting a model to represent a power cable at required frequencies for different levels of accuracy. As the model for distributed parameters of a power cable is considered as a reference, the present approach is based on a mathematical analysis to improve recursive formula which depends on infinite cascade cells, yielding the gain response. By comparing the distributed parameter model to the recursive formula, identification of the appropriate number of cells representing the cable at defined frequencies has been determined; this procedure enables to build a sufficient computed database for learning ANN. The simulated results in ANN parameter variations of the environment compared to numerical methods and validated experiments showed the same efficiency and robustness of our method. Keywords-Harmonic; Power Cable; Segmented Model; Lumped Parameter; ANN

There is a consensus that lines and cables can be modeled with a multiphase-coupled equivalent pi-circuit. For balanced harmonic analysis, the model can be further simplified into a single-phase pi-circuit determined by positive sequence impedance data of component. It is important to include the shunt element. Its associated length becomes quite significant at higher frequencies. This effect can be easily represented using the exact or equivalent pi-circuit model [3]. Thus far research work on frequency-dependent transmission line models has been performed with a focus on transient analysis [4]-[5]. These studies consider models with frequencydependent parameters, but not frequency-dependent structures. Limited research has been performed on the relationship between line model segmentation and model accuracy [6]-[7]. In general, the previous work on the subject has revolved around switching studies. The exact number of gamma or pi-forms segments that are used to model the power lines is rarely addressed and is either determined arbitrarily or by trial. Indeed, none of the published works has demonstrated the accuracy of such a modelling technique. In [6] it has been concluded that the model is completely inaccurate above the cut-off frequency which is the natural frequency of a segment. Even at frequencies below the cut-off frequency, the frequency performance of the line may be inaccurate. Several purely numerical methods have been developed to simulate the finitely segmented Cadence Pspice software model like [8] who proposed a tool for electric power line modelling to determine the adequate structure of power line model. The approach consists of a step-by-step computation to achieve correspondingly finite segmentation. However, this tool has larger computational time because it uses an iterative process. The main purpose of this paper is to develop a new ANNbased technique that allows users to determine the appropriate segmentation of the line model for studies under nonfundamental frequencies. This technique will give appropriate line modelling without any iterative computation in short time. II. PROPOSED MODELLING APPROACH The proposed approach tends to determine the frequency characteristics of distributed line model to compare them through a set of parameters for a required loading condition. We take into account some assumptions such as temperature and current density constant since line parameters are distributed along the line. The model parameters uniformly and

I. INTRODUCTION Electric power transmission lines are critical network component of electric power system. For large scale power system studies, transmission lines are traditionally modeled via a uniformly distributed parameter or a lumped parameter configuration. These line models have been historically developed for studies at fundamental frequency and under nominal operating conditions. Several assumptions are often made when modelling transmission lines, which includes uniform current density, constant material characteristics, constant external conditions and temperature. However, especially in recent years the high demand in electric power and renewable energy resources with corresponding enabling technologies (e.g. power electronic devices) has an impact on electric power system. For example, with the augmented use of power electronic devices, an increase in non-fundamental frequency components in the power system can be expected. An emerging characteristic of modern power systems is the increased level of non-fundamental frequency components presented in the network and it is attributed to the augmented use of power electronic switches. In addition, approximately up to the 15th, harmonic component is introduced in the network in a capacitor-switching scenario, while common power electronic devices introduce up to the 39th harmonic [1] [2]. Under increasing presence of non-fundamental frequency components, trasmission line models are investigated in this work.

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Journal of Electrical and Control Engineering

(JECE)

mathematically distributed represent the power line model to be taken as the reference. To assess the accuracy of the line model, the study is based on the features and performance of wave propagation; in particular the attenuation and phase shift of the voltage. Then the model is compared to the reference one. Hence sensitive parameters are selected to compare appropriate models representing the line at the desired frequency, and then the required characteristics are expressed as follows: a. Validity of the model after the terminal behaviour i.e. at the sending and receiving ends.

The equations for the distributed line model conduct are to determine steady-state voltages and currents at any point along the line. However, the relationship between terminal voltages and terminal currents at sending and receiving ends is often sufficient in power system studies since nodal analysis is conducted: = cosh() + sinh() = cosh() + sinh() By replacing: =
2T

b. Insensitivity to load changes in fact, this characteristic is crucial for nodal analysis in power system studies. The selection of parameters and insensitivity to load variations of the finitely segmented model is well validated by the present work. The model performance is characterized by a reproduction of wave propagation including wave attenuation and phase shift. For this reason, quantification of the accuracy of the model is based on the analysis of loading voltage in terms of difference in magnitude and phase shift between distributed and finitely segmented models developed from the recursive formula: 1)
=

With is the line length and = : is the propagation constant =


5T

()+ ()

(1) (2)

We obtain: (3)

Load charge A. Mathematical Analysis The K-segments models in Fig 2 are obtained by dividing evenly the basic -model in a number K (K = 1, 2, 3 ...n). When n = , we obtain the distributed parameter model.
5T

is the characteristic impedance Z R is


R R

-Difference in loading voltage magnitude 2)

- Difference in loading voltage phase


5T

VS
K

Vn-1
K-1

V2
2

V1 VR

The desired level of accuracy of the model is expressed in terms of threshold values for attenuation of loading voltage and phase shift. These thresholds are expressed by:
5T7

Zn

Zn- 1

Z2

Z1

ZR
R

VThreshold: Threshold value on difference in loading voltage magnitude


5T

Fig. 2 Lumped sections with K identical section terminated with Z R

Threshold: Threshold value on difference in loading voltage phase


5T

These threshold values representing the desired accuracy depend on the application of the resulting model. Users will select according to this application, regardless that the most important role is due to the attenuation of voltage or to the phase shift. The frequency characteristics of the line model with distributed parameters can be determined analytically or through simulation software. A differential section of the distributed line model (per-phase analysis) is shown in Figure 1 for a section of length dx. The behaviour of the or gamma model finitely segmented is simulated by recursive formula with the same frequency, and then compared to the reference model through a set of defined parameters.
dV Is I+dI I dI Zdx Vs V+dV ydx V VR IR

Consider the lumped sections consisting of K identical twoport sections, each of these sections is composed of impedance Z a in series and impedance Z b in parallel. Z n and Z R are respectively the input and terminals i.e. load impedances of the lumped sections. In the cascade segments these admittances are: Z a = R + jL and 1/ Y b = jC+G = Z b .
R R R R R R R R R R R R R R

The gain response can be calculated by the following recursive formula: // 1 = + ; = =1 + 1 1 1 1 1 //1 2 = + ; = =1 = +
1 + 1 1 +1

The gain response is written as follows:


+ +

// 1

=1

(4)

Where: = + ( //1 )

1 2

= =1(1

(5) = =

dx l

Fig.1 Representation of the distributed parameter model

B. Modeling with Neural Networks The artificial neural networks (ANN) are taking part of modern techniques for modelling. They offer an alternative to mathematical modelling where system models are nonparametric statistics and non-linear. Their main advantage lies
3T

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Journal of Electrical and Control Engineering

(JECE)

in their capacity of generalization. ANN has attracted much attention due to their computational speed and robustness. Learning and architecture design of the ANN are based on a comparative approach of the line governed by the distributed model as a reference and the finitely segmented models under various predefined frequencies and accuracy.
3T 3T

the finitely segmented line models and the distributed line model varies with the number of segments of the segmented models.

C. Database Set The selection of the lumped segmented model in gamma configuration and the test application are stated in [9]. Further models to localized parameter such as the -form configuration could be selected. The cable in delta configuration has the following characteristics defined at a 60 Hz frequency: R =0.0612 /mi; X = 0.6081 /mi; X c =0.1423 M/mi. The inductance L and shunt capacitance C for -Model are then computed with the following expressions:
R R R R R R

Fig.3. Absolute difference in voltage attenuation between the distributed line model and finitely segmented models, Z R =1K
R R

=
R R

Where R is line resistance per unit length; X is the line reactance per unit length; X c is the reactance of the shunt element per unit length; is the length of the line in kilometers and Z Laod is a constant load that is kept the same for every model.
R R R R R R

. =

. =

.
1

(6) . (7)

The models are simulated within a desired frequency range. |V load | and load are recorded to evaluate the wave attenuation and phase shift with the desired accuracy.
R R R R

Fig. 4 Absolute difference in voltage attenuation between the distributed line model and finitely 5- segment model with variation of load charge Z R ()
R R

The whole model is simulated and shown in Figure 5 and 6, using the variations of distributed model as a reference and finitely segmented models. III. SIMULATION RESULTS In order to assess accuracy of a line model, its performance is characterized via the wave propagation, specifically voltage attenuation and phase shift, and then it is compared to the distributed parameter line model. The metrics of differences in voltage attenuation and phase shift are chosen according to their characteristics of representing line terminal behaviour and of being relatively insensitive to load variations. These features are significant for nodal analysis in power system studies. A. Comparison between Finitely Segmented Line and the Distributed Line Models In order to quantify the difference that is qualitatively shown in Figure 3, a comparison of absolute difference in load voltage as a function of frequency is made between each of the segmented line models (the 1- segment, the 5-segment,, and the 25-segment) and the distributed line model. Results of this comparison are shown in Figure.4 for a variation of the load resistance from 100 to 1 k (for a line length of 170 mi). From these simulation results, it can be seen that the behaviour of the finitely segmented line models differs from the distributed line model in the fact that, the line attenuation becomes much greater and keeps increasing after a certain frequency which is defined as cut-off frequency, f c , on the other hand the cut-off frequency increases as the number of segments increases, then the difference in attenuation between
R R

The distributed line model is compared to lumped, finitely segmented line model at different frequencies, which varied from 0 Hz to 20 kHz, and at different load resistances, from 100 to 1 k. The line model performance is observed under different loading conditions and is characterized through wave attenuation. The line model performance is shown under different loading conditions and is characterized through wave attenuation. From the simulation results, it can be seen that the observed behaviour follows the voltage equation for finite transmission lines for all frequencies as we consider the distributed model, and up to the cut-off frequency for the finitely segmented models. These cut-off frequencies increase as the number of segments increases. It is also noted that as the segmentation increases, the line model seems to behave qualitatively and quantitatively closer to the distributed line model for all frequencies and for all load levels. The overall performance of the segmented models as compared to the distributed model is not greatly altered by the variation in load. This demonstrates that voltage attenuation and phase shift are appropriate metrics for the suggested line modelling approach.

Fig.5 Absolute Difference in voltage attenuation between the distributed line model and 5-segment model for length

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Journal of Electrical and Control Engineering

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R R R R 3T

attenuation: V Threshold and phase Threshold . Another input parameter is reserved for users in order to select among the voltage attenuation or phase shift according to his or her requirement. The first layer of the neural network contains four For a longer-length line, the same model segmentation as a shorter line maintains a certain level of accuracy for a smaller neurons. One neuron (the eighth) is selected depending on the frequency range in comparison to a shorter line i.e. the cut-off model objective either V Threshold or Threshold . occurs at lower frequencies in a longer line than in shorter one. The application of network strategy for modelling the line for harmonic frequencies is given by the ANN model with In order to study the harmonics in the power lines, the architecture (Figure 6) whose structure is shown in Table 1. frequency is scanned in the considered range under the same supply voltage and with the same loading. The simulation is b b carried out for cable lengths with different models segmented in gamma configuration. k=1 J=1 Selective The behaviour of the two different-length lines against the distributed parameter model is shown to be qualitatively the same, but quantitatively different:
5T R R R R 5T

f1

s1

The differences: Distributed Load are computed and the segmented model of the appropriate precision level has been identified.
5T

input

i=1

/f

/h

Distributed VLoad VLoad

Segmented Load

Segmented

and

bf2 Line length

bs1

i=2 2 /f 2 /h
bt1

Cable Type

i=3
bfj bsj

B. Implementation of ANN The proposed neural network is a multilayer perceptron (MLP) type with a supervised learning from a given data base formed by simulation of different cable lengths and different levels of precision. For the ANN outputs illustrated in Figure 6, the finitely segmented model is defined as the number of segments appropriate for a given line, whereas the inputs of the ANN include cable type i.e. parameters per-length unit, the frequencies of interest with the desired accuracy of the model expressed in terms of threshold values selected for the voltage
3T

1 /g

Numbre of K_Segment

Desired accuracy

(VThreshold, Threshold)

i=4

J /f
b10

k /h
bs12

Frequency of interest

i=5

16 /f

21 /h

Fig. 6 Architecture of the neural network


7T

TABLE I STRUCTURE OF OPTIMIZED ANN TYPE NETWORK INPUT LAYER Nb. of neurons 5 1ST HIDDEN LAYER Nb. of neurons 16 Activation Function TANSIG 2ND HIDDEN LAYER Nb. of neurons 21 Activation Function TANSIG OUTPUT LAYER Nb. of neurons 1 Activation Function PURLING TRAINING ALGORITHM TRINLM

MLP

The obtained ANN is trained by a database matrix of dimension (640, 10) with normalized values. Once the learning phase achieved, the ANN is tested with a new set of input/output that forms the basis of generalization. This step verifies the behavior of ANN on cases not learned. The optimization results after 1200 iterations with an error performance are presented in table 2.
TABLE 2 ERROR OF THE ANN MODEL
7T 7T

Test results are carried out from a new base including data not used in the learning phase. The validation test is yielded from Figure 7 and 8 representing the segment number changes ( = 1degandV=1db) against the Upper Bounds frequencies, which show good agreement between simulated and predicted values. Figure 9 and 10 representing the segment number changes against the Threshold and V Threshold show good agreement between simulated and predicted values which confirms the performance of our proposed ANN.
R R R R

ANN

AARE (%)

AARE (%) GENERALIZATION 0,09

MAE (%) TEST CASE 0,087

Output

0,12

In Figure 7 and 8, graphics of upper bounds on frequency as a function as the number of segments K is shown for accuracies set to:

C. Results and Discussion The desired outputs and those predicted by ANN which lead to a very satisfactory correlation that demonstrates effectiveness of the developed neural model and that is characterized by an optimal capacity of prediction for segment number. The parameters form the finitely segmented model which covers the harmonic and inter-harmonic frequencies of the power cable.

Threshold = 1 deg in terms of voltage phase shift. 1 dB i VThreshold the simulation results, it can be seen that accuracy level against the voltage magnitude, where V 1 dB, a discrete step behavior is observed. The behavior for accuracy level as a function of the voltage phase, where 1 degree (deg), a more linear behavior is noted.

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Journal of Electrical and Control Engineering

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1600 1500 1400 1300 1200 1100 1000 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 2 4 6

1 deg

Upper Bound on frequency (Hz)

ANN Prediction Simulation

32 30 28 26 24 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 2 4

Numbre of Segment k

f=60Hz: f=180Hz: f=300Hz: f=500Hz: f=900Hz: f=1500Hz: f=2340Hz:

Simulation Simulation Simulation Simulation Simulation Simulation Simulation

ANN predection ANN predection ANN predection ANN predection ANN predection ANN predection ANN predection

10

12

14

16

18

20

22

8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32

# of V (dB)
Fig. 10 Segment number variation vs. V threshold for harmonics frequencies

# of Segments,K
Fig.7 Upper bounds on frequency vs. segments for selected accuracies (1deg)

7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0

V 1 dB

Upper Bound on frequency (Hz)

Therefore, a single lumped equivalent circuit is sufficient for line studies at the fundamental frequency and does not concern the line at higher frequencies. On the other hand, the differences of phase and voltage attenuation V between the distributed and the finitely segmented models vary inversely with the number of segments. IV. CONCLUSIONS This paper presents a practical method of neural network modeling for power line to predict an appropriate finitely segmented model to obtain steady-state analysis of nonfundamental frequencies with a predefined accuracy level.

Simulation ANN Prediction

The optimized architecture ANN- MLP enables us to predict the number of segments with a high performance error. The simulation was tested on a real line confirming the robustness and the predictive ability of our model which is only based on the characteristics data of the line. For future works it would be worth to develop neural network model by including parameters per-length unit as a function of frequency and temperature along the line. This will certainly have an impact on the obtained finitely segmented model. REFERENCES
[1] [2] [3] G.T.Heydt, Electric Power Quality, 2nd Edition: Stars in a Circle Publication, 1994. M. Undeland and Robbins, Power Electronics- Converters Applications and Design, 3rd Edition: John Wiley & Sons: 2003. Vazquez, J., Salmeron, P., Active power filter control sing neural network technologies," IEE Procedings-Electric Power Applications, vol. 150, pp. 139- 145, 2003. A. Monticelli, State Estimation in Electric Power Systems, a Generalized Approach (Power Electronics and Power Systems), 1st Edition: Springer, 1999. J.R. Marti, Accurate Modeling of Frequency-Dependent Transmission Lines in Electromagnetic Transient Simulations, IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, Vol. PAS-101, No. 1, January 1982. G.L. Wilson, R.F. Challen, D.J. Bosack, Transmission Line Models for Switching Studies: Design Criteria, I. Effects of Non transposition and Frequency, submitted to IEEE, September 1973. L. M. Wedepohl, H. V. Nguyen, and G. D. Irwin, Frequency-dependent transformation matrices for untransposed transmission lines using Newton-Raphson method, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol. 11, Issue 3, August 1996. Page(s): 1538-1546.

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34

# of Segments,K
Fig. 8 Upper bounds on frequency vs. segments for selected accuracies (V1deg)

36 34 32 30 28 26 24 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 2 4 6

Numbre of Segment k

f=60 Hz: Simulation ANN predection f=180 Hz: Simulation ANN predection f=300 Hz: Simulation ANN predection f=500 Hz: Simulation ANN predection f=900 Hz: Simulation ANN predection f=1500Hz: Simulation ANN predection f=2340 Hz: Simulation ANN predection

[4]

[5]

[6]
8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22

# of (deg)
Fig. 9 Segment number variation vs Threshold for harmonics frequencies

[7]

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Journal of Electrical and Control Engineering [8] G.L. Wilson and K.A. Schmidt Transmission Line Models for Switching Studies: Design Criteria II. Selection of Section Length, Model Design and Tests IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, Vol. PAS-98, January/February 1974. Page: 389-395. C.Valentina, A. Leger, K. Miu., Modeling Approach for Transmission Lines in the Presence of Non-Fundamental Frequencies IEEE,VOL.24,NO,OCT,2009.

(JECE) [10] Transactions on Power Ddelivery, Vol. 24, No. 4, October 2009. [11] S. P. Carullo, C. O. Nwankpa, and R. Fischl, Instrumentation of Drexel Universitys Interconnected Power Systems Laboratory, Proceeding of the 28th Annual North American Power Symposium, Cambridge MA, October 1996, pp. 367-376.

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