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COURSE OUTLINE IN POLITICAL LAW By: ATTY. GENER M. GITO, LL.M.

Assistant Professorial Lecturer II


I. GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS A. B. C. D. Definition of Political Law Necessity for the Study Basis of the Study i. Article II, Sec. 1 Background of the Study

Read: Cruz, Philippine Political Law, 2002 ed., pp. 1-8 II. CONSTITUTION OF THE PHILIPPINES A. B. C. D. E. F. What is a constitution? Classifications the Constitution Qualities of a good written Constitution Essential parts of a good written Constitution Brief constitutional history of the Philippines Interpretation of the Constitution

Read: Nachura, Outline Reviewer in Political Law, 200, pp.3-11 III. CONCEPT OF THE STATE A. B. Definition of State Elements of the State i. People ii. Territory a. Art. I, 1987 Constitution b. Archipelagic doctrine c. Straight baseline method d. Republic Act No. 9522 - Margallona vs. Ermita, G.R No. 187167, July 16, 2011 iii. Government a. Definition b. Definition of government of the Philippines c. Functions of government - constituent - ministrant -Romualdez-Yap vs. CSC, 225 SCRA 285

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-Shipside, Inc. vs. CA, G.R. No. 143377, February 20, 2001 - PVTA vs. CIR, 65 SCRA 416 d. Doctrine of Parens Patriae e. Government of PI vs. Monte, 35 SCRA 738 f. Classification of Government - De jure - De facto j. Kinds of de facto government - Republic vs. Sandiganbayan, G.R. No. 104768, July 21, 2003 Sovereignty a. Definition b. Kinds of sovereignty c. Characteristics d. Effects of change in sovereignty - People vs. Perfecto, 43 Phil 887 - Macariola vs. Asuncion, 114 SCRA 77 - Vilas vs. City of Manila, 229 U.S. 345 e. Effects of belligerent occupation - Peralta vs. Director of Prisons, 75 Phil. 285 - Alcantara vs. Director of Prisons, 75 Phil. 749 - Ruffy vs. Chief of Staff, 75 Phil. 875

Read: Cruz, Philippine Political Law, 2002, 14-30 Nachura, Outline pp. 26-30 IV. DOCTRINE OF STATE IMMUNITY A. Basis i. Art. XVI, Sec. 9 ii. Republic vs. Villasor, 54 SCRA 83 Application i. Garcia vs. Chief of Staff, 16 SCRA 120 ii. Sanders vs. Veridiano, 162 SCRA 88 iii. US vs. Guinto, 182 SCRA 644 iv. The Holy See vs. Rosario, 238 SCRA 524 Waiver of immunity Forms of consent i. Republic vs. Purisima, 78 SCRA 470 ii. Amicable vs. Cuenca, 43 SCRA 360 iii. Ministerio vs. City of Cebu, 40 SCRA 464 iv. Santiago vs. Republic, 87 SCRA 294 v. Froilan vs. Pan Oriental Ship. Co., G.R. No. L-6060, Sept. 30, 1950 vi. Lim vs. Brownell, 107 SCRA 345 vii. Republic vs. Sandiganbayan, 182 SCRA 911 viii. Lyons vs. US, 104 Phil. 593 ix. U.S. vs. Ruiz, 136 SCRA 487 Suability but not automatic liability i. Republic vs. Villasor, 54 SCRA 84 ii. PNB vs. Pabalan, 83 SCRA 595 iii. Meritt vs. Government of the Phil., 76 SCRA 47 Suit against Government Agencies i. Bermoy vs. PNC, G.R. No. L-8670, May 18, 1956 ii. Arcega vs. CA, 66 SCRA 229

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iii. National Airports Corporation vs. Teodoro, 91 Phil. 203 iv. Bureau of Printing vs. Employees Association, 1, SCRA 340 v. Mobil Philippines Exploration vs. Customs Arrastre, 18 SCRA 1120 Suability against Public Officers i. Sanders vs. Veridiano, 162 SCRA 88 ii. Shaulf vs. CA, 191 SCRA 713 iii. Wylie vs. Rarang, 209 SCRA 357

Read: Cruz, Philippine Political Law, 2002, 31-49 Nachura, Outline pp. 26-30 V. FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES AND POLICIES A. B. C. Preamble Republicanism and Democracy i. Section 1, Art. II Incorporation Clause i. Sec. 2, Art. II ii. Sec. 7, Art. II iii. Kuruda vs. Jalandoni, 42 O.G. 4282 iv. Co Kim Chan vs. Valdez Tan Keh v. Ichong vs. Hernandez, 101 Phil. 1155 vi. Gonzales vs. Hechanova vii. Agustin vs. Edu, 88 SCRA 195 Civilian authority supreme over the military i. Sec. 3, Art. II Defense of the State i. Sec. 4, Art. II ii. Sec. 4, Art. XVI iii. People vs. Lagman; People vs. Zosa, 38 O.G. 1676 Independent foreign policy i. Sec. 7, Art. II Freedom from nuclear weapons i. Sec. 8, Art. II Social Order and Social Justice i. Sec. 9, Art. II ii. Sec. 10, id. iii. Sec. 11, id. iv. Sec. 18, id. v. Sec. 21, id. vi. Tondo Med. Center Emlys. vs. CA, G.R. No. 167324, July 17, 2007 vii. Definition of Social Justice Rearing of youth i. Sec. 12, Art. II ii. Department of Education vs. San Diego, 180 SCRA 533 Right to balance ecology i. Sec. 15, Art. II ii. Sec. 16, id iii. Oposa vs. Factoran, 101083, July 30, 1993 iv. LLDA vs. CA, G.R. No. 110120, March 16, 1994 National Economy i. Sec. 19, Art. II ii. Garcia vs. BOI, G.R. No. 92024, November 9, 1990

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Read: Cruz, Philippine Political Law, 2002, 50-72 Bernas, Constitutional Structure and Powers of Govt., 2010, pp. 10-54 VI. SEPARATION OF POWERS A. B. C. D. E. Purposes Blending of powers Checks and Balances Role Judiciary i. Angara vs. Electoral Commission, 63 Phil. 139 Justiciable and political question i. In re sotto, 82 Phil. 595 ii. Casibang vs. Aquino, 92 SCRA 642 iii. Taada vs. Cuenco, 100 Phil. 1101 iv. Sanidad vs. Comelec, 73 SCRA 333 v. Daza vs. Singson, 180 SCRA 496 vi. Taada vs. Angara, G.R. No. 118295, May 2, 1997 vii. Francisco vs. House of Representatives, 460 Phil. 830 viii. Gutierrez vs. House, 643 SCRA 198 Political question under the 1987 Constitution

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Read: Cruz, Philippine Political Law, 2002, 73-90 VII. DELEGATION OF POWERS A. Rule i. Jaworski vs. PAGCOR, G.R. No. 144463, January 14, 2004 ii. Lim vs. Pacquing, 240 SCRA 649 Permissible delegation i. Tariffs powers to the president (Sec. 28 (2), Art. VI) a. Garcia vs. Executive Sec., 211 SCRA 219 b. Phil. Inter Island Ass. vs. CA, G.R. No. 100481, Jan. 22, 1997 ii. Emergency powers to the president (Sec. 23(2), Art. VI) a. Araneta vs. Dinglasan, 84 Phil. 368 b. Rodriguez vs. Gella, 92 Phil. 603 iii. Delegation to the people (Sec. 32, Art. VI; Sec. 10, Art. X; Sec. 2, Art. XVII) a. R.A. 6735 iv. Delegation to local governments a. R.A. 7160 b. People vs. Vera, 65 Phil. 56 v. Delegation to administrative bodies a. Conference of Maritime Manning Agencies vs. POEA, 243 SCRA 666 b. Eastern Shipping vs. POEA, 166 SCRA 533 c. Pelaez vs. Auditor General, 15 SCRA 569 d. Municipality of San Narciso vs. Mendez, 239 SCRA 11 Test of valid delegation i. Completeness test a. U.S. vs. Ang Tang Ho, 43 Phil. 1 ii. Sufficient standard test a. Ynot vs. IAC, 148 SCRA 659 b. People vs. Vera, supra

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Tatad vs. Secretary of Energy, G.R. 124360 November 5, 1997 De la Llana vs. Alba, 112 SCRA 294

Read: Read: Cruz, Philippine Political Law, 2002, 73-90 Nachura, Outline pp. 67-70 VIII. LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT A. The Senate i. Sec. 1, Art. VI ii. Composition (Sec. 2, Art. VI) iii. Qualification (Sec. 3, Art. VI; Sec. 2, Art. IV) a. Social Justice Society vs. DDB, G.R. 161658, Nov. 3, 2008 iv. Term of Office (Sec. 4, Art. VI) a. Limitation on the term of office The House of Representatives i. Sec. 1, Art. VI ii. Composition (Sec. 5, Art. VI) a. District Representatives b. Party-List Representatives b.i Veterans Federation Party vs. Comelec, G.R. 136781, Oct. 6, 2000 b.ii Ang Bagong Bayani vs. Comelec, G.R. 147589, June 26, 2001 b.iii Ang Bagong Bayani- OFW Labor Party vs. Comelec, June 25, 2003 b.iv Banat vs. Comelec, G.R. 179295, April 21, 2009 c. Apportionment c.i Tobias vs. Abalos, G.R, 114783, Dec. 8, 1994 c.ii Mariano vs. Comelec, G.R. 118577, March 7, 1995 c.iii Montejo vs. Comelec, G.R. 118702, March 16, 1995 c.iv Baguyao vs. Comelec, G.R. 176970, December 8, 2008 iii. Qualification (Sec. 6, Art. VI) a. district representatives a.i Romuladez-Marcos vs. Comelec, GR 119976, Sept. 18, 1995 a.ii Aquino vs. Comelec, GR 120265, Sept. 18, 1995 a.iii Domingo vs. Comelec, GR 134015, July 19, 1999 a.iv. Co. vs. HRET, GR 92191-92, July 30, 1991 a.v Benzon vs. Cruz, GR 142840, May 7, 2001 a.vi Valles vs. Comelec, GR 137000, August 9, 2000 b. party-list representatives iv. Term of Office (Sec. 7, Art. VI) a. Dimaporo vs. Mitra, GR 96859, October 15, 1991 b. Farias vs. ES, GR 147387, December 10, 2003 Election (Sec. 9, Art. VI) i. Tolentino vs. Comelec, GR 148334, January 21, 2004 Salaries (Sec. 10, Art. VI) Parliamentary Immunities (Sec. 11, Art. VI) i. Immunity from arrest a. People vs. Jalosjos, GR 132875, Feb. 3, 2000 ii. Privilege of Speech and Debate a. Jimenes vs. Cabangbang, 17 SCRA 876

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b. Pobre vs. Defensor Santiago, A.C. No. 7399, Aug. 25, 2009 Conflict of Interest (Sec. 12, Art. VI) Incompatible and Forbidden Office (Sec. 13, Art. VI) Inhibitions and disqualifications (Sec. 14, Art. VI) i. Puyat vs. De Guzman, 113 SCRA 33 Session (Sec. 15, Art. VI) Officers (Sec. 16(1), Art. VI) i. Avelino vs. Cuenco, 83 Phil. 17 ii. Santiago vs. Guingona, GR 134577, November 18, 1998 iii. Arroyo vs. De Venecia, GR 127255, August 14, 1997 Internal Discipline (Sec. 16(3), Art. VI) i. Osmea vs. Pendantun, 109 Phil. 863 ii. Paredes vs. Sandiganbayan, GR 118364, August 10, 1996 Journals (Sec. 16(4), Art. VI) i. U.S. vs. Pons, 34 Phil. 729 ii. Casco vs. Philippine Chemical Co. vs. Gimenez, 7 SCRA 347 iii. Astorga vs. Villegas, 56 SCRA 714 iv. Tolentino vs. Secretary of Finance, 235 SCRA 630 v. Philippine Judges Association vs. Prado, 227 SCRA 703 Adjournment (Sec. 16(5), Art. VI) Electoral Tribunals (Sec. 17, Art. VI) i. Angara vs. Electoral Commission, 63 Phil. 134 ii. Abbas vs. Senate, 166 SCRA 651 iii. Bondoc vs. Pineda, 201 SCRA 792 iv. Guerrero vs. Comelec, GR 137004, July 26, 2000 v. Pimentel vs. HRET, GR 141489, November 29, 2002 vi. Limkaichong vs. Comelec, GR 178831-32, April 1, 2009 vii. Lazatin vs. House Electoral, G.R. No. 84297, December 8, 1988 Commission on Appointment (Sec. 18, Art. VI) i. Daza vs. Singson, 180 SCRA 496 ii. Coseteng vs. Mitra, 187 SCRA 377 iii. Guingona vs. Gonzales, GR 106971, October 20, 1992 iv. Drilon vs. Speaker, GR No. 180055, July 31, 2009 Organization (Sec.19, Art. VI)

Read: Cruz, supra, pp. 109-150 IX. POWERS OF CONGRESS A. B. C. D. Legislative Power in General Procedure (How does a bill become a law?) Origin of the bills (Sec. 24, Art. VI) i. Tolentino vs. Secretary of Finance, 235 SCRA 630 Prohibited Measures i. Sec. 31, Art. VI ii. Sec. 30, Art. VI ii.a. Fabian vs. Desierto, GR 129742, September 16, 1998 Subject and Titles of the Bills (Sec. 26, Art. VI) i. Lidasan vs. Comelec, 21 SCRA 496 ii. Philconsa vs. Gimenez, 15 SCRA 479 iii. Tio vs. Videogram Regulatory Board, 151 SCRA 208 iv. Phil. Judges Ass. vs. Prado, GR 105371, Nov. 11, 1993 v. Tolentino vs. Secretary of Finance, 235 SCRA 630

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Approval of Bills (Sec. 27, Art. VI) i. Item Veto i.a. CIR vs CTA, 185 SCRA 329 i.b. Philconsa vs. Enriquez, GR 113105, August, 19, 1994 i.C. Gonzales vs. Macaraig, GR 87636, Nov. 19, 1990 Power of Appropriation (Sec. 29, Art. VI) i. Definition ii. Implied limitations ii.a. Pascual vs. Secretary of Public Works, 110 Phil. 331 iii. Constitutional Limitations iii.a. Sec. 25(6), Art. VI iii.b. Sec. 25(4), Art. VI iii.c. Sec. 25(1), Art. VI iii.d. Sec. 29(1), Art. VI iii.e. Sec. 26(1), Art. VI iii.f. Garcia vs. Mata, 65 SCRA 520 iii.g. Sec. 25(5), Art. VI iii.h. Demetrio vs. Alba, 148 SCRA 208 iv. Appropriation for Sectarian Purposes (Sec. 29(2), Art. VI) v. Automatic Re-appropriation (Sec. 25(7), Art. VI) vi. Special Funds (Sec. 29(3), Art. VI) Osmea vs. Orbos, GR 99886, March 31, 1993 vii. Cases vii.a. Guingona vs. Carague, GR 94571, April 22, 1991 vii.b. Demetria vs. Alba, 148 SCRA 208 Power of Taxation (Sec. 29, Art. VI) i. Gerochi vs. Department of Energy, GR 159796, July 17, 2007 ii. Lladoc vs. CIR, 14 SCRA 292 iii. Garcia vs. Executive Secretary, GR 101273, July 3, 1992 iv. Systems Plus Computer College vs. Caloocan city, GR 146382, August 7, 2003 v. Central Mindanao University vs. DAR, GR 100091, Oct., 22, 1992 vi. Commissioner of BIR vs. CA, GR 124043, Oct. 14, 1998 vii. Commissioner of Internal Revenue vs. Santos, GR 119252, August 18, 1997 viii. John hay Peoples Alternative Coalition vs. Lim, GR 119775, October 24, 2003 Power of Concurrence The War Powers (Sec. 23 (1), Art. VI) Legislative Inquiries (Sec. 21, Art. VI) i. Bengzon vs. Blue Ribbon, GR L-89914, November 20, 1991 ii. Sabio vs. Gordon, GR 174177, October 17, 2006 iii. Standard Chartered Bank vs. Senate Committee, GR 167173, Dec. 27, 2007 iv. Senate Blue Ribbon vs. Judge Majaducon, GR 136760, July 29, 2003 Executive Privilege (Sec. 22, Art. VI) i. Senate vs. Ermita, GR 169777, April 20, 2006 ii. Neri vs. Senate, GR 180643, September 4, 2008

Read: Cruz, supra, pp. 151-181

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EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT A. B. C. Executive Power (Sec. 1, Art. VII) i. Marcos vs. Manglapus, 177 SCRA 668 Qualifications (Sec. 2, Art. VII) i. Tecson vs. Comelec, GR 161434, March 3, 2004 Election and Proclamation (Sec. 4, Art. VII) i. Macalintal vs. Comelec, GR 157013, July 10, 2003 ii. Pimentel vs. Joint Canvassing Committee, June 22, 2004 iii. Fernando Poe, Jr., vs. GMA, March 29, 2005 Term of Office (Sec. 4, Art. VII) The Vice-President (Secs. 3 and 4, Art. VII) Presidential Succession (Secs. 7 and 8, Art. VII) i. Estrada vs. Gloria Macapagal Arroyo, G.R. 146738, March 2, 2001 ii. Estrada vs. Desierto, GR 146710-15, March 2, 2001 Vice-Presidential Succession (Secs. 9 and 10, Art. VII) Oath of Office (Sec. 5, Art. VII) Perquisites and Inhibitions (Sec. 6 and 13, Art. VII) i. Civil Liberties Union vs. The Executive Secretary, 194 SCRA 317 ii. Doromal vs. Sandiganbayan iii. Bitonio, Jr. vs. COA, GR 147392, March 12, 2004 iv. Public Interest Center vs. Elma, GR 138965, June 30, 2006 Presidential Immunity i. Estrada vs. Desierto, supra. Temporary Disability (Sec. 11, Art. VII) i. Estrada vs. Desierto, supra.

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Read: Cruz, supra, pp. 182-199 XI. POWERS OF THE PRESIDENT A. The Appointing Power (Sec. 16, Art. VI) i. Government vs. Springer, 50 Phil. 259 ii. Bermudez vs. Executive Secretary, GR No. 131429, August 4, 1999 iii. Flores vs. Drilon and Gordon, GR 104732, June 22, 1993 iv. Sarmiento vs. Mison, 156 SCRA 549 v. Calderon vs. Carale, GR 91639, April 23, 1992 vi. Matibag vs. Benipayo, GR 149036, April 2, 2002 vii. Rufino vs. Endriga, G.R. 139565, July 21, 2006 Limitation on the Power of Appointment (Secs. 14 and 15, Art. VII) i. In re Appointments of Valenzuela, A.M. No. 98-5-01-SC, November 9, 1998 ii. De Castro vs. JBC ii. De La Rama vs. CA, GR 131136, Feb. 28, 2001 The Removal Power i. Alajar vs. Alba, 100 Phil. 683 Power of Control (Sec. 17, Art. VII) i. Drilon vs. Lim, 235 SCRA 135 ii. Villena vs. Secretary of Interior, 67 Phil. 451 iii. Araneta vs. Gatmaitan, 101 Phil. 328 iv. Gascon vs. Arroyo, 178 SCRA 582 v. Lacson-Magallanes vs. Pao, 21 SCRA 895 vi. Ang-Angco vs. Castillo, 9 SCRA 619

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vii. Namarco vs. Arca, 29 SCRA 648 viii. De leon vs. Carpio, 178 SCRA 457 ix. Blaquera vs. Alcasid, GR 109406, September 11, 1998 x. Dadole vs. COA, GR 125350, December 3, 2002 xi. DENR vs. DENR Employees, GR 149724, August 19, 2003 The Take Care Clause The Military Power (Sec. 18, Art. VII) i. Commander-In-Chief ii. Habeas Corpus iii. Martial Law iv. Limitations on Military Power v. Cases a. IBP vs. Zamora, GR 141284, August 15, 2000 b. Lacson vs. Perez, GR 147780, May 10, 2001 c. Sanlakas vs. Exec. Secretary, GR 159085, February 3, 2004 d. David vs. Arroyo, GR 171396, May 3, 2009 Pardoning Power (Sec. 19, Art. VII) i. Definition ii. Limitations a. People vs. Salle, 250 SCRA 582 b. Llamas vs. Orbos, GR 99031, October 15, 1991 c. Echegaray vs. Secretary of Justice, GR 132601, Jan. 19, 1999 iii. Kinds of Pardon a. Culanag vs. Director of Prisons, 20 SCRA 1123 b. Espuelas vs. Provincial Warden of Bohol, 108 Phil. 353 iv. Effects of Pardon a. Monsanto vs. Factoran, Jr., 170 SCRA 190 b. Torres vs. Gonzales, 152 SCRA 272 c. In Re: Torres vs. Director of Bureau of Prisons, GR 122338, December 29, 1995 d. Drilon vs. Court of Appeals, GR 91626, October 25, 1989 v. Amnesty a. Barrioquinto vs. Fernandez, 85 Phil. 642 Barrowing Power (Sec. 20, Art. VII) Diplomatic Power (Sec. 21, Art. VII) i. International agreements ii. Deportation of aliens iii. Cases a. Pimentel vs. Ermita, GR 158088, July 6, 2005 b. Lim vs. Executive Secretary, GR 151445, April 11, 2002 c. Bayan vs. Executive Secretary, GR 138570, October 10, 2000 d. Secretary of Justice vs. Judge Lantion, GR 139465, October 17, 2000 Budgetary Power (Sec. 22, Art. VII) Informing Power (Sec. 23, Art. VII) Other Powers

Read: Cruz, supra, pp. 200-242 XII. JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT A. Independence of the Judiciary a. Sec. 4(1), Art. VIII

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b. Sec. 2, Art. IX c. Sec. 2, Art. VIII d. Sec. 30, Art. VI e. Sec. 9, Art. VIII f. Sec. 6, Art. VIII g. Sec. 11, Art. VIII Judicial Power (Sec. 1, Art. VIII) a. Santiago vs. Bautista, 32 SCRA 188 b. Marcos vs. Manglapus, 177 SCRA 668 c. Echegaray vs. Secretary of Justice, GR 132601, January 19, 1999 d. United States vs. Nixon, 418 U.S. 683 e. Infotech Foundation vs. Comelec, GR 159139 Congress and Judicial Power (Sec. 2, Art. VIII) a. Malaga vs. Penachos, GR 86695, September 3, 1992 Fiscal Autonomy (Sec. 3, Art. VIII) a. Radiowealth vs. Agregado, 86 Phil. 429 b. Bengzon vs. Drilon, GR 103524, April 15, 1992 Composition of the Supreme Court (Sec. 4(1), Art. VIII) En banc Cases (Sec. 4(2), Art. VIII) Division Cases (Sec. 4(3), Art. VIII) a. Fortich vs. Corona, GR 131457, August 19, 1999 b. People vs. Dy, GR 115236-37, January 16, 2003 c. People vs. Ebio, GR 147750, September 29, 2004 Appointments (Sec. 9, Art. VIII) a. Qualifications (Sec. 7, Art. VIII) i. In Re: JBC vs. Judge Quitain, JBC No. 013, August 22, 2007 ii. Kilosbayan vs. Ermita, GR 177721, July 3, 2007 b. Judicial and Bar Council (Sec. 8, Art. VIII) Power of Judicial Review a. Marbury vs. Madison, 1 Cranch 137 b. Angara vs. Electoral Commission, 63 Phil. 139 c. Tolentino vs. Secretary of Finance, GR 115455, August 25, 1994 Requisites of a Judicial Inquiry a. Actual Case or controversy i. Aetna Life Ins. Co. Haworth, 300 U.S. 227 ii. PACU vs. Secretary of Education, 97 Phil. 806 iii. Philconsa vs. Villareal, 52 SCRA 477 b. Property Party i. Joya vs. PCGG, GR 96541, August 24, 1993 ii. Macasiano vs. NHA, GR 107921, July 1, 1993 iii. Mariano, Jr. vs. Comelec, GR 118577, March 7, 1995 iv. Oposa vs. Factoran, GR 101083, July 30, 1993 v. Kilosbayan vs. Guingona, GR 113375, May 5, 1994 c. Earliest Opportunity d. Necessity of Deciding Constitutional Question i. Laurel vs. Garcia, 187 SCRA 797 ii. Zandueta vs. De la Costa, 66 Phil. 115 Effects of a Declaration of Unconstitutionality i. Norton vs. Shelby, 118 U.S. 425 ii. Springer vs. Government of Phil. Islands, 297 U.S. 553 iii. Manila Motors Co., vs. Flores, 99 Phil 738 Partial Unconstitutionality i. In re Cunanan, 94 Phil. 534

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ii. Flores vs. Comelec, 184 SCRA 484 Power of the Supreme Court (Sec. 5, Art. VIII) a. Original Jurisdiction (Sec. 5(1), Art. VIII) b. Appellate Jurisdiction (Sec. 5(2), Art. VIII) c. Temporary assignment of Judges (Sec. 5(3), Art. VIII) d. Change of Venue or Place of Trial (Sec. 5(4), Art. VIII) e. Rule-Making Power (Sec. 5(5), Art. VIII) i. In Re Edillon, 84 SCRA 554 ii. Primicias vs. Ocampo, 93 Phil. 451 iii. Bustos vs. Lucero, 81 Phil. 648 iv. Javellama vs. DILG, GR 102549, August 10, 1992 v. In Re: Petition to Disqualify Atty. De Vera, A.C No. 6052, December 11, 2003 f. Appointment of Court Personnel (Sec. 5(6), Art. VIII) g. Administrative Supervision of Courts (Sec. 6, Art. VIII) i. Maceda vs. Vasquez, GR 102781, April 22, 1993 ii. People vs. Gacot, GR 116049, July 13, 1995 iii. Judge Caoiles, jr. vs. Ombudsman, GR 132177, July 19, 2001 Tenure of Judges (Sec. 11, Art. VIII) i. Ocampo vs. Secretary of Justice, January 18, 1955 ii. Zandueta vs. De la Costa iii. Vargas vs. Rilloraza, 80 Phil 297 iv. De La Llana vs. Alba, 112 SCRA 294 Prohibition of Appointment (Sec. 12, Art.VIII) i. In Re: Judge Manzano, 166 SCRA 246 Consultation of Court (Sec.n13, Art. VIII) Decisions of Court (Sec. 14, Art. VIII) i. Air France vs. Carrascoso, 18 SCRA 155 ii. Valdez vs. Court of Appeals, GR 85082, February 25, 1991 iii. People vs. Lizada, GR 143468, January 24, 2003 iv. Velarde vs. Social Justice Society, GR 159357, April 8, 2004 Periods of Decision (Sec. 15, Art. VIII) i. Re: Problem of Delays in Cases Before the Sandiganbayan, A.M. No. 00-8-05-SC, November 28, 2001 ii. Court Administrator vs. Quiola, October, 20, 1999 Salaries of Judges (Sec. 10, Art. VIII) Annual Report (Sec. 16, Art. VIII)

Read: Cruz, supra, pp. 200-242 XIII. CONSTITUTIONAL COMMISSIONS A. Independent Commissions (Secs. 1, 4, and 5 Art. IX,) i. Macalintal vs. Comelec, GR 157013, July 10, 2003 ii. Civil Service vs. Department of Budget, GR 158791, July 22, 2005 iii. Civil Service vs. DBM, GR 158791, February. 10, 2006 Salary (Sec. 3, Art. IX) Disqualification (Sec. 3, Art. IX) Reappointment i. Nationalista Party vs. De Vera, 35 Phil. 126 ii. Republic vs. Imperial, 96 Phil. 770 iii. Brillantes vs. Yorac, 192 SCRA 358 Power to make Rules (Sec. 6, Art. IX)

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i. Aruelo vs. Court of Appeals, GR No. 107852, October 20, 1993 ii. Antonio vs. Comelec, GR 135869, September 22, 1999 Proceedings i. Cua vs. Comelec, 156 SCRA 582 ii. Mison vs. COA, 187 SCRA 445 iii. Mateo vs. Court of Appeals, GR 113219, August 14, 1995 iv. Ambil vs. Comelec, GR 143398, October 25, 2000 v. Dumayas, Jr., vs. Comelec, GR 141952-53, April 3, 2001

Read: Cruz, supra, pp. 298-307 XIV. CIVIL SERVICE COMMISSION A. B. Organization of the Commission i. Gaminde vs. COA, GR 140330, December 13, 2000 Scope of Civil Service i. NHA vs. Juco, 134 SCRA 172 ii. National Service Corporation vs. NLRC, 168 SCRA 122 iii. EIIB vs. Court of Appeals, GR 129133, Nov. 25, 1998 Appointments (Sec. 2(2), Art. IX-B) Security of Tenure (Sec. 2(3), Art. IX-B) i. Dario vs. Mison, 175 SCRA 84 ii. Mendoza vs. Quisumbing, 186 SCRA 108 iii. Canonizado vs. Aguirre, GR 133132, January 25, 2000 iv. Secretary Gloria vs. Court of Appeals, GR 119903, August 15, 2000 v. Buklod ng Kawanian ng EIIB vs E.S., GR 142801-802, July 10, 2001 vi. Dimayuga vs. Benedicto II, GR No. 144153, January 16, 2002 vii. Seneres vs. Comelec and Robles, GR 178678, April 16, 2009 Partisan Political Activity (Sec. 2(4), Art. IX-B) Self-Organization (Sec. 2(5), Art. IX-B) i. SSSEA vs. Court of Appeals, 175 SCRA 686 ii. MPSTA vs. Laguio, 200 SCRA 323 Temporary Employees Objectives of Civil Service (Sec. 3. Art. IX-B) i. Nazareno, et.al., vs. City of Dumaguete, GR 181559, October 2, 2009 Oath of Office (Sec. 4, Art. IX-B) Disqualification (Sec. 6, Art. IX-B) i. People vs. Sandiganbayan, GR 164185 Salary Standardization (Sec. 5, Art. IX-B) Incompatible Office (Sec. 7, Art. IX-B) i. Flores vs. Drilon, GR 104732, June 22, 1993 Double Compensation (Sec. 8, Art. IX-B) i. Quimzon vs. Ozaeta, 98 Phil. 705 ii. Santos vs. Court of Appeals, GR 139792, November 22, 2000 iii. Benguet State University vs. COA, GR 169637, June 8, 2007

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Read: Cruz, supra, pp. 308-326 XV. COMMISSION ON ELECTION A. Composition and Qualifications (Sec. 1, Art. IX-C) i. Brillantes vs. Yorac, GR 93867, December 18, 1990 ii. Cayetano vs. Monsod, GR 100113, September 3, 1991

B.

C. D. E. F.

Powers and Functions (Sec. 2, Art. IX-C) i. Enforcement of Election Laws (Sec. 2(1), Art. IX-C) ii. Decision of Election Contest (Sec. 2(3), Art. IX-C) iii. Decision of Administrative Questions (Sec. 2(3), Art. IX-C) iv. Power to Deputize (Sec. 2(4), Art. IX-C) v. Registration of Political Parties (Sec. 2(5), Art. IX-C) vi. Improvement of Elections (Sec. 2(6), Art. IX-C) Election Period (Sec. 9, Art. IX-C) Party System (Secs. 6,7, and 8, Art. IX-C) Funds (Sec. 11, Art. IX-C) Judicial Review

Read: Cruz, supra, pp. 327-344 XVI. COMMISSION ON AUDIT A. B. Composition and Qualification (Sec. 1, Art. IX-D) Powers and Functions (Sec. 2, Art. IX-D) i. Matute vs. Hernandez, 66 Phil. 68 ii. Dingcong vs. Guingona, Jr., 162 SCRA 782 iii. Danville Maritime, Inc., vs. COA, 175 SCRA 701 iv. Mamaril vs. Domingo, GR 100284, October 13, 1993 v. Sambeli vs. Province of Isabela, GR No. 92279, June 18, 1992 vi. Polloso vs. Gangan & COA, GR 140563, July 14, 2000 vii. Perreo vs. COA, GR 162224, June 7, 2007 Prohibited Exemptions (Sec. 3, Art. 3, IX-D) Report (Sec. 4, Art. IX-D)

C. D.

Read: Cruz, supra, pp. 344-354 XVII. ACCOUNTABILITY OF PUBLIC OFFICERS A. B. Public Office is a Public Trust (Sec. 1, Art. XI) i. Hipolito vs. Mergas, A.M. No. P-90-412, March 11, 1991 Impeachment (Sec. 2, Art. XI) i. Romulo vs. Yiguez, 141 SCRA 263 ii. In Re Gonzales, 160 SCRA 771 Impeachable Officers Grounds for Impeachment Procedure (Sec. 3, Art. IX-D) i. Francisco, et.al. vs. House Speaker, GR 160261, November 10, 2003 ii. Gutierrez vs. House Sandiganbayan (Sec. 4, Art. IX-D) i. Nuez vs. Sandiganbayan, 111 SCRA 433 ii. Mayor Lecaroz vs. Sandiganbayan, 128 SCRA 324 Ombudsman (Secs. 5 and 6, Art. XI) i. Composition ii. Qualification and Appointment iii. Term iv. Powers and Functions v. Salary Cases i. Ombudsman vs. CSC, GR 162215, July 30, 2007

C. D. E.

F.

D.

E.

F. G. H. I. J.

ii. Zaldivar vs. Sandiganbayan, 160 SCRA 843 iii. BIR vs. Ombudsman, GR 115103, April 11, 2002 iv. Laurel vs. Desierto, GR 145368, April 12, 2002 Special Prosecutor Ill-gotten Wealth Loans Assets and Liabilities Change of Citizenship

Read: Cruz, supra, pp. 355-372 XVIII. AMENDMENT AND REVISION A. Amendment by initiative and Referendum (Secs. 1 and 2, Art. XVII) i. Santiago vs. Comelec, GR 127325, March 19, 1997 ii. Lambino vs. Comelc, GR 174153, October 25, 2006 Amendment, Revision, Revolution (Sec. 3, Art. XVII) i. Tolentino vs. Comelc, 41 SCRA 702 ii. Del Rosario vs. Comelec, 35 SCRA 367 iii. Imbong vs. Comelec, 35 SCRA 28 iv. Tolentino vs. Comelec, 41 SCRA 702 Ratification (Sec. 4, Art. XVII) i. Planas vs. Comelec, 49 SCRA 105 ii. Javellana vs. Executive Secretary, GR 361142, March 31, 1973

B.

C.

Read: Cruz, supra, pp. 373-386