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1.Bs history and a mixed race society.

B=island after the end of the last Ice Age when the 1st settlers arrived. by the 5000 BC GB=island with tribes of hunters,fishermen. 2500-1500 BC First people - Iberians(Spain & Portugal)Beaker folks 1.used Stone Age weaponry and tools 2.Bronze ornaments 3.trade, exchange of goods4.religion(Stonehenge in Wiltshire=a temple for Druids or Romans type of astronomical clock or calendar)5.the dead should be buried individually6.Graves=place of worship 6-2 cen BC: THE CELTS in Britain(lived in tribes).Came to an end with the influx of Christianity. Britain < Brythons ,Brythonic Celts - 2 groups: 1.Brythons on large island 2.Gaels on small island (Ireland). Strong,tall men,Celtic dialects - the Gaelic form in I+S,the Brythonic in E+W. Had priests=druids/all natural elements have a spirit(oak=power of life) Introduced iron,used swords and daggers,chariots Important in polit,cultural,religious life(*also women Queen Boadicia from Iceni tribe, in 61AD revolt against Romans) London=a hill on the lake. Avon=river Scotland = the land of Scots Gaelic aber, inver (river mouth), ben (hill) glen(narrow valley), garry (rough)Welsh car, caer (fortified place) 43(Emperor Claudius)-410AD: THE ROMANS in Britain. First attempts by J.Caesar. 61AD Boadicia,revolt against R-s. London was called'Londinium.London Bridge by R-s Hadrians Wall(a series of forts and watchtowers)to protect from the Scottish tribes, to control the movements of people coming into or leaving Roman Britain They brought:Art,Architecture (cities, roads),Organized religion,Roads,Legal system (laws),Latin, Towns/cities,Military infrastructures, public bath houses(a place for getting clean+socialize),restaurants,libraries Roman (Latin) castrum >caster >chester> cester , pons (bridge)(Lancaster, Doncaster) 446 AD-1066: THE ANGLO SAXON(Germanic tribes). Caster=fort,camp/ Angloland = Angland = England 1st the Angles (from Elbe and Rhine districts) Norfolk and Suffolk Saxons (from north west Germany).occupied Essex, Middlesex, Sussex and eastern parts of Wessex Jutes Britain=7kingdoms: Anglia,Kent,Mercia,Northumbria,Wessex,Sussex, Essex the origin of England and the English people the Old English L Government: Witan=king and wise men 597AD Chistianity building of churches and monasteries (educational places) introduced large church voc,words and ideas from as far away as India and China,gave incentive for Anglo/Saxons to apply existing words to new concept,unified people - beliefs about wives, children, slaves 793 AD: THE VIKINGS in Britain, landed in Lindisfarne near water,boats for fishing, for trade,to raid 851 AD: THE DANES arrived in Kent 893 KING ALFRED(Alfred the Great),King of West Saxons,unified Britain forced the Danes to accept Christianity The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle=source of E history,1ST example of prose Army+fleet,A code of laws,Schools, churches,Translation books from Latin 1066 the Norman invasion William the Conqueror, the 1st Norman King after the battle of Hastings the development of a feudal system: Feudalism: nobles received land from their lord, and had to fight in his army(till the 14th cent) Manorialism: villeins (serfs) received land from a noble, and had to do work for him 1086 DOMESDAY BOOK survey of England's land and people 17th 18th cent=African slaves+servants, refugees from France, Iraland,Russia 1950-1960 the Carribean, Indian,Pakistan

The UK=a racially diverse state, people moving to Britain have brought their own cultures with them and try to keep two cultures alive. London=one of the most ethnically diverse cities on earth Indigenous population=Celtic,Romans,Danes,Normands non-indigenous communities= White inhabitants,White British,White Irish and Other White, people from South Asia,Indian,Pakistan,Bangladesh+"Other Asian". Black population=Black African,Black Caribbean, "Other Black". Challenge for the government of Britain to assimilate the immigrants, provide them with jobs, accommodation and welfare. Race relations policies reflect the principles of multiculturalism in relation to immigrants=the UK allows people from different cultures to live in the UK and continue to practice their own cultural traditions Lack of national identity=reasons for terrorist attack British dream=freedom,tolerance,plurality