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LNG VALUE CHAIN AND SHIPPING OF OIL

WHAT IS THE LNG VALUE CHAIN ?


The LNG value chain represents $7 to $14 billion dollars of investment , further minimization of the cost with long term contract It begins with natural gas extracted from underground reservoirs and is sent through a pipeline to a liquefaction facility. At the liquefaction facility, impurities are removed from the gas, and it is sent through three cooling processes until it reaches a final temperature of minus 260 degrees Fahrenheit. The chilled gas, now LNG, is then loaded onto specially designed tanker ships, which may last anywhere from four to thirty days, depending on the destination port.

Source: http://www.fe.doe.gov/programs/oilgas/publications/lng/LNG_primerupd.pdf

Once the ship arrives at a re-gasification terminal, the LNG is offloaded into large storage tanks, built with full-containment walls and systems to keep the LNG cold until it is turned back into a gaseous state. When the LNG has been warmed back to its natural state, the gas is moved into pipelines which will deliver the natural gas to consumers, power plants and industrial customers across the country. The largest component of the total cost of the LNG value chain is usually the liquefaction plant, while the production, shipping, and regasification components account for nearly equal portions of the remainder

Source: http://www.fe.doe.gov/programs/oilgas/publications/lng/LNG_primerupd.pdf

Source: http://www.fe.doe.gov/programs/oilgas/publications/lng/LNG_primerupd.pdf

LIQUEFACTION
Total capacity of 170MTPA is available , 91 MTPA is under construction and further 285 MTPA is planned During the process , impurities are removed and the gas is cooled up to ( -256 F ) , the process can be designed to get upto 100% methane By the process its volume is reduced to 1/600 Stored in a two walled tank , separated by insulation. The material includes nickel , aluminum and pressed concrete.
Source: http://www.fe.doe.gov/programs/oilgas/publications/lng/LNG_primerupd.pdf

LNG Liquiefaction Process

Source : http://www.beg.utexas.edu/energyecon/lng/documents/CEE_LNG_Safety_and_Security.pdf

SHIPPING
Its shipped in a double hulled tanker , designed and insulated to prevent accidents There are three types of cargo containment for LNG , Moss ( spherical design ) Membrane design Structural prismatic A carrier can transport upto 125000 138000 m3 of LNG , which would provide 2.6-2.8 Bcf of natural gas A typical carrier measure 900ft in length and 140 ft in width, 36ft in water draft costing $160 million
Source : http://www.beg.utexas.edu/energyecon/lng/documents/CEE_LNG_Safety_and_Security.pdf

SHIPPING
International trade in LNG centers on two geographic regions The Atlantic Basin, involving trade in Europe, northern and western Africa, and the U.S. Eastern and Gulf coasts. The Asia/Pacific Basin, involving trade in South Asia, India, Russia, and Alaska. The carriers are less polluting than other vessels since they burn natural gas along with fuel oil for propulsion

Source : http://www.beg.utexas.edu/energyecon/lng/documents/CEE_LNG_Safety_and_Security.pdf

SHIPPING

Source : http://www.beg.utexas.edu/energyecon/lng/documents/CEE_LNG_Safety_and_Security.pdf

Source : http://www.beg.utexas.edu/energyecon/lng/documents/CEE_LNG_Safety_and_Security.pdf

STORAGE
At final destinations, LNG may be used in various ways, Used as a transportation fuel for truck and bus fleets Used electric power generation stations, allowing use of the cryogenic properties Back to natural form On arrival at the receiving terminal in its liquid state, LNG is pumped at atmospheric pressure first to a doublewalled storage tank US stands tall in storage facility , mainly because of their demand

Source : http://www.beg.utexas.edu/energyecon/lng/documents/CEE_LNG_Safety_and_Security.pdf

TYPES OF STORAGE
There are three different types of storage , Above ground most widely used Below ground entirely submerged in land , with a cap in the surface . Provides environmental safety In ground partial submergence

Source : http://www.beg.utexas.edu/energyecon/lng/documents/CEE_LNG_Safety_and_Security.pdf

STORAGE TANK

CONCRETE

INSULATION INNER TANK ( 9% NICKELSTEEL ALLOY ) BLOCKS

STAINLESS STEEL FOAM GLASS HEATING DUCTS TO PREVENT GROUND FREEZING

Source : http://www.beg.utexas.edu/energyecon/lng/documents/CEE_LNG_Safety_and_Security.pdf

SINGLE CONTAINMENT TANK

Source : http://www.beg.utexas.edu/energyecon/lng/documents/CEE_LNG_Safety_and_Security.pdf

Conceptual Design of Storage Tanks:

UNDERGROUND LNG TANK

Source : http://www.beg.utexas.edu/energyecon/lng/documents/CEE_LNG_Safety_and_Security.pdf

REGASIFICATION

Source: http://www.fe.doe.gov/programs/oilgas/publications/lng/LNG_primerupd.pdf

The previous picture represents the process of taking liquefied natural gas (LNG) off of the ship, moving it into cold storage tanks and then re-gasifying it back into natural gas to send to market. The gray lines represent natural gas, and the yellow lines represent LNG. Naturally, there is a small amount of LNG which vaporizes through contact with warmer air in the top of the ship containers and in the LNG storage tanks. This natural gas is siphoned out of the tanks and moved into the pipeline.

ENERGY BRIDGE REGASSIFICATION VESSEL


Used in case of off shore plant , where the LNG is taken up by the vessel and regassified in it and sent through downstream pipeline

Source : http://www.beg.utexas.edu/energyecon/lng/documents/CEE_LNG_Safety_and_Security.pdf

Source : http://www.beg.utexas.edu/energyecon/lng/documents/CEE_LNG_Safety_and_Security.pdf

JETTY

Source : http://www.beg.utexas.edu/energyecon/lng/documents/CEE_LNG_Safety_and_Security.pdf

LNG IN INDIA
Existing LNG terminals at Dahej , Kochi , Hazira ( Shell ) and Dabhol Two LNG terminals planned , one at a Ennore and another at Mangalore , with a provision to capacity to 5 MMTPA each. Southern Gas Grid - 85 MMSCMD Imports from Oman , Iran and Qatar

LNG - A SAFE FUEL


Safety in LNG industry employs four main elements which would ensure safety of both the workers and the communities surrounding the LNG facility Primary containment usage of appropriate material and a well designed engineering storage system Secondary containment - incase of leaks , ability to contain it and isolate from public Safeguard system - ESD system Separation distance maintaining safe distances with storage area LNG trucks have to maintain safe distance from other vehicles Transportation of LNG carriers via separate route Physical and chemical properties

Source : http://www.beg.utexas.edu/energyecon/lng/documents/CEE_LNG_Safety_and_Security.pdf

Source : http://www.beg.utexas.edu/energyecon/lng/documents/CEE_LNG_Safety_and_Security.pdf

POSSIBLE HAZARDS
Explosion an explosion occurs when a substance rapidly changes from its chemical state or uncontrollable released from pressurized container , since LNG is stored at atmospheric pressure it will not create immediate explosion Vapour cloud LNG forms a vapour cloud when released and it may ignite if it encounters an ignition source Freezing liquid Rapid phase transition An RPT can occur , if there is a mix of water and LNG. RPT range from small pops to a blast

Source : http://www.beg.utexas.edu/energyecon/lng/documents/CEE_LNG_Safety_and_Security.pdf