You are on page 1of 20

# TJP TOP TIPS FOR OCR ADDITIONAL MATHS

Dr T J Price, 2012

Surds simplify, rationalise the denominator, combine Simplify (find the biggest square number) Rationalise the denominator (type i)
75 25 3 25 3 5 3

15 5
1 3 2

15 5

5 5
1 3

15 5 5
3 2 3 2 2

3 5
3 3
2

Rationalise the denominator (type ii) Combine by multiplying or dividing Combine by adding or subtracting

2 ( 2)2
1 9

3 7
1 3

3
27

27
75

81
6 3

9;

27

3 3 5 3 2 3

6 3

Indices positive, zero, negative, fractional; relation to roots and reciprocals Negative power = reciprocal (1 over, or flip a fraction) Fractional power = root Zero power = 1 (always) Multiply by adding indices Divide by subtracting indices Do powers of powers by multiplying indices
3
2

1 32
3

1 ; 9

2 3 3

33 2

27 8

271/ 3

27

3;

25 1 / 2 16

5 4

2730 1 73 7 4 77

73 7 4
(7 3 ) 4

7
712

## Quadratics number of solutions, discriminant b 2

4ac

The discriminant of the quadratic equation ax 2 bx c 0 is defined as b 2 4ac . It is inside the rooty bit in the quadratic formula, and it determines the number of solutions as follows: Discriminant > 0 Discriminant = 0 Discriminant < 0 two distinct solutions [
b 2 4ac give two values]
b / 2a , twice]

one repeated solution [ b 2 4ac is zero, so we get no real solutions [ b 2 4ac does not exist]

Quadratics complete the square, factorise Completed square form looks like a( x p) 2 q , or perhaps a( x p) 2 q . The safe way to do these questions is to multiply this out and then equate the coefficients, e.g. Write 3x 2 18x 20 in the form a( x
3x 2 18 x 20 ax
2

p) 2

q: 3 32 q 20 so q 7.

2apx ap

a 3,

2 3 p 18 so p 3,

T J Price

Page 1

12/10/2008

Quadratics solve using formula x Should be self-explanatory. Watch out for: Negative signs; if b is negative, -b is positive and so is b2. Also if either a or c is negative, be careful with 4ac; it will be positive. Dont forget to divide everything by 2a. Quadratics in disguise convert and solve If an equation contains thing squared, thing and numbers, it is a quadratic in disguise. E.g. t 4 t 3 0 becomes x 2 4 x 3 0 if we substitute x Then solve x 2 4 x 3 ( x 3)( x 1) 0 so x 3 or x 1 . Finally, x
t so x 2 t giving t

b2 2a

4ac

t.

9 or t 1 .

Simultaneous linear/quadratic solve; zero discriminant implies tangent If its y= and y= , bolt them together, rearrange to get a quadratic, solve for x, then get y.
y y 4x 2 x 2 3x

gives x 2 3x 4 x 2 or x 2

x 2 0 so ( x 2)( x 1) 0

Then x 2, x 1 and y 10, y 6 respectively. If not, get y= or x= from one equation and then substitute into the other, solve for x and y.
y x 1 x2 y2 25

gives

x 1 so x 2 ( x 1) 2

25 or 2 x 2

2 x 1 25

so 2 x 2 Then x

2 x 24 0 or x 2

x 12 0 or ( x 4)( x 3) 0

4, x 3 and y

3, y

4 respectively.

N.B. if your equations have a repeated solution (discriminant = 0) then the line is a tangent. Inequalities solve using a sketch graph Rearrange the inequality to get zero on one side, then factorise the other side. Sketch the graph and see where it is above/below the y-axis. E.g. solve x 3
x3 x 0

x( x 2 1)

x( x 1)( x 1) 0

-1

T J Price

Page 2

12/10/2008

## Add Maths: Polynomials & Graphs

Polynomials A polynomial is a sum of terms that are multiples of non-negative integer powers of the variable, e.g. 6x 4x + 7 [think of 7 as 7x0]. These are polynomials in x 2 42 x 5x 17 3 x 5.23 0 Order The order of a polynomial is the highest power present in it; quadratics are order 2 and cubics are order 3. Factorising Polynomials Some polynomials can be factorised, e.g. x 3 2 x 2
x x( x 1) 2 .

## And these arent 3 x x 4 x1.7

This factorised form makes it easy to sketch the graph of the polynomial, using the following tips: ( x a) corresponds to an x-axis crossing point at x a , ( x a) 2 corresponds to an x-axis touching point at x a , ( x a) 3 corresponds to an x-axis cubic (flat) crossing point at x a . So y ( x 2)( x 1) 2 ( x 4) 3 look like this:

-2

How do we know which way up the graph goes? Right-way-up (unreflected or positive) functions go up on the right, Upside-down (reflected or negative) functions go down on the right. So sketch the graph from right to left, putting in crossing/touching points as required. You can easily reverse the whole process to suggest an equation for a graph. One more thing; to find where the graph cuts the y-axis, simply put in x = 0 and work out y. 128 . So the above graph cuts the y-axis at y 2 ( 1) 2 ( 4) 3 T J Price Page 3 12/10/2008

## Add Maths: Polynomials & Graphs

Using graphs to solve inequalities To solve ( x 2)( x 1) 2 ( x 4) 3 0 using our graph, we look for where the graphs height is positive, i.e. x 2, x 4 . For ( x 2)( x 1) 2 ( x 4) 3 0 , our solution would change to x 2, x 1, x 4 . 2 3 And for ( x 2)( x 1) ( x 4) 0 , we get two sandwiches 2 x 1, 1 x 4 .

Multiplying polynomials

Draw up a grid Put the coefficients along the top and right (insert 0 for any missing powers) Fill in the boxes by multiplying Add along the diagonals sloping down to the left Read off the answer N.B. Bigger powers are always to the left or higher up. Example: calculate (3x 2 7 x 2) (4 x 5) . 3 12 -15 43 -7 -28 35 -10 2 8 -10

12 -43

4 -5

## Answer: 12 x 3 43x 2 43x 10

Dividing polynomials Tip: set up the question as for long division arithmetic (insert 0 for any missing powers). Example: calculate (3x 2 7 x 2) ( x 2) . 3x 7x + 6x 13x 13x 13 +2 +2 26 28

x+2

3x 3x

Look at biggest powers; x goes into 3x 3x times Now subtract 3x lots of x + 2 Look at biggest powers; x goes into 13x 13 times Now subtract 13 lots of x + 2 Remainder is 28

T J Price

Page 4

12/10/2008

## Add Maths: Polynomials & Graphs

Factor Theorem If (x a) is a factor of a polynomial p(x) , then p(a) = 0. E.g. (x + 1) = (x (1)) is a factor of p( x)
x 3 3x 2 x 3 because p( 1) ( 1) 3 3( 1) 2 ( 1) 3 0 .

This is obvious if you think about graphs and x-axis crossing/touching points; Each bracket (x a) corresponds to a crossing/touching point at x = a, i.e. the height of the graph is zero. Remainder theorem The remainder when we divide a polynomial p(x) by (x a) is p(a). E.g. if we divide p( x)
x 3 3x 2 x 3 by (x 2) the remainder is p(2) 23 3 2 2 2 3 15 .

Using the Factor Theorem to factorise polynomials To factorise p( x) x 3 2 x 2 5x 6 , List the ve factors of 6 (the constant term). They are 1, 2, 3, 6. Work out p(a) where a is each of these factors in turn; if p(a)=0, we have found a factor (x a). Handy hint; start with the easiest, smallest factors first; one of them is bound to work. Once you have found two factors, you can deduce the third one by considering p(0) (see below). Working through this example, we try: p(1) = 8 p(1) = 0 so (x + 1) is a factor p(2) = 0 so (x 2) is a factor To find the third bracket, write p( x) x 3 2 x 2 5x 6 ( x 1)( x 2)( x c) and then consider p(0). Now p(0) = 6 1 ( 2) c so c must be 3. Therefore p( x) ( x 1)( x 2)( x 3) . If the coefficient of x 3 is greater than 1, things are not quite this simple. The question will usually give you a hint to get you started, e.g. show that (2x 3) is a factor of, so you check that p(1.5) = 0.

Finding unknown coefficients using the Factor and Remainder Theorems When f ( x) 2 x 3 ax 2 bx 6 is divided by (x 1) there is no remainder, and when f(x) is divided by (x + 1) the remainder is 10. Find the values of a and b. Solution: No need to do long division just use the factor and remainder theorems! If (x 1) is a factor, then f(1) should equal zero. So 2 13 a 12 b 1 6 0 or 2 + a + b = 0. If dividing by (x + 1) gives remainder 10, then f(1) = 10. So 2 ( 1) 3 a ( 1) 2 b ( 1) 6 10 or 2 + a b + 6 = 10. Now solve simultaneously: adding, 2a + 6 = 10 so a = 2 and b = 4. T J Price Page 5 12/10/2008

Meaning of nCr
n

C r means the number of different ways of choosing r distinct objects from a total of n objects.

E.g. if 2 different cakes are to be chosen from a menu of 5 cakes, there are 5C 2 ways of doing so.
n

Cr

n! r!(n r )!

## [the second way is easier to work out for large n]

N.B. n! 1 2 3 ... n and is called n factorial. Going back to our example, 5C2
5 4 1 2 20 10 . 2

[Why? The first cake can be one of 5, the second can be one of the remaining 4, and we divide by 2 because clair, then millefeuille is the same as millefeuille, then clair.] The numbers produced by n C r occur in Pascals Triangle, being the (r+1)th entry in the (n+1)th row. Expanding (1 + x)n or (a + b)n positive integer n
(1 x) n
n

C0

C1 x nC 2 x 2 n(n 1) 2 x 1 2
n

n

1 nx ( a b) n
n

C0 a n

an

na n 1b

## (Its not as bad as it looks!)

[Hint: the powers of a and b add up to n each time.] For small n, we can use Pascals Triangle directly: e.g. (1 x) 3 1 3x 3x 2 Expanding (2 3x)n, etc. To expand more complicated binomials, substitute to get (a b) n and then replace a and b at the end. E.g. (2 3x) 4 (a b) 4 with a = 2, b = 3x (a b) 4 a 4 4a 3b 6a 2b 2 4ab 3 b 4 (using Pascals Triangle)
24 4 2 3 ( 3x) 6 2 2 ( 3x) 2 216 x 3 81x 4 4 2( 3x) 3 ( 3x) 4
x3 .

16 96 x 216 x 2

N.B. Watch minus signs, and remember to raise everything in the brackets to the required power Finding a particular term Sometimes we do not need to find every single term of a binomial expansion. E.g. find the term in x3 in the expansion of (3 x)7:
7

C3 (3) 7 3 ( x) 3

7 6 5 4 3 ( x) 3 1 2 3 35 81x 3 2835 x 3

T J Price

Page 6

12/10/2008

Applying Binomials to probability If there are n independent trials (occurrences) of some event, each having two outcomes (success or failure) so that p = prob(success) and q = prob(failure) = 1 p, then the probability of getting r successes in n trials is P(X = r) = nCr p r q ( n This is made up of
C r ways of getting r successes out of n trials (imagine the tree diagram), r successes, probability pr and (n-r) failures, probability q(n-r)
n r)

[X stands for the number of successes and you may see the strange-looking X ~ B(n,p) which means X has the Binomial distribution for n trials where p is the probability of success in each trial. If the events are not independent, then X will not be Binomial; there are many other distributions] Worked Example: A multiple-choice paper has 10 questions, each with five options. Find the probability that a student will get (by guesswork alone) (a) no questions right, (b) at least two questions right. For this problem, n = 10, p = 0.2, q = 0.8 (a) P(X = 0) = 10C0 0.20 0.810 = 0.107374 (b) P(X 2) = 1 P(X = 0) P(X = 1) Since P(X = 1) = 10C1 0.210.89 = 0.268435 P(X 2) = 1 0.107374 0.268435 = 0.624191

T J Price

Page 7

12/10/2008

Co-ordinates midpoint, intersection of lines, distance between two points (x1,y1) & (x2,y2) Midpoint = average of the two end points
x1 2 x2 y1 , y2 2

Intersection of lines: see solving simultaneous linear/quadratics. Distance between two points: use Pythagoras on the change in x and the change in y. Distance =
( x2 x1 ) 2 ( y2 y1 ) 2

## Gradient of line segment = Rise

Run = (change in y)

(change in x) =

( y2 ( x2

y1 ) . x1 )

Straight lines gradient for parallel, perpendicular m1m2 Parallel lines have the same gradient.

Perpendicular lines (at right-angles) have gradients that multiply to make 1. Alternatively, the gradient at 90 to m is 1 m.

If m is a fraction, flip it upside down and make it the negative of what it was before.

Equation of straight line with gradient m through point (x0, y0) is y If (x0, y0) is any known point on the line and m is its gradient, then y This is a very commonly-used equation, e.g. for tangents and normals. Quadratics sketch factorised or completed square form
y0

y0

m( x x0 ) m( x x0 ) .

If y ( x 2)( x 3) , this is a U-shaped graph cutting the x-axis at 2 and 3. If y ( x 2) 2 3 , this is a U-shaped graph with its turning point at (-2,3); (it is y
x 2 translated by 2 in the x direction and +3 in the y direction).

N.B. this graph does not cut the x-axis at all. Factorised graphs sketch, use to solve inequalities If ( x 4)( x 2)( x 3) 0 , sketch the graph y ( x 4)( x 2)( x 3) and see where it rises above the x-axis.

4 x 2 or x 3 .

-2

T J Price

Page 8

12/10/2008

[Powers of x sketch positive, negative]

x2

x3

y 1/ x

y 1/ x 2

[Transformations of graphs translate, stretch, reflect] Expressions in brackets change the graph horizontally, and do the opposite of what you might expect. f(x) + a translate up by a f(x + a) translate left by a f(x) a af(x) -f(x) translate down by a stretch vertically by a reflect vertically in y=0 f(x a) f(ax) f(-x) translate right by a squash horizontally by a reflect horizontally in x=0

## Circles sketch, identify centre and radius

The pictured circle with centre (a, b) and radius r has equation
( x a) 2 ( y b) 2 r2 .

A circle touches an axis if one coordinate is equal to r. In this picture, a = r and b < r.

Circles complete the square to put into brackets ( x a) 2 The centre of the above circle is (a, b) and its radius is r. E.g. if x 2 4 x y 2 10 y 7 0 Then ( x 2) 2 2 2 ( y 5) 2 52 7 0 So ( x 2) 2 ( y 5) 2
7 4 25 36

( y b) 2

r2

## which is a circle centre (2, -5), radius 6.

N.B. the number on the right is radius squared, not radius. Is a point is inside a circle or not? Compare its distance from the circles centre with the radius.

T J Price

Page 9

12/10/2008

In the world of business and industry, it is desirable to maximise profit or the number of customers and to minimise costs or the time taken for manufacture. Linear programming is a mathematical technique used to tackle such problems, and these methods were developed between 1945 and 1955 by American mathematicians. In the real world there are not only quantities to be maximised and minimised (as above), but also constraints such as the size of workforce, quantity of raw materials, etc., as well as obvious facts like we cant manufacture a negative number of items. Mathematically, we set up an axis on our graph for each variable (quantity which can be controlled and changed) and then shade out regions matching our constraints (graphical inequalities). The best solution to the problem is then the corner of our remaining feasible region that gives the best value of our objective function (the quantity we are trying to maximise or minimise). Using Linear Programming to solve a Puzzle Problem: A carpenter makes tables and chairs. Each table can be sold for a profit of 30 and each chair for a profit of 10. The carpenter can afford to spend up to 42 hours per week working and takes six hours to make a table and three hours to make a chair. Customer demand requires that he makes no more than four times as many chairs as tables. Tables take up four times as much storage space as chairs and there is room for at most five tables each week. Variables t = number of tables made per week c = number of chairs made per week Constraints Total work time: Customer demand: Storage space: Objective function Maximise P = 30t + 10c Set up axes for t (horizontal) and c (vertical) and shade out the unwanted regions given by the inequalities. Then draw an iso-profit line (a line of constant profit, e.g. 30t + 10c = 30) and move your ruler parallel to this to find the corner of the remaining region giving the optimal solution. See over for the graph Handy hints: To plot a line such as 6t + 3c = 42, set t=0 and find c (=14), then set c=0 and find t (=7). So we draw a straight line between (0, 14) and (7, 0). To plot a line such as c = 4t, note that the gradient is 4 and the c-intercept is zero. Make sure the quantity on the left is on the vertical axis. 6t + 3c 42 c 4t c + t 5 Also t 0, c 0 (non-negativity constraints)

T J Price

Page 10

12/10/2008

20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0
iso-profit line 1/4c + t 5 6t + 3c 42 c 4t

c no of chairs

optimal solution

feasible region

t no of tables 7 8 9 10

The optimal solution is at t=3, c=8. (Place a ruler along the iso-profit line and move it parallel and up to the right until you are just about to leave the feasible region.) So the carpenter should make 3 tables and 8 chairs per week, giving a profit of 303 + 108 = 170 per week. Quirky questions If the question asks for (or requires) a solution with integer values (e.g. number of tables and chairs) and the coordinates of the best corner of the feasible region are not integers, we must instead find the best feasible integer solution near that corner. If the question has three variables that are related, dont try to plot a 3-D graph! Instead, eliminate one variable. E.g. if x + y + z = 10, then replace z with 10 x y.

T J Price

Page 11

12/10/2008

Definitions of sin x, cos x, tan x SOHCAHTOA
In a right-angled triangle: opposite adjacent opposite sin , cos , tan hypotenuse hypotenuse adjacent

These are used to solve right-angled triangles as studied in IGCSE. Sine and Cosine Rule and area of triangle Use these if a triangle does not have a right angle. Pick the sine rule if you know any opposite pair of angle & side length. a b c Sine rule: (or flip it upside down to find an unknown angle) sin A sin B sin C Otherwise use the cosine rule; the first version to find a side and the second version to find an angle. b2 c2 a2 Cosine rule: a 2 b 2 c 2 2bc cos A or cos A 2bc Trig in 3 Dimensions Find a RAT (Right Angled Triangle) in the 3D diagram and use trigonometry on it. For a long diagonal, you can use the triple Pythagoras formula: length = 1)
x2 y2 z 2

If each sloping edge of a square-based pyramid has a length of 80m and makes an angle of 48 with the base, find (i) the height EG, (ii) the base area ABCD, (iii) the area of a sloping face GBA and (iv) the angle EFG between a sloping face and the base. G 80m

C 48 E

B A F (i) Drop a vertical from G to E to make a RAT (GEA) with hyp=80m, opp=height, =48 so height EG = 80sin48 = 59.45m (ii) The distance from E to A (using the same RAT) is 80cos48 = 53.53m. Base area = AB = AE + EB = 53.53 + 53.53 (by Pythag) = 5731m (iii) Each sloping face is an isosceles triangle (GBA) with base 5731 = 75.70m and sides 80m. Chop it down the middle to make a RAT (GFA) and use Pythag to get height GF = (80 37.85) = 70.48m. So area = 37.8570.48 = 2668m (iv) GEF is a RAT; GE = 59.45m and GF = 70.48m. So angle EFG = sin-1(59.45/70.48) = 57.5 NB we could have used cosine/sine rule for some of these instead 2) Find the long diagonal of a cuboid with sides 7cm, 9cm and 13cm. Diagonal = (7 + 9 + 13) = 299 = 17.3cm

T J Price

Page 12

12/10/2008

Trig graphs solving trig equations Learn these three graphs!

y = sin(x)
1

180

360

540

720

-1

y = cos(x)
1

90

180

270

360

450

540

630

-1

y = tan(x)

## 1 0 -1 90 180 270 360 540 720

1)

Solve cos(x) = 0.5 for 0 x 360 . A calculator gives x = cos-1(0.5) = 60. The graph indicates another solution at 360 60 = 300. So x = 60 or 300 Solve tan(2x) = 3 for 0 x 360 . First substitute = 2x; A calculator gives = tan-1(3) = 60. The graph shows other solutions at 240, 420, 600, etc. (repetition every 180). Since x = /2, we get x = 30, 120, 210, 300 (next one would be 390, out of range) T J Price Page 13 12/10/2008

2)

Trig Identities sin + cos 1 , sin cos tan Consider this triangle with angle and hypotenuse 1: By the definition of tan, tan
sin . cos

1 cos

sin

## By Pythagoras, sin 2 cos 2 1

These trig identities can be used to solve trig equations. 1) Solve sin x 3cos x 0 for 0 x 360 . Divide through by cos x to get tan x 3 0 Rearrange to get tan x 3 Use inverse function to get x tan 1 (3) = 71.6 But this is out of range, so use tan repetition every 180 to get x = 108.4 or 288.4. Solve sin 2 x 3cos x 3 0 for 0 x 360 . 1 cos 2 x 3cos x 3 0 Substitute sin 2 x 1 cos 2 x to get cos 2 x 3cos x 2 0 Tidy up to get cos 2 x 3cos x 2 0 And swap all signs (multiply by 1) Put y cos x (quadratic in disguise) y 2 3y 2 0 Factorise ( y 1)( y 2) 0 Solutions are y cos x 1 or y cos x 2 But cos x is never 2, so solve cos x = 1 to get x = 180.

2)

T J Price

Page 14

12/10/2008

Differentiate powers of x positive integer or zero powers If y Always rewrite to get x to the power of something before proceeding E.g.
y x3 , dy dx 3x 2 y ( x 3) 2 x2 6 x 9, dy dx 2x 6 x n then dy dx nx n
1

x5 x

x2

x4

x,

dy dx

4x3 1

Gradient at a point limiting case of sequence of chords To find the gradient at a given point, find dy/dx and then substitute for x. E.g. gradient of y 2 x 3 5x 4 at x 1 is
dy dx 6 x 2 5 6 12 5 1 .

The gradient at a point can be considered as the limiting case of a sequence of chords through two points that get closer and closer to each other.

E.g. if we draw a chord through P and one other point moving down from R towards P, the gradient of this chord approaches the gradient of the curve at P itself. P Q

Equation of tangent/normal To find the equation of the tangent to a curve at a given point, find i) the co-ordinates of this point, (x0, y0) ii) the gradient, m (using dy/dx at this point) Then substitute into y y0
m( x x0 ) .

For a normal, do the same apart from using m = 1 E.g. Find the normal to y
y

2 x 3 4 x at x 2 .

2 23 4 2 8 so x0 = 2, y0 = 8.

dy dx

6 x 2 4 6 2 2 4 20 so m = -1/20.
1 20

y 8

( x 2) or y

1 20

1 x 8 10 .

T J Price

Page 15

12/10/2008

Turning points locate maximum, minimum Turning points occur only where the gradient is zero, i.e.
dy dx 0.

A turning point can be a maximum (top of a hill) or a minimum (bottom of a valley). To distinguish them, you can: i) use common sense (e.g. y 3x 2 5x 7 will have a minimum because it is a +ve quadratic) ii) use a sketch graph iii) use the second derivative (see below) E.g. find the turning points of y
dy dx

2x3 6x 1
1 and y 3 or 5

6 x 2 6 0 giving x 2 1 so x

So the turning points are (1, -3) and (-1, 5). Second derivatives distinguish max/min At a turning point, find the second derivative to distinguish between a maximum and a minimum.
d2y If dx 2 d2y If dx 2 d2y If dx 2 0 then the turning point is a minimum (think positive = = minimum). 0 then the turning point is a maximum (think negative = = maximum). 0 we cannot tell; use another method (e.g. sketch graph).

## d2y 12 x so (1, -3) is a minimum and (-1, 5) is a maximum dx 2

Applying derivatives kinematics, max/min problems, rates of change Learn that if x = displacement, v = velocity and a = acceleration, then
dx dt v and dv dt a.

So velocity is rate of change of displacement, and acceleration is rate of change of velocity. E.g. if x 4t 3 3t 2 , v 12t 2 6t and a 24t 6 .

You may also be asked to maximise a volume or minimise an area depending on x. Do this by setting
dV dx 0, dA dx 0 , etc. and solving the equation.

T J Price

Page 16

12/10/2008

Integration is the opposite process to differentiation. I.e. what differentiates to give?

Integrate powers of x positive integer or zero powers If y Always rewrite to get x to the power of something before proceeding E.g.
y x3 , x 3 dx
1 4

x n then

y dx

1 n 1

xn

x4 c x 2 6 x 9 dx
1 3

y ( x 3) 2

x 2 6 x 9,

x 3 3x 2 9 x c

x5 x

x2

x4

x,

x4

x dx

1 5

x5

1 2

x2

Finding the constant of integration, c If you are given the values of x and y, you can substitute these to find c. dy 3x 4 , find y if the curve passes through (2, 3). E.g. If dx 2 3x 4 dx 3 4x c 2 x At x=2, y=3 we get 3 Answer: y
3 2 3 2

2 2 4 2 c so c = 5

x 2 4x 5

Definite integrals area under a curve The area under a curve can be found using integration. This time you include limits on the integral. E.g. Find the area under the curve y 9 x 2 4 x between x=1 and x=3.
3 1

9x 2

3 4 x dx [3x 3 2 x 2 ]1

(3 33 2 32 ) (3 13 2 12 ) 99 5 94 units 2

N.B. we dont need +c with a definite integral because it cancels out. Definite integrals watch out for: Areas below the x-axis which come out as a negative integral; the area is positive. The area between two curves; do the integral of (top curve bottom curve). Mixture of areas below and above the x-axis; split the integral into separate parts. Applying integrals kinematics Learn that if x = displacement, v = velocity and a = acceleration, then x
v dt , v a dt .

So displacement is the integral of velocity, and velocity is the integral of acceleration. Dont forget +c! Use information about the initial displacement or velocity to find c.

T J Price

Page 17

12/10/2008

The following formulae must be learned off by heart! The remainder theorem Given the polynomial f(x), the remainder when f(x) is divided by (x a) is f(a). The factor theorem If (x a) is a factor of a polynomial f(x), then x = a is a root (solution) of the equation f(x) = 0. Solution of quadratic equations By formula and completing the square. Formula: for the quadratic equation ax Binomial expansion Know how to derive terms in the expansions of (1 + x)n and (a + b)n where n is a positive integer. n n! The coefficients may be expressed in the form nCr r r !(n r )! Be aware that nCr
n r
n

bx c 0, x

b 2 4ac . 2a

Cn

n
r

n r

Coordinate Geometry Straight line Know the forms of the straight line equation, including y = mx + c and y y0 = m(x x0). Parallel lines: m1 = m2 , Perpendicular lines: m1 m2 = 1 or m2 = 1/m1
x1 x2 2 x2 y1 , 2
2

y1

y2

y2

## Coordinate Geometry Circle The circle x a Trigonometry

In a right-angled triangle: opposite sin , cos hypotenuse adjacent , tan hypotenuse opposite adjacent
2

y b

tan a sin A

b2

## c 2 2bc cos A or cos A

b2

c2 a2 2bc

T J Price

Page 18

12/10/2008

Calculus
y ax n dy dx nax n
1

## Stationary points occur when Area under curve between x

dy dx

0
b

a and x b is y dx
a

Kinematics Constant acceleration formulae: If s = displacement, u = initial velocity, v = final velocity, a = acceleration, t = time, then: 2 2 s 1 v)t v2 u 2 s vt 1 v u at s ut 1 2 at 2 (u 2 at Calculus (if acceleration is not constant): If x = displacement, v = velocity, a = acceleration, t = time, then: dx dv v a x v dt v a dt dt dt

2as

T J Price

Page 19

12/10/2008