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Earlier Lecture

Heat in leak is minimized by having vacuum between two surfaces of different temperatures.

λ is defined as the average distance travelled by the molecules between the subsequent collisions.

Based on Knudsen Number (N Kn ), we have Continuum Flow (N Kn <0.01), Mixed Flow (0.01<N Kn <0.3), Free Molecular Flow (N Kn >0.3).

Conductance Series :

1

C

o

=

i

1

C

i

Parallel :

C

o

i

=

C

i

Prof. M D Atrey, Department of Mechanical Engineering, IIT Bombay

2

Outline of the Lecture

Topic : Vacuum Technology

 • Conductance (contd ) • Pumping Speed and Pump Down Time • Tutorials

Prof. M D Atrey, Department of Mechanical Engineering, IIT Bombay

3

Introduction

In the earlier lecture, we have seen the importance of vacuum in Cryogenics.

The mean free path ( λ) and the degree of vacuum decide the fluid flow regime.

The conductance for a circular pipe for Continuum, Mixed and Free Molecular flow regimes, respectively, were derived as shown below.

C =

π D

4

p

128

µ

L

0.5 
4
π
Dp
8
µπ
 ℜ
T 
 

C =

128

µ L

1 +

pD

 

2

M

 

0.5

D

3

πT  

C =

L

18

M

 

Prof. M D Atrey, Department of Mechanical Engineering, IIT Bombay

4

Conductance in Vacuum

As mentioned in the earlier lecture, vacuum systems involve complex piping arrangements.

These piping arrangements may involve circular straight tubes, rectangular straight tubes, 90 o elbow joints etc.

The table on the next slide gives the conductance equations for some commonly used pipes and pipe joints.

Prof. M D Atrey, Department of Mechanical Engineering, IIT Bombay

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Conductance in Vacuum
 Element Flow Regime Long Tube 4 L (L/D>30) Continuum C = π D 128 p µ L D L–Length D 3 L πℜ T     18 M  D–Diameter Free Molecular C =

Prof. M D Atrey, Department of Mechanical Engineering, IIT Bombay

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Conductance in Vacuum
 Element Flow Regime Long Tube 4 L (L/D>30) Continuum C = π D p 128 µ L D L–Length D 3 L πℜ T    18 M   D–Diameter Free Molecular C = Short Tube π 4 Dp 128 µ L    (L/D<30) Continuum C = 1 + m  22 µ L    D 1 –Large Dia. Free Molecular C = D 2 ( πℜ TM 18 ) D 2 –Small Dia. LD + ( 43 ) ( 1 − ( D 2 D 1 ) 2 )

Prof. M D Atrey, Department of Mechanical Engineering, IIT Bombay

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Conductance in Vacuum

Element

Flow Regime

90 o Elbow r-Mean radius D–Diameter

Continuum

Free Molecular

C =

C

=

π

KD p

3

128

µ

D

3

r

 ℜ
2
T
 
9
πM
 
r

D

 K values r/D K r/D K r/D K 0 0.017 4 0.073 10 0.034 1 0.05 6 0.056 12 0.029 2 0.083 8 0.042 14 0.026

Prof. M D Atrey, Department of Mechanical Engineering, IIT Bombay

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Pumping Speed

p

Q
p
C
i
o

Vacuum Pump

Consider a closed cavity – vacuum pump system as shown in the figure.

For the above system, let us assume the following parameters.

p i – Pressure at the inlet to vacuum pump

p – Pressure in the cavity

Q – Throughput of the pump

C o – Overall conductance of piping

Prof. M D Atrey, Department of Mechanical Engineering, IIT Bombay

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Pumping Speed

p

Q
p
i

C

o

Vacuum Pump

In order to analyze the above system, the following quantities are defined.

The capacity of a vacuum pump is denoted in terms of Pump Speed (S p ). It is the ratio of throughput (Q) to pressure at the inlet to vacuum pump (p i ).

Mathematically, we have

S

=

Q

p

p

i

3
m
sec

Prof. M D Atrey, Department of Mechanical Engineering, IIT Bombay

10

Pumping Speed

p

Q
p
i

C

o

Vacuum Pump

On the similar lines, System Pumping Speed (S s ) is defined as the ratio of throughput (Q) to pressure in the cavity or the vacuumed space (p).

Mathematically, we have

Also, conductance (C o ) is

S

s

=

Q

p

3
m
sec

C

o

=

Q
3
m
(
p
p
)
sec
i

Prof. M D Atrey, Department of Mechanical Engineering, IIT Bombay

11

Pumping Speed

S

=

Q

p p

i

p
i

=

Q

S

p

p

Q
p
i

C

o

Vacuum Pump

S

s

=

Q

p

p =

Q

S

s

 C o = Q ( p − p i ) p − p i = Q C o

Eliminating the pressures (p i and p) from the above equations, we get

=

QQQ + SSC

s

po

111

=

+

SSC

s

po

Prof. M D Atrey, Department of Mechanical Engineering, IIT Bombay

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Pumping Speed

111

=

+

SSC

s

po

From the above equation, it is clear that, S s is lower than the minimum of S p and C o .

S p depends on vacuum pump and therefore, in order to maximize S s , C o should be maximum.

In principle, S s can be maximum when C o is infinite.

Prof. M D Atrey, Department of Mechanical Engineering, IIT Bombay

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Pumping Speed

111

=

+

SSC

s

po

That is, if C o = , then we have S s = S p .

For a given connecting pipe, conductance increases with decrease in length and increase in diameter.

Similarly, if C o = S p , then we have S s = S p /2.

Prof. M D Atrey, Department of Mechanical Engineering, IIT Bombay

14

Pump Down Time

Consider a closed system as shown
in the figure.
High Pressure - p i
Let the initial pressure in the
system be p i .
After vacuuming, let the final
pressure in the system be p f .
Low Pressure - p f
The amount of time taken by a
vacuum pump to reduce the
pressure from p i to p f is called as
Pump Down Time.

Prof. M D Atrey, Department of Mechanical Engineering, IIT Bombay

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Pump Down Time

 • The application decides the degree of vacuum. Depending upon the application, the required pump down time is determined. Pump down time helps in selection of vacuum pump. Hence, there is a need to study the pump down time of vacuum system.

Prof. M D Atrey, Department of Mechanical Engineering, IIT Bombay

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Gas Leaks

Apart from heat in leak, gas in leak and out gassing are the major problems posed by a Cryogenic system.

These leakage paths have to be considered for calculation of pump down time and selection of pump.

The leakage paths increase the pump down time.

Prof. M D Atrey, Department of Mechanical Engineering, IIT Bombay

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Gas Leaks

Gas enters the system due to

Actual leak through the vessel walls, joints.

Trapped gas released from the pockets within the system, also called as Virtual leaks.

Out gassing of the metal walls or seals.

Out gassing is the release of adsorbed gases either from surface or interior or both, when exposed to vacuum.

The major contribution to mass in leak is the out gassing of the metal walls.

Prof. M D Atrey, Department of Mechanical Engineering, IIT Bombay

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Pump Down Time

m

out

Q
p
i

C

o

Vacuum Pump

Consider a closed cavity – vacuum pump system as shown above.

Let the mass flow rate, leaving the system be m out .

Mathematically,

m

out

=ρS

s

Where, ρ and S s are the density and system pumping speed respectively.

Prof. M D Atrey, Department of Mechanical Engineering, IIT Bombay

19

Pump Down Time

m

i

Q
m
out
p
Vacuum Pump
C
i
o

Let the total inflow due to gas leak and out gassing

be m i . It can also be written as

m =

i

Q

i

RT

Applying mass conservation to this system, we have

m m =

i

out

dm

dt

From the definition of density, we have

m =ρV

mm =

i

out

V

d

ρ

dt

Prof. M D Atrey, Department of Mechanical Engineering, IIT Bombay

20

Pump Down Time

m

1

Q
m
out
p
Vacuum Pump
C
i
o

mm =

i

out

V

d
ρ

dt

p
ρ
=
RT

Using the ideal gas law, we have

m

i

out

m

=

V

dp

RT dt

Combining the following equations, we have

Q

i
m 
=
i

RT

m 
out

=ρS

s

Q
pS
i
s
RT
RT
V
dp
=
RT dt

dp

dt

=

Q

i

V

Sp

s

V

Prof. M D Atrey, Department of Mechanical Engineering, IIT Bombay

21

Pump Down Time

dt

Q

i

V

V

dp

=

Sp

s

This equation is valid for any vacuum system in general.

It is important to note that both Q i and S s are time dependent functions, that is, Q i = f 1 (t), S s = f 2 (t).

The equation can be integrated, analytically or numerically, if the transient variation of Q i and S s are known.

Prof. M D Atrey, Department of Mechanical Engineering, IIT Bombay

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Pump Down Time
 dp dt Q i Sp s = − V V

At steady state or after a long time, the changes in pressure with time are negligibly small.

Mathematically, we have dp/dt=0.

The pressure at steady state is called as Ultimate Pressure (p u ). It is the minimum possible pressure

that can be achieved using a certain pump.

p = p

u

p

u

=

Q
i
S
s

Therefore, we get

Prof. M D Atrey, Department of Mechanical Engineering, IIT Bombay

23

Pump Down Time

It is important to note that, for most of the pumps, S p is constant in its operating pressure range.

Also, in a free molecular region, conductance (C) is independent of pressure.

111

=

+

SSC

s

po

With S p and C o being constants, from the above equation, it is clear that S s is also a constant or it is independent of pressure.

Prof. M D Atrey, Department of Mechanical Engineering, IIT Bombay

24

Pump Down Time

Therefore, for a constant S s , the equation can be integrated with the following limits.

Limits
dp
Q
Sp
i
s
=
t=0
p=p 1
dt
V
V
t=t p
p=p 2
p
t
p
2
Vdp
Q
=
dt
i
p
=
u
Q
Sp
S
p
i
s
0
s
1
p
2
V
V
p
p
t
ln
(
Q
−= t
Sp
)
p
1
u
t
=
ln
i
s
p
0
S
S
pp
s
s
2
u
p
1

Prof. M D Atrey, Department of Mechanical Engineering, IIT Bombay

25

Tutorial – 1
40mm
Pipe 1
Pipe 2
30mm
400mm
400mm

Calculate the overall conductance of the pipe assembly shown above. The pressure on the right end of the 40 mm tube is 150 mPa, while the pressure on the left end of 30mm pipe is 10 mPa. The ambient temperature is 300 K. The molecular weight and viscosity of air are 28.95 g/mol and 18.47 µPa-s.

Prof. M D Atrey, Department of Mechanical Engineering, IIT Bombay

26

Tutorial – 1

Given

Apparatus : Series Combination of pipes

Working Fluid : Air (mol. wt. 28.95 g/mol)

Temperature : 300 K

Dimensions

Pipe 1 – 40mm dia., 400mm Length Pipe 2 – 30mm dia., 400mm Length

Calculate

Overall Conductance (C o )

Prof. M D Atrey, Department of Mechanical Engineering, IIT Bombay

27

Tutorial – 1
40mm
Pipe 1
Pipe 2
30mm
400mm
400mm

Calculation of Flow Regime

N Kn for pipe 1: D=0.04m, L=0.4m, T=300 K, R=8314/28.95, µ=18.47 µPa-s, p=0.15Pa.

 λ µπ RT  0.5 N Kn = D = Dp   2   ( 18.47 10 − 6 )    π ( 287.14 )( 300 )    0.5 N = Kn ( 0.04 )( 0.15 ) 2

N Kn

= 1.132

Prof. M D Atrey, Department of Mechanical Engineering, IIT Bombay

28

Tutorial – 1
40mm
Pipe 1
Pipe 2
30mm
400mm
400mm

Similarly, calculating N Kn for Pipe 2, we have

N Kn for pipe 1: 1.132

N Kn for pipe 2: 22.65

The Knudsen numbers for both the pipes are greater than 0.3. Therefore, the flow is free molecular through out the series combination.

The L/D ratios of each of these pipes being less than 30, these are classified as Short Pipes.

Prof. M D Atrey, Department of Mechanical Engineering, IIT Bombay

29

Tutorial – 1
40mm
Pipe 1
Pipe 2
30mm
400mm
400mm

Conductance for pipe 1: D 1 =0.04m, D 2 =0.04m, L=0.4m, T=300 K, R =8314, M=28.95 gm/mol.

 D 1 2 ( πℜ TM 18 ) C = 1 LD 1 + ( 43 ) ( 1 − ( D 1 D 2 ) 2 ) C = ( 0.04 ) 2 ( πℜ ( 300 ) 18 28.95 ( )) 1 0.4 0.04 + ( 4 3 ) ( 1 − ( 0.04 0.04 ) 2 ) C 1 3 = 0.0173ms/

Prof. M D Atrey, Department of Mechanical Engineering, IIT Bombay

30

Tutorial – 1
40mm
Pipe 1
Pipe 2
30mm
400mm
400mm

Similarly, calculating conductance for Pipe 2, we have

Pipe 1 (C 1 ) : 0.0173

Pipe 2 (C 2 ) : 0.0079

The Overall Conductance (C o ) for a series combination is given by

111
=
+
C
CC
o
1
2

11 =

C

o

0.0173

+

1

0.0079

o

C

=

0.00542

3

/

ms

Prof. M D Atrey, Department of Mechanical Engineering, IIT Bombay

31

Tutorial – 2

40mm
30mm
1m 3
400mm
400mm

Vacuum Pump

Consider a vacuum vessel of 1m 3 with an initial pressure of 1 atm at 300 K. It is connected to a vacuum pump via a connecting pipe as shown above. The ultimate pressure of the system is 0.1 mPa. Determine the system pumping speed, if the required vacuum in the cavity is 1 kPa in 1 hour.

Prof. M D Atrey, Department of Mechanical Engineering, IIT Bombay

32

Tutorial – 2

 Given Apparatus Vacuum Pump Working Fluid Air at 1 atm Vacuum 1 kPa Temperature 300 K Connecting Pipe 1 : 40mm (D), 400mm (L) Pipe 2 : 30mm (D), 400mm (L) Pipe Time 1 Hour Calculate Overall Conductance (C o ) Volume 1 m 3 Ultimate Pr. 0.1 mPa

Calculate

System Pumping Speed (S p )

Prof. M D Atrey, Department of Mechanical Engineering, IIT Bombay

33

Tutorial – 2

40mm
30mm
1m 3
400mm
400mm

Vacuum Pump

Calculation of S s

V=1m 3 , p 1 = 1.013x10 5 Pa, p 2 = 1000 Pa, p u = 0.1x10 -3 Pa, t p = 3600 s.

 S s  p V =  ln 1 − p u   t p  pp 2 − u  S s  = ln    1 3600 101300 − ( 0.1 10 − 3 )   3 1000 − ( 0.1 10 − 3 )   = 0.0012m / s

Prof. M D Atrey, Department of Mechanical Engineering, IIT Bombay

34

Tutorial – 2

40mm
30mm
1m 3
400mm
400mm

Vacuum Pump

From the earlier tutorial, we have

 • N Kn for pipe 1: 1.132, N Kn for pipe 2: 22.65. N Kn >0.3, the flow is free molecular flow. The conductance of these Short Pipes • Pipe 1 (C 1 ) : 0.0173, Pipe 2 (C 2 ) : 0.0079. The Overall Conductance (C o ) is 0.00542 m 3 /s.

Prof. M D Atrey, Department of Mechanical Engineering, IIT Bombay

35

Tutorial – 2

40mm
30mm
1m 3
400mm
400mm

Vacuum Pump

Calculation of S p

C o = 0.00542, S s =0.0012.

111

=

+

SSC

s

po

111

=

S

SC

pso

S

p 0.0012

0.00542

11 =

1

p

S =

0.00154

3

/

ms

S =

p

92.4 Lit

/ min

Prof. M D Atrey, Department of Mechanical Engineering, IIT Bombay

36

Summary

Correlations for conductance for some commonly used pipes and pipe joints are given.

Pump Speed :

S

=

Q

p p

i

System Speed :

S

s

=

Q

p

111

=

+

SSC

s

po

S p depends on vacuum pump and therefore, in

order to maximize S s , C o should be maximum.

For a constant S s , we have

t

V

=

p S

s

u

ln

p

1

p

pp

2

u

Prof. M D Atrey, Department of Mechanical Engineering, IIT Bombay

37

Thank You!

Prof. M D Atrey, Department of Mechanical Engineering, IIT Bombay

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