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Cooling Load Calculation

CLTD/CLF method is used to calculate the cooling load of the building. Since window type air conditioning system is used in the residential building and the size are usually determined by the occupants, the CLTD/CLF method will only apply to LG/F to G/F which are central air-conditioned.
Assumption made 1. Indoor design condition : 25 Cdb, 50 %Rh Outdoor design Condition: 33Cdb, 28Cwb 2. Cooling load at August 15:00, 16:00 and 17:00 3. External/thin wall :U value = 2.79 W/m 2K , Group D Thick wall : U value = 2.10 W/m2K , Group B 5. Lighting CLF based on : a = 0.55, Group C Floor 6. No infiltration 7. Fresh air requirement : 10 l/s person 8. Window type : Sterling Sliver Van-Tran on Bronze

BUILDING TYPE WALLS

WINDOW

LIGHTING AND ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT

30 - STOREY OFFICE BUILDING External Walls: 25 mm stucco, 20 mm plaster, 100 mm concrete, 20 mm plaster, 13 mm finish. Group D , U value = 2.79 W/m2K Thick Walls : 25 mm stucco, 20 mm plaster, 300 mm concrete, 20 mm plaster, 13 mm finish. Group B , U value = 2.10 W/m2K Partition : 15 mm gypsum board, 50 mm air layer, 15 mm gypsum board. U value = 1.71 W/m2K Sterling Sliver Van-Tran on Bronze, U value = 5.7 W/m2K Shading coefficient = 0.33 Window-to-wall ratio = 0.52 No external shading device Lighting power intensity = 8 W/m2 Equipment power intensity = 15 W/m2K

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After the detailed calculation, the result is shown as below: Location Area No. of people Sensible Load (W) 4064 15611 17283 4382 3296 2915 3899 9111 5416 Latent Load (W) 2447 10586 13030 2960 2398 1369 2643 6342 4012 1630 14113 1269 2787 2787 882 882 882 882 882 882 882 882 1323 882 2446 2246 2105 84431 Total Cooling Load(W) 6511 26197 30313 7342 5694 4283 6542 15453 9428 4365 31135 3022 6795 7020 3422 3204 3215 3009 3051 2833 3454 3182 4281 3029 5956 5357 5103 213196 SHR

Elderly Centre Child Care Centre Restaurant Clinic Study Room Game Room I Game Room II Multi-purpose Room 1 Mulit-purpose Room II BMS Room Gym. Security Room Shop 1 Shop 2 Shop3 Shop 4 Shop 5 Shop 6 Shop 7 Shop 8 Shop 9 Shop 10 Shop 11 Shop 12 Shop 13 Shop 14 Shop 15 Total

21 117 100 32 25 25 30 78 45 25 135 10 28 28 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 24 21 18 842

6 30 25 8 7 7 8 10 10

0.62 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.58 0.59 0.6 0.6 0.59 0.63 0.58 0.58 0.6 0.6 0.74 0.72 0.73 0.71 0.71 0.69 0.74 0.72 0.69 0.71 0.6 0.59 0.6

4 2735 15 17022 3 1754 7 4008 7 4234 2 2540 2 2322 2 2333 2 2127 2 2169 2 1951 2 2572 2 2300 2 2958 2 2147 7 3510 6 3111 5 2998 185 128768

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Air Side Selection


Diffuser Selection
Design Procedure: (a) Volume flow rate for individual zone = Peak sensible load for individual zone/ (1.2 x 1.02 x T) (b) Select and determine the number and location of diffuser used in each zone (c) Determine the rooms characteristic length, L (d) Select the recommended TV/L ratio from the table below (e) Calculate TV from values of TV/L and L Selection Base on the effective volume of the false ceiling and the appearance, Circular ceiling diffusers are selected. The table below show the characteristic of the circular ceiling diffuser. Room Load (W/m2) 250 190 125 65 T0.25/L for Max.ADPI 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 Maximum ADPI 76 83 88 93 For ADPI Greater than 70 80 80 90 Range of T0.25/L 0.7-1.3 0.7-1.2 0.7-1.5 0.7-1.3

Performance Data for Circular Ceiling Diffuser Flow rate (L/s) Hori. Throw T0.25(m) 105 2.1 125 2.4 155 3.1 180 3.4 205 4.0 230 4.6 255 4.9 310 6.1

Worked Example - elderly center From previous calculation, the required volume flow rate = 0.37m3/s. Base on the room geometry, 3 diffuser is used Max. ADPI = 83 For ADPI greater than 80, Range of T0.25/L = 0.7-1.3 The characteristic length (L) is 3m Range of T0.25 = 2.1m - 3.6m and so the selection is satisfy Also, supply air flow rate for one diffuser = total air flow rate / number of diffusers Supply air flow rate for one diffuser = 0.37 / 3 = 0.12m3/s. = 210cfm

With the range of T0.25 = 2.1m to 3.6m and supply air flow rate at each diffuser =210cfm, diffuser can be selected from the various catalogue.

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From the above procedure, the number of diffuser and their corresponding flow rate can be found.
Room Area Room Load Maximum Number of Load (kW) (W/m^2) ADPI Diffuser Elderly Centre 3.9 21 186 80 3 Child Care Centre 16.9 117 144 80 14 Restaurant 22.5 100 225 70 5 Clinic 4.3 32 134 80 4 Study Room 3.1 25 124 80 2 Game Room I 2.9 25 116 50 2 Game Room II 3.9 30 130 80 2 Multi-purpose Room 1 7.4 78 95 80 6 Mulit-purpose Room 6.1 45 136 80 4 II BMS Room 2.7 25 108 80 2 Gym. 21.9 135 162 80 11 Security Room 1.8 10 180 80 1 Shop 1 4.2 28 150 80 4 Shop 2 4.4 28 157 80 4 Shop 3 2.2 8 250 70 1 Shop 4 2.0 8 250 70 1 Shop 5 2.00 8 250 70 1 Shop 6 2.00 8 250 70 1 Shop 7 2.00 8 250 70 1 Shop 8 2.00 8 250 70 1 Shop 9 2.00 8 250 70 1 Shop 10 2.00 8 250 70 1 Shop 11 2.50 10 250 70 1 Shop 12 2.20 10 220 70 1 Shop 13 3.30 24 138 80 2 Shop 14 3.10 21 148 80 2 Shop 15 2.90 18 161 80 2 Total 846 80 Location Flow rate per Diffuser m^3/s (cfm) 0.1(210) 0.1(210) 0.35(735) 0.1(210) 0.17(357) 0.148(315) 0.29(609) 0.22(256) 0.2(420) 0.14(294) 0.16(336) 0.18(376) 0.1(210) 0.1(210) 0.31(651) 0.31(651) 0.31(651) 0.31(651) 0.31(651) 0.31(651) 0.31(651) 0.31(651) 0.31(651) 0.31(651) 0.18(378) 0.16(336) 0.15(315)

Noise Level Acceptable HVAC Noise Levels in Unoccupied Rooms


Occupancy Study Room Gymnasium Elderly Center Restaurant Muilt-purpose room Noise Criteria (NC) NC 30 NC 40 NC 40 NC 40 NC 40

From the tables above, 8 in. diffuser with neck velocity at 600ft/min. is chosen because it can meet the demand of required flow rate, throw at T0.25 and NC.

Sizing of Fan-coil Unit


According to the area and the function of various room, the cooling loads are different from others. However, the inlet air and water temperature( 17oC, 7oC) are the same. So, base on the inlet condition and room cooling loads, fan-coil can be selected. The examples below show the procedure of the selection.
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Worked Example - Shop 1

Worked Example - Elderly Centre 4064 = ms (1.012)(26-17) ms = 0.45kg/s vs = 0.45(273+17) /349 = 0.37 ms/s VF = 8 X 0.01 = 0.08 M3/s VR= 0.37 - 0.08 = 0.29 L/S By mmhm = mFhF + mRhR 0.37hm = 0.08(45) + 0.29(56) hm = 53.5J/kg Tm = 24oC db, 19.5oC wb, 63%rh The FCU cooling load = 0.45(1.012)(53.5-45) = 3.87kW Carrier Model 006 is selected.

2540 = ms (1.012)(25-17) ms = 0.314kg/s vs = 0.314 (273+17) /349 = 0.26 ms/s Also, total required fresh air = no. of people x 10 l/s/person VF = 4 X 0.01 = 0.04 M3/s VR= 0.26 - 0.04 = 0.22 L/S By mmhm = mFhF + mRhR 0.26hm = 0.04(45) + 0.22(53) hm = 52kJ/kg Tm = 23.5 oC db, 18.5 oC wb, 60%rh The FCU cooling load = 0.314(1.012)(52.45) = 2.24kW Refer to the catalogue, Carrier Model 004 is selected. By the same method, the capacity of each FCU can be calculated.

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Required Capacity Number of FCU of FCU (kW) Elderly Centre 3.9 1 Child Care Centre 16.9 2 Restaurant 22.5 2 Clinic 4.3 1 Study Room 3.1 1 Game Room I 2.9 1 Game Room II 3.9 1 Multi-purpose Room 1 7.4 2 Mulit-purpose Room II 6.1 1 BMS Room 2.7 1 Gym. 21.9 3 Security Room 1.8 1 Shop 1 4.2 1 Shop 2 4.4 1 Shop3 2.3 1 Shop 4 2.3 1 Shop 5 2.50 1 Shop 6 2.30 1 Shop 7 2.10 1 Shop 8 2.00 1 Shop 9 2.00 1 Shop 10 2.00 1 Shop 11 2.90 1 Shop 12 2.10 1 Shop 13 3.30 1 Shop 14 3.10 1 Shop 15 2.90 1 Total 137.8 32

Location

Selected Model (Carrier) OO6 O12 O14 OO6 OO4 OO4 OO6 OO6 OO8 OO3 O1O OO3 OO6 OO6 OO4 OO4 OO5 OO5 OO5 OO5 OO5 OO5 OO5 OO5 OO5 OO5 OO5

Total Capacity kW 4.5 17.8 24.5 4.5 3.2 3.2 4.5 9 6.28 2.9 7.2 2.9 4.5 4.5 3.2 3.2 4.2 4.2 4.2 4.2 4.2 4.2 4.2 4.2 4.2 4.2 4.2

Sizing of PAU

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Total number of people in the air-conditioned space = 185 The total required fresh air flow rate = 185 x 0.01 = 1.85 m3/s So, the required capacity of the PAU (QT) the required sensible load (QS) SHR = 1.85 x 1.2 x (89-45) = 100 kW = 1.85 x 1.2 x (33-17) = 33.5 kW = 0.34

With regard from that, a PAU can be selected based on the following procedure: Unitsize selection Form the Quick Selection Chart, for SHR < 0.6, The maximum face velocity = 2.5m/s The air supply flow rate = 1.85m3/s = 6666m3/s Assumption: Air Entering Temperature : 27oCdb, 19oCwb Water entering /leaving temp. : 7oC, 12oC Coil distance : 2.1 mm From the catalogue, Interklima, unitsize 20 is used Number of coil rows :6 Total cooling capacity : 106.5 Sensible cooling capacity : 81.7 Water flow : 18151 l/hr Water pressure drop : 13.4kPa Air pressure drop on coil : 103 Pa Pressure drop on PAU Mixing Box : 31 Pa Plenum : 12.5 Pa Bag Filters (85%): 125 Pa Pre Filters : 50 Pa Coil : 103 Pa Total : 321.5 Pa

Pressure drop of the duct + fitting Pressure drop in the critical path for air duct = Sectional Pressure(SP) at 18 + SP at 16 x SP at 14 + SP at 12 + SP at 10 + SP at 7 + SP at 6 + SP at 4 + SP at 1 = 13.9 + 5.8 + 20 + 6.7 + 18.3 + 10.8 + 9.8 + 32.1 + 5 + 3 = 125Pa Thus, the total pressure drop in air side = 321.5 Pa + 125 Pa = 446.5 Pa Air Pressure Drop on coil From the catalogue, the air pressure drop at coil is 110Pa.
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Water Side Pressure Drop From the catalogue, for water flow rate=18151 l/h, the water pressure drop at coil is 14kPa. Fan Performance Curve The total pressure drop = 446.5 Pa, and also the volume flow rate is 1.85m3/s Based on the catalogue, two fan are selected and their performance index are shown as below: Model Efficiency (%) Fan Power (kW) Fan speed (rpm) Noise Level ( dB) H-560 0.79 0.9 800 48 H630 0.67 0.95 680 56

From the above table, the performance including efficiency, power and noise level of H-560 are better than that of H-630. Therefore, H-560 are selected as the PAU pump. Dimension Size of Fan : Modal H-630 = 790mm(L) x 790mm(W) Size of PAU : Unitsize 20 Height = 1600mm Weight = 1600mm Lenght = Length of fan section + Lenght of coil setion + length of filter + length of mixing box = 1900 + 700 + 300 + 1000 = 3600 mm

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Supply Air Duct Sizing


Supply Air Side

Ducting sizing sheet + fan sizing


No de Type of fitting Air flow(l/s) Duct Size (mm)di a Duct Velocit Velocit Duct Size y y length (mm*mm) Pressure (m) 1 duct 2 branch-T 2 duct(gym.) 3 branch-T 3 duct(gym.) 4 branch-T 4 duct(gym.) 5 branch-T 5 duct 6 branch-T 6 duct 7 elbow(game) 7 duct 8 branch-T 8 duct 9 branch-T 9 duct 10 branch-T 10 duct(gym.) 11 elbow(game) 11 duct 12 branch-T 12 duct 13 branch-T 13 duct 14 branch-T 14 duct(game) 15 branch-T 15 duct 16 branch-T 16 duct(study) 17 branch-T 17 duc 18 branch-T 18 duct 19 branch-T 19 duct(Rest.) 20 branch-T 20 duct(Rest.) 21 branch-T 21 duct(Rest.) 22 branch-T 22 duct 23 branch-T 23 duct 24 branch-T 24 duct 2000 80 80 80 80 80 80 750 750 350 350 80 80 270 270 80 80 150 150 70 70 350 350 300 300 70 70 270 270 80 80 200 200 70 70 140 140 70 70 70 70 255 255 125 125 125 125 575 800*400 180 200*150 180 200*150 180 200*150 180 200*150 180 200*150 180 200*150 450 500*300 450 500*300 450 500*300 450 500*300 190 200*150 190 200*150 250 350*150 250 350*150 190 200*150 190 200*150 210 250*150 210 250*150 190 200*150 190 200*150 450 500*300 450 500*300 300 350*240 300 350*240 190 200*150 190 200*150 255 300*240 255 300*240 190 200*150 190 200*150 250 360*200 250 360*200 190 200*150 190 200*150 250 300*240 250 300*240 190 200*150 190 200*150 190 200*150 190 200*150 270 300*240 270 300*240 190 225*150 190 225*150 190 225*150 190 225*150 7.75 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.6 4.75 4.75 4.75 4.75 3.6 3.6 4.25 4.25 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.6 4.75 4.75 4.75 4.75 3.6 3.6 4.5 4.5 3.6 3.6 4.25 4.25 3.6 3.6 4.25 4.25 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.6 4.75 4.75 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.6 36.2 8.2 8.2 8.2 8.2 8.2 8.2 13.6 13.6 13.6 13.6 7.8 7.8 10.9 10.9 7.8 7.8 8.2 8.2 7.8 7.8 13.6 13.6 14.4 14.4 7.8 7.8 13.2 13.2 7.8 7.8 10.9 10.9 7.8 7.8 10.9 10.9 7.8 7.8 7.8 7.8 13.6 13.6 7.8 7.8 7.8 7.8 3 0.85 5 0.85 5 0.85 5 1 3 1 3 1 3 0.45 1.8 1 3 0.85 5 1 3 1 3 0.195 4.5 1 3 0.195 2 1 3 0.2 5 1 3 0.2 3.5 1 3 1 3 1.55 12 0.85 5 0.85 5 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Fitting loss coefficie nt Duct Press drop (Pa/m) 1 Pressur Section e al Drop Pressur e (Pa) (Pa) 3 3 7.0 5 6.7 7.0 5 6.7 7.0 5 6.7 24.0 3 25.7 24.0 3 25.7 7.8 3 10.8 4.9 1.8 6.7 7.8 3 18 7.0 5 6.7 7.8 3 10.8 24.0 3 25.7 2.8 4.5 18.3 7.8 3 18 2.6 2 6.7 7.8 3 18 2.2 5 20 7.8 3 10.8 2.2 3.5 5.8 7.8 3 5.7 7.8 3 13.9 21.1 12 12 6.6 5 5 6.6 5 5

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Water Side Selection


Chiller Selection
From the previous calculation, the total cooling load is 213196 (61 tons). Because of the consideration of flexibility and the space available, 2 chillers is adopted Each chiller with about 31 tons is selected. 1. Chilled water flow rate By Q = m x CPW x T where Q = Coil load (kW) m = Chilled water flow rate (kg/s) C = Sensible heat capacity (kJ/kg) T = Chilled water temperature difference (K)

The mass flow rate of the chiller = 106.58 / {4200x(12.5-7)} = 4.6 l/s 2. Chilled selection Design Criteria: 1. The leaving chilled water temperature is 7oC 2. The condenser entering air temperature is 32oC 3. The chilled water temperature rise is 5.5oC Type: Manufacturer: Model Cooling Capacity: Input power Chiller Pressure Drop Rated load current Fan motor size Fan speed Dimension Weight (kg) Air-cooled liquid chiller TRANE CXAG 206 128kW 42kW 20 kPa 88 4 x 1.4 13 2630(L) x 1840(W) x 2070 (H) 1590

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Chilled Water Pipe Sizing


Design Criteria 1. Pressure drop per meter pipe length is within the range 100 Pa/m to 400 Pa/m. 2. Velocity is between the range 0.6m/s to 2.5m/s. 3. Refer to CIBSE Guide C4 the material used for piping are shown as follows: ~ Large size steel pipings are utilized for the diameter of pipes greater than 150mm, with water flow at 10oC in the pipes. ~ Heavy grades steel (black steel) pipings are utilized for the diameter of pipes less than 150mm, with water flow at 10oC in the pipes. 4. The fitting loss coefficient are listed below:
Code No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Type of fitting Fitting Loss coefficient 4 0.1 0.08 0.2 0.5 0.1 0.4 vertical /horizontal 0.3/1.3 0.4/1.4 0.55/1.45 0.7/1.48 0.85/1.55 0.9/1.6 0.95/1.62 1/1.65 0.3 0.1

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Tee Joint 80mm -80mm (dia) 80mm -100mm (dia) 80mm -125mm (dia) 80mm -150mm (dia) 80mm -175mm (dia) 80mm -200mm (dia) 80mm -225mm (dia) 80mm -250mm (dia) Bend Elbow

5. Pipes Pressure Drop Calculation Pipe Pressure(Pa) = Pipe length (m) x Pipe Pressure loss per unit length (Pa/m) 6. Fitting Pressure Drop Calculation Fitting Pressure Drop(Pa)Equivalent length of pipe(=1)(m) x Fitting loss coefficient() x Pressure loss per unit length (Pa/m)

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Pump Selection
To select a suitable pump for water side equipment, two data must be calculated: 1. The total pressure drop along the critical path. 2. The total volume flow rate of the system and the pumps 1. Criterical Path Total pressure drop along the criteria path: The pipings and fittings loss (on Critical Path) The PAU coil friction loss The chiller pressure drop The total pressure loss = 65.2 kPa = 14 kPa = 20 kPa = 99.2 kPa

For safety function, 10% safety margin are added. Hence, the total pressure loss = 99.2 x 10% = 110kPa = 11 mH 2. Volume flow rate of each pumps As calculated before, the total cooing load of the system is 61 tons and two 31 tons(106kW) are adopted. Therefore, By Q = m x CPW x T, The volume flow rate of the chiller = 106.58 / {4200x(12.5-7)} = 4.6 l/s = 16.6m3/s The volume flow rate of the each pump is 4.6 l/s. Based on the above data, the pump is selected as below:
Manufacturer Pump Model Power Efficiency Nom. Speed Impeller Diameter Allweiler NBT 50-200 0.8kW 58% 1450rpm 178mm

= gHQ = 1000 x 9.8 x 11 x 0.0046 = 0.5kW Power input to the shaft = gHQ/p = (0.5kW) / 0.58 = 0.86kW Pump Fluid Power Assume the efficiency of the motor is 0.75 Power input to the motor = gHQ / (p x m) = (0.5kW) / 0.58x0.75 = 1.15kW

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