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International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Technology, Volume No.1, Issue No.

3, pg : 117-119

(ISSN : 2277-1581) 01 July 2012


Ms. Lorie Jain, Dr. Dhiiraj Nitnawwre Department of Electronics and Instrumentation, Institute of Engineering & Technology, DAVV, Indore (M.P) India Email:,

The pulse magnetic system shall be consisting of Capacitor discharge type magnetizer system (CDTM) that generates a pulse of magnetic field with a peak value of about 5 Tesla (5T) in the cylindrical fixture. The system will be used for the magnetization of large size ceramic and NdFeB magnets (90mm diameter). Series resonant topology is used for capacitor charging applications. The capacitor charging power supply (CCPS) will charge a 330 mF capacitor bank from 0 V to 450 V in 10 min exhibiting a charging power of 55.68 watts. The amplitude and waveform of fixture current and magnetic field produced in magnetic fixture is obtained from PSPICE simulations and also from experimental measurement. Keywords : Continuous Charging Power Supply, pulse width modulator,
Capacitor discharge type magnetizer,magnetizer

When magnets are first produced, they are not magnetic, or possibly they are only very weakly magnetic. For the magnet to have the properties we need, it must be magnetized. The process of magnetization requires generation of intense magnetic fields in close proximity with the magnetic material to be magnetized. Neodymium magnets are the strongest type of permanent magnet. After magnetization, hard-magnetic materials remain permanent magnets because of the high values of coercive force Hc and residual induction Br. This increase in Coercivity makes the initial magnetization process more difficult and accordingly requires magnetizing fixtures that achieve very high magnetic field intensities such as those found in a SCR type capacitor-discharge impulse magnetizer. Pulse Magnetizer works on Principal of conversion of electrostatic energy into magnetic energy by discharging capacitor bank into magnetizing fixture. A pulsed magnetic field is generated into fixture. The pulse shape depends on the capacity of capacitor bank and inductance of magnetic fixture We desire full penetration of the field into the NdFeB magnet for this skin depth is chosen to be 123 mm. In this paper a capacitor impulse magnetizer is designed and constructed. This paper describes capacitor charging power supply, magnetizing fixture that have been designed, assembled and tested to produce 5T, 16 KA current in magnetizing fixture.

The resonating components consist of L1 = 48 H (which includes the main resonating inductor and leakage inductance of transformer), C1= 0.22 uF. The effective value of capacitor is CEff = 0.219 F (Series Combination of CLoad & C1). The LCEff series combination of these will yield a resonating frequency of 50 kHz. Therefore the switching frequency used was less than fr /2 (25 kHz). The 1:12 step up transformer is made up of E65 core with 28 primary turns. Thus secondary turn becomes 336.The expected efficiency taking into considerations of power loss in MOSFET, diodes, capacitor ESR, resistance of transformer and choke is nearly 80%. An advantage of Series Resonant approach is that all MOSFET switches are turned ON and OFF at zero current so that switching losses are reduced to a minimum. The series combination of reflected load capacitor and resonating capacitor will decide the resonating frequency. As the reflected load capacitor value is high in comparison with value of resonating capacitor the resonating frequency is mainly governed by resonating capacitor value. The complete process is divided into two modes: (1) High Power charging mode and, (2) stored voltage delivered to magnetizing fixture mode. During High Power charging mode, the load capacitor is charged by constant current charging, producing linear voltage across load capacitor. The load voltage is sensed and compared with reference voltage to generate charge signal. As the load capacitor is charged to reference voltage, trigger is applied to generate output pulse discharging load capacitor into magnetizing fixture through SCR. This is shown in Figure 2 and 3.

The inverter utilizes a full bridge MOSFET as shown in circuit diagram Fig 1. Thus fixed amount of energy will be transferred to load in every cycle. The bridge MOSFET consists of MOSFETs IRF540 rated for VDSS equal to 100 V and continuous collector current of 33 A. The switches are driven by pulse width modulator (PWM) control IC SG3525.The output is rectified with ultrafast recovery diodes (MUR 8100) rated at 1000V, 8A recovery time of 85ns. Figure 2: Charging Voltage comparision with reference

Figure 3: capacitor bank discharging into magnetizing fixture through SCR The current waveform over the entire charging mode can be predicated accurately if the resonant values of Lr, Cr, inverter DC voltage and transformer turns ratios are known. The leakage

Figure 1: H Bridge charging capacitor bank


International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Technology, Volume No.1, Issue No.3, pg : 117-119

(ISSN : 2277-1581) 01 July 2012

inductance of circuit including transformer is absorbed into the tank circuit inductance. 1) Equation of peak value of current flowing at input of resonant circuit is: Ip (t) = V (Cr/Lr) = 75 (0.22F/46H) = 5.186 A (1)

To design a Magnetizing Fixture for generation of 5T pulse magnetic field following parameters are optimized using eqns 5,6,7,8 Solenoid inner Diameter = 100 mm Solenoid Outer Diameter = 205 mm Solenoid length (l) = 80 mm Pulse magnetic field Required = 5T N = Number of Turn = 36 Vo = Output Voltage = 450V I = Peak current at solenoid = 16KAmp, L = Inductance of Magnetizing Fixture = 0.140 mH C = Capacitance of Magnetizing Fixture = 330mF to = time at which peak current is observed = 9.2 ms

2) Peak Secondary Current = 5.186 12 = 0.432A (2) 3) Equation of average current flowing out of bridge rectifier is: Iavg = 2Ip/ (1/12) = 0.275 A (3)

4) Thus time required for charging of capacitor is determined by: Vc = 1/C (Iavgt) t = Vc C / Iavg (since Iavg is constant) = 540 s (where Vc = 450V, C = 330 mF) = 9 min Thus the power supply is linearly charging 330mF capacitor up to 450V in 10 min. The average output current is 0.275 A, when the input DC voltage is 75 Volt. The charge signal and in turn stability of capacitor voltage is governed by comparator loop. We want that as capacitor voltage reaches reference voltage, capacitor bank should stop charging. For this, a voltage feedback from high voltage energy storage capacitor is taken by voltage divider. This is shown in fig 4.


Figure 5: Connection of Solenoid with SCR and Free Wheeling diode

Figure 4: Control Circuit Design As the capacitor voltage exceeds the reference voltage, the comparator output will set the reset pin of RS flip flop. Output of RS flip flop is connected to Full Bridge MOSFET and hence no further pulses will transmit to full bridge MOSFET and capacitor bank will not be further charged. During Output Pulse delivery mode, energy of the capacitor is discharged into magnetizing fixture by triggering the SCR switch.


For discharging stored current and voltage of capacitor bank into magnetizing fixture mathematical approach is used to calculate peak current ,output voltage , time to obtain peak current in solenoid, number of turns in solenoid etc. Ip = Vo (C/L) e
Rt / 2L 0

Figure 6: Set up showing Solenoid, Charging and Control Circuit and Capacitor Bank

Initially, when the capacitor is in discharged state the current waveform by resonant charging scheme is nearly sine wave. Figure 7 shows complete charging voltage waveform across the load and charging current waveform. As the capacitor charges, the current in the forward direction increases and current in reverse direction decreases due to increased reflected load voltage.

(5) (6) (7)

NI = 713.9 * 103



International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Technology, Volume No.1, Issue No.3, pg : 117-119

(ISSN : 2277-1581) 01 July 2012

Fig 9: Magnetic field and current produced in magnetizing fixture

Figure 7: Voltage and Current waveform from resonant charging scheme As the output from Figure 7 moves to bridge rectifier, the secondary of transformer will be rectified by full bridge rectifier and Rectified output of resonant circuit is shown in Figure 8. The performance test of the magnetizing fixture along with resonant charging scheme was carried out. A full bridge series topology using MOSFET switches is used. The bridge was driven with fixed frequency using commercial PWM IC SG3525 and AND gate IC CD4081 A load capacitor of 330mF was charged to 450V by the CCPS and discharged through a SCR switch into magnetizing fixture. Thus Magnetizing Fixture has been designed and 5T MAGNETIC field and discharging current of 16 KA is produced in magnetizing fixture as shown in fig 9. Field analysis of magnetizer circuit using ORCAD software is also done to verify our analysis of the circuit.

[1] Yabin Zhang , Paolo Emilio Bagnoli, Numerical analysis of series resonant charging converter, International Symposium of Power electronics, Electrical Drives, Automation and Motion, 2010 IEEE [2] H. Feshki Farahani and S. M. Pedram Razi, Analysis of Effective Parameters on Magnetizer Using Finite Element Method ,24th international power system conference 2009 [3] I. H. Song, H. S. Shin, C. H. Choi, A Capacitor-Charging Power Supply Using a Series-Resonant Three-Level Inverter Topology, Pulesd power plasma science, 2001 IEEE [4] M. Souda, F. Endo, C. Yamazaki, K. Okamura, K.Fukushima, development of high power capacitor charging power supply for pulse power applications, Proc. of the 12th International Pulsed Power Conf., 1999, pp.1414-1416. [5] Y.Kelkar, Y.Raikwar, A.C.Thakurta, A Capacitor Charging Power Supply using Series Resonant Topology

Figure 8: Rectified output of resonant circuit