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MODULE

Manufacturing Processes :

  • III Theory of Metal Cutting &

Machine Tools

Lecture Notes:

Joyjeet Ghose

Senior Lecturer, Department of Production Engineering, Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi

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Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

Engine lathes

The basic engine lathe, which is one of the most widely used machine tools, is very versatile when used by a skilled machinist. However, it is not particularly efficient when many identical parts must be machined as rapidly as possible.

•The standard engine lathe is not a high production machine, but it can be readily tooled up for many one-piece or short-run jobs. •It is also possible to modify the basic machine for many higher production applications. •The modern engine lathe provides a wide range of speeds and feeds which allow optimum settings for almost any operation.

•There have been advances in headstock design to provide

greater strength and rigidity.

•This allows the use of high horse power motors so that heavy cuts

with carbide tools are practical.

•To utilize this high power without losing accuracy, new lathes

incorporate heavier beds, wider hardened ways, and deeper- sectioned carriages.

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

- more accurate -wider range of speeds and feed -smaller, more precise version of engine lathe
- more accurate
-wider range of speeds and feed
-smaller, more precise version of engine lathe
A typical toolroom engine lathe with face plate, square turrent, follower, and steady
rest.

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

-Semi-automatic -used for high production work. -In this lathe the tail stock is replaced by a
-Semi-automatic
-used for high production work.
-In this lathe the tail stock is replaced by a hexagonal turret, on the
face of which multiple tools can be fitted and fed into the work piece in
proper sequence.
-Machining of more than one surface can be done at the same time.

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

-Automatic -long pieces can be fed through headstock. -these are similar to turret lathe operations, -
-Automatic
-long pieces can be fed through headstock.
-these are similar to turret lathe operations,
-
but with the cutting tools operated by a set cams
-Used mostly in screw production that is why it is most frequently called automatic
screw machines. These are sometimes called Swiss Machines
-
These are of two types
-Single - spindle screw machines (1 tool cuts at each time)
-
multiple -spindle screw machines (4-6 tools cuts at the same time)

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

These types of lathe use hydraulic attachment to copy the shape of a part from a
These types of lathe use hydraulic attachment to copy the shape of a part from a master.

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

•Computer controlled •Wide variety of process capability •Multiple axis •Indexing and contouring head •On- line and
•Computer controlled
•Wide variety of process capability
•Multiple axis
•Indexing and contouring head
•On- line and off- line programming available

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

Engine lathe
Engine lathe

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

http://www.mini-lathe.com/Mini_lathe/Introduction/introduction.htm
http://www.mini-lathe.com/Mini_lathe/Introduction/introduction.htm

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

http://www.mini-lathe.com/Mini_lathe/Introduction/introduction.htm
http://www.mini-lathe.com/Mini_lathe/Introduction/introduction.htm

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

• The headstock is the powered end and is always at the operator’s left. • This
• The headstock is the powered end and is always at the operator’s left.
This contains the speed changing gears and the revolving, driving spindle,
to which any one of several types of work holders is attached. The center
of the spindle is hollow so that long bars may be put through it for
.
A live centre, a face plate, collet or a chuck can be fitted to the spindle
nose to hold and drive the work.
Headstock spindle can be driven by a stepped pulley and a belt or by
transmission gears in the headstock.

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

• The Bed forms the base of a Lathe machine. • It provides a heavy rigid
The Bed forms the base of a Lathe machine.
It provides a heavy rigid frame on which all the other basic components are
mounted. It must be rigid enough to resist deflection in any direction under
load.
The bed is made of cast iron or a steel weldment, in a box or I-beam shape,
and is supported on legs, a cabinet, or a bench.
The headstock and the tailstock are located at either end of the bed and the
carriage rests over the Lathe bed and slides over it.

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

• The ways of the lathe are the flat or V-shaped surfaces on which the carriage
The ways of the lathe are the flat or V-shaped surfaces on which the
carriage and the tailstock are moved left and right.
Each has its separate pair of ways, often one flat surface, for stability, and
one V-way for guidance in a perfectly straight line.
• These ways are hardened and scraped or ground to close tolerances.
• The basic accuracy of movement of the carriage depends on the ways.

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

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Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005
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Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

• The tailstock is located on the inner ways at the right end of the bed.
The tailstock is located on the inner ways at the right end of the bed.
It supports the other end of the work when it is being machined between
centers, and
It holds a tool for performing operations such as drilling, reaming
The tailstock is non-rotating but on hardened ways, it can be moved, to
the left or right, to adjust to the length of the work. It can also be offset
for cutting small angle tapers.

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

• The carriage can be moved left or right either by hand wheel or power feed.
The carriage can be moved left or right either by hand wheel or power
feed. This provides the motion along the Z-axis.
During this travel turning cuts are made.
Carriage consists of the following parts: (1) Saddle, (2) Cross-slide, (3)
Compound-slide or compound rest, (4) Tool post, and (5) Apron.

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

• The saddle is an H-shaped casting that fits over the bed and slides along the
The saddle is an H-shaped casting that fits over the bed and slides along the bed
ways.
It carries the cross-slide and tool post.
Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005
• The cross slide is mounted on the carriage and can be moved in and out
The cross slide is mounted on the carriage and can be moved in and out
(X-axis) perpendicular to the carriage motion.
This is the part that moves when facing cuts are made with power feed,
or at any time a cut must be made ‘square’ with the Z-axis.
This, or the compound, is also used to set the depth of cut when turning.
The cross slide can be moved by its hand wheel or by power feed.
Cro
Crossss Sl
Slididee
Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005
• The compound rest is fitted on the top of the cross-slide, is used to support
The compound rest is fitted on the top of the cross-slide, is used to support
the cutting tool.
It can be swiveled to any angle for taper turning operations and is moved
manually.
It can be moved in and out by its hand wheel for facing or for setting the
depth of cut.
It can also be rotated 360 degrees and fed by its hand wheel at any angle.
he compound does
not
have
any
power
feed
but
it
always
moves
longitudinally with the cross slide and the carriage.
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st
Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005
Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

• The tool post is mounted on the compound rest. • This can be any of
The tool post is mounted on the compound rest.
This can be any of several varieties but in its simplest form is merely a
slotted cylinder, which can be moved, left or right in the T-slot in the
compound and clamped in place.
It can also be rotated so as to present the cutter to the work at whatever
angle is best for the job.

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

(a) A tool post for single-point tools and (b) a quick change indexing square turret, which
(a) A tool post for single-point tools and (b) a quick change indexing square
turret, which can hold up to four tools.

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

• The apron attached to the front of the carriage, holds most of the control levers.
• The apron attached to the front of the carriage, holds most of the control
levers. These include the levers, which engage and reverse the feed
lengthwise (Z-axis) or crosswise (X-axis) and the lever which engages the
threading gears.
The apron is fastened to the saddle, houses the gears and mechanisms
required to move the carriage and cross-slide automatically.
• The apron hand wheel can be turned manually to move the carriage along
the Lathe bed. This hand wheel is connected to a gear that meshes in a
rack fastened to the Lathe bed.
The automatic feed lever engages a clutch that provides the automatic
feed to the carriage
Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005
• The feedrod is a long shaft that has a keyway. • The power is transmitted
The feedrod is a long shaft that has a keyway.
The power is transmitted from the lathe spindle to the apron gears through
a feedrod via a large number of gears.
The feedrod is used to move the carriage or crossslide for turning, facing
and all other operations except thread cutting.

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

• The leadscrew is powered by gears from the head stock and is used for providing
• The leadscrew is powered by gears from the head stock and is used for
providing specific accurate mechanized movement to the carriage for
cutting threads on the workpiece.
The leadscrew has a definite pitch.
A splint nut is used to engage the leadscrew with the carriage.
In some lathes, the leadscrew performs the functions of feed rod and
there is no separate feed rod.

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

• Apron mechanism is used for transferring rotary motion of the feed rod and the lead
Apron mechanism is used for transferring rotary motion of the feed rod
and the lead screw into feed motion of the carriage.
Both automatic longitudinal and cross-feed can be provided to the
carriage by gears and clutch engagements.
The mechanism is so designed that when the half-nut is engaged with the
lead screw, the automatic feed motion from the feedrod is disconnected.
There is an interlocking device when prevents simultaneous engagement
of the carriage with the feed shaft and leadscrew and saves the machine
from any probable damage.
This arrangement of the apron is called fool-proof mechanism.

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

• The half nut makes the carriage to engage or disengage with the leadscrew. • It
The
half
nut
makes
the
carriage
to
engage
or
disengage
with the
leadscrew.
It comprises of a pair of half nuts capable of moving in or out of mesh
with the lead screw.
The half nut can be engaged with the lead screw by means of a lever
provided on the apron.
This mechanism is called half nut mechanism.
The half nut or split nut is used only for thread cutting.

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

The size of a lathe is specified by two or three dimensions: • Maximum swing diameter
The size of a lathe is specified by two or three dimensions:
Maximum swing diameter without touching the bed (C) : The largest diameter
workpiece which will clear the bed of the lathe. The center is the headstock
spindle center.
Maximum swing diameter without touching the cross slide (D): The largest
diameter workpiece which will clear the cross slide is sometimes also specified.
Distance Between Centres (B): The longest workpiece which can be held on
centers between the headstock and the tailstock.
Length of Bed (A).
The range of speeds and feeds, and the horsepower available.

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

In lathe work the three most common work holding methods are:

Held in a chuck

Held between centers

Chucks

•A chuck is one of the most important devices for holding and rotating

workpieces in a lathe.

•Workpiece of short length and large diameter or of irregular shape which

cannot be conveniently mounted between centers are held quickly and rigidly

in a chuck.

•A chuck is attached to the lathe spindle by means of bolts with the back

plate or screwed on the spindle nose.

•There are different kinds of chucks:

Three jaw self centering chuck:

Four jaw independent chuck:

Combination chuck: It is a combination of self centering and independent chuck.

Magnetic chuck: The workpieces are held in this chuck by means of powerful

electro- magnets.

Air or hydraulic operated chuck: The workpieces are held in this chuck by means

of fluid pressure.

Collet chuck:

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

A three jaw chuck is used for gripping cylindrical workpieces when the operations to be performed
A three jaw chuck is used for gripping cylindrical workpieces when
the operations to be performed are such that the machined surface
is concentric with the work surfaces. The jaws have a series of teeth
that mesh with spiral grooves on a circular plate within the chuck.
This plate can be rotated by the key inserted in the square socket,
resulting in simultaneous radial motion of the jaws. Since the jaws
maintain an equal distance from the chuck axis, cylindrical
workpieces are automatically centered when gripped.

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

• With the four jaw chuck, each jaw can be adjusted independently by rotation of the
• With the four jaw chuck, each jaw can be adjusted independently
by rotation of the radially mounted threaded screws.
• Although accurate mounting of a workpiece can be time
consuming, a four-jaw chuck is often necessary for non-cylindrical
workpieces.

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

• Collets are used when smooth bar stock, or workpieces that have been machined to a
Collets are used when smooth bar stock, or workpieces that have been
machined to a given diameter, must be held more accurately than
normally can be achieved in a regular three or four jaw chuck.
Collets are relatively thin tubular steel bushings that are split into three
longitudinal segments over about two thirds of their length.
The smooth internal surface of the split end is shaped to fit the piece of
stock that is to be held.
The external surface at the split end is a taper that fits within an internal
taper of a collet sleeve placed in the spindle hole.
When the collet is pulled inward into the spindle, by means of the draw
bar that engages threads on the inner end of the collet, the action of the
two mating tapers squeezes the collet segments together, causing them
to grip the workpiece.
A collet (a) and a collet mounting assembly (b) are shown here.

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

• For accurate turning operations or in cases where the long work surface is not truly
• For accurate turning operations or in cases where the long work surface
is not truly cylindrical, the workpiece can be turned between centers.
• Initially the workpiece has a conical center hole drilled at each end to
provide location for the lathe centers.
• Before supporting the workpiece between the centers (one in the
headstock and one in the tailstock), a clamping device called a ‘dog’ is
secured to the workpiece.
• The dog is arranged so that the tip is inserted into a slot in the drive plate
mounted on the main spindle, ensuring that the workpiece will rotate with
the spindle.

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

•Lathe centers support the workpiece between the headstock and the tailstock. • The center used in
•Lathe centers support the workpiece between the headstock and
the tailstock.
• The center used in the headstock spindle is called the ‘live’ center.
It rotates with the headstock spindle.
•The ‘dead’ center is located in the tailstock spindle. This center
usually does not rotate and must be hardened and lubricated to
withstand the wear of the revolving work.
•The workpiece must have perfectly drilled and countersunk holes
to receive the centers.
•The center must have a 60-degree point.

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

For accurate machining, cylindrical parts can be turned between centers. Hardened “dead” centers are mounted in
For accurate machining, cylindrical parts can be turned between centers.
Hardened “dead” centers are
mounted in the tailstock; they do not
rotate with the workpiece and must
be lubricated.
Hardened “live” centers are mounted in the
tailstock; they rotate with the workpiece and
do not need lubricatio

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

Carriers or lathe dogs and Catch plates or Drive plates • Carriers or lathe dogs and
Carriers or lathe dogs and Catch plates or Drive plates
• Carriers or lathe dogs and catch plates are used to hold workpiece when
it is held between centers.
Carriers or lathe dogs are attached to the end of the workpiece by
setscrews; catch plates are either screwed or bolted to the nose of head
stock spindle.
• A projecting pin from the carriers fits into the slots provided in the catch
plate
A catch plate with live centre
Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005
Face plate • A face plate consists of a circular disc bored out and thread to
Face plate
• A face plate consists of a circular disc bored out and thread to fit the
nose of the spindle.
• This has radial, plain and T slots for holding work by bolts and clamps.
• Face plates are used for holding workpieces which cannot be held
conveniently held between centers or chucks.
A face plate

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

Angle plates • This is a cast iron plate having two faces machined to make them
Angle plates
• This is a cast iron plate having two faces machined to make them
absolutely at right angles to each other.
• Holes and slots are provided on both faces so that it may be clamped
on the face plate and can hold the workpiece on the other face by
clamps and bolts.
• Angle plates
are
used in conjunction
with a
face
plate when the
holding surface of the workpiece should be kept horizontal, as for
example, in machining a flange of a pipe elbow.
When eccentric jobs are bolted on the face plate, a balance weight or
counter weight must be added.
Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005
MManandrel drelss • A mandrel is a device for holding and rotating hollow workpiece that has
MManandrel
drelss
• A mandrel is a device for holding and rotating hollow workpiece
that has been previous drilled or bored.
• The work revolves with the mandrel which is mounted between
two centers.
• It is generally made of high carbon steel.
• The ends are slightly smaller in diameter and flattened to provide
effective gripping surface of the lathe dog screws.

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

Steady rest • A steady rest consists of cast iron base, which may be made to
Steady rest
• A steady rest consists of cast iron base, which may be made to slide on
the lathe bed ways and clamped at any desired position where support is
necessary.
• This is so designed that the upper position is hinged at one end which
facilitates setting and removal of the workpiece without disturbing the
position of the steady rest.
• There are three jaws on the steady rest, two on the lower base and one
on the upper frame, the jaws may be adjusted radially by rotating
individual screws to accommodate work of different diameters.
• The main function of the steady rest is to provide support to a long
slender work.
For a very long work more than one steady rest may be used.
• However the carriage cannot be fed to the full length of the work when
steady rest is used.

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

Steady rest • The steady rest supports long, small diameter stock that otherwise could not be
Steady rest
• The steady rest supports long, small diameter stock that otherwise could
not be turned. The steady rest can also replace the tailstock to allow for
cutting tool access at the outboard end of your workpiece.
• To mount the steady rest:
3. Secure to bedway from below with the locking plate.
4. A single hex bolt, along with a nut and washer, is used to hold the steady
rest in place. See Figure.
5. The bearing surfaces on the steady rest should receive periodic
lubrication while in use to prevent premature wear.

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

Steady rest • To adjust the Steady Rest: 1. Loosen the lock nuts. 2. Open the
Steady rest
• To adjust the Steady Rest:
1. Loosen the lock nuts.
2. Open the sliding fingers by turning the knurled screws until they fit
around the workpiece. Secure the steady rest in position.
3. Tighten the knurled screws so that the fingers are snug, but not tight
against the workpiece. Tighten the setscrews and the lock nuts.
4. Lubricate the brass points with machine oil.

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

Follower rest: • A follower rest consists of a “C” like casting having two adjustable jaws
Follower rest:
• A follower rest consists of a “C” like casting having two adjustable jaws
which support the work.
• The rest is bolted to the back end of the carriage and moves with it.
• Before setting the follower rest, the end of the workpiece is machined
slightly wider than the jaws to provide the true bearing surface.
• The tool is slightly in advance position than the jaws, and the tool is fed
longitudinally be the carriage, the jaws always follow the tool giving
continuous support to the workpiece.
• The follower rest prevents the job from springing away when the cut is
made and is used in finish turning operation.

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

Follower rest: • The follow rest is normally used with small diameter stock to prevent the
Follower rest:
• The follow rest is normally used with small diameter stock to prevent the
workpiece from “springing” under pressure from the turning tool. To
install the follow rest:
1. The follow rest is secured to the saddle with two cap screws. See Figure
.
2. The bearing surfaces on the follow rest are similar to those on the
steady rest, and should be lubricated to prevent premature wear.

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

After deciding on the machine tool and cutting tool, the following main cutting conditions have to
After deciding on the machine tool and cutting tool, the following main
cutting conditions have to be considered:
• Cutting speed
• Depth of cut
• Feed rate
Feed, speed, and depth of cut have a direct effect on productivity, tool
life, and machine requirements. Therefore these elements must be
carefully chosen for each operation. Whether the objective is rough
cutting or finishing will have a great influence on the cutting conditions
selected.

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

In belt driven lathes the cutting speed may be changed using different pulley combinations
In belt driven lathes the cutting speed may be changed using different
pulley combinations

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

In some lathes feed can be changed automatically using the levers in different positions as given
In some lathes feed can be changed automatically using the levers in different
positions as given in the chart

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

•When roughing, the goal is usually maximum stock removal in minimum time with minor consideration given to tool life and surface finish.

•The first is to use a heavy feed because this makes the most efficient use of power and, with less tool contact, tends to create less chatter.

•There are some exceptions where a deeper cut is more advantageous than a heavy feed, especially where longer tool life is needed.

•Increasing the depth of cut will increase tool life over an increase in feed rate. But, as long as it is practical and chip formation is satisfactory, it is better to choose a heavy feed rate.

• Even more important, tool life is greatly reduced at high cutting speeds unless coated carbide or other modern tool materials are used, and these also have practical speed limits.

•Tool life is decreased most at high speeds, although some decrease in tool life occurs when

feed or depth of cut is increased. This stands to reason, because more material will be

removed in less time.

• It becomes choice then, between longer tool life and increased stock removal. Since

productivity generally outweighs tool costs, the most practical cutting conditions are usually

those, which first, are most productive, and second, will achieve reasonable tool life.

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

•When taking finishing cuts, feed rate and depth of cut are of minor concern. •The feed rate cannot exceed that which is necessary to achieve the required surface finish and the depth of cut will be light. • However, the rule about speed will still apply. The speeds will generally be higher for finish cuts, but they must still be within the operating speed of the tool material. •Tool life is of greater concern for finish cuts. It is often better to strive for greater tool life at the expense of material removed per minute. •If tool wear can be minimized, especially on a long cut, greater accuracy can be achieved, and matching cuts which result from tool changes, can be avoided.

•One way to minimize tool wear during finishing cuts is to use the

maximum feed rate that will still produce the required surface finish. The

less time the tool spends on the cut, the less tool wear can occur.

•Another way to minimize tool wear during a long finishing cut is to

reduce the speed slightly.

•Coolant, spray mist, or air flow, will also extend tool life because it reduces the heat of the tool.

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

Turning

Turning is

a

metal cutting process used for

the generation of

cylindrical surfaces.

 

Normally the workpiece is rotated on a spindle and the tool is fed

into it radially,

axially, or both ways simultaneously, to give the

required surface.

The term ‘turning’, in the general sense, refers to the generation of

any cylindrical surface with a single point tool.

• Turning is the most commonly used operation in Lathe. By turning

operation excess material from the work piece is removed to

produce a cylindrical or cone shaped surface.

Two of the common types of turning are: Straight turning and taper

turning.

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

•In this operation the work is held in the spindle and is rotated whole the tool
•In this operation the work is held in the spindle and is rotated whole
the tool is fed past the work piece in a direction parallel to the axis of
rotation.
•The surface generated is a cylindrical surface.

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

Parts should be designed so that can be fixtured and clamped in the work holding devices

Dimensional accuracy and surface finish specified should be as wide as possible

Avoid sharp corners, tapers, and major dimensional variations in the part

Use near-net-shape forming

Cutting tools should be able to travel across workpiece without obstruction

Standard cutting tools, inserts, and toolholders should be used

Materials should be selected for their machineability

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

Minimize tool overhang

Support workpiece rigidly

Use machine tools with high stiffness and high damping capacity

When tools begin to vibrate and chatter, modify one or more of the process parameters, such as tool geometry, cutting speed, feed rate, depth of cut, or use of cutting fluid

Chip Collection Systems

Drop them on a conveyor belt

Dragging the chips from a setting tank

Using augers with feed screws

Magnetic conveyors

Vacuum methods

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

High-Speed Machining

 

High speed: 600 - 1,800 m/min

Very high speed: 1,800 - 1,800 m/min

Ultrahigh speed: > 18,000

– Important factors

 

• Power and stiffness of the tools

• Stiffness of tool holder

• Spindle design

• Inertia of the machine-tool components

• Fast feed drives

• Level of automation

• Selection of appropriate cutting tool

Ultraprecision Machining – uses a single-crystal diamond, also known as

 

diamond turning

Hard turning

When hardness increases, machinability decreases

Uses polycrystalline cubic boron nitride, cermit, or ceramic cutting tools

– Competes successfully with the grinding process

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

•A taper may be defined as a uniform increase or decrease in

diameter of a work piece measured along its length.

•In a Lathe taper turning is an operation to produce a conical surface

by gradual reduction in diameter from a cylindrical job.

•Taper turning can be done by the following ways;

By a form tool.

By setting over the tailstock.

By swiveling the compound rest.

By taper turning attachment.

By compound feed.

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

D d α B α C Where, D = Large diameter of taper in mm. A
D
d
α
B
α
C
Where,
D = Large diameter of taper in mm.
A
d = small diameter of taper in mm.
l
l = length of taper part in mm
2α = full taper angle
α = angle of taper angle or half taper angle.
The amount of taper in a workpiece is specified by ratio of the difference in diameters of the
taper to its length. This is termed as conicity and designated by letter K.
From figure
D
d
D
d
AB =
K =
2
l
BC
=
l
D
d
tan
=
2
l
K
tan
=
2
K
= 2tan
Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005
Taper turning by a form tool Taper turning by a form tool uses a tool which
Taper turning by a form tool
Taper turning by a form tool uses a tool which is a broad nose tool having straight
cutting edge.
The tool is set on the work piece at half taper angle, and is fed straight into the work
to generate a tapered angle.
This method is limited to turn limited length taper only.
This is due to the reason that the metal is removed by entire cutting edge, and any
increase in length of the taper will necessitate the use of a wider cutting edge.
This will require excessive cutting pressure, which may distort the work due to
vibration and spoil the work due to vibration and spoil the work surface.
Work piece
Tool
feed
Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005
Taper turning by setting over the tailstock The principle of turning taper by this method is
Taper turning by setting over the tailstock
The principle of turning taper by this method is to shift the axis of rotation
of the workpiece, at an angle to the lathe axis, and feeding the tool
parallel to the lathe axis. The angle at which axis of rotation of the
workpiece is shifted is equal to half angle of taper. The amount of setover
is limited. This method is suitable for turning small taper on long jobs.
The main disadvantage of this method is that the live and dead centres
are not equally stressed and the wear is not uniform. Moreover, the lathe
dog being set at an angle, the angular velocity is not constant.
From geometry :
BC
=
setover
BC
=
AB sin
D
setover
=
L sin
If the angle
, the anle of taper, is very small, for all practical purpose
B
sin
=
tan
S
α
d
setover
=
L tan
C
A
D
d
α
setover
=
L
2
l
l
entire length of the work X conicity
setover
=
2
if the taper is turned on the entire length of the workpiece, then l
=
L
D
d
setover
=
2
Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005
Taper turning by swiveling the compound rest This method employs the principle of taper turning by
Taper turning by swiveling the compound rest
This method employs the principle of taper turning by rotating the workpiece on the
lathe axis and feeding the tool at an angle to the axis of rotation of the workpiece.
The tool is mounted on the compound rest, is attached to a circular base, graduated
in degrees, which may be swiveled and clamped at any desired angle.
Once the compound
rest
is
set
at
the
desired
half taper angle, rotation of the
compound slide will cause the
tool
to
be
fed
at
an
angle and generate the
corresponding taper.
This method is limited to turn a short but steep taper owing to limited movement of
the cross slide.
The movement of the tool in this method is controlled by hand, thus this gives low
production rate and poor surface capacity.
Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005
Taper turning by taper turning attachment • The principle of taper turning by taper turning attachment
Taper turning by taper turning attachment
The principle of taper turning by taper
turning attachment is to guide the tool in
a straight path set at an angle to the axis
of rotation of the workpiece, while the
work is being held by a chuck or between
centres aligned to the lathe axis.
• A taper turning attachment consists of a
frame or bracket which is attached to the
rear end of the lathe bed and supports a
guide bar pivoted at the centre.
• The bar having graduations in degrees
may be swiveled on either side of the
zero graduation and is set at any desired
angle with the lathe axis.
• When taper turning attachment is used,
the cross slide is first made free from the
lead screw by removing the binder screw.

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

TTaper aper turnin turningg bbyy tatapperer tur turnning ing at attac tachhmmenentt • The rear end
TTaper
aper turnin
turningg bbyy tatapperer tur
turnning
ing at
attac
tachhmmenentt
The rear end of the cross slide is
tightened with
the
guide
block
by
means of bolt. When longitudinal feed
is engaged, the tool mounted on the
cross slide will follow the angular path,
as the guide block will slide on the
guide bar set at an angle to the lathe
axis.
Taper turning by this method does not
disturb the alignment of the live and
dead centre.
By this process both steep and small
taper can be made over any length of
the workpiece.

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

Taper turning attachment
Taper turning attachment

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

Related turning operations: (a) chamfering, (b) parting, (c) threading, (d) boring, (e) drilling, (f) knurling.
Related turning operations: (a) chamfering, (b) parting, (c) threading, (d) boring, (e)
drilling, (f) knurling.

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

Facing: Facing is an operation for generating flat surface at the ends of a work piece.
Facing: Facing is an operation for generating flat surface at the ends of a work
piece. In this operation the feed given is in a direction perpendicular to the axis of
rotation.
First, clamp the part securely in a lathe chuck.
Then, install a facing tool
Bring the tool approximately into position, but slightly off of the part.
Always turn the spindle by hand before turning it on. This ensures that no parts
interfere with the rotation of the spindle.
Move the tool outside the part and adjust the saddle to take the desired depth
of cut.
Then, feed the tool across the face with the cross slide.
After facing, there is a very sharp edge on the part. Break the edge with a file.

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

• Chamfering: It is a operation of beveling the extreme end of a work piece. This
• Chamfering: It is a operation of beveling the extreme end of a work
piece. This done to remove unwanted metal projections at the ends and to
protect end of the work piece from being damaged and to have a better
look.
• Knurling: Knurling is process of embossing a diamond shaped pattern on
the surface of the work piece. The purpose of knurling is to provide an
effective gripping surface on a work piece to prevent it from slipping
when operated by hand. Knurling is done with a special tool called
knurling tool. This tool consists of a set of hardened steel rollers in a
holder with teeth cut on their surface in definite pattern.

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

• Grooving or Recessing Operations: Grooving or recessing operations is the operation of reducing the diameter
• Grooving or Recessing Operations: Grooving or recessing operations is
the operation of reducing the diameter of a workpiece over a very narrow
surface. Grooving or recessing operations, sometimes also called necking
operations, are often done on workpiece shoulders to ensure the correct fit
for mating parts.
Drilling/reaming/ Boring: These are operations to accurately make holes on
a workpiece. These operations uses the tailstock of the lathe. The tool is held
on the tailstock and is fed toward the rotating work piece.

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

Parting: In. this operation a flat nose tool is used to cut the work piece, with
Parting: In. this operation a flat nose tool is used to cut the work piece, with feed in
the direction perpendicular to the axis of rotation. A parting tool is deeper and
narrower than a turning tool. It is designed for making narrow grooves and for
cutting off parts. When a parting tool is installed, ensure that it hangs over the tool
holder enough that the holder will clear the workpiece (but no more than that).
Ensure that the parting tool is perpendicular to the axis of rotation and that the tip is
the same height as the center of the part. A good way to do this is to hold the tool
against the face of the part. Set the height of the tool, lay it flat against the face of
the part, then lock the tool in place. When the cut is deep, the side of the part can
rub against sides of the groove, so it's especially important to apply cutting fluid. In
this clip, a part is cut off from a piece of stock.

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

Fig : (a) Cutting screw threads on a lathe with a single-point cutting tool. (b) Cutting
Fig : (a) Cutting screw threads on a lathe with a single-point cutting tool. (b) Cutting screw threads with a
single-point tool in several passes, normally utilized for large threads. The small arrows in the figures show
the direction of feed, and the broken lines show the position of the cutting tool as time progresses. (c) A
typical carbide insert and toolholder for cutting screw threads. (d) Cutting internal screw threads with a
carbide insert.

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

• In thread cutting operation the first step is to remove the excess material from the
In
thread
cutting
operation
the
first step
is
to
remove the excess material from the workpiece to
make its diameter equal to the major diameter of
the thread to be cut.
The shape or form of the thread depends on the
shape of the cutting tool to be used. The tool point
must be ground so that it has the same angle as
the thread to be cut. In a metric thread the included
angle of the cutting edge should be ground exactly
60 0 .Typical angles are 60° for Vee threads, and 29°
for ACME threads. A thread gauge can be used to
measure thread angles. (also called Centre Gauge
or Fish Tail Gauge).
The top of the nose of the tool should be set at the
same height as the centre of the workpiece.
The correct gear ratio is required between the
machine spindle and the lead screw. This can be
determined in the following manner:

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

Thread cutting calculations: To calculate the gears required for cutting a thread of certain pitch can
Thread cutting calculations:
To calculate the gears required for cutting a thread of certain pitch can calculated
from the following formula:
The gear of the spindle shaft is the driver and the gear on the leadscrew is the
driven gear.
Driver teeth
Driven teeth
=
Speed of the leadscrew
Speed of the spindle
=
Pitch of the screw to be cut
Pitch of the lead screw
Note: Often engine lathes are equipped with a set of gears ranging from 20 to
120 teeth in steps of 5 teeth, and one gear with 127 teeth.
To cut metric thread on English leadscrews: The cutting of metric thread on a
lathe with an English leadscrew may be carried out by introducing a translating gear
of 127 teeth.
If the leadscrew has n threads per inch to cut p mm pitch then,
Driver teeth
Pitch of the screw to be cut (p)
5 pn
=
=
Driven teeth
1
127
127
Pitch of the lead screw
n
5
The factor 127/5 from the fact that 25.4 mm is equal to 1 inch. So one translating gear, with
127 teeth is necessary.
Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005
5. Change gears leadscrew. of correct sizes are then fitted between the spindle and the When
5. Change gears
leadscrew.
of correct sizes are
then fitted between
the
spindle and the
When the Change gears are not fitted and when the Change gears are fitted (in this case a
compound drive is used)

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

To change gears in a all geared lathe: 1. Loosen the nut below the middle gear
To change gears in a all geared lathe:
1. Loosen the nut below the middle gear and rotate the bracket so the middle gear
moves away from gear F.
2.
Loosen the cap screw at the center of the middle gear and slide it away from gear
G.
3.
Gear F can be removed by loosening the cap screw in its middle. Gear G has a
setscrew in its rim. Loosen this screw and pull the gear off of the shaft.
4.
Replace these two gears with the gears which will produce the desired pitch and
secure with screws provided.

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

• • The speed of the spindle should be at a lower value and the half
The speed of the spindle should be at a lower value and the half nut is engaged.
In thread cutting there are two methods of feeding the tool into the workpiece. In
the first method the tool is feed perpendicularly into the workpiece. In the second
method the tool is feed at half the angle of thread by swiveling the compound
rest. The second method has distinct advantages over the first as it permits to
have a top rake, cuts with single cutting edge, allows chips to flow easily, and
reduces the strain on the tool. So the later method is used for roughing cuts and
the first method is used for finishing cuts.
After the tool has produced a helical groove upto the end of the work, the tool is
withdrawn by the use of cross slide.
• Thread catching: The complete depth of cut of the thread cannot be attained in a
single pass. Several cuts have to be taken till the required depth of cut is
obtained. For this, the tool has to be withdrawn from the thread groove after
completing each cut and then brought back to the starting position. Therefore we
should have a suitable method so that the tool follows the previously cut thread
groove, otherwise the threads will be spoiled. The process of engaging the
thread with the same groove is called thread catching or thread chasing. The
following methods can be used for thread catching:

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

• When the length of the threaded part is short, after each cut, the carriage is
When the length of the threaded part is short, after each cut, the carriage is
brought back to its starting position by reversing the direction of rotation of lead
screw. Therefore in this case the half nut is not disengaged from the leadscrew
so the relative position is maintained.
• When threading long jobs, the above mentioned method is not suitable, as it
requires lot of time. So after each cut the machine is stopped, the carriage is
disengaged from the leadscrew, by disengaging the half nut. It is then brought
back to the starting position by rotating the hand wheel in suitable direction. If
the leadscrew pitch is an exact multiple of the pitch to be cut than the half nut
can engaged anywhere and the tool will follow the previously cut groove. But if
not, a reference dial present on the right hand side of the apron called thread
chasing dial has to be used. A fixed zero mark is provided on the saddle
surface adjacent to the periphery of the dial. When the first cut is to be taken,
the half nut is engaged when zero mark and in subsequent cuts the half nut
should be engaged when the zero mark coincides with the same mark on the
dial.

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

DN Cutting Speed V = m/min 1000 Where D = Diameter of the work in mm
DN
Cutting Speed V =
m/min
1000
Where D
=
Diameter of the work in mm (Average of initial and final)
N
=
Speed of the work in rpm.
If f be the feed in mm/rev. and l be the length of the job in mm ,
l
be the length of overetravel of the tool in mm (usually taken as 2 to 3 mm), then
o
l
+
l
Machining time =
o
min
f
N
This is the time required for one pass. A job is completed in several passes.
Let , P
& P
=
No. of roughing and finishing passes respectively.
r
f
d
& d
=
depth of cut for roughing and finishing in mm.
r
f
A
A f
A
=
A
=
Total maching allowance
Finish machining allowance.
D
f
f
D
i
A - A
A
f
f
Then, P
=
and P
=
r
f
d
d
r
f
l (mm)
For facing operation the diameter used for calculating is the average of the blank diameter
and the lowest diameter (zero in case of complete facing).

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

The standard engine lathe is versatile, but it is not a high production

machine. When production requirements are high, more automated turning

machines must be used. The turret lathe represents the first step from the

engine lathe toward high production turning machines. The turret lathe is

similar to the engine lathe except that tool-holding turrets replace the

tailstock and the tool post-compound assembly. The ‘skill of the worker’ is

built into these machines, making it possible for inexperienced operators to

reproduce identical parts. In contrast, engine lathe requires a skilled operator

and requires more time to produce parts that are dimensionally the same.

The principal characteristic of turret lathes is that the tools for consecutive

operations are set up for use in the proper sequence. Although skill is

required to set and adjust the tools properly, once they are correct, less skill

is required to operate the turret lathe.

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

The difference between the engine and turret lathes is that the

turret lathe is adapted to quantity production work, whereas the

engine lathe is used primarily for miscellaneous jobbing, toolroom,

or single-operation work. The features of a turret lathe that make it

a quantity production machine are:

•Tools may be set up in the turret in the proper sequence for the

operation.

•Each station is provided with a feed stop or feed trip so that each

cut of a tool is the same as its previous cut.

•Multiple cuts can be taken from the same station at the same time,

such as two or more turning and/or boring cuts.

•Combined cuts can be made; tools on the cross slide can be used

at the same time that tools on the turret are cutting.

•Rigidity in holding work and tools is built into the machine to permit

multiple and combined cuts.

•Turret lathes can also have attachments for taper turning, thread

chasing and duplicating, and can be made.

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

Horizontal turret lathes are made in two general designs and are known as the ram and
Horizontal turret lathes are made in two general designs and are
known as the ram and saddle-types. The ram-type turret lathe is
shown in Figure has the turret mounted on a slide or ram which
moves back and forth on a saddle clamped to the lathe bed. The
saddle-type turret lathe shown in Figure has the turret mounted
directly on a saddle which moves back and forth with the turret.
Ram
Ram-ty-typepe hohorriizont
zontaall turr
turret
et lalatthehe has
has the
the tturr
urreett moun
mountetedd oonn aa sslilidede oorr rramam..
Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005
Sadd Saddle-typ le-typee turr turret et llaathe the hhaass tthehe turre turrett mmouounted nted di dirrecectltlyy
Sadd
Saddle-typ
le-typee turr
turret
et llaathe
the hhaass tthehe turre
turrett mmouounted
nted di
dirrecectltlyy oonn the
the sasadddl
dlee..
Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005
DDiiffer ffereenncecess bbeetwtween een aa RRaamm tytypepe or or CCaappsta stann anandd SSadaddl dlee tytyppee or
DDiiffer
ffereenncecess bbeetwtween
een aa RRaamm tytypepe or
or CCaappsta
stann anandd
SSadaddl
dlee tytyppee or
or aa TTur
urrret
et llaatthehe
The turret of a capstan lathe is
mounted on a short slide or ram which
:
slides on the saddle. The saddle is
clamped on bedways after adjusting
the length of the workpiece. Thus in a
capstan lathe, the travel of the turret is
dependent upon the length of the travel
of the ram. This limits the maximum
length of the work to be machined in
one setting.
• The turret of a turret lathe is mounted
on a saddle which slides directly on
the bed. This feature enables the turret
to be moved on the entire length of the
bed and can machine longer work.

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

DDiiffer ffereenncecess bbeetwtween een aa RRaamm tytypepe or or CCaappsta stann anandd SSadaddl dlee tytyppee or
DDiiffer
ffereenncecess bbeetwtween
een aa RRaamm tytypepe or
or CCaappsta
stann anandd
SSadaddl
dlee tytyppee or
or aa TTur
urrret
et llaatthehe
• In the case of turret lathe, the turret is
mounted on the saddle which slides
:
directly on the lathe bedways. This
type of construction provides utmost
rigidity to the tool support as the
entire cutting load is taken up by the
lathe bed directly. In the case of a
capstan lathe as the ram feeds into the
work, the overhanging of the ram
from the stationary saddle presents a
non-rigid construction which is
subjected to bending, deflection or
vibration under heavy cutting load ..

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

DDiiffer ffereenncecess bbeetwtween een aa RRaamm tytypepe or or CCaappsta stann anandd SSadaddl dlee tytyppee or
DDiiffer
ffereenncecess bbeetwtween
een aa RRaamm tytypepe or
or CCaappsta
stann anandd
SSadaddl
dlee tytyppee or
or aa TTur
urrret
et llaatthehe
On a capstan lathe the hexagonal
turret can be moved back and forth
:
much more rapidly without having to
move the entire saddle unit. Thus
capstan lathes are particularly handy
for small articles which require light
and fast cuts. While operating the
machine by hand, there is less
fatigue to the operator, due to
lightness of the ram, whereas in the
case of turret lathe hand feeding is a
laborious process due to the
movement of the entire saddle unit.

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

DDiiffer

ffereenncecess bbeetwtween

een aa RRaamm tytypepe or

or CCaappsta

stann anandd

SSadaddl

dlee tytyppee or

or aa TTur

urrret

et llaatthehe

• Some turret lathes are equipped with crosswise movement of the

:

hexagonal turret. The crosswise movement may be effected by hand or

power. This feature enables turning of large diameters, facing, contour

turning and many other operation on the lathe.

• Heavier turret lathes are equipped with power chucks like air operated

chucks for holding large workpieces quickly.

• In the case of a capstan lathe, the cross slide is mounted on a carriage

which rests on the bedways between head stock and the ram. The

carriages rests on both the front and rear ways on the top of the bed.

Some turret lathe are equips with side hung type carriage. The carriage of

this type does not require support from the rear bedways but slides on the

top and bottom guideways provided at the front of the lathe. This

construction enables larger diameter of work to be swung above the lathe

bedways. There is no rear tool post on this type of machine as the

carriage does not extend upto rear bedways.

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

• The turret 1 is mounted on the spindle 5, which rests on bearing on the
• The turret 1 is mounted on the spindle 5, which rests on bearing on the
turret saddle.
• The index plate 2, the bevel gear 3 and the indexing ratchet 4 are keyed
to the spindle 5.

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

• The plunger 14 fitted within the housing and mounted on the saddle locks the index
• The plunger 14 fitted within the housing and mounted on the saddle locks the
index plate by spring pressure 15 and prevents any rotary movement of the turret
as the tool feeds into the work.
• A pin 13 fitted on the plunger 14 projects out of the housing.
• An actuating cam 10 and indexing pawl 7 are attached to the lathe bed 9 at the
desired position.

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

• Both the cam and the pawl are spring loaded. • As the turret reaches the
• Both the cam and the pawl are spring loaded.
• As the turret reaches the backward position , the actuating cam 10 lifts the
plunger 14 out of the groove in the index plate due to the riding of the pin 13 on
the beveled surface of the cam 10 and thus unlocks the index plate 2.
• The spring loaded pawl 7 which by this time engages with a groove on the
ratchet plate 4 causes the turret to rotate as the turret head moves backward.

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

• When the index plate or the turret rotates through one sixth of revolution, the pin
• When the index plate or the turret rotates through one sixth of revolution, the pin
13 and plunger 14 drops out of cam 10 and the plunger locks the index plate at
the next groove.
• The turret is thus index by one sixth of revolution and again locked into the new
position automatically.
• The turret holding the next tool is now fed forward and the pawl is released from
the ratchet plate by the spring pressure.

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

• The synchronized movement of the stop rods with the indexing of the turret can also
• The synchronized movement of the stop rods with the indexing of the turret can
also be understood from the figure above.
• The bevel pinion 6 meshes with bevel gear 3 mounted on the turret spindle.
• The extension of the pinion shaft carries a plate holding six adjustable stops rods
8.
• As the turret rotates through one sixth of revolution the bevel gear 3 caused the
plate to rotate.

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

• The ratio of the teeth between the pinion and gear are so chosen that when
• The ratio of the teeth between the pinion and gear are so chosen that when the
tool mounted on the face of the turret is indexed to bring it to the cutting
position, the particular stop rod for controlling the longitudinal travel of the tool
is aligned with stop 12.

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

• The setting of the stop rods 8 for limiting the feed of each operation may
• The setting of the stop rods 8 for limiting the feed of each operation may be
adjusted by unscrewing the lock nuts and rotating the stop rods on the plate.
• Thus six stop rods may be adjusted for controlling the longitudinal travel of the
tools mounted on the six faces of the turret.

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

• In order to perform any work on turret lathes, proper planning for

systematic operations to be carried out in advance before setting the

work on lathe. The following procedures should be adopted to plan and

execute a work.

• For effective planning and control, for each turret lathe upto-date capacity

chart is an essential requirement. This chart is supplied by the

manufacturers contains every working details of the machine such as the

maximum and minimum diameter of the work that can be mounted,

maximum length of stroke of the turret and saddle, maximum length of

the cross slide movement, tools available etc.

• For tooling layout, a drawing of the finished part is required.

• Proper selection of tools and tool holder is to be made.

• Then the finished drawing is to be superimposed on the capacity chart

and the tools to be used are drawn out in proper sequence. The length of

travel of each tool is now calculated from the chart and position of stop

decided.

• Proper spindle speed, feed and depth of cut is then decided.

• The work and the tools are then set on the machine according to the

planned chart.

• A typical example of such chart is given below.

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

The planning for Production of a hexagonal bolt is given below: • • The capacity chart
The planning for Production of a hexagonal bolt is given below:
The capacity chart is made available.
The drawing of the finished hexagonal bolt is taken into consideration.
10 mm
37 mm
16 mm
Hexagonal Bolt
The tools and equipments such as bar stop, roller steady turning tool holder,
roller steady bar ending tool holder, self opening die head, chamfering tool,
parting tool are collected.
• The drawing of the work and tools are superimposed on the capacity chart to
decide the length of travel of the tool and the position of stops.

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

REAR SQUARE TURRET T2 T3 T6 T 1 WORK T4 HEX TURRET T 5 FRONT SQUARE
REAR
SQUARE TURRET
T2
T3
T6
T 1
WORK
T4
HEX TURRET
T 5
FRONT
SQUARE TURRET
T1 = Bar stop, T2 = Roller steady box turning tool, T3 = Bar ending tool,
T4 = Self-opening die head, T5 = Chamfering tool and T6 = Parting tool
•Proper speeds and feeds for each operation are next calculated.
Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005
•Setting and machining operation are performed in the following order: Setting of bar stops: The bar
•Setting and machining operation are performed in the following order:
Setting of bar stops: The bar stop is placed on the first turret face. The bar stop
is set at a distance of 70 mm from the collet face. An extra length of 10 mm than
the bolt length is allowed, 4mm for parting off and 6 mm clearance of the collet
face so that the parting off tool may penetrate deep into work without interference.
Setting of the roller steady box turning tool: The roller steady box turning tool is
set on the next turret face for turning a diameter of 16 mm. The stop for turning tool
is set 20 mm from the collet face.

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

Setting of bar ending tool: The bar ending tool is set on the next turret face
Setting of bar ending tool: The bar ending tool is set on the next turret face and
is brought into operation after turning the bar. The stop is adjusted in position
accordingly.
Setting of self opening die head: The self opening die head is mounted on the
next face of the turret and dies are fitted into it to cut a thread of 16 mm diameter.
The stop is adjusted in position keeping in view the pulling out length of the die for
self releasing.

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005

Setting of chamfering tool: The chamfering tool is mounted on the four station turret on the
Setting of chamfering tool: The chamfering tool is mounted on the four station
turret on the cross slide and the extreme longitudinal position of the saddle is
adjusted by a stop. The cross feed movement of the cross slide is also adjusted by
a stop.
Setting of parting off tool: The parting off tool is set on the rear tool post on the
cross slide and longitudinal position of the parting tool is adjusted by the stop set at
a distance of 6 mm from the turret face.

Joyjeet Ghose, BIT, Mesra, Lecture notes on PE5005