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Asymmetric Federalism: Power that is devolved unequally across the country - some regions in Russia are much stronger

than others Autonomous republic: a territorial unit in the Soviet Union that was a member of the USSR They were populated by a large national (ethnic) of which it drew its name. They enjoyed little actual autonomy in the Soviet period. Upon the fall of the USSR, these republics became sovereign states within the Russian Federation. Berezovsky, Boris best known oligarch, he and six others control half of Russia's GNP, used media to ensure Yeltsin's reelection Bolsheviks Majority" in Russian; early name for Soviet Communist party. seized power and renamed the country Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), Lenin`s followers Boyars Catch-all Party Clientelism Catherine the Great tsar ruled Russia during the late 18th century Central Committee most important top government officials, a group of 300 party leaders that met twice a year Civil society in Russia private organizations and associations outside of politics, leas to low political participation, Russians don't attend church, belong to clubs, etc., 1% belong to political party, however appears to be growing, emerged as result of glasnost on issues like environment, ethnicity, gender, human rights, etc. Chechnya: ethnic republic that declared its independence in September 1991, against which Yeltsin launched a disastrous full-scale military attack in 1994 which led to the death of thousands of civilians. Largely Muslim, continues to struggle for independence from Russia. Collectivization : Stalin in the late 1920s and early 1930s and in China under Mao in the 1950s, took over privatized agricultural land and turned them into State Owned Enterprises (SOE's). Command economy: a strict form of socialism where governmental decisions dominate the economy with a myriad of central planning institutions. Confederation of Independent States unites the fifteen former republics of the Soviet Union, has little power over its members, Russia, trade agreements bind them, nationality issue divide them, Putin's involvement in elections in Ukraine was controversial, controversy in Estonia Conflict in Chechnya Constitution of 1993: Created the publicly-elected office of President, held in check by the Duma. It created a three-branch government. It is a semipresidential system and has a Constitutional Court Constitutional Court nineteen members, appointed by president, confirmed by Federation Council, moved to St. Petersburg away from political influence, POWER TO CHALLENGE CONSTITUTIONALITY, suffers from lack of legal training

CPRF Communist Party of Russian Federation second strongest party, even though never won a presidential election, far less reformist than other parties, opposed many reforms, continues to support stability of old regime, centralized planning and nationalism Crimean War Russia defeated in this war, convinced many of tsar's critics that Russian ways were backwards and in need of reform Cultural Heterogeneity numerous invasions meant different cultures, rapidly expanding borders stretched the empire to include more and more people, constant state of change with ethnicity, borders impossible to draw Decembrist Revolt Decrees have force of law, cabinet has a great deal of concentrated, centralized power, Duma has no power to censure cabinet, created United Aircraft Corporation Democratic centralism: An organized state designed by Lenin to control all aspects of the political system. Discipline and adherence to party dogma is "central" to running the state organization Democratic Socialism Demokratizatsia: the policy of democratization led by Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev in 1987. It was as an essential part of perestroika. The dictatorship of the elite was left behind in what eventually evolved into a multiparty state. De-Stalinization process that led to reforms such as loosening government censorship of press, decentralization of economic decision-making, restructuring of collective farms Duma lower house with 450 deputies, passes bills, approves budget, confirms president's appointments, very limited powers, impeachment process is cumbersome Equality of result Communists instilled appreciation for equality, most resent differences in wealth, different from equality of opportunity, not conducive to capitalism Federal Government Structure 89 regions, each bound by treaty to the Federation, most regions are called "Republics", many ruled themselves independently, authoritarian Federal system (state): A distribution of power between national and state governments, usually outlined in a formal document. Federation Council: The 178-seat upper house of Russia. Wields relatively little power and represents local interests. It must approve bills that involve certain issues, and can reject Duma legislation, but only within certain parameters. Five Year Plans Stalin's forced industrialization of the Soviet Union, starting in 1928. Foreign Direct Investment General secretary head of the Politburo, assumed full power as dictator of county Glasnost : Gorbachev's policy of "openness" or "publicity" which mirrored Deng's Democracy Movement of 1981. Gorbachev, Mikhail: Mikhail Gorbachev; Leader of the Soviet Union from 1985 to 1991 whose efforts to reform the USSR led to its collapse. Gorbachev's three-pronged reform plan Gosplan the State Planning Commission which oversaw Stalin's series of five year plans

Khrushchev, Nikita: Stalin's successor as head of the Communist Party; was more open in his dealings with the West and less menacing; also not was paranoid and secretive as Stalin; was said to believe in peaceful coexistence with the West and challenged the west in economic rather than military competition (very very bad joke in the future); helped Fidel Castro. Krai: one of six territorial units in the Russian Federation that lies in vastly unpopulated areas. . Its political status equals the Oblasts (non Russian territories) and became a member of the 89 member federation. Kulaks peasants who resisted that owned large farms, were forced to move to cities or labor camps Lebed, Alexander prominent general, gained political following before election of 1996, military coup unlikely, Russian Air Force would assert old vigor by long-range patrols by nuclear-capable bombers again, move was seen by many as rise in strength by many in military again, military spending has increased Lenin, V.I. Liberal Democrats most controversial party, headed by Vladimir Zhirinovsky, made headlines for extreme nationalist positions, attacks reformists, implied he would use nuclear weapons on Japan, anti-Semitic remarks, sexist comments, etc. Mafia Market Reform: A move toward a capitalistic society in a democracy like Russia or a "market" initiative in a country like China, where a central party still dictates movement within the economy. Marxism-Leninism: Marxism promotes the class struggle between workers and owners. Proletariat versus the bourgeoisies. `Lenin added the ingredients to how a central party would become a dictatorship of the elite and move the Marxist society along as a first step on the road to communism the political and economic philosophy of the Bolsheviks, expounded by Vladimir Lenin, which looked to an uprising of the proletariat that would abolish private property and enforce social equality Medvedev, Dmitri Mensheviks Nationality 80% are Russian, others include Tatars, Ukrainians, Armenians, Chuvashes, etc., determine organization of country into "federation", "autonomous regions", many would like their independence, nationalists have take to kidnappings, suicide bombings, xenophobic attacks in Russia, fatal school of soccer fan, etc., "Russians for Russians Near abroad New Economic Policy Nomenklatura: The selection process for the chosen few who command the communist bureaucracy within communist party circles in Russia and China. NTV: only independent television network, Kremlin took it over, tried to play honest reporting, was ousted by the government, correspondent died

Okrug: one of ten territorial units of the Russian Federation that are defined by the constitution of 1993 to be among the eighty-nine members of the federation with a status equal to that of the republics, oblasts and krai. Oligarchy: rule by a few. s a form of power structure in which power effectively rests with a small number of people Oligarch: Russian Captains of Industry who wield tremendous economic power but politically have been cut off from political power by Vladimir Putin. Most seized power during the Shock therapy session of Yeltsin in the 1990.s Patriots of Russia managed to win 8% of vote in regional elections in 2011, came in third, Kremlin product, "statists" and "patriots" aiming to build "great and prosperous" Russia, foil the Communist Party and Just Russia Perestroika: a decentralization of economic decision making that also encouraged a lessening of tensions with other adversarial nations including the United States. a policy initiated by Mikhail Gorbachev that involved restructuring of the social and economic status quo in communist Russia towards a market based economy and society "shock therapy" Peter the Great wanted to "modernize" Russia with a stronger army, navy, roads, communication, "Window on the West", intrigued by the west, learned shipbuilding, brought engineers, carpenters, etc. State corporatism state-sponsored organizations in this arrangement with the government because Soviet authorities argued that only the party could and should represent the people's interest Politburo a small group of men who climbed the ranks of the communist party through nomenklatura, an ordered path from local party soviets to the commanding heights of leadership.] Pravda official newspaper of the Soviet Union, reinvented itself as a tabloid, little to fear from official censorship because of investigative journalism, etc. Presidential-parliamentary system Privatization voucher: a certificate worth 10,000 rubles issued by the government to each Russian citizen in 1992 to be used to purchase shares in state enterprises undergoing the process of privatization. Vouchers could also be sold for cast or disposed of through newly created investment funds. Proletariat: the industrial working class, under Marxist's communist state. proportional representation Proportional representation (PR) is determined by party lists according to voting results Putin, Vladimir elected president of Russia in 2000, launched reforms aimed at boosting growth and budget revenues and keeping Russia on a strong economic track. Red Army/White Army Red and White civil war: The Bolsheviks and Trotsky were the Red fighting against the White (anti-Bolsheviks) and this leads to civil war. The white poorly organized leading to the Red victory.

rule of law: a state where the law prevails without party interference; a fundamental principle of Gorbachev's revolution Russian Orthodox Church Secret Speech Khrushchev revealed existence of a letter written by Lenin before he died, critical of Stalin, used it to denounce his practices Shock therapy: the state simultaneously imposing a wide range of radical economic changes, with the purpose of "shocking" the economy into a new mode of operation. Russia attempted this in the early 1990s and led to massive inflation and a ruble crisis Slavophile: Russian intellectuals in the early nineteenth century who favored resisting western European influences and taking pride in the traditional peasant values and institutions of the Slavic People Slavophile vs. Westernizer Spontaneous privatization: a process that occurred in the late 1980s and early 1990s in Russia which existing managers or ministry bureaucrats transformed promising state-owned enterprises into privatized entities in their own hands, without the existence of a clear legal framework for doing so. Stalinism: Stalin's government system that was acheived in the name of Communism but was more like totalitarianism; benefited only government and relied on terror tactics, secret police, bogus trials and assassination Statism The idea that the rights of the nation are supreme over the rights of the individuals who make up the nation, no separation of church and state Totalitarianism Tsars from "caesar"; Russia's emperor; sometimes spelled old Polish style, czar United Russia Party formed in April 2001 between Fatherland All-Russia Party and Unity Party, intended to support Putin in presidential election, won 221 seats in 2004, gained 64$ of vote in 2007, hard to define ideologically, PRO-PUTIN Window on the West St. Petersburg, a city built on newly conquered lands near Baltic Sea Yeltsin, Borris First person ever elected by popular vote in Russia; drafted a new constitution similar to France's which established a mixed presidential-parliamentary system anchored in a powerful presidency former member of the Soviet Politburo who declared the end of the old Soviet-style regime, first president of Russian Federation, shock therapy, uneven leader who used authoritarian rule, small group of family members Yobloko Zemstvas local parliaments in old Russia. Alexander II, the "tsar-liberator," set up the district and provincial assemblies. Zyuganov, Gennady CPRF leader, came in second in 1996 and 2000 presidential elections