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GENRE

Genres have characteristic features that are known to and recognised by audiences This formula is reproduced again and again E.g. in a Western we see similar characters, situations and settings In a music video we might use the example of a romance between the boy and girl, with the boy chasing the girl throughout the video. Conventional definitions of genres tend to be based on the notion that they constitute particular conventions of content (such as themes or settings - iconography) and/or form (including structure and style) which are shared by the texts which are regarded as belonging to them.

GENRE
Audiences develop an understanding that certain expectations may be fulfilled and they may find pleasure in predicting what will happen next Music videos follow this idea especially close often doing the obvious, or making it easy for the audience to follow along with what is going along. Audiences know what to expect from a genre but at the same time want some variations to prevent dissatisfaction and even boredom Thus any text in a genre is a combination of the familiar and the unexpected

THEORISTS
Rick Altman argues that genres are usually defined in terms of media language (SEMANTIC elements) and codes (in the Thriller, for example: guns, urban landscape, victims, stalkers, menaced women or even stars, like James Stewart or Jack Nicholson) or certain ideologies and narratives (SYNTACTIC elements Anxiety, tension, menacing situation) Jonathan Culler (1978) generic conventions exist to establish a contract between creator and reader so as to make certain expectations operative, allowing compliance and deviation from the accepted modes of intelligibility. Acts of communication are rendered intelligible only within the context of a shared conventional framework of expression. Tom Ryall (1998) sees this framework provided by the generic system; therefore, genre becomes a cognitive repository of images, sounds, stories, characters, and expectations

KEY COMPONETS
STOCK CHARACTERS STOCK PLOTS, SITUATIONS, ISSUES AND THEMES STOCK LOCATIONS AND BACKDROPS STOCK PROPS AND SIGNIFIERS MUSIC AND SOUNDS GENERIC CONVENTIONS

PROBLEMS OF GENRE
Actually defining a genre is inherently problematic E.g. What is the difference between an Action/Adventure film and a Thriller? Or between a thriller and a Horror film? Is Seven a Thriller, a Horror film, or a Film Noir? Is Film Noir a genre?

GENRE
Tom Ryall (1978) Genre provides a framework of structuring rules, in the shape of patterns/forms/styles/structures, which act as a form of supervision over the work of production of filmmakers and the work of reading by the audience. John Fiske defines genres as attempts to structure some order into the wide range of texts and meanings that circulate in our culture for the convenience of both producers and audiences. Steve Neale (1990) argues that Hollywoods generic regime performs two interrelated functions: i) to guarantee meanings and pleasures for audiences ii) to offset the considerable economic risks of industrial film production by providing cognitive collateral against innovation and difference.

GENRE
Audiences may read genre texts in a variety of ways They may, in effect, create and re-create genres Thus through audience responses new genres are created E.g. the new martial art films from Japan, Hong Kong etc which have become very popular in the USA and UK