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Survey Operations

LBL Acoustic Work Instruction

GR-SRV-409

Prepared by: Approved by:


1.0
Ver.

N.R. Shilling PJ Jansen


Issue for Use
Reason for Issue

Senior Surveyor Chief Surveyor


Jan.16.02
Issue Date Prepared by Approved by

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GR-SRV-409 Ver. 1.0

LBL Acoustic Work Instruction

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This is an electronically generated document, which has been reviewed and approved in accordance with the Acergy Management System. An audit trail of review and approval is available within the electronic system. The screen version of this document is the CONTROLLED COPY at all times. When printed it is considered a FOR INFORMATION ONLY copy, and it is the holders responsibility that he / she holds the latest valid version. , Acergy or a subsidiary thereof, Copyright 2006 and design right reserved. Copying and/or disclosure of the confidential information contained herein is prohibited without written permission of the proprietor.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. SCOPE.................................................................................................................3 2. OBJECTIVE..........................................................................................................3 3. REFERENCES.......................................................................................................3 4. DEFINITIONS......................................................................................................3 5. RESPONSIBILITIES.............................................................................................3 6. PROCEDURES......................................................................................................5 6.1 SYSTEM OBJECTIVES....................................................................................5 6.2 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION..................................................................................5 6.3 SYSTEM INSTALLATION.................................................................................6 6.3.1 TRANSPONDER PREPARATION.............................................................6 6.3.2 DEPLOYMENT....................................................................................6 6.3.3 DEPTH OBSERVATIONS......................................................................6 6.3.4 SOUND VELOCITY..............................................................................7 6.4 ARRAY CALIBRATION....................................................................................7 6.4.1 RELATIVE CALIBRATION.....................................................................7 6.4.2 ABSOLUTE CALIBRATION....................................................................8 6.5 SYSTEM OPERATION.....................................................................................9 6.5.1 PIPELINE AND ROV NAVIGATION.........................................................9 6.5.2 SPOOLPIECE ACOUSTIC METROLOGY ................................................10 6.5.3 STRUCTURE INSTALLATION..............................................................12

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LBL Acoustic Work Instruction

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1.

SCOPE This Work Instruction covers the basic operation of Long Baseline Acoustic systems.

2.

OBJECTIVE The objective of this work instruction is to enable suitably qualified personnel to calibrate and operate Long Baseline Acoustic systems.

3.

REFERENCES GR-SRV-032 GR-SRV-062 GR-SRV-301 GR-SRV-311 GR-SRV-322 Sub-Surface Navigation Practice LBL Operations Surface Navigation Practice Single Beam Echosounder Practice Gyro Calibration and Verification Practice

Transponder Check Procedure Form 4. DEFINITIONS CIF COMPATT CRF CTD EHF GPS HF ICF IRF LBL LF LOP MF PAN RMS ROV SSBL UTM 5. Common Interrogation Frequency Computing and Telemetering Transponder Common Reply Frequency Conductivity, Temperature and Depth Extra High Frequency Global Positioning System High Frequency Individual Channel Frequency Individual Reply Frequency Long Baseline Low Frequency Lines of Position Medium Frequency Programmable Acoustic Navigator Root Mean Squared Remotely Operated Vehicle Super Short Baseline Universal Transverse Mercator

RESPONSIBILITIES The Project Surveyor has the overall responsibility for the successful completion of the Survey Project including direct liaison with the Client.

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LBL Acoustic Work Instruction

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The Party Chief/Senior Surveyor has the responsibility for the survey operations on board the ship, including communications with the Offshore Clients Representative and acting as an interface between Client and Office. He will report to the Project Surveyor on the status and progress of the offshore operation. All survey and personnel are responsible for complying with this procedure.

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LBL Acoustic Work Instruction

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6.
6.1

PROCEDURES
SYSTEM OBJECTIVES

The LBL system is a high accuracy sub-surface positioning system using a network of calibrated intelligent transponders. The LBL system would typically be used for the following operations: Positioning pipelines during initiation and laydown. Positioning seabed structures during installation. Spoolpiece acoustic metrology. ROV positioning during as-built surveys of the initiation and laydown areas.
SYSTEM DESCRIPTION

6.2

Long Baseline or Range-Range acoustic navigation provides accurate position fixing over a wide area by ranging from the survey vessel or ROV to transponders deployed at known positions on the seabed. This type of sub-sea positioning system provides accurate local control and high repeatability, and with the redundancy available from 3 or more LOPs it is possible to compute estimated error for a position fix. The Sonardyne LBL System comprises: a surface interrogation and control unit, known as a Programmable Acoustic Navigator (PAN), a surface vessel or ROV mounted transducer and a series of Computing and Telemetering Transponders (Compatt). Sonardyne have adopted four standard frequency bands for acoustic positioning systems supplied to the offshore industry and are as follows: Band Low Frequency (LF) Medium Frequency (MF) High Frequency (HF) Extra High Frequency (EHF) Band Width 7.5-15 kHz 18-36 kHz 30-64 kHz 50-110 kHz Max. Range 10-12 km 2-3 km >1 km <1 km Typical Accuracy 2.5-5 m 0.25-1 m <0.25 m <0.05 m

The LF, MF and EHF bands are in common usage today by a number of operators and in general, EHF has superseded HF. The operational bandwidth is determined by the bandwidth of the transducer element. The choice of bandwidth for a particular requirement depends on a number of factors including range, accuracy, operational life and environmental conditions. The system has two principle modes of operations: Sequential and Simultaneous Interrogation. The most commonly used mode is Simultaneous mode, where all transponders have a receiver tuned to a Common Interrogation Frequency (CIF) but each transponder replies on its own Individual Reply Frequency (IRF). Therefore the transponders are all interrogated by the transducer at the same time and all reply together, differentiated by their IRF.

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LBL Acoustic Work Instruction

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In sequential mode, each transponder has a receiver tuned to a CIF and a receiver tuned to an Individual Channel Frequency (ICF). The Compatt then replies on a Common Reply Frequency (CRF) to another Compatt or the transducer that interrogated it. One measurement is taken at a time, and although this method is more time consuming than simultaneous mode, it is more accurate.
6.3 SYSTEM INSTALLATION
Prior to deployment of the array a chart should be prepared to show: the proposed positions of the transponders in relation to each other, existing seabed structures (if any) and target locations. The drawing should assist in the planning of the array deployment and in deciding where to position the vessel during the system calibration. 6.3.1 Transponder Preparation The status of the transponders should be checked prior to deployment using test equipment. The test should include enabling the transponder and checking the status of the battery and depth function. The Transponder Check Procedure Form should be completed and filed for reference. The test should highlight any potential problems with a transponder. A visual check of the condition of the transponder should also be made to ensure there are no signs of physical damage, such as major scratches, abrasions or severe corrosion that may lead to the flooding of the transponder under pressure.

All transponders, including spares, should be subject to the above preparations.


6.3.2 Deployment

It is recommended that when the Compatts are being deployed from the crane that a SSBL transponder is attached to the crane wire so the depth and the position of the Compatt during deployment can easily be monitored and therefore aiding in the positioning of the Compatt on the proposed seabed location. Once deployed the drop co-ordinates of the Compatt shall be determined by SSBL position fixes using the ROV, which should be placed as close as possible to the Compatt. Several fixes should be taken, the mean of these fixes shall be calculated to give the drop position co-ordinate of the Compatt. The SSBL system must be updated with a current sound of velocity profile before fixing drop co-ordinates.
6.3.3 Depth Observations

If the ROV is fitted with a precision depth sensor, the depth of the transducer on the Compatt should be ascertained by placing the ROV sensor as close to the Compatt transducer as possible, and noting the depth. This is necessary as a good depth estimate of the Compatt will be required for the calibration. The strain gauge sensor in the Compatt can often be faulty or unreliable and is generally less accurate than, for example, the Digiquartz. These measurements should be conducted shortly before the

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LBL Acoustic Work Instruction

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calibration of the Compatt Array. If no tide corrections are available, then all depth data should be acquired over as short a time as possible to reduce errors induced by tidal changes. The bathymetric sensor should use recent sound of velocity / density profiles.
6.3.4 Sound Velocity

Sound velocity should be logged at the array location after deployment to provide an accurate mean velocity over the array at Compatt depth and the value used in the relative calibration of the array.
6.4 ARRAY CALIBRATION

Before calibration of the array, the operational status of the Compatts should be checked and set to the optimum power and gain values. The purpose of the calibration is to ascertain the absolute (global co-ordinates) or relative positions of each Compatt and the orientation of the array. The requirements for calibration will vary depending on the project details. Most arrays will require a relative and absolute calibration, i.e. scaling and orientation of the array and transformation onto a selected grid. In some scenarios only a relative calibration is sufficient. In the case of a spool piece metrology, the baseline is measured and the array is calibrated with respect to known coordinates of flanges and structures. In other cases, the known co-ordinates of structures and reference blocks may be used in an array and these positions held fixed, and only a relative calibration is needed.
6.4.1 Relative Calibration

During a relative calibration the acoustic baselines in the array will be measured. The vessel will locate to a position within the array such that a good acoustic telemetry is established with the Compatts (the vessel may have to re-locate if measuring a large array). Should acoustic communication be a problem then it may be necessary to utilise a transducer mounted on the ROV. There are a variety of baseline measurement methods are available. The recommended method of relative calibration involves measuring each baseline (range from one Compatt to another) in both directions, repeating the observation until a sufficiently large data set has been collected to ensure a 95 % probability of deriving the most accurate range (commonly 20 observations). A Compatt measures the baseline distance to another Compatt in sequential mode with the second Compatt replying on CRF. The transmission time between the interrogation and reply, including interrogated Compatt turn-around delay, is measured in the ranging Compatt and telemetered to the vessel. In this way all baselines are observed with sufficient redundancy to ensure a high confidence level in the local grid co-ordinate derivation. Effects of propagation of sound variation, refraction and receiver jitter are thus minimised. The residuals of the measure ranges from the final computed distances should be evenly distributed positive and

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LBL Acoustic Work Instruction

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negative. If the residuals are all to one side then this points to an error in the velocity of propagation being used. With this information it is then possible to adjust the array to determine its true size and shape, scaling where necessary utilising current propagation information. The (RMS) residuals for this calibration should generally be better than 0.1 to 0.2 m dependent on seabed topography. In areas with high topography the calibration can be enhanced by measuring the depth of each Compatt with the ROV, and then keep the depths fixed in the computations.
6.4.2 Absolute Calibration

The absolute calibration requires the aid of surface navigation or transference of absolute position from an existing structure or set of reference baselines. This should not always be a necessary stage, as the absolute position of the tracked target within the array may be of no interest. When a target is being positioned to tie-in with an existing structure or pipeline, it is very important to ensure that the absolute positioning reference is the same. For example, if a pipeline is laid-down at a target for tie-in to a jacket, the laydown array must be related in absolute terms to the jacket co-ordinate system. Undertaking independent absolute co-ordination of the laydown array, even with the same GPS reference system, could result in a difference in absolute reference between laydown target and jacket. If it is necessary to determine the absolute position of the array co-ordinates, including the orientation of the array to grid or true north, then an absolute calibration is required. Depending on the location and size of the array, the absolute tie-in may be performed by installing two Compatts on fixed co-ordinates on a structure, such as a jacket or a template. Absolute orientation and co-ordination of the array may then be transferred from the known co-ordinates of these baselines. This is advantageous when a pipeline or spoolpiece is to be tied-in to the structure. The limitation of tie-in to a structure is that, unless the array is of the same magnitude as the baseline formed by the fixed Compatt, a large area array may be orientated and geodetically fixed by a very short baseline in a poor position relative to the array. When using a Surface navigation/acoustic box-in of the Compatts forming the longest baseline in the array, absolute position can be transferred from a surface positioning system. Where possible, the derived absolute co-ordinate can then be checked against a Compatt on a fixed structure. The shape and size of the array is determined entirely by the relative calibration, with the accuracy of the absolute adjustment being significantly lower than that of the relative adjustment.

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LBL Acoustic Work Instruction

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An absolute calibration can also be performed by moving the surface vessel slowly inside and outside the array collecting ranges to all Compatts (navigation mode) using a dunking transducer on a rigid pole lowered from the vessel. A series of at least 100 fixes shall be recorded. The LBL computer will thereafter compute absolute positions for each Compatt into an absolute grid such as Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM).

The RMS for the absolute calibration shall generally be better than 2 metres dependent on seabed topography, water depth and surface positioning system. Accuracy required will vary depending on use of the array. Where absolute co-ordination has been transferred from a fixed structure, it will not be possible to determine absolute accuracy without knowledge of the derivation of the structure co-ordination. Normally this will not be of concern as the absolute co-ordinates are for reference more than for calculation.
6.5 SYSTEM OPERATION

LBL equipment should be operated in compliance with manufacturer operation manuals. Only calibrated equipment should be used on the vessel during the survey.
Prior to commencement of acoustic measurements it is necessary to deploy a temperature salinity probe to accurately determine the velocity of sound in the seawater. 6.5.1 Pipeline and ROV Navigation

Once absolute calibration of the array has been completed the mobile target, with a mounted mobile Compatt or LBL transducer, may navigate within it. Mobile Compatts attached to pipelines during installation can also be tracked. With sufficient redundancy of range information, temporary masking or surface cavitation effecting one Compatt should not seriously degrade the system accuracy. In most cases, a smaller number of well-positioned seabed Compatts are more useful than a large number positioned without careful planning. With oversized arrays, it is extremely difficult to isolate problems occurring across one baseline or with one individual Compatt. Whilst tracking a mobile Compatt during pipeline laydown, the survey vessel should be positioned such that interrogation and return telemetry from the mobile is unimpeded by the pipe itself and the laybarge. This will require the survey vessel to move into the laybarge anchor pattern in line with the stinger whilst maintaining a safe working distance. Compatts located underneath the laybarge during final laydown positioning may be affected by the significant amount of cavitation generated by the barge itself, especially in marginal weather conditions. Ranges from two Compatts is sufficient to get a position fix of the tracked object, however, without the redundancy obtained from three or more ranges no quality control is possible and gross errors might occur without being noticed.

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LBL Acoustic Work Instruction

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6.5.2

Spoolpiece Acoustic Metrology When a spoolpiece is connected between a structure and a pipeline, then an array of Compatts can be deployed on the structure(s) being tied in. Brackets to hold the Compatt transponders should be manufactured and installed on the structure (and surveyed in relative to the flanges to be tied-in) prior to its placement on the seabed. If the Compatt transponder brackets on the pipeline cannot be pre-installed then an ROV/diver should be used for their installation subsea. A conventional pipeline to be tied-in will require Compatt transponder brackets to be placed after laying operations. All flanges being tied-in require a transponder to be placed on them or at a known distance behind them. Alternatively, transponders can be placed at previously set out points on the structure, the 3-D offset from the flanges having been accurately determined by dimensional control in the construction yard prior to installation. The baseline distances between these six transponders (plus supplementary transponders, if present) is measured and the array calibrated and adjusted. It is not strictly necessary for the baseline distances between previously measured brackets, such as on the structure, however, this measurement may be made to act as a check on the array integrity. Each pipeline flange to be measured to should require the placement of a Compatt transponder in a bracket at a known distance from the flange. In addition, to obtain the relative bearing of each pipeline, a second Compatt is required at 15 to 20 metres distance along the pipeline from the first. Once the required brackets are in place the Compatt transponders can be placed in them by ROV. These transponders are required to be EHF (Extra Height Frequency) to attain the required accuracy of spoolpiece metrology. The calibration and adjustment should give sufficient information to allow the coordination of the transponders. The co-ordinates may be provided in absolute terms - if one or more of the seabed transponders have been boxed-in (coordinates established by the survey vessel) or may be given with respect to the structure. Once the array has been adjusted the offset of the transponders to each flange should then be taken into account. On completion of these adjustments the necessary horizontal distances and angles can be derived from the calculated coordinates of each flange. Acoustic metrology for spoolpiece measurement is purely relative therefore no absolute co-ordinates are necessary. On completion of the array adjustment the final co-ordinates of the flanges on the structure and pipeline should be used to compute distance (c) in the diagrams below. The included angle (C) shall be derived from the relative bearings between the pairs of transponders, taking the dimensional control measurements taken in the construction yard prior to installation into account. A check on the derived bearings of each pipeline may be necessary depending on the achievable geometry between the SSIV and pipelines. This can be achieved by using an ROV based

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LBL Acoustic Work Instruction

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underwater gyro against each flange. Thus, the included angle (C) can be derived from the gyro measured flange bearings (taking convergence into account).
SSIV Flange Bearing SSIV Legend Transponder

a C B Pipeline b Flange Bearing -90 A

Dummy Spools

20m

30m

20m

C - included angle (solution of triangle) c - horizontal distance between tie-in flanges

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Supplimentary Transponder

Transponders 15-20m

Pipeline Flange (X) Height (h1) A c b Flange Bearing C B Structure Flange (Y) Height (h2)
C - included angle (solution of tie-in triangle) c - horizontal distance between tie-in flange and mark

Structure Transponders a Flange Bearing

The required angles of the triangle A and B are then calculated from the previously derived co-ordinates of each flange and measured bearing of each flange. Once this has been calculated the distances of sides a and b can be calculated using;

A = B =

c Sin A Sin C c Sin B Sin C

All navigation, calibration and adjustments will be controlled by the APS3 (Acoustic Positioning System) onboard the Survey/Installation Vessel. 6.5.3 Structure Installation

When tracking structures such as templates, certain additional factors must be taken into account during planning and execution of positioning. In most circumstances, the template will require positioning from about 30m below the splash zone down to the seabed. Although the most rigorous data requirement is on landing, control through the water column is also helpful.

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The following points need consideration: Inter-visibility from one Compatt on the structure to another. This facility allows computation of seabed sound velocity and hence accurate scaling within the array at the critical level. The distance a Compatt must be away from the nearest point of the structure will depend on the wavelength/frequency. Knowledge of the through water velocity profile will allow planning for thermoclines which may impede telemetry transmission to surface, or cause ray bending when positioning the structure mid-column from a seabed array. The horizontal distance seabed Compatts are from the landing point will determine the height from seabed that any structure will be detected accurately and reliably positioned. A depression angle of 45 is reasonable to use for computation purposes. At greater angles than this, the interrogating Compatt is utilising a side lobe and results will be variable. The critical point for initial accurate positioning will define the horizontal span of the seabed array. If the Compatts are not positioned on all sides of the structure, the Compatt must be on the opposite side to the deployment vessel giving a clear and acoustically quieter view of the array. Be careful not to attempt interrogation of Compatts looking over the surface plane of a structure with a dunking transducer. The rigging will frequently obstruct line of sight and degrade signal quality. Note: templates are sometimes rotated once lifted and the near side to the derrick barge may change.

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