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CHAPTER OUTLINE

27.1 27.2 27.3 27.4 27.5 27.6 Electric Current Resistance A Model for Electrical Conduction Resistance and Temperature Superconductors Electrical Power

ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS

Q27.1 Voltage is a measure of potential difference, not of current. Surge implies a owand only charge, in coulombs, can ow through a system. It would also be correct to say that the victim carried a certain current, in amperes. Geometry and resistivity. In turn, the resistivity of the material depends on the temperature.

Q27.2

*Q27.3 (i) We require rL /AA = 3rL /AB. Then AA /AB = 1/3, answer (f ). (ii) rA2/rB2 = 1/3 gives rA / rB = 1/ 3, answer (e). *Q27.4 Originally, R = Answer (b). Q27.5 The conductor does not follow Ohms law, and must have a resistivity that is current-dependent, or more likely temperature-dependent. The amplitude of atomic vibrations increases with temperature. Atoms can then scatter electrons more efciently. (i) The current density increases, so the drift speed must increase. Answer (a). (ii) Answer (a). The resistance of copper increases with temperature, while the resistance of silicon decreases with increasing temperature. The conduction electrons are scattered more by vibrating atoms when copper heats up. Silicons charge carrier density increases as temperature increases and more atomic electrons are promoted to become conduction electrons.

( / 3) R = = . . Finally, R f = A 3A 9A 9

Q27.6

Q27.7

Q27.8

*Q27.9 In a normal metal, suppose that we could proceed to a limit of zero resistance by lengthening the average time between collisions. The classical model of conduction then suggests that a constant applied voltage would cause constant acceleration of the free electrons. The drift speed and the current would increase steadily in time. It is not the situation envisioned in the question, but we can actually switch to zero resistance by substituting a superconducting wire for the normal metal. In this case, the drift velocity of electrons is established by vibrations of atoms in the crystal lattice; the maximum current is limited; and it becomes impossible to establish a potential difference across the superconductor. Q27.10 Because there are so many electrons in a conductor (approximately 1028 electrons/m3) the average velocity of charges is very slow. When you connect a wire to a potential difference, you establish an electric eld everywhere in the wire nearly instantaneously, to make electrons start drifting everywhere all at once.

101

102

Chapter 27

*Q27.11 Action (a) makes the current three times larger. (b) causes no change in current. (c) corresponds to a current 3 times larger. (d) R is 1/4 as large, so current is 4 times larger. (e) R is 2 times larger, so current is half as large. (f) R increases by a small percentage as current has a small decrease. (g) Current decreases by a large factor. The ranking is then d > a > c > b > f > e > g. *Q27.12 RA =

LA 2 LB 1 LB R = = = B ( d A / 2 )2 ( 2 d B / 2 )2 2 ( d B / 2 )2 2

*Q27.13 RA =

A L 2 B L = = 2 RB A A

PA = I A V = (V )2 /RA = (V )2 / 2 RB = PB / 2 Answer (f ).

*Q27.14 (i) Bulb (a) must have higher resistance so that it will carry less current and have lower power. (ii) Bulb (b) carries more current. *Q27.15 One amperehour is (1 C/s)(3 600 s) = 3 600 coulombs. The amperehour rating is the quantity of charge that the battery can lift though its nominal potential difference. Answer (d). Q27.16 Choose the voltage of the power supply you will use to drive the heater. Next calculate the V 2 . Knowing the resistivity of the material, choose a combination required resistance R as R of wire length and cross-sectional area to make = . You will have to pay for less A material if you make both and A smaller, but if you go too far the wire will have too little surface area to radiate away the energy; then the resistor will melt.

SOLUTIONS TO PROBLEMS

Section 27.1 P27.1 I= N= Q t Electric Current Q = I t = ( 30.0 10 6 A ( 40.0 s ) = 1.20 10 3 C

103

P27.2

The molar mass of silver = 107.9 g mole and the volume V is V = ( area ) ( thickness ) = ( 700 10 4 m 2 ) ( 0.133 10 3 m ) = 9.31 10 6 m 3 The mass of silver deposited is mAg = V = (10.5 10 3 kg m 3 ( 9.31 10 6 m 3 = 9.78 10 2 kg. And the number of silver atoms deposited is 6.02 10 23 atoms 1 000 g = 5.45 10 23 atoms N = ( 9.78 10 2 kg 1 kg 107.9 g

P27.3

Q ( t ) = Idt = I 0 (1 e t

0

)

( 0.632 ) I 0

Q ( ) = I 0 (1 e1 =

Q (10 ) = I 0 (1 e10 =

) ( 0.999 95 ) I

0

Q ( ) = I 0 (1 e = I 0 q q = . 2 T

2

P27.5

(a) (b)

I (1.00 s ) = J= dq dt

dq = (12t 2 + 5 dt t =1.00 s

t =1.00 s

= 17.0 A

1 240 s

P27.6

I=

q = dq = Idt =

0

100 C +100 C q= cos cos 0 = = 0.265 C 2 120 120 P27.7 (a) J= I 8.00 10 6 A 2 = 2 = 2.55 A m A (1.00 10 3 m ) n= t = J 2.55 A m 2 = = 5.31 1010 m 3 . evd (1.60 10 19 C ) ( 3.00 108 m s )

23 19 Q N A e ( 6.02 10 ) (1.60 10 C ) = = = 1.20 1010 s . 8.00 10 6 A I I

(b)

(c)

104

Chapter 27

*P27.8

(a) (b)

5.00 A I = = 99.5 kA m 2 A ( 4.00 10 3 m 2 Current is the same and current density is smaller. Then I = 5.00 A , 1 1 J 2 = J1 = 9.95 10 4 A/m 2 = 2.49 10 4 A/m 2 4 4 J=

A2 = 4 A1 P27.9 (a)

or

r22 = 4 r12

so

The speed of each deuteron is given by ( 2.00 106 (1.60 1019 J = 1 ( 2 1.67 1027 kg v2 and 2 The time between deuterons passing a stationary point is t in

10.0 10 6 C s = 1.60 10 19 C t or

So the distance between them is vt = (1.38 10 7 m s (1.60 10 14 s = 2.21 10 7 m . (b) One nucleus will put its nearest neighbor at potential V=

9 2 2 19 ke q (8.99 10 N m C ) (1.60 10 C ) = = 6.49 10 3 V 2.21 10 7 m r

This is very small compared to the 2 MV accelerating potential, so repulsion within the beam is a small effect. P27.10 We use I = nqAvd n is the number of charge carriers per unit volume, and is identical to the number of atoms per unit volume. We assume a contribution of 1 free electron per atom in the relationship above. For aluminum, which has a molar mass of 27, we know that Avogadros number of atoms, N A, has a mass of 27.0 g. Thus, the mass per atom is 27.0 g 27.0 g = = 4.49 10 23 g atom NA 6.02 10 23 Thus, n= density of aluminum 2.70 g cm 3 = 4.49 10 23 g atom mass per atom I 5.00 A = = 1.30 10 4 m s nqA ( 6.02 10 28 m 3 (1.60 10 19 C ( 4.00 10 6 m 2

vd = 0.130 mm s

Resistance

V = IR and R=

: A

I : A

V =

I=

I = 6.43 A

105

P27.12 P27.13

I= (a)

Taking rr resistivity,

r r = = r d A M d M

Thus, V= M , d

3 8 3

= 1.82 m

(b)

r2 =

M d

Thus,

The diameter is twice this distance: P27.14 (a) Suppose the rubber is 10 cm long and 1 mm in diameter. R= 4 (1013 m ) (10 1 m ) 4 = ~ = ~1018 2 3 A d2 (10 m ) 4 (1.7 10 8 m (10 3 m 4 ~ 2 d2 ( 2 10 2 m

(b)

R= I= I~

~10 7

(c)

P27.15

J = E

A Model for Electrical Conduction The density of charge carriers n is set by the material and is unaffected . The current density is proportional to current according to J = I so it doubles . A doubles .

For larger current density in J = nevd the drift speed vd m The time between collisions = 2 is unchanged as long as does not change due to a nq temperature change in the conductor.

106

Chapter 27

P27.17

=

so

m We take the density of conduction electrons from an Example in the chapter text. nq 2 ( 9.11 1031 m = = = 2.47 10 14 s nq 2 (1.70 10 8 ( 8.46 10 28 (1.60 10 19 2

vd = gives Therefore,

qE m

4

7.84 10

(1.60 10 ) E ( 2.47 10 ) =

19 14

9.11 10 31

E = 0.180 V m

3 140 = (19.0 ) 1 + ( 4.50 10 C T

P27.19

(a) (b)

J=

(c)

(d)

vd =

(e)

V = E = ( 0.200 V m ) ( 2.00 m ) = 0.400 V 3.5 10 5 m 1 1.5 10 6 m 2 + (1.5 10 3 m )2 (1.5 10 3 m )2 and for T 1 + 0.4 10 3 C

1

3 1

+ 0.212 21

5

2 2 1 1

+ 8.488 3 10

2

= 29.167

so

10 = 4.951 5

1 2

= 10/11.141 = 0.898 m =

= 26.2 m

107

P27.21

P27.22

For aluminum,

R=

Section 27.5

Superconductors

Electrical Power

P

V

and R = P27.24

*P27.25 The energy that must be added to the water is Q = mcT = (109 kg ) ( 4 186 J kgC ) ( 29.0C ) = 1.32 10 7 J Thus, the power supplied by the heater is W Q 1.32 10 7 J P= = = = 8 820 W t t 25 60 s and the resistance is R = efficiency = I= (b) (c)

( V )2

( 220 V )2

8 820 W

= 5.49 .

*P27.26 (a)

2.50 hp(746 W/1 hp) mechanical power output = 0.900 = (120 V) I total power input

energy input = Pinput t = (2 070 J/s) 3 (3 600 s) = 2.24 10 7 J / 0.16 k J S h = $ 0.995 cost = 2.24 107 J 1 kWh 10 3 W s 3 600 s

108

Chapter 27

P27.27

P P0 P % = 61 1)100% = 36.1% (100%) = 1 (100%) = (1.36 P P 0 0

P27.28

It puts out energy by electric transmission

3 600 s = 469 J 1h

(a) (b) efciency =

3 600 s = 249 J 1h

The only place for the missing energy to go is into internal energy: 469 J = 249 J + Eint Eint = 221 J

(c)

We imagine toasting the battery over a re with 221 J of heat input: Q = mcT Q 221 J T = = mc 0.015 kg kgC = 15.1C 975 J R=

P27.29

P = I ( V ) =

(a) (b)

( V )2

R

= 500 W

R= A

so

2

P=

R=

( V )2

R

(110 )2

35.6

= 340 W

P27.30

V 149 V = 5.97 V m 25.0 m

3 R = R0 1 + (T T0 ) = 298 1 + ( 0.400 10 C) 320C = 337

I=

109

P27.31

(a)

$0.060 0 Cost = 0.660 kWh = 3.96 1 kWh The resistance of 1 m of 12-gauge copper wire is R= 4 (1.7 10 8 m )1 m 4 = = = = 5.14 10 3 2 A ( d 2) d 2 ( 0.205 3 10 2 m )2

2

I 2 4 Al d2

PAl =

Aluminum of the same diameter will get hotter than copper. It would not be as safe. If it is surrounded by thermal insulation, it could get much hotter than a copper wire. P27.33 The energy taken in by electric transmission for the uorescent lamp is

Pt = 11 J s (100 h )

3 600 s = 3.96 10 6 J 1h

$0.08 k W s h = $0.088 cost = 3.96 10 6 J kWh J 3 600 s 1 000 For the incandescent bulb,

Pt = 40 W (100 h )

3 600 s = 1.44 10 7 J 1h

$0.08 cost = 1.44 10 7 J = $0.32 3.6 10 6 J saving = $0.32 $0.088 = $0.232 P27.34 The total clock power is

( 270 10

From e =

Wout , the power input to the generating plants must be: Qin Qin Wout t 2.43 1012 J h = = = 9.72 1012 J h t 0.250 e

and the rate of coal consumption is 1.00 kg coal Rate = ( 9.72 1012 J h ) = 2.95 10 5 kg coal h = 295 metric ton h 33.0 10 6 J

110

Chapter 27

P27.35

Energy used in a 24-hour day = ( 0.187 kW ) ( 24.0 h ) = 4.49 kWh. $0.060 0 = $0.269 = 26.9 . Therefore daily cost = 4.49 kWh kWh

P27.36

Eint = ( 0.500 kg ) ( 4 186 J kg C ) ( 77.0C ) = 161 kJ t = Eint 1.61 10 5 J = 672 s 240 W

P27.37

Use the change in resistance to nd the nal operating temperature of the toaster. R = R0 (1 + T T = 441C

P27.38

You pay the electric company for energy transferred in the amount E = P t . (a)

7 d 86 400 s 1 J = 48.4 MJ 1 week 1 d 1 W s 7 d 24 h k = 13.4 kWh 1 000 1 week 1 d 7 d 24 h k 0.12 $ = $1.61 kWh 1 000 1 week 1 d 0.12 $ = $0.005 82 = 0.582 kWh 0.12 $ = $0.416 kWh

(b)

P t = 970 W ( 3 min )

1h k 1 000 60 min

(c) P27.39

P t = 5 200 W ( 40 min )

1h k 1 000 60 min

Consider a 400-W blow dryer used for ten minutes daily for a year. The energy transferred to the dryer is 1 kWh P t = ( 400 J s ) ( 600 s d ) ( 365 d ) 9 10 7 J 20 kWh 6 3.6 10 J We suppose that electrically transmitted energy costs on the order of ten cents per kilowatt-hour. Then the cost of using the dryer for a year is on the order of Cost ( 20 kWh ) ( $0.10 kWh ) = $2 ~$1

111

2

P = I V =

( V )2

(b)

= 576 and 25.0 W P 25.0 W Q 1.00 C I= = = 0.208 A = = V 120 V t t 1.00 C t = = 4.80 s 0.208 A

(120 V )

(c)

The charge itself is the same. It comes out at a location that is at lower potential. 1.00 J U 1.00 J t = = 0.040 0 s P = 25.0 W = = 25.0 W t t The energy itself is the same. It enters the bulb by electrical transmission and leaves by heat and electromagnetic radiation.

(d)

U = Pt = ( 25.0 J s ) (86 400 s d ) ( 30.0 d ) = 64.8 10 6 J The electric company sells energy . $0.070 0 k W s h = $1.26 Cost = 64.8 10 6 J 1 000 3 600 s kWh J Cost per joule = $0.070 0 kWh = $1.94 10 8 J 6 kWh 3.60 10 J

P=

P = ( V ) I =

( V ) ( V )

R R=

( V )2 = (120

P

J C) = 41.3 349 J s

2

6 3 6 = 0 1 + ( T T0 ) = 1.50 10 m 1 + 0.4 10 (80 ) = 1.55 10 m

4 d2

41.3 = 1.55 10 6 m

) 4d

d 2 = 4.77 10 8 m = 2.09 10 +7 m or d2 One possible choice is = 0.900 m and d = 2.07 10 4 m. If and d are made too small, the surface area will be inadequate to transfer heat into the water fast enough to prevent overheating of the lament. To make the volume less than 0.5 cm 3 , we want and d less d2 = 0.5 10 6 m 3 . Substituting d 2 = 4.77 10 8 m gives than those described by 4 ( 4.77 10 8 m ) 2 = 0.5 10 6 m 3 , = 3.65 m and d = 4.18 10 4 m. Thus our answer is: 4 Any diameter d and length related by d 2 = 4.77 10 8 m would have the right resistance. One possibility is length 0.900 m and diameter 0.207 mm, but such a small wire might overheat rapidly if it were not surrounded by water. The volume can be less than 0.5 cm 3 .

112

Chapter 27

P27.42

1 1 Q2 Q Vi = . 2 2 C When the switch is closed, charge Q distributes itself over the plates of C and 3C in parallel, presenting equivalent capacitance 4C. Then the nal potential difference is V f = Q 4C for both. Q Q C= . The larger capacitor 4C 4

(b)

(c)

2

( )

Q 1 3Q 2 = . 3C 2 4C 32C

Q2 3Q 2 Q 2 + = . The loss of potential energy is the energy 32C 32C 8C 3Q 2 Q2 Q2 appearing as internal energy in the resistor: = + Eint Eint = 8C 2C 8C

P27.43

1 d dT

T

(a)

Separating variables, ln = ( T T0 0

d = dT T

0

and

T T = 0 e ( 0 ) .

(b)

0 1 + ( T T0 ) .

P27.44

I = nqvd A = nqvd r 2

I 1 000 A 4 = ms 2 = 2.35 10 2 3 28 nq r 8.46 10 m (1.60 10 19 C ) (10 2 m ) t= 200 10 3 m x = 8.50 108 s = 27.0 yr = v 2.35 10 4 m s =

x t

*P27.45 From =

RA

( V ) A

I

we compute

( m)

1.41 10 6 1.50 10 6 1.50 10 6

= 1.47 10 6 m . With its uncertainty range from 1.41 to 1.50, this average value agrees

with the tabulated value of 1.50 10 6 m in Table 27.2.

113

P27.46

( V )

home

= ( V

line

E=

*P27.47 (a)

) )

(b)

R= I= J=

(c)

(d)

E= R= I= J= dV (x ) V i= i dx L

)(

(b)

4L = A d2

V V d 2 = 4 L R I V = L A V = E L The eld and the current are both in the x direction.

(c)

(d)

(e)

J =

114

Chapter 27

P27.49

(a)

so I = (b) t =

P = I V P

V = U

*P27.50 (a)

We begin with

R=

R0 =

8 0 0 (1.70 10 ) ( 2.00 ) = 2 = 1.08 A0 ( 0.100 10 3 )

3 1 R = (1.08 ) 1 + (3.90 10 C ) (100C 20.0C) = 1.420

3 1 6 1 (1.08 ) 1 + ( 3.90 10 C ) (80.0C ) 1 + (17.0 10 C ) (80.0C ) 6 1 1 + 2 (17.0 10 C ) (80.0C )

= 1.418 The results agree to three digits. The variation of resistance with temperature is typically a much larger effect than thermal expansion in size.

115

P27.51

Then = 0 1 + (T 20.0C) , and = 1 + ( T 0C must both give the correct resistivity at any temperature T. That is, we must have:

Let a be the temperature coefcient at 20.0C, and be the temperature coefcient at 0C.

0 [1 + (T 20.0C )] = [1 + (T 0C )]

Setting T = 0 in equation (1) yields: and setting T = 20.0C in equation (1) gives:

(1)

= 0 1 ( 20.0C ) , 0 = [1 + ( 20.0C )]

Put from the rst of these results into the second to obtain:

Therefore 1 + ( 20.0C =

1 1 ( 20.0C

)

=

which simplies to

[1 ( 20.0C)]

From this, the temperature coefcient, based on a reference temperature of 0C, may be computed for any material. For example, using this, Table 27.2 becomes at 0C : Material Silver Copper Gold Aluminum Tungsten Iron Platinum Lead Nichrome Carbon Germanium Silicon Temp Coefcients at 0C 4.1 10 3 C 4.2 10 3 C 3.6 10 3 C 4.2 10 3 C 4.9 10 3 C 5.6 10 3 C 4.25 10 3 C 4.2 10 3 C 0.4 10 3 C 0.5 10 3 C 24 10 3 C 30 10 3 C

116

Chapter 27

P27.52

(a)

A thin cylindrical shell of radius r, thickness dr, and length L contributes resistance dR = dr d dr = = r A ( 2 r ) L 2 L

The resistance of the whole annulus is the series summation of the contributions of the thin shells: R=

2 L

rb

ra

r dr = ln b r 2 L ra r V ln b = I 2 L ra

(b)

2 L V I ln ( rb ra )

*P27.53 The original resistance is Ri = rLi/Ai. The new length is L = Li + d L = Li(1 + d ). Constancy of volume implies AL = AiLi so The new resistance is R = A= Ai Li Ai Li Ai = = L Li (1 + ) (1 + )

L Li (1 + ) = = Ri (1 + )2 = Ri (1 + 2 + 2 ). A Ai / (1 + )

The result is exact if the assumptions are precisely true. Our derivation contains no approximation steps where delta is assumed to be small. P27.54 Each speaker receives 60.0 W of power. Using I=

P = I 2 R, we then have

P

R

The system is not adequately protected since the fuse should be set to melt at 3.87 A, or les ss . P27.55 (a) V = E or dV = E dx

V = IR = E I= (b) P27.56 dV dq E A A dV = = E = E = A = A dx dt R dx

Current ows in the direction of decreasing voltage. Energy ows by heat in the direction of decreasing temperature.

From the geometry of the longitudinal section of the resistor shown in the gure, we see that

(b r ) (b a )

From this, the radius at a distance y from the base is For a disk-shaped element of volume dR = Using the integral formula h y FIG. P27.56 r = (a b) + b h h dy R= 2 0 ( a b ) ( y h ) + b R= y =

dy : r2

1 , a ( au + b )

(au + b)

du

h ab

117

P27.57

R= R=

dx = A

dx y y where y = y1 + 2 1 x wy L

x

L

L L dx y y = ln y1 + 2 1 L w 0 y1 + [( y2 y1 ) L ] x w ( y2 y1 )

FIG. P27.57

y L R= ln 2 w ( y2 y1 ) y1 *P27.58 A spherical layer within the shell, with radius r and thickness dr, has resistance

dR = R = dR =

a b rb

b dr r 1 1 1 1 1 = = = + 2 4 r 4 1 ra 4 4 ra rb ra rb

ra

*P27.59 Coat the surfaces of entry and exit with material of much higher conductivity than the bulk material of the object. The electric potential will be essentially uniform over each of these electrodes. Current will be distributed over the whole area where each electrode is in contact with the resistive object. P27.60 (a) The resistance of the dielectric block is R = The capacitance of the capacitor is C = Then RC = (b) P27.61 (a) R=

d . = A A

0 A . d

Think of the device as two capacitors in parallel. The one on the left has 1 = 1 , A1 = + x . The equivalent capacitance is 2

1 0 A1 2 0 A2 0 0 + = + x + x = 0 ( + 2 x + 2 x ) 2d d d d 2 d 2

(b) The charge on the capacitor is Q = C V V 0 ( + 2 x + 2 x ) 2d The current is Q= V v dQ dQ dx 0 V = = ( 0 + 2 + 0 2 ) v = 0 ( 1) 2d dt dx dt d The negative value indicates that the current drains charge from the capacitor. Positive I= current is clockwise 0 V v ( 1) . d

118

Chapter 27

P27.62

eV V I = I 0 exp 1 and R = I k T B with I 0 = 1.00 10 9 A, e = 1.60 10 19 C, and kB = 1.38 10 23 J K The following includes a partial table of calculated values and a graph for each of the specied temperatures.

(i)

0.400 0.015 6 25.6 0.440 0.081 8 5.3 38 0.480 0.429 1.12 0.520 2.25 0.232 0.560 11.8 0.047 6 0.600 61.6 0.009 7

FIG. P27.62(i)

(ii)

0.400 0.005 77.3 0.440 0.024 18.1 0.480 0.114 4.22 0.520 0.534 0.973 0.560 2.51 0.223 0.600 11.8 0.051

FIG. P27.62(ii)

0.002 0 203 0.008 4 52.5 0.035 7 13.4 0.152 3.42 0.648 0.864 2.76 0.217

FIG. P27.62(iii)

119

P27.63

m V

A = 2.16 10 11 m 2 R=

P27.64

0.500 The resistance of one wire is (100 mi) = 50.0 . mi The whole wire is at nominal 700 kV away from ground potential, but the potential difference between its two ends is IR = (1 000 A ) ( 50.0 ) = 50.0 kV Then it radiates as heat power R = R0 1 + (T T0 ) In this case, I = I0 , 10

1R 1 I0 1 = T0 + 1 R0 I 1 9 T = T0 + ( 9 ) = 20 + = 2 020C 0.004 50 C T = T0 +

P27.65

so so

P27.2 P27.4 P27.6 P27.8 3.64 h qw /2p 0.265 C (a) 99.5 kA/m2 (b) Current is the same, current density is smaller. 5.00 A, 24.9 kA/m2, 0.800 cm 0.130 mm/s 500 mA (a) ~1018 (b) ~107 (a) no change 1.44 103 C She can meet the design goal by choosing 1.71 7.50 W

1

(b) doubles

= 0.898 m and

= 26.2 m.

120

Chapter 27

(c) $0.995

(a) 2.05 W (b) 3.41 W. It would not be as safe. If surrounded by thermal insulation, it would get much hotter than a copper wire. 295 metric ton h 672 s (a) $1.61 (b) $0.005 82 (c) $0.416

(a) 576 and 144 (b) 4.80 s. The charge itself is the same. It is at a location that is lower in potential. (c) 0.040 0 s. The energy itself is the same. It enters the bulb by electric transmission and leaves by heat and electromagnetic radiation. (d) $1.26, energy, 1.94 108 $/J (a) Q/4C (b) Q/4 and 3Q/4 8.50 108 s = 27.0 yr (a) 116 V (b) 12.8 kW (c) 436 W (b) R = 4rL/pd 2 (c) I = Vp d 2/4rL (d) J = V/rL (c) Q2/32C and 3Q2/32C (d) 3Q2/8C

(a) E = V/L in the x direction (e) See the solution. (a) See the solution. (a) R =

r ln b 2 L ra

No. The fuses should pass no more than 3.87 A. See the solution. See the solution. (b) 1.79 P See the solution. 50.0 MW

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