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# L.VIJAYA KUMAR Asst.

Prof / MECHANICAL 1 MAHALAKSHMI ENGINEERING COLLEGE TIRUCHIRAPALLI 621213 QUESTION BANK DEPARTMENT : MECHANICAL SEMESTER : III SUBJECT CODE: ME2204 SUBJECT NAME: FLUID MECHANICS AND MACHINERY UNIT I- INTRODUCTION PART A ( 2 Marks ) 01. Why are some fluids classified as Newtonian fluid? Give examples to Newtonian fluids. (NOV2) 02. What is specific gravity? How is it related to density? (Apr08) 03. Define the term pressure .What are its units? (Dec05) 04. State Pascals law? (Dec05 & Dec08) 05. What is meant by stagnation pressure? (Dec08) 06. What is the difference between gauge pressure and absolute pressure? (Dec07) 07. Define compressibility and viscosity of a fluid? (Apr05) 08. State the Newtons law of viscosity? (Apr04) 09. What is viscosity? What is the cause of it in liquids and in gases? (Apr04) 10. What is the effect of temperature on viscosity of water and that of air? (Nov04) 11. Define capillarity? (Dec05) 12. Explain the effect of property of capillarity (Nov04) 13. Express 3m of water head in cm of mercury and pressure in Kpa? (Apr03) 14. What are the three major assumptions made in the derivation of the Bernoullis equation?

(Apr03) 15. Mention any three applications of bernouills equation? (Apr05) PART-B ( 16 Marks ) 01. Find the height through which water rises by capillary action in a 2mm bore, if surface tension at the prevailing temp is 0.075g/cm (APR-03) 02. Calculate the capillary rise in glass tube of 3mm dia when immersed in mercury take the surface tension and angle of contact of mercury as 0.52N/m and 130 respectively .Also determine the minimum size of the glass tube, if it is immersed in water, given that the L.VIJAYA KUMAR Asst. Prof / MECHANICAL 2 surface tension of water is 0.0725N/m and the capillary rise in the tube is not to exceed 0.5mm. (NOV-03) 03. Calculate the capillary effect in the glass tube 5mm dia, when immersed in 1)WATER 2)MERCURY .The surface tension of water and the mercury in contact with air are 0.0725N/m and 0.51N/m respectively. The angle of contact of mercury is 130. (NOV-04) 04. A 1.9mm dia tube is inserted in to an unknown liquid whose density is 960 kg/m^3 and it is observed that the liquid is rises 5mm in the tube, making a contact angle of 15. Determine the surface tension of the liquid. (APR-08) 05. A capillary tube having inside dia 6mm is dipped in CCl4 at 20c. Find the rise of CCl4 in the tube, if surface tension is 2.67N/m and the specific gravity is 1.594 and contact angle =60 and specific weight of water at 20c is 9981N/m^3 (DEC-08) 06. An oil film of thickness 10mm is used for lubrication between the two square parallel plates of size 0.9m0.9m each, in which the upper plate moves at 2m/s required a force of 100N to maintain this speed. Determine, 1. Dynamic viscosity of oil 2. Kinematic viscosity of oil If the specific gravity of the oil is

0.95 (NOV-03) 07. The space between two square parallel plate is filled with oil. Each side of the plate is 75cm. The thickness of the oil film is 10mm. The upper plate which moves at 3M/s requires a force of 100N to maintain the speed. Determine 1. Dynamic viscosity of oil, 2. Kinematic viscosity of oil. If the specific gravity of oil is 0.9 (NOV-04) 08. If the velocity distribution of over a plate is given by u = (2/3)Y Y 2 in which U is the velocity in meter per second at a distance Y meter above the plate , determine the shear stress at Y=0 and Y=0.15m the dynamic viscosity of fluid is 8.63 poises. (DEC-03) 09. The velocity distribution over a plate is given by U = (3/4) Y Y 2 where U is the velocity in M/S and at the depth Y in m above the plate. Determine the shear stress at a distance of 0.3m from the top of plate. Assume dynamic viscosity of the fluid is taken as 0.95Ns/m^2. (APR-05) 10. A fluid of specific velocity 0.9 flows along the surface with a velocity U=4Y-8Y^3 M/s where Y is in m, what is the velocity gradient at the boundary? If the kinematic viscosity is 0.36 S^. What is the shear stress at the boundary?L.VIJAYA KUMAR Asst. Prof / MECHANICAL 3 11. A 200mm dia shaft slides through a sleeve 200.5mm dia and 400mm long, at a velocity of 30cm/s. The viscosity of the oil filling the annular space is = 0.1125Ns/m2 . Find the resistance to the motion 12. The maximum blood pressure in the upper arm of a healthy person is about 120mm of Hg if

a vertical tube open to the atmosphere is connected to the vein in the arm of the person. Determine how high the blood will rise in the tube. Take the density of blood to be 1050Kg/m3 . 13. When a pressure of 20.7MN/M^2 is applied to 1000 lit of a liquid its volume decrease by one lit. Find the bulk modulus of the liquid and identify this liquid. 14. Assuming the bulk modulus of elasticity of water 2.07 10^6 KN/M^2 at standard atmospheric condition, determine the increase in pressure necessary to produce one percent reduction in the volume at the same temp 15. Calculate the pressure exerted by 5Kg of nitrogen gas at a temperature of 10c When the volume is 0.4m^3. Also find the volume when the pressure is 310^5 N/M^2 and the temp is 10c. Assume Ideal gas law is applicable. 16. A pipe containing water at 180KN/m^2 pressure is connected by a differential gauge to another pipe 1.6m lower than the first pipe and containing water at high pressure . If the difference in height of 2 mercury columns of the gauge is equal to 90mm, what is the pressure is the lower pipe? 17. An orifice meter with orifice dia 15cm is inserted in a pipe of 30cm dia the pressure on the upstream and downstream of orifice meter is 14.7N/cm^2 and 9.81N/cm^2 respectively. Find discharge (Take cd= 0.6) 18. Oil of specific gravity 0.85 issues from a 5cm dia orifice under a pressure 12N/cm^2 .The dia of jet at vena contract is 4cm and the discharge is 12.5lit/sec. What is co-efficient of velocity? 19. Oil flow through of 25mm dia orifice under a head of 5.5cm at a rate of 3lit/s. The jet strikes 1.5m away and 120mm vertically below the centre line of jet. Calculate the co-efficient of velocity, discharge, contraction.

20. An orifice meter consisting of 10cm orifice in a 25cm dia of pipe has a co-efficient 0.65. The pipe delivers oil of Specific gravity 0.8. The pressure difference between two sides of the orifice meter is 80cm of mercury column. Calculate flow rate in lit/sec. 21. Find the quantity of water flowing through a Venturimeter size 15cm x 15cm when the differential manometer connected between the inlet and throat of Venturimeter gives 6cm mercury reading. Co-efficient of discharge is 0.98.L.VIJAYA KUMAR Asst. Prof / MECHANICAL 4 22. A 250mm pipe carries oil (specific gravity= 0.8) at a velocity of 20m/s. At point A and B of measurement of pressure and elevation were respectively 100KN/m^2 and 60KN/m^2 , 5m and 8m respectively for steady flow .Find the loss of head between A and B and the direction of flow. 23. A Venturimeter with 200mm inlet dia and 100mm throat is laid with axis horizontal and is used for measuring the flow of oil of specific gravity 0.8 the difference of level in U-tube manometer reads 180mm of mercury, Whist 11520kg of oil is collected through meter is 4min. Calculate the discharge and Co-efficient of meter. 24. A 30cm x 15cm Venturimeter is provided in a provided in a vertical pipe line carrying oil of specific gravity 0.9, the flow being upward. The difference in elevation of the throat section and entrance section of Venturimeter is 30cm. The pressure difference in manometer is 25cm of Hg. Take Cd= 0.98. Calculate discharge of oil and pressure difference between entrance and throat.L.VIJAYA KUMAR Asst. Prof / MECHANICAL 5 UNIT II- FLOW THROUGH CIRCULAR CONDUITS PART A ( 2 Marks ) 01. Write down the Hagen- Poiseuille Equation for laminar flow? (APR-05) 02. What is boundary layer? Give a sketch of boundary- layer region over a flat plate. (APR-03)

03. Define displacement thickness? (NOV-04) 04. Define the terms : Drag and lift (DEC-07) 05. What are energy lines and hydraulic gradient lines? (APR-03) 06. Write down four examples of laminar flow? (DEC-06) 07. What is the physical significance of Reynolds number? (DEC-07) 08. Diff between laminar and turbulent flow. (DEC-05) 09. What is syphon? What is its application? (NOV-03) 10. What are the losses experienced by a fluid while passing through a pipe? (APR-05) 11. What is equivalent pipe? (DEC-06) 12. What do you mean by a flow through parallel pipes? (NOV-04) PART-B ( 16 Marks ) 01. The diameter of awater pipe is suddenly enlarged from 350mm to 700mm. The rate of flow through it is 0.25m^3/s. Calculate the loss of head in enlargement. (NOV02) 02. Compare the rate of growth of the laminar boundary layer over a smooth flat plate in the following cases. a. Flat plate placed in a water stream flowing at 2m/s b. Flat plate placed in a air stream flowing at 2m/s 03. Flat plate placed in an air stream flowing at 8m/s i. Given that the densities of water and air are 1000 and 1.2 kg/m^3 respectively and the ii. Viscosities of water and air are 0.001 and 0.000019 ns/m^2 respectively. (NOV02) 04. Determine the length of an equivalent pipe of dia 20cm and friction factor 0.02 for a given pipe system discharging 0.1m^3/s. The pipe system consisting of the following (NOV02) a) A 10m line of 20cm dia with f=0.03 b) Three 90 bend k=0.5 for each c) Two sudden expansion of dia 20 to 30cm.

d) A 15m line of 30cm dia with f= 0.025 e) A global valve fully open k=10 L.VIJAYA KUMAR Asst. Prof / MECHANICAL 6 05. A 20cm dia pipe 3km long transports oil from a tanker to the shore at 0.01 m^3/s .Find the Reynolds number to classify the flow. Take viscosity =0.1Nm/s^2 and density() =900 kg/m^3 for oil (Apr 03) 06. A 30cm dia pipe of length 30cm is connected in series to a 20cm dia pipe of length 20cm to convey discharge. Determine the equivalent length of pipe of diameter 25cm, assuming that the friction factor remains the same and the minor losses are negligible. (Apr03) 07. A pipe line carrying oil of specific gravity 0.85 changes in dia from 350mm at position 1 to 550mm dia to a piston 2 which is at 6m at a higher level If the pressure at position 1 and 2 are taken as 20N/cm^2 and 15N/cm^2 respectively and the discharge through the pipe is o.2 m^3/s. Determine the loss of head and determine the flow. 08. The rate of flow of water through a horizontal pipe is 0.3m3 /s. The dia of the pipe is suddenly enlarged from 25cm to 50cm. The pressure intensity in the smaller pipe is 14N/m2 . Determine the i) loss of head due to sudden enlargement ii) Pressure intensity in the large pipe iii) Power lost due to enlargement. (NOV03) 09. Water is flowing through a tapering pipe of length 200m having dia 500m at the upper end and 250mm at the lower end the pipe has a slope of 1 in 40. The rate of flow through the pipe is 250lit/s. The pressure at the lower end and the upper end are 20N/cm^2 and 10N/cm^2. Find the loss of head and direction of flow (NOV04) 10. A horizontal pipe of 400mm dia is suddenly contracted to a dia of 20mm. The pressure intensity in the large and small pipe are given as 15N/cm^2 and 10N/cm^2 .Find the loss of

head due to contraction if Cc=0.62 Determine also the rate of flow of water. (NOV04) 11. A pipe line 10km long delivers a power of 50kw at its outlet end The pressure at inlet is 5000KN/M^2 and pressure drop per km of pipe line is 50KN/M^2 . Find the size of the pipe and the efficiency of transmission (Take 4F=0.02) (DEC05) 12. The velocity of water in a pipe 200mm diameter is 5m/s the length of the pipe is 500m .Find the loss of head due to friction if f=0.008 (DEC05) 13. A compound piping system consists of 1800m of 0.5m, 1200m of 0.40m and 600m of 0.3m new cast iron pipes connected in series convert the system to i) An equivalent length of 0.4m dia pipe and ii) equivalent size of pipe of 3600m length. (DEC07) 14. A 2500m long pipe line is used for transmission of power 120KW power is to transmitted through the pipe in which water having a pressure of 4000KN/m^2 at inlet in flowing .If the L.VIJAYA KUMAR Asst. Prof / MECHANICAL 7 pressure drop over the length of pipe is 800KN/m^2 and f=0.006 find diameter of the pipe and efficiency of the transmission. (DEC06) 15. A flat plate 1.5m x 1.5m moves at 50Km/h in a stationary air of density 1.15Kg/m^3. If the co-efficient of drag and lift are 0.15 and 0.75. Determine 1) The lift force 2) The drag force 3) the resultant force 4) The power required (DEC 07) 16. A power transmission pipe 10cm dia and 500m long is fitted with a nozzle at the exit, The inlet is from a river with water level 60m above the discharge nozzle Assume f=0.02. Calculate the maximum power which can transmitted and the diameter of nozzle required.L.VIJAYA KUMAR Asst. Prof / MECHANICAL 8 UNIT III- DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS PART A ( 2 Marks ) 01. What is a dimensionally homogenous equation? Give example (NOV-04) 02. Give the dimensions for physical quantities: Pressure, Surface tension, Dynamic viscosity, Kinematic viscosity? (APR-03)

03. State the Buckinghams theorem. (APR-04) 04. What are the similarities between models and prototype? (NOV-04) 05. Submarine is tested in the air tunnel .Identify the model law applicable? (NOV-03) PART-B ( 16 Marks ) 01. Consider force F acting on the propeller of an air craft which depends upon variable u,.,d and N .Derive the non- dimensional function from F / u^2 D^2 = f[ UD / ] x [ND / U] (APR 03) 02. The frictional torque T of disc diameter D rotating at a speed N in fluid of viscosity and density in a turbulent flow is given by T= D^5 N^2 [ / D^2 N P ] . Prove it by Buckinghams theorem. (NOV-03) 03. The pressure diff p in a pipe of dia D and length L due to viscous flow depends on the velocity V viscosity and density using Buckinghams theorem. Obtain an expression for p (APR-04) 04. A model of a hydro electric power station tail race is proposed to built by selecting vertical scale 1 in 50 and horizontal scale 1 in 100 if the design pipe has flow rate of 600m^3/s and the allowable discharge of 800m^3/s . Calculate the corresponding flow rate for the model testing. (APR 04) 05. It is desired to obtain the dynamic similarity between a 30cm dia pipe carrying linseed oil at 0.5m^3/s and a 5m dia pipe carrying water. What should be the rate of flow of water in LPS? If the pressure loss in the model is 196N/m^2. What is the pressure loss in the proto type pipe? Kinematic viscosities of linseed oil and water are 0.47 and 0.0113 stroke respectively. Specific gravity of linseed oil =0.82 (APR-03) 06. Derive an expression showing the relationship between the torque and the variables diameter, rotational speed, viscosity and density by Buckinghams theorem. (Nov-04) 07. A 7.2m high and 15m long spillway discharge 94m^3/s under a head of 2m. If a 1:9

Scale model of this spillway is to be constructed determine the model law to be used model dimensions , head at spillway and discharge in the model if model experiences a force of 764N, Determine force on prototype. (NOV-04)L.VIJAYA KUMAR Asst. Prof / MECHANICAL 9 UNIT IV- ROTODYNAMIC MACHINES PART A ( 2 Marks ) 01. Define hydraulic machines 02. Give example for a low head, medium head and high head turbine. 03. What is impulse turbine? Give example. 04. What is reaction turbine? Give example 05. What is axial flow turbine? 06. Define mechanical efficiency? 07. Define volumetric efficiency? 08. Define unit discharge? 09. Define unit power? 10. What is draft turbine? 11. What is the function of spear and nozzle? 12. Define hydraulic efficiency? 13. Define overall efficiency? 14. Define unit speed of turbine? 15. Write the function of draft tube in turbine outlet? PART-B ( 16 Marks ) 01. The nozzle of pelt on wheel gives a jet of 9cm dia and velocity 75m/s. co-efficient of velocity is 0.978. The pitch circle dia is 1.5m and the deflection angle of the buckets is 170 degree. The wheel velocity is 0.46 times the jet velocity. Estimate the speed of the

pelt on wheel turbine in rpm, theoretical power developed and efficiency of the turbine. (APR-05) 02. A pelt on wheel has to be designed for the following data Power to be developed= 6000Kw Net head available =300rpm Speed = 550rpm Ratio of the jet diameter to wheel diameter =1/10 Speed ratio =0.48 Overall efficiency =85% Find the number of jet, diameter of jet, diameter of the wheel and the quantity of water required. (Dec-06)L.VIJAYA KUMAR Asst. Prof / MECHANICAL 10 03. A pelt on wheel is having a mean bucket dia of 1m and is running at 1000 rpm .The net head on the pelt on wheel is 700m if the size clearance angle is 15 and discharge through the nozzle is 0.1m^3/s. Find i) power available at nozzle ii) Hydraulic efficiency of the turbine. (Take CV=1) 04. A pelt on turbine is required to develop 9000Kw when working under a head of 300m the impeller may rotate at 500rpm. Assuming a jet ratio of 10 and an overall efficiency of 85%. Calculate a. Quantity of water required b. Dia of the wheel c. Number of jet d. Number and size of the bucket vanes on the runner. (NOV-03) 05. A turbine is to operate under a head of 25m at 200rpm .The Discharge is 9 m^3/s if the efficiency is 90%, Determine specific speed of the machine power Generated and type of turbine. (DEC-07)

06. A turbine is to operate under a head of 25m at 200rpm, the available discharge is 90% determine a. Specific speed b. Power generated c. Performance under a head of 20m d. The type of turbine (NOV-02) 07. A vertical reaction turbine operates under 60m head at 400rpm the area and dia of the runner at inlet are 0.7 m^2 and 1m respective the absolute and relative velocities of the fluid entering are 15 and 60 to the tangential direction . Calculate hydraulic efficiency 08. An outward flow reaction turbine has internal and external dia of the runner as 0.5m and 1.0m respectively. The turbine is running at 250rpm and the rate of flow of water through the turbine is 8m^3/s. The width of the runner is constant at inlet and outlet and is equal to 30cm. The head on the turbine is 10cm and discharge at outlet is radial. Determine i) Vane angle at inlet and outlet ii) Velocity of flow at inlet and outlet (NOV-03) 09. A centrifugal pump of 20cm dia running at 1430rpm delivers 0.1m^3/s of water against a head of 40m with an efficiency of 90%. What is non-dimensional specific speed? 10. Find the power required to drive a centrifugal pump which delivers 0.04 M^3/s of water to a height of 20m through a 15cm diameter pipe and 100m long. The overall efficiency of the pump is 70% and the co-efficient of friction is 0.15 (APR -04)L.VIJAYA KUMAR Asst. Prof / MECHANICAL 11 UNIT V- POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT MACHINES PART A ( 2 Marks ) 01. Mention the main components of reciprocating pump? (NOV-02) 02. Define Slip of reciprocating pump. When the negative slip does occur? (DEC-08) 03. When will you select a reciprocating pump? (DEC-05)

04. What are rotary pumps? Give examples (Apr-03) 05. Write short notes on types of rotary pumps? (NOV-02) PART-B ( 16 Marks ) 01. The diameter and stroke of a single acting reciprocating pump are 200mm and 400mm, the pump runs at 60 rpm and lift 12lit of water per second through a height of 25m, The delivery pipe is 20m long and 150mm in dia . Find i) Theoretical power required to turn the pump ii) %of slip iii) Acceleration head at the beginning and middle of the delivery stroke. 02. The length and the dia of suction pipe of a single acting reciprocating pumps are 5m and 10cm the pumps has a plunger of dia 150mm and of stroke length of 300mm. the centre of the pump is 4m above the water surface in the pump. The atmospheric pressure head is 10.3m of water and the pump is running at 40rpm Determine i) Pressure head due to the acceleration at the beginning of the suction stroke ii) Maximum pressure head due to acceleration iii) Pressure head in the cylinder at the cylinder at the beginning and the end of the stroke. (NOV-04) 03. Two geometrically similar pumps are running at the same speed of 750rpm. One pump has an impeller dia of 0.25m and lifts the water at the rate of 30lit/s against a head of 20m .Determine the head and impeller diameter of the other pump to deliver half the discharge (NOV-03) 04. The indicator diagram of a single acting reciprocating pump gives effective delivery head of 5m and 23m with crank at inner and outer dead center respectively. What is static delivery head of reciprocating pump (APR-05) 05. A single acting reciprocating pump running at 50rpm delivers 0.01m^3/s of water. The

diameter of the piston is 200mm and stroke length 400mm determine the pump coefficient of discharge and pump , co-efficient of discharge and slip and % of slip. (APR-06)