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BVRIT, EEE Dept

Asst Prof G Anil Kumar and Asst Prof J Deepthi

Electrical and Electronics Lab

Padmasri Dr B V Raju Institute of Technology Narsapur, Medak(Dt)-502313.

II B.Tech I SEM CSIT

2011-2012

Electrical and Electronics Laboratory Manual

BVRIT, EEE Dept

Asst Prof G Anil Kumar and Asst Prof J Deepthi

Electrical and Electronics Lab

Guidelines to write your observation book:

1. Expt Title, Aim, Apparatus, Procedure should be right side.

2. Circuit diagrams, Model graphs, Observations table, Calculations table should be left side.

3. Theoretical and model calculations can be any side as per your convenience.

4. Result should always be in the ending.

5. You all are advised to leave sufficient no of pages between experiments for theoretical or model calculations purpose.

BVRIT, EEE Dept

Asst Prof G Anil Kumar and Asst Prof J Deepthi

Electrical and Electronics Lab

ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS LAB

II B.Tech I SEM

CSIT 2011-2012

List of Experiments

1. Verification of Superposition and Reciprocity theorems.

2. Verification of maximum power transfer theorem on DC with Resistive load.

3. Experimental verification of Thevenin’s theorem.

4. Magnetization characteristics of D.C. Shunt generator.

5. Swinburne’s Test on DC shunt machine.

6. Brake test on DC shunt motor. Determination of performance Characteristics.

7. OC & SC tests on Single-phase transformer.

8. PN Junction Diode and Zener Diode Characteristics (Forward bias & Reverse bias).

9. Transistor CE Characteristics (Input and Output).

10. Half wave & Full wave rectifiers (with and with out filters).

BVRIT, EEE Dept

Asst Prof G Anil Kumar and Asst Prof J Deepthi

Electrical and Electronics Lab

Expt No: 1

SUPERPOSITION THEOREM AND RECIPROCITY THEOREM

AIM: Verification of Superposition theorem and reciprocity theorem theoretically and practically.

APPARATUS :

S.No

Name of the equipment

Range

Type

Quantity

1.

Ammeter

     

2.

Rheostats

     

3.

DC Power Supply

     

4.

Multimeter

 

Digital

 

5.

Connecting wires

   

as per need

THEORY:

SUPERPOSITION THEOREM STATEMENT

In any linear bilateral network containing two or more energy sources the response at any

element is equal to the algebraic sum of the responses caused by the individual sources.

i.e. While considering the effect of individual sources, the other ideal voltage sources and ideal

current sources in the network are replaced by short circuit and open circuit across the terminals. This

theorem is valid only for linear systems.

RECIPROCITY THEOREM STATEMENT

In any linear bilateral network containing the response at any branch (or) transformation ratio is same even after interchanging the sources is V/ I 1 = V/ I 2

THEORETICAL CALCULATIONS:

BVRIT, EEE Dept

Asst Prof G Anil Kumar and Asst Prof J Deepthi

PROCEDURE:

SUPERPOSITION THEOREM:

1. Connect the circuit as shown in fig (1)

2. Current through load resistor is noted as I X by applying both the voltages V 1 and V 2 through RPS.

3. Make the supply voltage V 2 short circuited and apply V 1 as shown in fig (2) and note down the current through load resistor as I Y.

4. Make the supply voltageV 1 short circuited and apply V 2 as shown in fig (3) and note down the current through load resistor as I Z.

5. Now verify that I X = I Y + I Z theoretically and practically which proves Superposition theorem

Electrical and Electronics Lab

RECIPROCITY THEOREM:

1. Connect the circuit as shown in fig (1).

2. Note down the ammeter reading as I

3. Now interchange the source and ammeter as in fig (2).

4. Note down the ammeter reading as I

5. Now verify that Vs/ I 1 = Vs/ I 2 theoretically and practically which proves reciprocity theorem.

BVRIT, EEE Dept

Asst Prof G Anil Kumar and Asst Prof J Deepthi

Electrical and Electronics Lab

CIRCUIT DIAGRAMS OF SUPERPOSITION THEOREM:

V S1

V S

V S1

R + 1 R 3 I A X + _ + _ R 2
R
+
1
R
3
I
A
X
+
_
+
_
R
2

Fig-1

V S2

+ R 3 R 1 I Y A _ + R 2
+
R 3
R 1
I Y
A
_
+
R 2

Fig-2

+ R 1 R 3 I Z A _ + R 2 _ Fig-3
+
R 1
R 3
I Z
A
_
+
R
2
_
Fig-3

V S2

CIRCUIT DIAGRAMS OF RECIPROCITY THEOREM:

+ R 1 R 3 I 1 A _ + R 2
+
R 1
R 3
I 1
A
_
+
R 2

Fig-1

I 2

R R 1 3 + + V S A _ R 2
R
R
1
3
+
+
V
S
A
_
R
2

Fig-2

BVRIT, EEE Dept

Asst Prof G Anil Kumar and Asst Prof J Deepthi

Observations:

Electrical and Electronics Lab

When both the sources are acting: fig (1)

   

Theoretical

Practical

V

S1

V

S2

   

I

X

I

X

When V 2 source alone is acting: fig (3)

   

Theoretical

Practical

V

S1

V

S2

   

I

Z

I

Z

When V 1 source alone is acting: fig (2)

   

Theoretical

Practical

V

S1

V

S2

   

I

Y

I

Y

TABULAR COLUMN OF RECIPROCITY THEOREM:

Before interchanging the sources: fig (1)

   

Theoretical values

 

Practical values

Vs

I

1

Vs/ I 1

I

1

Vs/ I 1

After interchanging the sources: fig (2)

   

Theoretical values

 

Practical values

Vs

I

2

Vs/ I 2

I

2

Vs/ I 2

BVRIT, EEE Dept

Asst Prof G Anil Kumar and Asst Prof J Deepthi

Electrical and Electronics Lab

BVRIT, EEE Dept Asst Prof G Anil Kumar and Asst Prof J Deepthi Electrical and Electronics
BVRIT, EEE Dept Asst Prof G Anil Kumar and Asst Prof J Deepthi Electrical and Electronics
BVRIT, EEE Dept Asst Prof G Anil Kumar and Asst Prof J Deepthi Electrical and Electronics
BVRIT, EEE Dept Asst Prof G Anil Kumar and Asst Prof J Deepthi Electrical and Electronics
BVRIT, EEE Dept Asst Prof G Anil Kumar and Asst Prof J Deepthi Electrical and Electronics

BVRIT, EEE Dept

Asst Prof G Anil Kumar and Asst Prof J Deepthi

PRECAUTIONS:

Electrical and Electronics Lab

1. Avoid making loose connections.

2. Readings should be taken carefully with out parallax error.

3. Avoid series connection of voltmeters and parallel connection of ammeters.

RESULT:

BVRIT, EEE Dept

Asst Prof G Anil Kumar and Asst Prof J Deepthi

Expt. No. 2

Electrical and Electronics Lab

MAXIMUM POWER TRANSFER THEOREM

AIM: To verify maximum power transfer theorem on DC with Resistive load theoretically and practically.

APPARATUS :

S.No

Name of the equipment

Range

Type

Quantity

1.

Ammeter

     

2.

Voltmeter

     

3.

Rheostats

     

4.

DC Power Supply

     

5.

Multimeter

 

Digital

 

6.

Double Pole Double Throw Switch

     

6.

Connecting wires

   

as per need

THEORY:

THEOREM STATEMENT

It states that the maximum power is transferred from the source to the load, when the load

resistance is equal to the source resistance.

THEORETICAL CALCULATIONS:

BVRIT, EEE Dept

Asst Prof G Anil Kumar and Asst Prof J Deepthi

PROCEDURE:

Electrical and Electronics Lab

1. Make the connections as shown in fig (1).

2. By varying R L in steps, note down the reading of ammeter I L in each step.

3. Connect the circuit as shown in fig (2), measure the effective resistance R th.

with the help of digital multimeter.

4. Calculate power delivered to load P L in each step.

5. Draw a graph P L Vs R L and find the R L corresponding to maximum power from it.

6. Verify that R L corresponding to maximum power from the graph is equal to the R th (which is

nothing but source resistance R S ).

MODEL GRAPH: P L P m o
MODEL GRAPH:
P L
P m
o

R L corresponding to P m

R L

V S

BVRIT, EEE Dept

Asst Prof G Anil Kumar and Asst Prof J Deepthi

Electrical and Electronics Lab

CIRCUIT DIAGRAMS: R 1 + R L R 2
CIRCUIT DIAGRAMS:
R 1
+
R L
R 2

Fig-1

R 1 R th R 2 DMM Fig-2
R 1
R th
R 2
DMM
Fig-2

V S

I L

A R 1 + R 2
A
R
1
+
R
2

Fig-3

DMM
DMM

To measure R L

R L

V S

I L

A R 1 + DMM R 2 Fig-4 To measure I L
A
R
1
+
DMM
R
2
Fig-4
To measure I L

R L

BVRIT, EEE Dept

Asst Prof G Anil Kumar and Asst Prof J Deepthi

Electrical and Electronics Lab

BVRIT, EEE Dept

Asst Prof G Anil Kumar and Asst Prof J Deepthi

OBSERVATIONS:

Electrical and Electronics Lab

Tabular column:

S.No

R

L

Theoretical values

 

Practical values

 

I

L

P L = I L 2 R L

I

L

P L = I L 2 R L

MODEL CALCULATIONS:

BVRIT, EEE Dept

Asst Prof G Anil Kumar and Asst Prof J Deepthi

Electrical and Electronics Lab

BVRIT, EEE Dept

Asst Prof G Anil Kumar and Asst Prof J Deepthi

Electrical and Electronics Lab

PRECAUTIONS:

1. Avoid making loose connections.

2. Readings should be taken carefully without parallax error.

3. Avoid series connection of voltmeters and parallel connection of ammeters.

RESULT:

BVRIT, EEE Dept

Asst Prof G Anil Kumar and Asst Prof J Deepthi

Expt. No. 3

Electrical and Electronics Lab

EXPERIMENTAL VERIFICATION OF THEVENIN’S THEOREM.

AIM:

To verify Thevenin’s theorem theoretically and practically.

APPARATUS:

S.No

Name of the equipment

Range

Type

Quantity

1.

Ammeter

     

2.

Voltmeter

     

3.

Rheostats

     

4.

DC Power Supply

     

5.

Digital Multimeter

     

6.

Connecting wires

   

as per need

THEORY:

STATEMENT OF THEVENIN’S THEOREM:

Any two terminal linear bilateral network containing of energy sources and impedances can be replaced with an equivalent circuit consisting of voltage source V th in series with an impedance, Z th. , where V th is the open circuit voltage between the load terminals and Z th is the impedance measured between the terminals with all the energy sources replaced by their internal impedances.

BVRIT, EEE Dept

Asst Prof G Anil Kumar and Asst Prof J Deepthi

Electrical and Electronics Lab

CIRCUIT DIAGRAMS:

V S

R 1 R 3 + + A R 2 _
R 1
R 3
+
+
A
R 2
_

Fig-1

I

R

V S

R 3 R 1 + + V R 2 _
R 3
R 1
+
+
V
R 2
_

L

L

V

V S = 0

Fig-2 R 3 R 1 DMM R 2
Fig-2
R 3
R 1
DMM
R 2

Fig-3

th

R th

BVRIT, EEE Dept

Asst Prof G Anil Kumar and Asst Prof J Deepthi

Electrical and Electronics Lab

V th

R th

+ A _ +
+
A
_
+

Fig-4

I L

I

R L

BVRIT, EEE Dept

Asst Prof G Anil Kumar and Asst Prof J Deepthi

PROCEDURE:

Electrical and Electronics Lab

THEVENIN’S THEOREM:

1. Connections are made as per the circuit shown in fig (1).

2. Apply DC voltage to the circuit and note down the current I L flowing through the load.

3. Connect the circuit as shown in fig (2) by open circuiting the load resistance. Apply DC voltage and note down the reading of voltmeter as V th.

4. Connect the circuit as shown in fig (3), measure the effective resistance R th. with the help of a multimeter, by replacing the voltage source with short circuit.

5. Connect the Thevenin’s equivalent circuit as shown fig (4) note down the load current I L 1 .

6. Thevenin’s theorem can be verified by checking that the currents I L and I L 1 are equal.

THEORETICAL CALCULATIONS:

BVRIT, EEE Dept

Asst Prof G Anil Kumar and Asst Prof J Deepthi

OBSERVATIONS:

Electrical and Electronics Lab

THEVENIN’S THEOREM:

   

Theoretical values

   

Practical values

 

Vs

I

L

V

th

R

th

I

L

1

I

L

V

th

R

th

I

L

1

PRECAUTIONS:

1. Avoid making loose connections.

2. Readings should be taken carefully without parallax error.

3. Avoid series connection of voltmeters and parallel connection of ammeters.

RESULT:

BVRIT, EEE Dept

Asst Prof G Anil Kumar and Asst Prof J Deepthi

Electrical and Electronics Lab

Expt No: 4

Magnetization Characteristics of DC Shunt Generator

Aim: To conduct an experiment on a D.C shunt generator and draw the magnetization characteristics (Open Circuit Characteristics or OCC) and to determine the critical field resistance(R C ) and critical speed (N C ).

Apparatus:

S. No

Apparatus

Type

Range

Qty

 

1 Voltmeter

M.C

0-500V

1

 

2 Ammeter

M.C

0-1/2A

1

 

3 Rheostats

Wire

400 /1.7A

1

wound

 

4 Tachometer

Digital

-

1

Name plate details:

Theory:

Open circuit characteristics or magnetization curve is the graph between the generated emf (E g ) and field current (I f ) of a dc shunt generator. For field current is equal to zero there will be residual voltage of 10 to 12V because of the residual magnetism present in the machine .If this is absent then the machine can not build up voltage. To obtain residual magnetism the machine is separately excited by a dc source. We can get critical field resistance (R C ) and critical speed (N C ) from OCC.

Critical field resistance: It is the value of field rresistance above which the machine cannot build up emf.

Critical speed: It is the speed below which the machine cannot build up emf.

BVRIT, EEE Dept

Asst Prof G Anil Kumar and Asst Prof J Deepthi

Electrical and Electronics Lab

BVRIT, EEE Dept Electrical and Electronics Lab Asst Prof G Anil Kumar and Asst Prof
BVRIT, EEE Dept
Electrical and Electronics Lab
Asst Prof G Anil Kumar and Asst Prof J Deepthi
Circuit diagram:
3 point starter
DPST Switch
FL
A
DPST Switch
+
+
+
(0-2)A
+400Ω/
A
MC
(0-300)V
1.7A
230 V
MC
V
DC
A
DC
F
A
F
Exciter
Supply
G
M
AA
AA
FF
FF
Fuse
Fuse

BVRIT, EEE Dept

Asst Prof G Anil Kumar and Asst Prof J Deepthi

Electrical and Electronics Lab

Procedure:

1. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram.

2. Motor is started with the help of Three Point starter and brought to its rated speed by varying the field rheostat.

3. The Eg for I f =0 is noted and the DPST switch on the DC Exciter side is closed.

4. The DC Exciter is varied in steps and the values of Field current (I f ) and corresponding generated voltage (Eg) are noted down in each step, in both ascending and descending orders.

5. Average Eg is calculated from ascending and descending orders.

6. A graph is drawn between E g & I f . From the graph (OCC), Critical field resistance (R C ) and Critical (N C ) speed are calculated.

Model Graph: E g (V) R R f A Q O C P I f
Model Graph:
E g (V)
R
R f
A
Q
O
C
P
I f (A)

BVRIT, EEE Dept

Asst Prof G Anil Kumar and Asst Prof J Deepthi

Tabular column:

Electrical and Electronics Lab

S.No

Field current I f (A)

Generated Voltage (Eg)

Average

Eg (V)

 

Ascending

Descending

order

order

Calculations:

From the graph:

Critical field Resistance,

Critical Speed,

N

Result:

PQ

PR

R C =

OA

OC

C

=

C = N rated

N rated

BVRIT, EEE Dept

Asst Prof G Anil Kumar and Asst Prof J Deepthi

Expt No : 5

Electrical and Electronics Lab

SWINBURNE’ S TEST ON DC SHUNT MACHINE

Aim: To perform no load test on dc motor and to predetermine the efficiencies of the machine acting as both a motor and a generator.

Equipment:

S.No

Apparatus

Type

Range

Qty

1

Voltmeter

MC

0-250v

1

2

Voltmeter

MC

0-30V

1

3

Ammeter

MC

0-5A

1

4

Ammeter

MC

0-2A

1

5

Rheostats

Wire wound

400 /1.7A

1

Wire wound

100 /5A

1

Name plate details:

Theory:

BVRIT, EEE Dept

Asst Prof G Anil Kumar and Asst Prof J Deepthi

Circuit diagram:

Electrical and Electronics Lab

(0-5)A 3 point starter MC L A F A 400Ω/ + + 1.7A (0-2)A A
(0-5)A
3 point starter
MC
L A
F
A
400Ω/
+
+
1.7A
(0-2)A
A
MC
V (0-250)V
MC
A
F
M
AA
FF
DPST Switch + 230 V DC
DPST Switch
+
230 V
DC

Supply

−
Fuse
Fuse

Circuit diagram to find out R a :

DPST Switch + 400Ω/ + 1.7A (0-2)A A MC − 230 V DC A Supply
DPST Switch
+
400Ω/
+
1.7A
(0-2)A
A
MC
230 V
DC
A
Supply
+
M
V (0-250)V
MC
AA
Fuse

BVRIT, EEE Dept

Asst Prof G Anil Kumar and Asst Prof J Deepthi

Electrical and Electronics Lab

BVRIT, EEE Dept Electrical and Electronics Lab Asst Prof G Anil Kumar and Asst Prof
BVRIT, EEE Dept
Electrical and Electronics Lab
Asst Prof G Anil Kumar and Asst Prof J Deepthi
Procedure:
1. Connections as made as per the circuit diagram.
2. Field rheostat is kept in minimum position and the motor is started with the help of 3-Point starter,
and is brought to rated speed by adjusting field rheostat.
3. The readings of both ammeters and voltmeter are noted down.
4. The efficiencies of the machine both as a motor and as a generator are calculated.
5. Graphs are drawn between output Vs efficiency for the Machine acting as a generator and as a
motor.
No-Load Test Observation table:
I
I
V
N
L0
f
Calculations:
From No-Load Test:
No - Load input
No - Load Armature current
=
I
I
=
L0
f
No - Load Armature Cu loss
=
I
2 R
=
a0
a
Constant loss, W
= No - load
input
No - load Armature Cu loss
=
VI
I
2 R
=
C
L0
a0
a
To Predetermine Efficiency as a Motor:
Motor input
=
VI
=
L
Total loss
=
W
+
I
2 R
=
W
+
(I
- I
)
2 R
=
C
a
a
C
L
f
a
Motor Output = Motor input - Total loss =

W

C

=

=

VI

L0

=

BVRIT, EEE Dept

Asst Prof G Anil Kumar and Asst Prof J Deepthi

Electrical and Electronics Lab

Output

Input

Efficiency, η

=

100 =

BVRIT, EEE Dept Electrical and Electronics Lab Asst Prof G Anil Kumar and Asst Prof
BVRIT, EEE Dept
Electrical and Electronics Lab
Asst Prof G Anil Kumar and Asst Prof J Deepthi
To Predetermine Efficiency as a Generator:
Generator Output
Total loss
=
W
+
I
2 R
=
W
+
(I
+
I
)
2 R
=
C
a
a
C
L
f
a
Generator Input = Generator output + Total loss =
Output
Input
Model Graph:
η (%)
Generator
Motor
O
Output

=

VI

L

=

Efficiency, η

=

100 =

BVRIT, EEE Dept

Asst Prof G Anil Kumar and Asst Prof J Deepthi

Electrical and Electronics Lab

100

Efficiency

out

in

P P

(%),

=

η

Toutin

WPP

+=

Input,

a

+= 2 RIWW

aCT

Loss,Total

Electrical and Electronics Lab

LossCuArmature

I a 2 R a

Current,Armature

fLa

III

+=

Asst Prof G Anil Kumar and Asst Prof J Deepthi

Lout

= VIP

Output,

Machine acting as a Generator:

Load I L (A) current,

BVRIT, EEE Dept

(Volts)

Voltage,

V

S.No

100

Efficiency

out

in

P P

(%),

=

η

Tinout

WPP

Output,

=

a

+= 2 RIWW

aCT

Loss,Total

Electrical and Electronics Lab

LossCuArmature

I a 2 R a

Current,Armature

fLa

III

Asst Prof G Anil Kumar and Asst Prof J Deepthi

=

Lin

= VIP

Input,

Load I L (A) current,

Machine acting as a Motor:

BVRIT, EEE Dept

(Volts)

Voltage,

V

S.No

BVRIT, EEE Dept

Asst Prof G Anil Kumar and Asst Prof J Deepthi

Expt No: 6

Electrical and Electronics Lab

BRAKE TEST ON DC SHUNT MOTOR AND TO DRAW ITS PERFORMANCE CURVES

Aim: To conduct brake test on DC Shunt motor. And to determine its performance curves.

Apparatus:

 
 

S. No

Equipment

Range

Type

Qty

1.

Voltmeter

0-250V

M.C.

1

2.

Ammeter

0-20A

M.C

1

3

Ammeter

0-1/2A

M.C

1

4

Rheostat

400 /1.7A

Wire wound

1

5.

Tachometer

 

Digital type

1

6.

Connecting wires

     

Name plate details:

Theory:

BVRIT, EEE Dept

Asst Prof G Anil Kumar and Asst Prof J Deepthi

Electrical and Electronics Lab

Procedure:

1. Connections as made as shown in the circuit diagram.

2. Field rheostat is kept in minimum position and the motor is started with the help of 3-Point starter, and is brought to rated speed by adjusting field rheostat.

3. By varying the load in steps, readings of ammeters, voltmeter, tachometer, spring balances, are noted down.

4. Performance curves are to be drawn after completing the calculations.

Model graph: Ia V S N N V S Torque Ia V S Output V
Model graph:
Ia V S
N
N V S Torque
Ia V S
Output V S η
O
S 1 S 2
S 1
S 2
BVRIT, EEE Dept Electrical and Electronics Lab Asst Prof G Anil Kumar and Asst Prof
BVRIT, EEE Dept
Electrical and Electronics Lab
Asst Prof G Anil Kumar and Asst Prof J Deepthi
Circuit diagram:
(0-20)A
3 point starter
MC
DPST Switch
L
FA
+
A
400Ω/
+
+
1.7A
(0-2)A
A
230 V
(0-250)V
MC
V
DC
MC
A
Supply
F
M
AA
FF
Fuse

Efficiency (%),

100

out

in

P P

=

η

Lin

= VIP

Input,

60 NT2

Output,

=

P out

Torque, T=9.81×( S 1 ~ S 2 )×r

Electrical and Electronics Lab

Calculations Table:

(N-m)

readings (Kgs)

S 2

Spring balance

Asst Prof G Anil Kumar and Asst Prof J Deepthi

S 1

N (rpm)

Speed,

Line current,

I L (A)

BVRIT, EEE Dept

V (Volts)

Voltage,

S.No

BVRIT, EEE Dept

Asst Prof G Anil Kumar and Asst Prof J Deepthi

Electrical and Electronics Lab

Expt No: 7

OC & SC TESTS ON 1- TRANSFORMER

Aim: To conduct OC & SC tests on the given 1-Φ Transformer and to calculate its equivalent circuit parameters, efficiency & regulation. Name plate details:

1- TRANSFORMER

Capacity

3KVA

I/P voltage

115V

I/P current

26A

O/P voltage

230V

O/P current

13A

Frequency

50Hz

Apparatus required:

S.No

Apparatus

Range

Type

Qty

 

1 Voltmeters

0-150V, 0-75V

M.I

1, 1 No

 

2 Ammeters

0-2A, 0-15A

M.I

1, No

   

2A, 150V, 60W, LPF

   

3 Wattmeter

15A, 50V, 600W, UPF

Dynamo meter

1, 1 No

 

4 Auto T/F

230V/0-270V

1- wire wound

1 No

BVRIT, EEE Dept

Asst Prof G Anil Kumar and Asst Prof J Deepthi

Electrical and Electronics Lab

Procedure

:

OC Test:

1.

Connections are done as per the circuit diagram.

2.

Supply is Switched on and rated voltage is applied to the LV side by varying the auto transformer.

3.

The readings of Ammeter, Voltmeter & Wattmeter are noted down.

SC Test:

1. Connections are done as per the circuit diagram.

2. Supply is Switched on and rated current is set through the HV winding by varying the auto transformer.

3. The readings of Ammeter, Voltmeter & Wattmeter are noted down.

Electrical and Electronics Lab

Circuit Diagram

OC Test

Asst Prof G Anil Kumar and Asst Prof J Deepthi

BVRIT, EEE Dept

DPST

Ph

G Anil Kumar and Asst Prof J Deepthi BVRIT, EEE Dept DPST Ph Open Circuit (0-2)A
Open Circuit
Open
Circuit
Asst Prof J Deepthi BVRIT, EEE Dept DPST Ph Open Circuit (0-2)A 2A, 150V, 60W, LPF
(0-2)A 2A, 150V, 60W, LPF 115V 230V MI LM A V C (0-150)V V MI
(0-2)A
2A, 150V, 60W, LPF
115V
230V
MI
LM
A
V
C
(0-150)V
V
MI
150V, 60W, LPF 115V 230V MI LM A V C (0-150)V V MI 1- Φ 230V
150V, 60W, LPF 115V 230V MI LM A V C (0-150)V V MI 1- Φ 230V

1- Φ 230V 50 Hz AC Supply

LM A V C (0-150)V V MI 1- Φ 230V 50 Hz AC Supply 3KVA, 230V
LM A V C (0-150)V V MI 1- Φ 230V 50 Hz AC Supply 3KVA, 230V

3KVA, 230V/ 115V

1 Φ -Transformer

Fig -1
Fig -1

230V / (0-270)V3KVA,

Variac

N
N

Electrical and Electronics Lab

Circuit Diagram

SC Test

Asst Prof G Anil Kumar and Asst Prof J Deepthi

BVRIT, EEE Dept

DPST

Ph

Short Circuit

Short

Circuit

Short Circuit
Prof J Deepthi BVRIT, EEE Dept DPST Ph Short Circuit (0-15)A 15A, 50V, 600W, UPF 115V
Prof J Deepthi BVRIT, EEE Dept DPST Ph Short Circuit (0-15)A 15A, 50V, 600W, UPF 115V
(0-15)A 15A, 50V, 600W, UPF 115V 230V MI LM A V C (0-50)V V MI
(0-15)A
15A, 50V, 600W, UPF
115V
230V
MI
LM
A
V
C
(0-50)V
V
MI
50V, 600W, UPF 115V 230V MI LM A V C (0-50)V V MI 1- Φ 230V

1- Φ 230V 50 Hz AC Supply

MI LM A V C (0-50)V V MI 1- Φ 230V 50 Hz AC Supply 1
MI LM A V C (0-50)V V MI 1- Φ 230V 50 Hz AC Supply 1

1 Φ -Transformer 3KVA, 230V/ 115V

Fig -2
Fig -2

230V / (0-270)V3KVA,

Variac

N
N
BVRIT, EEE Dept Electrical and Electronics Lab Asst Prof G Anil Kumar and Asst Prof
BVRIT, EEE Dept
Electrical and Electronics Lab
Asst Prof G Anil Kumar and Asst Prof J Deepthi
Observations:
O.C Test:
S.C Test:
V
I
V
I
SC
SC
W SC
0
0
W 0
Model Calculations:
W
V I
0
0
V
0
=
=
X m
I
I
=
I Cos
=
m
W
0
0
W sc
I
=
I Sin
=
R
=
=
02
2
m
0
0
I sc
V
V sc
I
=
=
W
Z 02
I sc
2
X
=
Z
2 R
=
02
02
02
xV
I Cos θ
2
2
Efficency
= 2
100
xV 2
I Cos θ
+
W
+
W
2
2
i
sc
Where, x
= Fraction o f Full loa d current
2
=
Iron losss , W
=
Cu loss
=
(xI
) R
W i
sc
2
02

Cos

0 =

0

=

R

0 =

0

=

BVRIT, EEE Dept Electrical and Electronics Lab Asst Prof G Anil Kumar and Asst Prof
BVRIT, EEE Dept
Electrical and Electronics Lab
Asst Prof G Anil Kumar and Asst Prof J Deepthi
R
Cos θ
+ I
X
Sin θ
I 2
02
2
02
%
Re
gulation
=
100
V
2
(
+
for Lag pf
,
for Lead
pf
)
Where
, Cos θ
= Load
pf

BVRIT, EEE Dept

Asst Prof G Anil Kumar and Asst Prof J Deepthi

Electrical and Electronics Lab

Load

Cu losses

Total

I/P power

O/P power

 

losses

% η

Full

         

¾

         

½

         

Calculations Table:

% Regulation

lag

lead

P.F

BVRIT, EEE Dept

Asst Prof G Anil Kumar and Asst Prof J Deepthi

PRECAITIONS:

Electrical and Electronics Lab

1) The Dimmer stat should be kept at minimum O/P position initially.

2) In OC test, rated voltage should be applied to the Primary of

3) In SC test, the Dimmer stat should be varied up to the rated load current only. 4) The Dimmer stat should be varied slowly & uniformly.

the Transformer.

Result:

BVRIT, EEE Dept

Asst Prof G Anil Kumar and Asst Prof J Deepthi

Electrical and Electronics Lab

Expt No: 8

PN JUNCTION AND ZENER DIODES CHARACTERISTICS

Aim:

To study the PN Junction Diode and Zener diode characteristics under forward and reverse Bias conditions.

Apparatus:

 

S. No

Equipment

Range

Type

Qty

1.

Regulated Power Supply

0 – 30V

D C

1

2.

Ammeter

0-200µA

M.C

1

3

Ammeter

0-1/2A

M.C

1

4

Rheostat

400 /1.7A

Wire wound

1

5.

Tachometer

 

Digital type

1

6.

Connecting wires

     

PN Junction Diode:

 
 

EQUIPMENT REQUIRED:

 

Regulated Power Supply DC Ammeter

0 – 30V 0 --200µA,0 – 0 -- 1V, 0--30V

 

10mA. DC Voltmeter

COMPONENTS REQUIRED:

Diodes Resistor Breadboard Connecting wires

Zener diode:

EQUIPMENT REQUIRED:

Regulated Power Supply DC Ammeter 30mA DC Voltmeter

COMPONENTS REQUIRED:

1N 4007, BY 127 1K

0 – 30V 0 – 10mA, 0 – 0 -- 1V, 0--30V

Zener Diodes

BZX5.1, BZX9.1

Resistor

1K

Breadboard

BVRIT, EEE Dept

Asst Prof G Anil Kumar and Asst Prof J Deepthi

Electrical and Electronics Lab

BVRIT, EEE Dept

Asst Prof G Anil Kumar and Asst Prof J Deepthi

Electrical and Electronics Lab

Procedure:

FORWARD BIAS:

1. Connect the circuit as shown in the Figure

2. Connect the milli ammeter and voltmeter of suitable ranges

3. By vary the power supply voltage gradually in small steps and measure the forward

voltage V f in incremental steps and note the current I f at each incremental step of

0.1 voltages. Tabulate the readings.

4. Draw the graph between V f and I f taking V f on X-axis and I f on Y-axis.

5. Calculate the static and dynamic resistance of the diode

REVERSE BIAS:

1. Connect the circuit as shown in the Figure

2. Connect the micro ammeter and voltmeter of suitable ranges

3. By vary the power supply voltage gradually in steps and measure the Reverse voltage V R in incremental steps and note the current I R at each incremental step of 1 voltage.

Tabulate the readings.

4. Draw the graph between V R and I R taking V R on X-axis and I R on Y- axis.

5. Calculate the reverse resistance of the diode.

Model Graphs:

PN Junction Diode

and I R on Y- axis. 5. Calculate the reverse resistance of the diode. Model Graphs:

Zener Diode

and I R on Y- axis. 5. Calculate the reverse resistance of the diode. Model Graphs:

BVRIT, EEE Dept

Asst Prof G Anil Kumar and Asst Prof J Deepthi

Electrical and Electronics Lab

Circuit diagrams:

PN Junction Diode:

Dept Asst Prof G Anil Kumar and Asst Prof J Deepthi Electrical and Electronics Lab Circuit
Dept Asst Prof G Anil Kumar and Asst Prof J Deepthi Electrical and Electronics Lab Circuit

BVRIT, EEE Dept

Asst Prof G Anil Kumar and Asst Prof J Deepthi

Electrical and Electronics Lab

ZENER DIODE:

FOEWARD BIAS CHARACTERISTICS

Asst Prof G Anil Kumar and Asst Prof J Deepthi Electrical and Electronics Lab ZENER DIODE:
Asst Prof G Anil Kumar and Asst Prof J Deepthi Electrical and Electronics Lab ZENER DIODE:

BVRIT, EEE Dept

Asst Prof G Anil Kumar and Asst Prof J Deepthi

Electrical and Electronics Lab

PN Junction Diode:

Dept Asst Prof G Anil Kumar and Asst Prof J Deepthi Electrical and Electronics Lab PN

Zener Diode:

RESULT:

Dept Asst Prof G Anil Kumar and Asst Prof J Deepthi Electrical and Electronics Lab PN

BVRIT, EEE Dept

Asst Prof G Anil Kumar and Asst Prof J Deepthi

Electrical and Electronics Lab

BVRIT, EEE Dept

Asst Prof G Anil Kumar and Asst Prof J Deepthi

Expt No: 9 TRANSISTOR CE CHARACTERISTICS (INPUT AND OUTPUT)

Electrical and Electronics Lab

Aim: To plot the transistor characteristics of common emitter configuration Equipment Required:

Regulated Power Supply DC Ammeter mA. DC Voltmeter

Components Required:

Theory:

Transistor Resistor Breadboard Connecting wires

INPUT CHARACTERISTICS:

0 – 30V (Dual) 0 – 100 UA, 0-10 0 -- 1V, 0--30V

BC 107,BC 547

, 39K

1K

1. Connect the circuit as shown in Figure. Use milli ammeters of proper range

2. For input characteristics, first fix the collector - emitter voltage V CE at 5

volts. Now vary base-emitter voltage V BE in steps of 0.1 volts and note down

the corresponding emitter current I B .

3. Repeat the above procedure for collector – emitter voltage V CE at 10V, 15V etc.

4. Plot the graph between base-emitter voltage V BE and Base current I B for a constant collector – emitter voltage V CE .

5. Find the h – parameters :( a) h re : Reverse voltage gain (b) h ie : Input impedance

OUTPUT CHARACTERISTICS:

1. For out put characteristics, first fix the Base current I B at 20 A.Now vary collector-emitter voltage V CE in steps of 1volts and note down the corresponding collector current I C

2. Repeat the above procedure for Base current I B at 30 A, 40 A.

3. Plot the graph between collector – Emitter voltage V CE

and collector

current I C for a constant Base current I B .

BVRIT, EEE Dept

Asst Prof G Anil Kumar and Asst Prof J Deepthi

Electrical and Electronics Lab

4. Find the h – parameters: (a) h fe = Forward current gain. (b) h oe = Output admittance.

BVRIT, EEE Dept

Asst Prof G Anil Kumar and Asst Prof J Deepthi

Electrical and Electronics Lab

Circuit Diagram:
Circuit Diagram:

Model graphs:

EEE Dept Asst Prof G Anil Kumar and Asst Prof J Deepthi Electrical and Electronics Lab

BVRIT, EEE Dept

Asst Prof G Anil Kumar and Asst Prof J Deepthi

Electrical and Electronics Lab

BVRIT, EEE Dept Asst Prof G Anil Kumar and Asst Prof J Deepthi Electrical and Electronics
BVRIT, EEE Dept Asst Prof G Anil Kumar and Asst Prof J Deepthi Electrical and Electronics

BVRIT, EEE Dept

Asst Prof G Anil Kumar and Asst Prof J Deepthi

Electrical and Electronics Lab

BVRIT, EEE Dept

Asst Prof G Anil Kumar and Asst Prof J Deepthi

Electrical and Electronics Lab

Calculations:

V BE = I B V CE I = B I B I C =
V
BE
=
I
B
V
CE
I
=
B
I
B
I
C
=
V
=
CE
I
B
I
C
V
=
CE
=
I
B

DC

1. Input dynamic resistance, ri

2. Output ac resistance, r o =

3. DC Current gain,

4. AC Current gain,

Result:

V CE

A

cons

=

cons

tan

t

tan

t

h ie =

h fe =

h re =

h oe =

BVRIT, EEE Dept

Asst Prof G Anil Kumar and Asst Prof J Deepthi

Expt No:10

Electrical and Electronics Lab

HALF WAVE & FULL WAVE RECTIFIERS (WITH AND WITH OUT FILTERS)

AIM: Study of rectifiers with and with out capacitance filters half wave rectifier a n d full w a v e r e c t i f i e r . To F i n d i t s Percentage o f regulation and Ripple factor.

EQUIPMENT REQUIRED:

CRO trace) DC Voltmeter

COMPONENTS REQUIRED:

Diodes 2Nos. Resistor (Variable) Breadboard Connecting wires

THEORY:

0 – 20 M hz (Dual

0--30V

(1N 4007)

10K

BVRIT, EEE Dept

Asst Prof G Anil Kumar and Asst Prof J Deepthi

Electrical and Electronics Lab

Procedure:

1. Connect the circuit diagram as shown in Figure.1

2. Connect CRO across the load. Keep the CRO switch in ground mode and observe the horizontal line and adjust it to the X- axis.

3. Switch the CRO in to DC mode and observe the waveform. Note down its amplitude, V m and frequency from the screen along with its multiplication factor.

4. Calculate V dc using the relation V dc =

v

m

П

5. Switch the CRO in to AC mode and observe the waveform. Note down its amplitude, Vm and frequency from the screen along with its multiplication factor.

6. Calculate Vac using the relation: V 2 rms = V 2 ac +V 2 dc

v

7. Calculate the ripple factor from the given formula: γ = v

ac

dc

8. Remove the load and measure the output DC voltage (DC mode) and calculate the

percentage of voltage regulation using the formula:

Percentage regulation =

v noload

9. To measure ratio of rectification, observe the power (DC and AC) using wattmeter

across the load. The ratio of rectification is given by P ac /P dc

With Capacitor:

1. Calculate the value of R by assuming C = 1000 F and f = 50 Hz using the formula = 1/ 4 (3fRC) (assume as 0.002 or any small value)

2. Connect the capacitor across the load resistance and proceed with the above Procedure from steps 1 – 9 as shown above. Follow the above- mentioned procedure for Full Wave rectifier.

(

v

noload

( v noload v load ) 100 %

v

load

) 100 %

( v noload v load ) 100 %

BVRIT, EEE Dept

Asst Prof G Anil Kumar and Asst Prof J Deepthi

Electrical and Electronics Lab

Circuit diagrams:

Half wave rectifier with out capacitor:

diagrams: Half wave rectifier with out capac i tor: Half wave rectifier with capac i tor:

Half wave rectifier with capacitor:

out capac i tor: Half wave rectifier with capac i tor: Full wave rectifier with out

Full wave rectifier with out capacitor:

wave rectifier with capac i tor: Full wave rectifier with out capac i tor: Full wave

Full wave rectifier with capacitor:

wave rectifier with capac i tor: Full wave rectifier with out capac i tor: Full wave

BVRIT, EEE Dept

Asst Prof G Anil Kumar and Asst Prof J Deepthi

Electrical and Electronics Lab

BVRIT, EEE Dept

Asst Prof G Anil Kumar and Asst Prof J Deepthi

Electrical and Electronics Lab

Model graphs:

Half wave rectifier model graph:

Lab Model graphs: Half wave rectifier model graph: Full wave rectifier model graph: Calculations: Half wave

Full wave rectifier model graph:

rectifier model graph: Full wave rectifier model graph: Calculations: Half wave rect i f i er:

Calculations:

Half wave rectifier:

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

V rms =

2

V avg =

2 v rms ripple factor = 1 2 v avg
2
v
rms
ripple factor
=
1
2
v
avg

Efficiency =

Percentage efficiency =

Peak inverse voltage (PIV) = V m

Form factor = V rms / V avg

v

m

v m

BVRIT, EEE Dept

Asst Prof G Anil Kumar and Asst Prof J Deepthi

Electrical and Electronics Lab

7. Peak factor = V peak / V rms

BVRIT, EEE Dept

Asst Prof G Anil Kumar and Asst Prof J Deepthi

Electrical and Electronics Lab

Full wave rectifier:

v m 1. V rms = 2 2 v m 2. Vavg = 3. ripple
v m
1. V rms =
2
2
v m
2. Vavg =
3.
ripple factor

=

2 v rms 1 2 v avg
2
v
rms
1
2
v
avg

Result: