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Table 1 - FEATURES OF CYTOKINES Cytokin Cell Source Cell Target e Monocytes Macrophage s Fibroblasts Epithelial cells Endothelial cells

Astrocytes T cells; NK cells Primary Effects

IL-1

Costimulator T cells; B y molecule cells Activation Endothelial (inflammatio cells n) Hypothalamu Fever s Acute phase Liver reactants T cells B cells Monocytes Bone marrow progenitors Growth Growth Activation Growth and differentiatio n

IL-2

IL-3 IL-4

T cells T cells

Naive T cells Differentiatio T cells n into a TH 2

B cells

cell Growth Activation and growth; Isotype switching to IgE Growth and activation Costimulator y molecule Growth (in humans) Acute phase reactants Activation and chemotaxis

IL-5

T cells

B cells Eosinophils

IL-6

T cells; B T cells; cells Macrophage Mature B s; cells Fibroblasts Liver Macrophage s; Epithelial Neutrophils cells; Platelets

IL-8 family IL-10

T cells (TH2) Macrophage Inhibits APC s activity

T cells

Inhibits cytokine production

IL-12

Differentiatio Macrophage Naive T cells n into a TH 1 s; NK cells cell Monocytes Endothelial cells Many tissue cells especially macrophage s Activation Activation Increased class I and II MHC

IFNT cells; NK gamma cells

TGFbeta

Inhibits T cells; T cells activation Macrophage Macrophage and growth s s Inhibits activation

GMCSF

T cells; Macrophage Bone s; marrow Endothelial progenitors cells, Fibroblasts

Growth and differentiatio n

TNFalpha

Macrophage Similar to IL- Similar to ILs; T cells 1 1

IL = interleukin GM-CSF = granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor IFN = interferon TNF = tumor necrosis factor TGF = transforming growth factor