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COMPTENCY-BASED LEARNING MATERIAL Sector: Qualification Title: Unit of Competency: Module Title: ICT Sector Computer Hardware Servicing

NC II Install Computer Systems and Networ ks Installing Computer Systems and Networks AMA Computer Learning Center Vigan Branch 3rd Floor Vigan Landmark Bldg, Jose Si ngson St., Vigan City HOW TO USE THIS COMPETENCY BASED LEARNING MATERIAL Welcome to the module in Installing Computer Systems and Networks. This module c ontains training materials and activities for you to complete. The unit of compe tency Install Computer Systems and Networks contains knowledge, skills and attitud es required for Computer Hardware Servicing. It is one of the specialized module s at National Certificate Level (NC II).

You are require to go through a series of learning activities in order to comple te each learning outcome of the module. In each learning outcome are Information Sheets and Resources Sheets (Reference Materials for further reading to help yo u better understand the required activities). Follow these activities on your ow n and answer the self check at the end of each learning outcome. You may remove a blank answer sheet at the end of each module (or get one from your facilitator /trainer) to write your answers for each self check. If you have questions, dont hesitate to ask your facilitator for assistance. RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING ( RPL) You may have some or most of the knowledge and skills included in this lear ners guide because you have: Been working in the same industry for some time. Alr eady completed training in this area. If you can demonstrate to your trainer tha t you are competent in a particular skill, you dont have to do the same training again. If you feel that you have some skills, talk to your trainer about having them formally recognized. If you have a qualification or certificate of competen ce from previous trainings, show them to your trainer. If the skills you acquire d are still current and relevant to the unit of competency, they may become part of the evidence you can present for RPL. If you are not sure about the currency of your skills, discuss this with your trainer. A Trainee Record Book (TRB) is given to you to record important dates, jobs undertaken and other workplace even ts that will assist you in providing further details to your trainer/assessor. A Record of Achievement/Progress Chart is also provided to your trainer to comple te/accomplish once you have completed the module. This will show your own progre ss.

QUALIFICATION: COMPUTER HARDWARE SERVICING NC II UNIT OF COMPETENCY: Install Computer Systems and Networks MODULE TITLE: Installi ng Computer Systems and Networks INTRODUCTION: This unit covers the outcomes req uired in installing, assembling and testing computers and common peripherals. NO MINAL DURATION: LEARNING OUTCOMES: After the end of the module you MUST be able to: 1. Plan and Prepare for Installation 2. Install Equipment/Device/System 3. C onduct Test ASSESSMENT CRITERIA: 1. Installation planned and prepared to ensure that safety measures, policies and procedures followed, and that work is appropr iately sequenced in accordance with the industry standards 2. Technical personne l consulted to ensure that the work coordinated effectively with others involved on the worksite 3. Computer systems and network devices obtained in accordance with the established procedures and to comply with requirements 4. Location wher e devices and systems to be installed is determined from job requirements 5. Mat erials necessary to complete the work obtained in accordance with established pr ocedures and checked against job requirements 6. Tools, equipment and testing de vices needed to carry out the installation work obtained in accordance with esta blished procedures and checked for correct operation and safety 7. Preparatory w ork checked to ensure that no unnecessary damage has occurred and that work comp lies with requirements 8. OH&S policies and procedures for installing devices/sy stems are followed

9. Devices / systems are installed in accordance with requirements, without dama ge or distortion to the surrounding environment or services 10. Variation to dev ices / systems installation is carried out in accordance to customer/client requ irements 11. Devices / systems are terminated and connected in accordance with r equirements 12. Unplanned events or conditions are responded to in accordance wi th established procedures 13. Approval is obtained in accordance with establishe d procedures from appropriate personnel before any contingencies are implemented 14. On-going checks of the quality of the work are undertaken in accordance wit h established procedures 15. OH&S policies and procedures are followed 16. Circuits and systems are checked as being isolated where necessary using specified testing procedures 17. Parts or connections of the installation or ser vice that are removed in order to conduct the test are stored to protect against loss or damage and in accordance with established procedures 18. Unplanned even ts or conditions are responded to in accordance with established procedures 19. Approval is obtained in accordance with established procedures from appropriate personnel before any contingencies are implemented 20. Devices / sys tems and/or installation is tested to determine whether it conforms to requireme nts 21. Parts, and/or connections removed for the purpose of testing are returned to pre-test conditions in accordance with established procedures 22. Final inspecti ons are undertaken to ensure the installed devices / systems conforms to require ments 23. Documentation in relation to the test is forwarded to appropriate pers onnel and/or authority in accordance with requirements

PREREQUISITES: Basic and Common Competency LEARNING OUTCOME #1: CONTENT: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. PLAN AND PREPARE FOR INSTALLATION OHS Policies and Procedures Basic requirements for a planned installation. Funda mentals of operating systems. Computer components and peripherals. Tools and equ ipments. ASSESSMENT CRITERIA: 1. Installation is planned and prepared to ensure Occupatio nal Health and Safety policies and procedures are followed, the work is appropri ately sequenced in accordance with requirements 2. Appropriate personnel are con sulted to ensure the work is coordinated effectively with others involved on the work site 3. Devices/systems are obtained in accordance with established procedures and to comply with requirements 4. Location in which devices / systems are to be insta lled is determined from job requirements 5. Materials necessary to complete the work are obtained in accordance with established procedures and checked against job requirements Tools, equipment and testing devices needed to carry out the in stallation work are obtained in accordance with established procedures and check ed for correct operation and safety 6. Preparatory work is checked to ensure no unnecessary damage has occurred and com plies with requirements

CONDITIONS: The students/trainees must be provided with the following: PC or wor kstations Instructional Manuals such as: Occupational Health and Safety policies and procedure manual, device manual and hardware diagrams and charts. Tools, eq uipments and test instruments such as: protective eyewear, digital multi-meter, crimping tools, pliers, screw drivers. Supplies and materials such as: UTP cable s, RJ45 connector, appropriate software applications and programs. ASSESSMENT METHODS: Written examination Practical examination.

LEARNING EXPERIENCES LEARNING OUTCOME #1: Learning Activities 1. Read Information Sheet 1.1-1 on Occu pational Health & Safety (OHS) Policies and Procedures. 2. Answer Self-Check 1.1 -1 3. Read Information Sheet 1.1-2on basic requirements for a well planned proje ct based Installation Service. 4. Answer Self-Check 1.1-2. 7. Read Information S heet 1.1-3 on the fundamentals structures and types of Operating System 8. Answe r Self-Check 1.1-3. 9. Guided by Information Sheet 1.14, proceed to the tool roo m and do Task Sheet 1.1-5 on identifying computer components and peripherals 11. Read Information Sheet 1.1-5 on the types and functions of different tools and equipments. 12. Answer Self-Check 1.1-5 Compare Answers to Answer key 1.13 Obser ve safety in the workplace. Trainee/trainer evaluates performance/output using p erformance checklist 1.1-4 and makes recommendations. Compare Answers to Answer key 1.11 PLAN AND PREPARE FOR INSTALLATION Special Instruction Compare Answers to Answer key 1.12. Compare Answers to Answer key 1.15

OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY POLICIES AND PROCEDURES INFORMATION SHEET NO. 1.1-1 LEARNING OBJECTIVES: After reading of this Information Sheet, you should be able to: 1. Identify the basic precautions and procedures in planning, preparing, install ing and testing of computer hardware and software. 2. Determine the effects of computers to the people, health risk, and to the environment. During installation and initial test, careful planning and preparat ion are to be done. To avoid personal injury and damages to wiring due to sharp pins on connectors and printed circuit assemblies, rough chassis edges and corne rs, and hot components. Adhere to warnings and limitations regarding accessibili ty into areas designated only for authorized technical personnel. CONCEPT DEVELO PMENT: SOME BASIC PRECAUTIONS AND PROCEDURES: Before starting the installation, read carefully the documentation and procedures on any hardware and software set tings that may be required. Failure to do the proper jumper setting may cause da mage to your CPU. Without an effective cooling fan, the CPU can overheat and cau se damage to both CPU and the motherboard. Each bank must have the same size and type of memory installed in pairs. Before adding and removing any other system components, make sure that you unplug your power supply. Failure to do so may ca use damage to your motherboard and in the system component. Test the computer, i nsuring that it meets the necessary system requirements before booting up. If th e computer does not pass any of the power on self-test (POST), the computer will receive an irregular power on self-test. An irregular POST is a beep code which is different from the standard beep which can either be no beeps at all or a co mbination of different beeps. EFFECTS OF COMPUTERS

Some effects of computers relating to the violation of privacy, the impact on th e labor force, health risks, and the impact on the environment. 1. Violation of Privacy Nearly every life event is stored in a computer somewher e--in medical records, credit reports, tax records, etc. It is crucial that pers onal and confidential records be protected properly. In many instances, where th ese records were not properly protected, individuals have found their privacy vi olated and identities stolen. 2. Impact on Labor Force Although computers have i mproved productivity in many ways and created an entire industry with hundreds o f thousands of new jobs, the skills of millions of workers and managers have bee n replaced by computers. Thus, it is crucial that workers keep their education u p-to-date. A separate impact on the labor force is that some companies are outso urcing jobs to foreign countries instead of keeping their homeland labor force e mployed. 3. Health Risks Prolonged or improper computer use can lead to injuries or disorders of the hands, wrists, elbows, eyes, necks, and back. Computer user s can protect themselves from these health risks through proper workplace design , good posture while at the computer, and appropriately spaced work breaks. Anot her health risk, called computer addiction, occurs when someone becomes obsessed with using the computer. Once recognized, computer addiction is a treatable dis order. 4. Public Safety Adults, teen, and children around the world are using co mputers to share publicly their photos, videos, journals, music, and other perso nal information. Some of these unsuspecting, innocent computer users have fallen victim to crimes committed by dangerous strangers. Protect yourself and your de pendents from these criminals by being cautious. For example, do not share infor mation that would allow others to identify or locate you. 5. Impact on Environme nt Computer manufacturing processes and computer waste are depleting natural res ources and polluting the environment. The amount of resources required to manufa cture a personal computer equals that of a mid-sized car. When computers are dis carded in landfills, they release toxic materials and potentially dangerous leve ls of lead, mercury, and flame retardants. Strategies that can help protect the environment include recycling, regulating manufacturing processes, extending the life of computers, and immediately donating replaced computers

SELF-CHECK NO. 1.1-1 A. IDENTFICATION Direction: Identify the Precautions and Procedures write TRUE i f the statement is correct and FALSE if the statement is wrong. 1. Failure to do the proper jumper setting may cause damage to your CPU. 2. Afte r adding and removing any other system components, make sure that you unplug you r power supply. 3. Test the computer, insuring that it meets the necessary syste m requirements before booting up. 4. With an effective cooling fan, the CPU can overheat and cause damage to both CPU and the motherboard. 5. After starting the installation, read carefully the documentation and procedures on any hardware a nd software settings that may be required. B. MATCHING TYPE Direction: Select your answer on the choices below that will co rrespond on the statement. Write the letter of your answer on the space provided . A. B. C. D. E. Violation of Privacy Impact on the Environment Public Safety He alth Risk Impact on Labor Force 1. Computer manufacturing processes and computer waste are depleting natural res ources and polluting the environment. 2. Although computers have improved produc tivity in many ways and created an entire industry with hundreds of thousands of new jobs, the skills of millions of workers and managers have been replaced by computers.

3. It is crucial that personal and confidential records be protected properly. 4 . Adults, teen, and children around the world are using computers to share publi cly their photos, videos, journals, music, and other personal information. 5. Pr olonged or improper computer use can lead to injuries or disorders of the hands, wrists, elbows, eyes, necks, and back. Compare your answers with the Answer Key on the next page. If you get 80% and ab ove, then you may proceed to the next activity but if not, master the lesson and take the Self-Check again.

ANSWER KEY 1.1-1 A. IDENTIFICATION 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. TRUE FALSE TRUE FALSE FALSE B. MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. B E A C D

INFORMATION SHEET NO. 1.1-2 BASIC REQUIREMENTS FOR A PLANNED INSTALLATION LEARNING OBJECTIVES: After reading this Information Sheet, you should be able to : 1. Prepare the required documents or forms before you do a well planned instal lation 2. Identify the qualifications to be a certified hardware professional so that you could be allowed and authorized to do a well planned installation Are you the person everyone calls when they have a computer problem? Have you consid ered getting paid for fixing near-fatal errors and turning your PC prowess into a business? According a recent report, sales of computer services are expected t o exceed $47 billion this year in the U.S. alone, with PC repair leading the way . But there are some requirements that you need to know before joining the bandw agon of Computer Hardware Servicing trade, like document/forms (e.g. Job Orders, Request Forms, and Report Sheets) and qualifications for personnel in repairing computers. REQUIRED DOCUMENTS/FORMS: A. Job Order A Job order (known as works order outside of the United States because the work is produced in a manufacturing area known as the works) or job order (sometimes job ticket or work ticket, as it often ha s some type of ticket attached) is an order received by an organization from a c ustomer or client, or an order created internally within the organization. A wor k order may be for products or services. In a manufacturing environment, a work order is converted from a sales order to show that work is about to be begin on the manufacture, building or engineering of the products requested by the custom er. In a service environment, a work order can be equivalent to a service order where the WO records the location, date and time the service is carried out and the nature of work that is done. The type of personnel (e.g. job position) may a lso be listed on the WO. A rate (e.g. $/hr,

$/week) and also the total amount of hours worked and total value is also shown on the work order. A work order may be a maintenance or repair request from stud ents, faculty or staff in a university. Orders received from outside an organiza tion are often dispatched (reviewed and scheduled) before being executed. Work o rders may be for preventive maintenance Contractors may use a single job work or der and invoice form that contains the customer information, describes the work performed, lists charges for material and labor, and can be given to the custome r as an invoice. A job order is an internal document extensively used by project s-based, manufacturing, building and fabrication businesses. A job order may be for products and/or services. In a manufacturing environment, a job order is use d to signal the start of a manufacturing process and will most probably be linke d to a bill of material. Hence, the job order will probably state: 1. 2. 3. 4. r ate the quantity of the product to be manufactured, built or fabricated the amou nt of raw material to be used, its price and amount the types of labor required, rate (per hour or per unit) and amount the machine utilization for each machine during the routing process, its and amount In a service environment, a job order can be the equivalent to a work or service order where the job order records the location, date and time the service is ca rried out and the nature of service that was carried out. The type of personnel (e.g. job position) may also be listed on the job order. A rate (e.g. $/hr, $/we ek) and also the total amount of hours worked and total value is also shown. Sam ple Job Order Form Computer Repair Job Order Form Teacher Clients Name Date January 12, 2011 Service Tag# 001 Serial # 4737Z Comput er Problem: (Brief Description of the Problem) School Perpetual Help College Com puter # 001 Model Intel Pent IV

***Blue Screen Error*** ___________________________________________________________________________ For Technical Department Used Only Fax No. (02)922-5566 Computer Fixed By: Ronaldo Supetran Date Sent Back to Schoo l: ________________ Memory Transcend 1 GHz Processor Pentium Dual-Core 2 GHz Win dows Windows XP Pro Hard Drive Space Hitachi Sata 80 Gig B. Request Form and Report Sheet Computer Hardware Servicing maintenance, which includes planned installation, ma in objective is to keep and improve production facilities, to keep and improve p roduction facilities stable and efficient at the lowest life cycle cost with the active participation of all members in the company. A Request Form is used to p ut this objective into action. And the Report Sheet and Request Form bring to li fe this maintenances purposes which are: To increase productivity through maximum utilization and improvement of all equipment To develop maintenance system to r educe life cycle cost of machinery and equipment through the involvement of ever ybody in the organization To develop the operators capability to be competent in maintenance activities through education, training and motivation. To enhance ca pability for advanced and sophisticated technology that would reinforce competit ive power.

Sample Request Form UNIT NO. 5-2 Description: Acer Aspire 4736Z Laptop Computer Observation/s: Date Reported: ***Corrupted Operating System*** January 01, 2012 Reported by: Ronaldo Supetran Activity: Reformat Laptop Date Completed: January 03, 2012

Sign:

Sample Report Sheet Repair Report Sheet Area/Section: Computer Hardware Laboratory Facility Type Nature of Breakdown Recommendatio n Laptop No Operating System Error Viral Corruption Refer to the Technical Department for Reformatting of the Operating System Reported by: Ronaldo Supetran Date: March 15, 2012

REQUIRED QUALIFICATION FOR A COMPUTER HARDWARE PERSONNEL: What Qualifications Do You Need to Become a PC Repair Technician? Education Employers prefer applicant s who have completed formal electronics training in a vocational school, communi ty college or similar setting, reports the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Training programs may last from 6 months to two years. Some employers require at least a high school diploma or GED. Certifications Trainees can take the TESDA NC II Computer Hardware Servicing ass essment to demonstrate their competency for entry-level jobs to employers. The T echnical Education and Skills Development Authority or TESDA offers a variety of certification programs. In addition, technicians can achieve certifications eve n for trainership. Physical and Personal Traits PC technicians must be able to squat, bend and reac h to access the computer equipment requiring repair. They should be physically a ble to lift at least 50 pounds of computer components. Employers look for techni cians who can stand for long periods of time and have the ability to perceive a variety of colors. Employers want technicians who think analytically, are organi zed and pay attention to detail. They should feel comfortable working under tigh t deadlines, and companies may expect them to work overtime or on weekends. Knowledge and Skills Applicants should know how to use a variety of standard off ice software, and some jobs also require knowledge of networking. Companies pref er candidates with previous PC repair experience, and they may look for candidat es with experience repairing specific brands of computers. Technicians need stro ng oral communication skills and should be able to explain their findings to cus tomers using common terms.

SELF-CHECK NO. 1.1-2 A. IDENTIFICATION Direction: the Precautions and Procedures write TRUE if the st atement is correct and FALSE if the statement is wrong. _________ 1. Anyone can perform a planned installation as long as he knows it. _________ 2. The Departme nt of Education, Culture and Sports facilitates the competency assessment for co mputer technicians. __________3. Computer Technicians are given the TESDA NC II Computer Hardware Servicing by TESDA after successfully taking the Assessment. _ ________ 4. Computer Technicians need not to have strong oral communication skil ls for they only repair computers. __________5. Companies prefer candidates with previous PC repair experience, and they may look for candidates with experience repairing specific brands of computers. __________6. A job order is an external document by a project based Business. __________7. A job order can be the equiv alent to a work or service order where the job order records the location, date and time the service is carried out and the nature of service that was carried o ut. Compare your answers with the Answer Key on the next page. If you get 80% and ab ove, then you may proceed to the next activity but if not, master the lesson and take the Self-Check again.

ANSWER KEY 1.1-2 IDENTIFICATION 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE TRUE

INFORMATION SHEET 1.1-3 FUNDAMENTALS OF OPERATING SYSTEM LEARNING OBJECTIVES: After reading this Information Sheet, you should be able to : 1. Identify fundamentals of operating systems 2. Determine the different types of operating systems An Operating System (OS) is a set of programs that manage computer hardware resources and provide common services for application software . The operating system is a vital component of the system software in a computer system. Application programs require an operating system which are usually sepa rate programs, but can be combined in simple systems. Time-sharing operating sys tems schedule tasks for efficient use of the system and may also include account ing for cost allocation of processor time, mass storage, printing, and other res ources. For hardware functions such as input and output and memory allocation, the opera ting system acts as an intermediary between application programs and the compute r hardware, although the application code is usually executed directly by the ha rdware and will frequently make a system call to an OS function or be interrupte d by it. Operating systems are found on almost any device that contains a comput erfrom cellular phones and video game consoles to supercomputers and web servers. TYPES OF OPERATING SYSTEMS: Real-time A real-time operating system is a multitas king operating system that aims at executing real-time applications. Real-time o perating systems often use specialized

scheduling algorithms so that they can achieve a deterministic nature of behavio r. The main objective of real-time operating systems is their quick and predicta ble response to events. They have an event-driven or time-sharing design and oft en aspects of both. An event-driven system switches between tasks based on their priorities or external events while time-sharing operating systems switch tasks based on clock interrupts. Multi-user A multi-user operating system allows multiple users to access a compu ter system concurrently. Time-sharing system can be classified as multi-user sys tems as they enable a multiple user access to a computer through the sharing of time. Single-user operating systems, as opposed to a multi-user operating system , are usable by a single user at a time. Being able to use multiple accounts on a Windows operating system does not make it a multi-user system. Rather, only th e network administrator is the real user. But for a Unix-like operating system, it is possible for two users to login at a time and this capability of the OS ma kes it a multi-user operating system. Multi-tasking vs. Single-tasking When only a single program is allowed to run at a time, the system is grouped under a sin gle-tasking system. However, when the operating system allows the execution of m ultiple tasks at one time, it is classified as a multi-tasking operating system. Multi-tasking can be of two types: pre-emptive or co-operative. In preemptive m ultitasking, the operating system slices the CPU time and dedicates one slot to each of the programs. Unix-like operating systems such as Solaris and Linux supp ort pre-emptive multitasking, as does Amiga OS. Cooperative multitasking is achi eved by relying on each process to give time to the other processes in a defined manner. 16-bit versions of Microsoft Windows used cooperative multi-tasking. 32 bit versions, both Windows NT and Win9x, used pre-emptive multi-tasking. Mac OS prior to OS X used to support cooperative multitasking. Distributed A distribute d operating system manages a group of independent computers and makes them appea r to be a single computer. The development of networked computers that could be linked and communicate with each other gave rise to

distributed computing. Distributed computations are carried out on more than one machine. When computers in a group work in cooperation, they make a distributed system. Embedded Embedded operating systems are designed to be used in embedded computer systems. They are designed to operate on small machines like PDAs with less autonomy. They are able to operate with a limited number of resources. The y are very compact and extremely efficient by design. Windows CE and Minix 3 are some examples of embedded operating systems. EXAMPLES OF OPERATING SYSTEMS: Unix and Unix-like operating systems Ken Thompson wrote B, mainly based on BCPL, which he used to write Unix, based o n his experience in the MULTICS project. B was replaced by C, and Unix developed into a large, complex family of inter-related operating systems which have been influential in every modern operating system (see History). The Unix-like family is a diverse group of operating systems, with several major sub-categories including System V, BSD, and GNU/Linux. The name "UNIX" is a tra demark of the Open Group which licenses it for use with any operating system tha t has been shown to conform to their definitions. "Unix-like" is commonly used t o refer to the large set of operating systems which resemble the original Unix. Unix-like systems run on a wide variety of computer architectures. They are used heavily for servers in business, as well as workstations in academic and engine ering environments. Free Unix variants, such as GNU/Linux and BSD, are popular i n these areas. Four operating systems are certified by the The Open Group (holde r of the Unix trademark) as Unix. HPs HP-UX and IBMs AIX are both descendants of the original System V Unix and are designed to run only on their respective v endors hardware.

In contrast, Sun Microsystemss Solaris Operating System can run on multiple typ es of hardware, including x86 and Sparc servers, and PCs. Apples Mac OS X, a re placement for Apples earlier (non-Unix) Mac OS, is a hybrid kernel-based BSD va riant derived from NeXTSTEP, Mach, and FreeBSD. Unix interoperability was sought by establishing the POSIX standard. The POSIX standard can be applied to any op erating system, although it was originally created for various Unix variants. BSD and its descendants A subgroup of the Unix family is the Berkeley Software Distribution family, whic h includes FreeBSD, NetBSD, and OpenBSD, PC-BSD. These operating systems are mos t commonly found on web servers, although they can also function as a personal c omputer OS. The Internet owes much of its existence to BSD, as many of the proto cols now commonly used by computers to connect, send and receive data over a net work were widely implemented and refined in BSD. The world wide web was also fir st demonstrated on a number of computers running an OS based on BSD called NextS tep. BSD has its roots in Unix. In 1974, University of California, Berkeley inst alled its first Unix system. Over time, students and staff in the computer scien ce department there began adding new programs to make things easier, such as tex t editors. When Berkely received new VAX computers in 1978 with Unix installed, the schools undergraduates modified Unix even more in order to take advantage o f the computers hardware possibilities. The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency of the US Department of Defense took interest, and decided to fund the pr oject. Many schools, corporations, and government organizations took notice and started to use Berkeleys version of Unix instead of the official one distribute d by AT&T. Steve Jobs, upon leaving Apple Inc. in 1985, formed NeXT Inc., a comp any that manufactured high-end computers running on a variation of BSD called Ne XTSTEP.

One of these computers was used by Tim Berners-Lee as the first web server to cr eate the World Wide Web. Developers like Keith Bostic encouraged the project to replace any non-free code that originated with Bell Labs. Once this was done, ho wever, AT&T sued. Eventually, after two years of legal disputes, the BSD project came out ahead and spawned a number of free derivatives, such as FreeBSD and Ne tBSD. Mac OS X Mac OS X is a line of open core graphical operating systems developed, marketed, and sold by Apple Inc., the latest of which is pre-loaded on all currently ship ping Macintosh computers. Mac OS X is the successor to the original Mac OS, whic h had been Apples primary operating system since 1984. Unlike its predecessor, Mac OS X is a UNIX operating system built on technology that had been developed at NeXT through the second half of the 1980s and up until Apple purchased the co mpany in early 1997. The operating system was first released in 1999 as Mac OS X Server 1.0, with a desktop-oriented version (Mac OS X v10.0 "Cheetah") followin g in March 2001. Since then, six more distinct "client" and "server" editions of Mac OS X have been released, the most recent being OS X 10.8 "Mountain Lion", w hich was first made available on February 16, 2012 for developers, and to be rel eased to the public late summer 2012. Releases of Mac OS X are named after big c ats. The server edition, Mac OS X Server, is architecturally identical to its de sktop counterpart but usually runs on Apples line of Macintosh server hardware. Mac OS X Server includes work group management and administration software tool s that provide simplified access to key network services, including a mail trans fer agent, a Samba server, an LDAP server, a domain name server, and others. In Mac OS X v10.7 Lion, all server aspects of Mac OS X Server have been integrated into the client version. Linux and GNU

Linux (or GNU/Linux) is a Unixlike operating system that was developed without a ny actual Unix code, unlike BSD and its variants. Linux can be used on a wide ra nge of devices from supercomputers to wristwatches. The Linux kernel is released under an open source license, so anyone can read and modify its code. It has be en modified to run on a large variety of electronics. Although estimates suggest that Linux is used on 1.82% of all personal computers, it has been widely adopt ed for use in servers and embedded systems (such as cell phones). Linux has supe rseded Unix in most places, and is used on the 10 most powerful supercomputers i n the world. The Linux kernel is used in some popular distributions, such as Red Hat, Debian, Ubuntu, Linux Mint and Googles Android. The GNU project is a mass collaboration of programmers who seek to create a completely free and open oper ating system that was similar to Unix but with completely original code. It was started in 1983 by Richard Stallman, and is responsible for many of the parts of most Linux variants. Thousands of pieces of software for virtually every operat ing system are licensed under the GNU General Public License. Meanwhile, the Lin ux kernel began as a side project of Linus Torvalds, a university student from F inland. In 1991, Torvalds began work on it, and posted information about his pro ject on a newsgroup for computer students and programmers. He received a wave of support and volunteers who ended up creating a full-fledged kernel. Programmers from GNU took notice, and members of both projects worked to integrate the fini shed GNU parts with the Linux kernel in order to create a full-fledged operating system. Microsoft Windows Microsoft Windows is a family of proprietary operating systems designed by Microsoft Corporation and primarily targeted to Intel architecture based computers, with an estimated 88.9 percent total usage share on Web connect ed computers. The newest version is Windows 7 for workstations and Windows Serve r 2008 R2 for servers. Windows 7 recently overtook Windows XP as most used OS.

Microsoft Windows originated in 1985 as an application running on top of MSDOS, which was the standard operating system shipped on most Intel architecture perso nal computers at the time. In 1995, Windows 95 was released which only used MS-D OS as a bootstrap. For backwards compatibility, Win9x could run real-mode MS-DOS and 16 bits Windows 3.x drivers. Windows Me, released in 2000, was the last ver sion in the Win9x family. Later versions have all been based on the Windows NT k ernel. Current versions of Windows run on IA-32 and x86-64 microprocessors, alth ough Windows 8 will support ARM architecture. In the past, Windows NT supported non-Intel architectures. Server editions of Windows are widely used. In recent y ears, Microsoft has expended significant capital in an effort to promote the use of Windows as a server operating environment. However, Windows usage on server s is not as widespread as on personal computers, as Windows competes against Lin ux and BSD for server market share.

SELF-CHECK NO. 1.1-3 A. IDENTIFICATION Direction: Identify the Precautions and Procedures write TRUE if the statement is correct and FALSE if the statement is wrong. ________1) An operating system is a set of programs that manage computer hardwar e resources and provide common services for application software. ________2) Ope rating system is not a vital component of the system software in a computer syst em. Application programs require an operating system which are usually separate programs, but can be combined in simple systems. ________3) Time-sharing operati ng systems schedule time for efficient use of the system and may also include ac counting for cost allocation of processor time, mass storage, printing, and othe r resources. ________4) For software functions such as input and output and memo ry allocation, the operating system acts as an intermediary between application programs and the computer hardware. ________5) Operating systems are found on al most any device that contains a computerfrom cellular phones and video game conso les to supercomputers and web servers Compare your answers with the Answer Key on the next page. If you get 80% and ab ove, then you may proceed to the next activity but if not, master the lesson and take the Self-Check again

ANSWER KEY 1.1-3 IDENTIFICATION 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE TRUE

INFORMATION SHEET NO. 1.1-4 COMPUTER COMPONENTS AND DEVICES LEARNING OBJECTIVES: After reading this Information Sheet, you should be able to : 1. Classify of the hardware and software components of a computer with its cor responding functions. 2. Determine the various computer components and periphera ls A computer system is a special subsystem of an organizations overall informa tion system. It is an integrated assembly of devices, centered on at least one p rocessing mechanism utilizing digital electronics, which are used to input, proc ess, store, and output data and information. Putting together a complete compute r system, however, is more involved than just connecting computer devices. In an effective and efficient system, components are selected and organized with an u nderstanding of the inherent tradeoffs between overall system performance and co st, control, and complexity. CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT: Basic Hardware Components of Computer System Today, almost everyone in our information society has a basic understanding of what a computer is and what it can do. A contemporary computer system consists of a central pro cessing unit, primary storage, secondary storage, input devices, output devices, and communications devices that work together with software to perform calculat ions, organize data, and communicate with other computers. A computer is an elec tronic machine, operating under the control of instructions stored in its own me mory, that can be programmed to accept data (input), process it into useful info rmation (output), and store it away in a secondary storage device (store) for sa fekeeping or later reuse. The processing of input into output is directed by the software but performed by the hardware. Figure below shows some common computer hardware components.

Common computer hardware components Computer system hardware components include devices that perform the functions of input, processing, data storage; output an d communication. The devices responsible for these five areas are as follows: Input devices. Input devices allow you to enter data or commands in a form that the co mputer can use; they send the data or commands to the processing

unit. Commonly-used input devices include keyboard, mouse, microphone, scanner, digital camera, and PC camera. Output devices. Output devices show people the processed data-information --in u nderstandable and useful form. Four commonly used output devices are a printer, a monitor, speakers, and a portable media player. Input/output devices are playi ng an increasingly significant role in our lives. The number and variety of inpu t/output devices are expanding. Processing devices. Processing devices are the c omputer electronic circuitry housed in the system unit. The circuitry in the sys tem unit is part of a circuit board called the motherboard. Two major components on the motherboard are the processor and memory. The processor, formally known as the central processing unit (CPU), has electronic circuitry that manipulates input data into the information people want. Computer instructions are actually are executed in the central processing unit. Memory is a series of electronic el ements that temporarily holds data and program instructions while they are being processed by the CPU. Both the processor and memory consist of chips. A chip is an electronic device that contains many microscopic pathways designed to carry electrical current. Storage devices. Storage usually means secondary storage tha t can store data and programs outside the computer itself. Storage devices hold data, information, and programs permanently. These devices supplement memory (al so called primary storage) that can hold data and programs only temporarily. Com mon storage devices include a hard disk, USB flash drives, CDs, DVDs, and memory cards. A drive is a device that reads from and writes onto a storage medium. A storage medium is the physical material on which data, information, and program are stored. Some portable devices, such as digital cameras, use memory cards as the storage media. Communications devices. Communications devices provide connec tions between the computer and communications networks, and enable computer user s to communicate and to exchange data, information, and programs with other comp uters. Communications devices transmit these items over transmission media such as cables, telephone lines, satellites, and cellular radio. A widely used commun ications device is a modem. In summary, we communicate with computers through input/output devices. Input de vices translate our data and communications into a form that the computer can un derstand. The computer then processes these data, and an output device translate s them back into a form we can understand. The central processing unit manipulat es data and controls the other parts of the computer system. Memory (primary sto rage) temporarily stores data and program instructions during processing, while secondary storage feeds data and instructions into the central processor and sto res data for future use. The System Unit The Motherboard

The system unit is a box-like case that houses the processor, memory and other e lectronic components of the computer that are used to process data. All other co mputer system devices, such as the monitor, keyboard, and mouse, are linked eith er directly or indirectly into the system unit. Figure below shows some of the components inside the system unit on a typical PC , including the processor, memory, expansion cards, drive bays, power supply, po rts and connectors. The processor is the device that executes program instructio ns. The memory device is a package that holds temporarily data and program instr uctions during processing. An expansion card is a circuit board that adds device s or capabilities to the computer. Finally, devices outside the system unit, suc h as a keyboard, mouse, monitor, printer, or microphone, are attached by a cable to a port or connector on the system unit.

To conserve on space, all-in-one computer houses the system unit in the same phy sical case as the monitor. On notebook computers, the keyboard and pointing devi ce often occupy the area on the top of the system unit. The display attaches to the system unit by a hinge. The system unit on a handheld computer usually consu mes the entire device. On these devices, the display is part of the system unit too. When the cover of a system unit is removed, the motherboard, also called sy stem board, can be seen inside the housing. The motherboard, a single circuit bo ard, provides the path through which the processor communicates with memory comp onents, other components, and peripheral devices. In a typical personal computer , the components attached to the motherboard include processor, memory chips, su pport electronic circuitry, and expansion boards. It is the processor that is th e most important component of the motherboard.

Many electronic components attach to the motherboard A computer chip is a small piece of semi conducting material, usually silicon, on which one or more integra ted circuits are etched. The various chips have standard-sized pin connectors th at allow them to be attached to the motherboard and, there, to a common electric al path, called bus, that enables data flow between the various system component s. An integrated circuit (IC) contains many microscopic pathways capable of carr ying electrical current. Each integrated circuit can contain millions of element s such as resistors, capacitors, and transistors. Transistors act as electronic switches that may or may not allow current to pass through. If current passes th rough, the switch is on, representing the 1 bit. If current does not pass throug h, the switch is off, representing a 0 bit. Thus, combinations of transistors ca n stand for combinations of bits, which represent numbers, letters, and other ch aracters. The motherboard in the system unit contains many different types of ch ips. A miniaturized central processing unit can be etched on a chip, then the te rm computer on a chip. A central processing unit on a chip is called a microproc essor. On a personal computer, the central processing unit (CPU) usually is cont ained on a single chip. On the larger computers such as mainframes and supercomp uter, the various functions performed by CPU are spread across many separate chi ps. Todays popular Pentium microprocessor contains more than one hundred millio n transistors. Ultimately, the type of processor and the amount of RAM placed on the motherboard define the computers speed and capacity. The processor is genera lly not made by the manufacturers of PCs. It is made by companies that specializ ed in the development and manufacture of microprocessors. A number of companies

make microprocessors, including Intel, IBM, Motorola, Advanced Micro Devices (AM D), and Cyrix. Most chips are no bigger than one-half-inch square. Manufacturers package chips so the chips can be attached to a circuit board such as a motherbo ard, memory module, or adapter card. A variety of chip packages exist. One type, called a dual inline package (DIP), consists of two parallel rows of pints that attach the chip package to the circuit board. A pin grid array (PGA) package ho lds a larger number of pins because the pins are mounted on the surface of the p ackage. A flip chip-PGA (FC-PGA) package is Some common chip packages a higher-p erformance PGA packaging that places the chip on the opposite side of the pins. Another high performance packaging technique does not use pins. A single edge co ntact (SEC) cartridge connects to the motherboard on one of its edges. The Central Processing Unit The central processing unit (CPU), also called proce ssor, interprets and carries out the basic instructions that operate a computer. The CPU significantly impacts overall computing power and manages most of a com puters operations. On larger computers, such as mainframes and supercomputers, the various functions performed by the processor extend over many separate chips and often multiple circuit boards. On a personal computer, all functions of the processor usually are on a single chip. Most processor chip manufacturers now o ffer multi-core processors. A multi-core processor is a single-chip with two or more separate processors. Two common multi-core processors used today are dual-c ore and quad-core. A dual-core processor is a chip that contains tow separate pr ocessors. Similarly, a quad-core processor is a chip with four-separate processo rs. Each processor on a multi-core chip generally runs at a slower clock speed t han a single-core processor, but multicore ships typically increase overall perf ormance. Memory While performing a processing operation, a processor needs a pla ce to temporarily store instructions to be executed and the data to be used with those instructions. The CPU cannot process data on an input device or disk dire ctly; the data must first be available in memory. A computers memory in the sys tem unit,

located physically close to the CPU (to decrease access time), provides the CPU with a working storage area for program instructions, data and information. Memo ry is also known as primary storage or internal storage. Memory usually consists of one or more chips on the motherboard or some other circuit board in the comp uter. The major feature of memory is that it rapidly provides the instructions a nd data to the CPU. Memory stores three basic categories of items: (1) the opera ting system and other system software that control or maintain the computer and its devices; (2) application programs that carry our a specific task such as wor d processing; and (3) the data being processed by the application programs and r esulting information. This role of memory to store both data and programs is kno wn as the stored program concept. Memory and storage sizes Programs and data are placed in memory before processin g, between processing steps, and after processing has ended, prior to being retu rned to secondary storage or released as output. Recall that a character is stor ed in the computer as a group of 0s and 1s, called a byte. Thus, a byte is the b asic storage unit in memory. Like the CPU, memory components contain thousands o f circuits imprinted on a silicon chip. Each circuit is either conducting electr ical current (on) or not (off). By representing data as a combination of on or o ff circuit states, the data is stored in memory. When application program instru ctions and data are transferred into memory from storage devices, each of bytes is placed in a precise location in memory, called an address. This address is si mply a unique number identifying the location of the byte in memory. To access d ata or instructions in memory, the computer references the addresses that contai n bytes of data. The size of memory is measured by the number of bytes available for use (Figure 4-17). A kilobyte of memory is equal to exactly 1,024 bytes. To make storage definitions easier to identify, computer users often round a kilob yte down to 1,000 bytes. A megabyte (MB) is equal to approximately 1 million byt es. A gigabyte (GB) equals approximately 1 billion bytes. A terabyte (TB) is equ al to approximately 1 trillion bytes. The system unit contains two types of memo ry: volatile and nonvolatile. The contents of volatile memory are lost when the computer power is turned off. In nonvolatile memory, the combination of circuit states is fixed, and therefore the contents of nonvolatile memory are not lost w hen power is removed from the computer. RAM is the most common type of volatile memory. Examples of nonvolatile memory include ROM, flash memory and CMOS. The f ollowing subsections discuss these types of memory.

RAM Random Access Memory (RAM) is the memory chips that are mounted directly on the motherboard or mounted on peripheral cards that plug into the motherboard. T he RAM chips consist of millions of switches that are sensitive to changes in el ectric current. When the computer is powered on, certain operating system files are loaded from a storage device such as a hard disk into RAM. These files remai n in RAM as long as the computer is running. As additional programs and data are requested, they are read from storage into RAM. The processor acts upon the dat a while it is in RAM. During the running time, the contents of RAM may change as the program is executed. RAM comes in many different varieties. Three basic typ es of RAM are dynamic RAM, static RAM, and magnetoresistive RAM. Dynamic RAM (DR AM) must be refreshed (or recharged) constantly by the CPU or it loses its conte nts. Many variations of DRAM chips exist, most of which are faster than the basi c DRAM. One type of DRAM is Synchronous DRAM (SDRAM), which is much faster than DRAM because it is synchronized to the system clock. Double Data Rate (DDR) SDRA M chips are eve faster than SDRAM chips because they transfer data twice for eac h clock cycle, instead of just once, and DDR2 and DDR3 are even faster than DDR. Dual channel SDRAM is faster than single channel SDRAM because it delivers twic e the amount of data to the processor. Rambus DRAM (RDRAM) is yet another type o f DRAM that is much faster than SDRAM because it uses pipelining techniques. Mos t personal computers today use some form of SDRAM chips or RDRAM chips. Static R AM (SRAM) is faster and more reliable than any form of DRAM. The term static ref ers to the fact that it does not have to be re-energized as often as DRAM. SRAM is much more expensive than DRAM, thus it is usually used for special purpose, s uch as used in cache. A newer type of RAM, called magnetoresistive RAM (MRAM), s tores data using magnetic charges instead of electrical charges. Manufacturers c laim that MRAM has greater storage capacity, consumes less power, and has faster access times than electronic RAM. Also, MRAM retains its contents after power i s removed from the computer, which could prevent loss of data for users. As the cost of MRAM declines, experts predict MRAM could replace both DRAM and SRAM. RA M chips usually are packaged on a small circuit board, called memory module, whi ch is inserted into the motherboard (Figure 4-19). Three types of A memory modul e being inserted in a motherboard.

memory modules are SIMMs, DIMMs, and RIMMs. A single inline memory module (SIMM) has pins on opposite sides of the circuit board that connect together to form a single set of contacts. With a dual inline memory module (DIMM), the pins on op posite sides of the circuit board do not connect and thus form two sets of conta cts. SIMMs and DIMMs typically hold SDRAM chips. A Rambus inline memory module ( RIMM) houses RDRAM chips. The amount of RAM a computer requires often depends on the types of applications you plan to use on the computer. A computer only can manipulate data that is in memory. A computer needs a certain amount of memory t o store programs, data, and information. The more RAM a computer has, the faster the computer will respond. A software package usually indicates the minimum amo unt of RAM it requires. If you want the application to perform optimally, typica lly you need more than the minimum specifications on the software package. The n ecessary amount of RAM varies according to the type of work you do and the type of software applications you are using. The amount of RAM on your computer deter mines how many programs and how much data a computer can handle at one time and thus affects overall performance. Generally, home users running Windows Vista an d using basic application software such as word processing should have at least 1GB of RAM. Most business users who work with accounting, financial, or spreadsh eet programs, and programs requiring multimedia capabilities should have 1 to 4 GB of RAM. Users creating professional Web sites or using graphics-intensive app lications will want 4GB or more of RAM. The amount of RAM in computers purchased today ranges from 1GB to 64GB. In an advertisement, manufacturers specify the m aximum amount of RAM a computer can hold, for example, 1GB expandable to 2GB. RO M Read-only memory (ROM) refers to memory chips storing permanent data and instr uctions. That is, the items stored in ROM chips cannot be modified--hence, the n ame read-only. ROM is usually nonvolatile. In ROM, the combination of circuit st ates is fixed, and therefore its contents are not lost if the power is removed. The data, instructions, or information stored on ROM chips often are recorded wh en the chip is manufactured. ROM chips that contain permanently written data, in structions, or information are called firmware. Firmware can be read and used, b ut cannot be changed by user. For example, ROM contains the programs that direct the computer to load the operating system and other files when the computer is turned on. In addition to computers, many devices contain ROM chips. For example , ROM chips in printers contain data for fonts. Programmable read-only memory (P ROM) is a blank ROM chip on which you can permanently place data and programs. O nce the data and instructions are programmed into PROM chip, the chip functions like a regular ROM and cannot be erased or changed. A variation of the PROM chip , called electrically erasable programmable read-only memory (EEPROM) chip, allo ws a programmer to erase the microcode with an electric signal. EEPROM chips are where the CPUs data and instructions change, but only infrequently, such as an industrial robot used in an automobile manufacturer.

Flash Memory Another type of nonvolatile memory is called flash memory. Flash me mory is a chip that keeps its memory when the power is shut off. Similar to a EE PROM chip, flash memory can be erased electronically and reprogrammed. Most comp uters use flash memory to hold their startup instructions because it allows the computer easily to update its contents. For example, when the computer changes f rom standard time to day-light savings time, the contents of a flash memory chip (and the realtime clock chip) change to reflect the new time. Flash memory chip s also store data and programs on many mobile computers and devices, such as sma rt telephones, digital cameras, pagers, PDAs, automotive devices, portable media players, digital voice recorders, and printers. When you enter names and addres ses in a smart phone or PDA, a flash memory chip stores the data. Some portable media players such as MP3 players store music on flash memory chips; others stor e music on tiny hard disks or flash memory cards. The logic capabilities of thes e devices can be upgraded by simply downloading new software from the Internet o r a vendor-supplied disk to flash memory. CMOS Some RAM chips, flash memory chip s, and other types of memory chips use complementary metal-oxide semiconductor ( CMOS) technology because it provides high speeds and consumes little power. CMOS technology uses battery power to retain information even when the power to the computer is off. Battery-backed CMOS memory chips, for example, can keep the cal endar, date, and time current even when the computer is off. The flash memory ch ips that store a computers startup information often use CMOS technology.

Expansion Slots and Adapter Cards An expansion slot is a socket on the motherboard that can hold an adapter card. An adapter card, also called expansion card, is a circuit board that enhances fu nctions of a component of the system unit and/or provides connections to periphe rals. A peripheral is a device that connects to the system unit and is controlle d by the processor in the computer. Examples of An adapter card being inserted i n an expansion slot peripherals are modems, disk drives, printers, scanners, and keyboards. The adapter cards contain the electronic circuitry for many suppleme ntal capabilities, such as more memory, higher-quality sound devices, a modem, e xtra ports, or graphics capabilities. Figure shows an expansion card being plugg ed into an expansion slot on a personal computer motherboard. Figure below lists currently used types of adapter cards. Sometimes, all functionality is built in the adapter card. With others, a cable connects the adapter card to a device, s uch as a digital video camera, outside the system unit. Some motherboards includ e all necessary capabilities and do not require adapter cards. Currently used ad apter cards and their functions Other motherboards may require adapter cards to provide capabilities such as sound and video. A sound card is used to enhance th e sound-generating capabilities of a personal computer by making two basic funct ions possible. First it enables sounds to be captured and stored on disk. Second , it enables sounds to be played through external speakers. The sound card can a dd realism to computer games with stereo music and sound effects. It also allows us to speak commands and enter words to our PCs via speech recognition. The typ ical sound card will have receptacles for a microphone, a

headset, an audio output, and a joystick. A video card, also called video adapte r or graphics card, converts computer output into a video signal that is sent th rough a cable to the monitor, which displays an image on the screen. In the past , installing a card was not easy and required you to set switches and other elem ents on the motherboard. Today, many computers support Plug and Play, which refe rs to the computers capability to automatically configure adapter cards and oth er peripherals as you install them. Having Plug and Play support means that a us er can plug in a new component turn on the computer, and then use or play the co mponent without having to configure the system manually. There are four widely u sed types of removable flash memory devices: flash memory cards, USB flash drive s, PC cards, and ExpressCard modules. Unlike adapter cards that require you to o pen the system unit and install the card on the motherboard, you can change a re movable flash memory device without having to open the system unit or restart th e computer. This feature, called hot plugging, allows you to insert and remove t he removable flash memory and other devices while the computer is running. Flash memory cards and USB flash drive A flash memory card is a removable flash memory device, which you inset and remove from a slot in a computer, mobile devi ce, or card reader/writer. Many mobile and consumer devices, such as smart phone s, digital cameras, portable media players, and PDAs use these memory cards. Som e printers and computers have built-in card readers/writers or slots that read f lash memory cards. In addition, you can purchase an external card reader/writer that attaches to any computer. Flash memory cards are available in a variety of shapes, sizes and capacities. A USB flash drive is a flash memory storage device that plugs in a USB port on a computer or portable device. A special type of US B flash drive, called a U3 smart drive, includes preinstalled software accessed through a Window-type interface.

Many computers have a PC Card slot or an Express Card slot, which is a special t ype of expansion slot that holds a PC Card or an Express Card module, respective ly. A PC Card is a thin, credit card-sized removable flash memory device that pr imarily is used today to enable notebook computers to access the Internet wirele ssly. Express Card modules are the next generation of PC Cards. An Express Card module, which can be used as a removable flash memory device, adds memory, commu nications, multimedia, and security capabilities to computers. Both PC Cards and Express Card modules conform to standards developed by the Personal Computer Me mory Card International Association. These standards help to ensure the intercha ngeability of PC Cards and Express Card modules among personal computers. Other Components Buses A PC Card slides in a PC Card slot As previously explained, a computer processes and stores data as a series of ele ctronic bits. These bits are transferred internally within the circuitry of the computer along electrical channels. Each channel, called a bus, allows the vario us devices inside and attached to the system unit to communicate with each other . Just as vehicles travel on a highway to move from one destination to another, bits travel on a bus. Buses are used to transfer bits from input devices to memo ry, from memory to the CPU, from the CPU to memory, and from memory to output or storage devices. All buses consist of two parts: a data bus and an address bus. The data bus transfers actual data and the address bus transfers information ab out where the data should go in memory. A bus is measured by its size. The size of a bus, called the bus width, determines the number of that can be Just as veh icles travel on a highway, bits travel on a bus bits transmitted at one time. Fo r example, a 32-bit bus can transmit 32 bits (4 bytes) at a time. On a 64-bit bu s,

64 bits (8 bytes) are transmitted from one location to another at a time. The la rger Buses allow the various devices inside and attached to the system unit to commun icate with each other the number of bits handled by the bus, the faster the comp uter transfers data. If a number in memory occupies 64 bits, it must be transmit ted in two separate steps when using a 32-bit bus: once for the first 32 bits an d once for the second 32 bits. Using a 64-bit bus, however, the number can be tr ansmitted in a single step, transferring all 64 bits at once. The wider the bus, the fewer number of transfer steps required and the faster the transfer of data . Most personal computers today use a 64-bit bus. Every bus also has a clock spe ed. Just like the processor, the clock speed for a bus is measured in megahertz. The higher the bus clock speed, the faster the transmission of data, which resu lts in applications running faster. Most of todays processors have a bus clock speed of 400, 533, 667, 800, 1066, or 1333 MHz. Two basic types of buses are found in a computer: a system bus and an expansion bus. A system bus is part of the motherboard and connects the CPU to main memory . An expansion bus allows the CPU to communicate with peripheral devices. Data t ransmitted to the CPU travels from the expansion bus and the system bus. When co mputer professionals use the term bus by itself, they usually are referring to t he system bus. Since the types of expansion buses on a motherboard determine the types of expansion cards you can add, you should understand the expansion buses commonly found in todays personal computers:

An old and slowest expansion bus is the ISA (Industry Standard Architecture) bus . A mouse, modem card, sound card, and low-speed network card are examples of de vices that connect to the ISA bus directly or through an ISA bus expansion slot. The PCI (Peripheral Component Interconnect) bus is a high-speed expansion bus t hat connects higher speed devices. Types of cards inserted into a PCI bus expans ion slot include video cards, sound cards, SCSI cards, and high-speed network ca rds. The PCI bus transfers data about four times faster than the ISA bus. Most c urrent personal computers have a PCI bus. The PCI Express (PCIe) bus is an expan sion bus that expands on and doubles the speed of the original PCI bus. Nearly a ll video cards today use the PCI Express bus, as well as many hard disks and net work cards. Experts predict the PCI Express bus eventually will replace the PCI bus completely. The Accelerated Graphics Port (AGP) is actually a bus designed b y Intel to improve the speed with which 3-D graphics and video are transmitted. When an AGP video card is inserted in an AGP bus slot, the AGP bus provides a fa ster, dedicated interface between the video card and memory. Newer processors su pport AGP technology. The Universal Serial Bus (USB) and FireWire bus are buses that eliminate the need to install expansion cards into expansion slots. In a co mputer equipped with a USB, USB devices are connected to each other outside the system unit and then a single cable attaches to the USB port. The USB port then connects to USB, which connects to the PCI bus on the motherboard. The USB hot p lug feature allows peripheral devices to be connected to or removed from the USB port while the PC is running. The FireWire bus works in a similar fashion. With these buses, expansion slots are available for devices not compatible with USB or FireWire. The expansion bus for a PC Card is the PC Card bus. With a PC Card inserted into a PC Card slot, data travels on the PC Card bus to the PCI bus.

A system unit has many ports Ports and Connectors A port is the point at which a peripheral attaches to or communicates with a system unit so that the periphera l can send data to or receive information from the computer. An peripheral devic e, such as a keyboard, monitor, printer, mouse, digital camera, and microphone, often attaches by a cable to a port on the system unit. Most of the time, ports are located on the back of the system unit, but they also can be placed on the f ront . A connector joins a cable to a port. A connector at one end of a cable at taches to a port on the system unit, and a connector at the other end of the cab le attaches to a port on the peripheral. Most connectors are available in one of two genders: male and female. Male connectors have one or more exposed pins. Fe male connectors have matching holes to accept the pints on a male connector. Man ufacturers often identify the cables by their connector types to assist you with purchasing a cable to connect a computer to a peripheral. Figure show the diffe rent types of connectors you may find on a system unit. Notice that some are col or-coded to help you match the connector to the correct port. Some system units include these connectors when you buy the computer. You add other connectors by inserting adapter cards on the motherboard. Certain adapter cards have ports tha t allow you to attach a peripheral to the adapter card. The motherboard is desig ned with several port options, including at least one serial port and parallel p ort each, several USB ports, and a FireWire port.

A serial port is a type of interface that connects a device to the system unit b y transmitting data one bit at a time. It usually used to connect devices that d o not required fast data transmission rates, such as a mouse or keyboard. The CO M port (short for communications port) on the system unit is one type of serial port. Some modems, which connect the system unit to a telephone line, use a seri al port because the telephone line expects the data in a serial form. Serial por ts conform to either the RS-232 or RS-422 standard with 9-pin or 25-pin. One of the 9 or 25 lines carries the serial signal to the peripheral device, and anothe r line carries the signal from the device. The other lines carry control signals . Parallel ports allow the parallel transmission of data; that is, several bits are transmitted simultaneously. Figure also shows how 8-bit bytes travel in para llel over 8 separate lines. Extra lines carry control signals. Parallel ports us e the same 25-pin RS-232C connector or the 36-pin Centronics connector. These po rts provide the interface for such devices as high-speed printers, external magn etic tape or disk backup units, and other computers. Two newer types of parallel ports, the EPP (Enhanced Parallel Port) and the ECP (Extended Capabilities Port ), use the same connectors as the Centronics port, but are more than 10 times fa ster.

A serial port and parallel port USB (Universal Serial Bus) ports are used in high-speed device interfaces. Up to 127 peripheral devices can be daisy-chained to a single USB port. USB ports are ideal for digital cameras, scanners, games controllers, MP3 music player, CD & DVD, removable hard disk, PDA, smart phone, and high-speed modems. Many system u nits have six to eight USB ports. Some newer peripheral devices may attach only to a USB port. Others attach to either a serial or parallel port, as well as a U SB port. When connecting a device to a USB port, you do not need to install a ca rd in the computer. Simply plug one end of the cable into the USB port and the o ther end into the device. To attach multiple peripherals using a single USB port , you can use a USB hub. A USB hub is a device that plugs in a USB port on the s ystem unit and contains multiple USB ports in which you plug cables from USB dev ices. Some USB hubs are wireless. The latest version of USB, called USB 2.0, is a more advanced and faster USB, with speeds 40 times higher than that of its pre decessor.

FireWire ports, also called IEEE 1394 port, are similar to the USB port and can connect multiple types of devices that require faster data transmission speeds s uch as digital video cameras, digital VCRs color printer, scanners, digital came ras, and DVD drives to a single USB and FireWire ports are replacing traditional ports connector. Up to 63 devices can be connected together using a FireWire po rt. The latest FireWire version, called FireWire 800, is much more advanced than its predecessor, FireWire 400. The FireWire also supports Plug and Play. Many c omputer professionals believe that ports such as USB and FireWire someday will r eplace serial and parallel ports completely. Having standard ports and connector s, such as USB and FireWire, greatly simplify the process of attaching devices t o a computer. In general, FireWire has replaced parallel and SCSI ports, and USB ports have replaced mouse, keyboard, serial, audio, and parallel ports. Some ne wer computers do not have a serial or parallel port. Users plug the device in a USB or FireWire port. Figure 4-32 shows how USB and FireWire are replacing other ports completely. There are five special-purpose ports available: MIDI, eSATA, SCSI, IrDA, and Blu etooth. These ports are not included in typical computers. For a computer to hav e these ports, you often must customize the computer purchase order. MIDI (Music al Instrument Digital Interface) ports connect the system unit to a musical inst rument, such as an electronic keyboard. The electronic music industry has adopte d MIDI as a standard to define how devices, such as sound cards and synthesizers , represent sounds electronically. A synthesizer, which can be a peripheral or a chip, creates sound from digital instructions. A system unit with a MIDI port h as the capability of recording sounds that have been created by a synthesizer an d the processing the sounds to create new sounds. Nearly every sound card suppor ts the MIDI standard, so you can play and manipulate on one computer sounds that originally were created on another computer. An eSATA (external Serial Advanced Technology Attachment) port, allows you to connect an external SATA hard disk t o a computer. SATA hard disks are popular because of their fast data transmissio n speeds. eSATA connections provide up to six times faster data transmission spe eds than external hard disks attached to a computers USB or FireWire port. SCSI (Small Computer System Interface) ports are special high-speed parallel port an d provide a parallel interface that enables faster data transmission than serial and parallel ports. Also up to 15 SCSI peripheral devices can be daisychained t o a single SCSI port; that is, they are connected along a single cable. The firs t SCSI device connects to the computer, the second SCSI device connects to the

first SCSI device, and so on. SAS (serial-attached SCSI) is a newer type of SCSI that transmits at much faster speeds than parallel SCSI. Power Supply, Cooling Technology Many personal computers plug in standard wall outlets, which supply a n alternating current (AC) of 115 to 120 volts. This type of power is unsuitable for use with a computer, which requires a direct current (DC) ranging from 5 to 12 volts. The power supply is the component of the system unit that converts th e wall outlet AC power into DC power. Different motherboards and computers requi re different wattages on the power supply. If a power supply is not providing th e necessary power, the computer will not function properly. Built into the power supply is a fan that keeps the power supply cool. Many newe r computers have additional fans near certain components in the system unit such as the processor, hard disk, and ports. Processor chips generate quite a bit of heat, which could cause the chip to burn up. Although the computers main fan gen erates airflow, many of todays processors require additional cooling. A heat sink is a small ceramic or metal component with fins on its surface that absorbs and disperses heat produced by electrical components such as a processor. Because a heat sink consumes extra space, smaller device called a heat pipe cools process ors in notebook computers.

TASK SHEET. 1.1-4 Title: Identify the Different Computer Components and Peripherals Performance Objective In the tool shop, given the supplies, computer components and peripherals, materials, and equipment, you are required to identify the diff erent computer components and peripherals and their specifications in 15 Minutes . Supplies/Materials: Equipment: 1. Computer 2. PPE Steps/Procedure: 1. Proceed to the station (with PC Unit) assigned to you 2. Identify the differe nt components and write the specifications of Paper and Pen each component on your paper. 3. Submit output to trainer for evaluation Assessm ent Method: Practicum with interview

PERFORMANCE CRITERIA CHECKLIST TASK 1.1-4 Criteria Computer components and peripherals are identified correctly Questions about the computer components and peripherals are answered correctly Personal Pr otective Equipment(PPE) were used properly The objective of the activity are ach ieved accordingly Yes No

INFORMATION SHEET 1.1-5 TOOLS AND EQUIPMENTS LEARNING OBJECTIVES: After reading this Information Sheet, you should be able to : 1. Identify the different tools and equipment used in computer systems and net works 2. Determine the different use and functions of these tools and equipments One important thing to consider before executing a well planned computer instal lation is that one must be knowledgeable in the different tools and equipments u sed in computer systems and networks. Furthermore, the idea on how these tools a nd equipments are properly used is another important consideration in installing computer systems.

Hardware Tools/Equipments and their Functions Illustrations Protective Eyewear enclose or protect the eye area in order to prevent particulates, infectious flu ids, or chemicals from striking the eyes

Multi-tester or Multi-meter A multi-meter or a multi-tester, also known as a VOM (Volt-Ohm meter), is an ele ctronic measuring instrument that combines several measurement functions in one unit Pliers (Assorted) Pliers is a hand tool used to hold objects firmly, for bending, or physical comp ression. Screwdriver A screwdriver is a tool for driving screws and often rotating other machine elem ents with the mating drive system Soldering Gun

A soldering gun is a tool for soldering metals using tin-based solder to achieve a highly conductiv e contact Desoldering Tool Desoldering tools are used for removing the molten solder so that the joint may be separated. Allen Wrench A hex key, Allen key, or Allen wrench (also known by various other synonyms) is a tool of hexagonal cross-section used to drive bolts and screws that have a hex agonal socket in the head (internal-wrenching hexagon drive) Flashlight A flashlight (or torch in British

English) is a hand-held portable electric-powered light source. Usually the ligh t source is a small incandescent light bulb or light-emitting diode (LED) IC Insertion and Extraction Tool Used for extracting and inserting BIOS Chip Mirror In hardware servicing a mirror is used for inspecting the peripherals Tweezers

Tweezers are tools used for picking up objects too small to be easily handled wi th the human hands Antistatic Wrist Strap An antistatic wrist strap, ESD wrist strap, or ground bracelet is an antistatic device used to safely ground a person working on very sensitive electronic equip ment, to prevent the buildup of static electricity on their body, which can resu lt in electrostatic discharge (ESD) Gloves A gloves are garments for covering and protecting the whole hand

Printer a printer is a peripheral which produces a text or graphics of documents stored in electronic form, usually on physical print media such as paper or transparenc ies Computer A computer is a programmable machine designe d to automatically carry out a sequ ence of arithmetic or logical operations Windows Operating System CD/DVD An operating system is used as an intermediary between hardware and software

Device Driver CD/DVD An application used to install the device and peripherals of a computer systems and networks RS 232 pin insertion/extractio n tool RS232 and D-Sub Pin Insertion and Removal Tool Computer Networking Tools and Device and their Functions Illustrations Crimping Tool

A crimping tool is a tool designed to crimp or connect a connector to the end of a cable. For example, network cables and phone cables are created using a crimp ing tool to connect the RJ45 and RJ-11 connectors to the end of the cable. In th e picture to the right, is an example of what a crimping tool looks like. This e xample shows a tool capable of crimping both RJ-11 and RJ-45 connectors. LAN Tester A Device used for testing network cable connectivity

UTP Unshielded Twisted Pair Cat 5 Cable A cable used for computer networking RJ 45 Connector A plastic connector used for UTP Cable to connect computers in a network Ethernet Switch A network switch or switchin g hub is a computer networking device that connects network

segments or networ k devices SELF-CHECK NO. 1.1-5 A. IDENTIFICATION. Direction: Identify the Precautions and Procedures write TRUE if the statement is correct and FALSE if the statement is wrong. ________1. Protective Eyewear enclose or protect the nose area in order to preve nt particulates, infectious fluids, or chemicals ________2. Uni-tester is an ele ctronic device for measuring instrument that combines several measurement and fu nctions ________3. Fliers are hand tool used to hold objects firmly for beding o r physical Compression ________4. A screw is a tool for driving screws and often rotating other machine elements with the mating drive system ________5. A Solde ring Gun is a tool for soldering metals using tin-based solder

to achieve a highly conductive contact B. MATCHING TYPE Direction: Select your a nswer on the choices below that will correspond on the statement. Write the lett er of your answer on the space provided. 1. Mirror 2. Flash light 3. Gloves 4. Tweezers 5. IC Insertion and Extracting To ol ______ 1. A hand held portable electric light source ______ 2. Used for extracti ng and inserting BIOS Chip ______ 3. Used for inspecting peripherals ______ 4. I ntended for picking up objects too small for human hands ______ 5. Used for hand protection Compare your answers with the Answer Key on the next page. If you get 80% and ab ove, then you may proceed to the next activity but if not, master the lesson and take the Self-Check again.

ANSWER KEY 1.1-5 C. IDENTIFICATION 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE TRUE D. MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. 2. 3. G J F

4. 5. I H EVIDENCE PLAN

QUALIFICATION: Title of Evaluation Units of competency covered COMPUTER HARDWARE SERVICING NC II INSTALL COMPUTER SYSTEMS AND NETWORKS INSTALL COMPUTER SYSTEMS AND NETWORKS The evidence must show that the trainee Plans and prepares installation to ensur e OH&S policies and procedures , sequences the work appropriately in accordance with requirements Consults appropriate personnel and ensures the work coordinate s effectively with others involve on the work site Obtains devices / systems whi ch establishes procedures and to comply with requirements Determines job require ments location and installs device/systems Obtains materials necessary to comple te work and establishes procedures which checks against job requirement X X X X X Observation with Questioning X X X Ways in which evidence will be collected: [tick the column] Written Examination Demonstration with Questioning

Obtains tools, equipments and testing devices which needs to carry out installat ion work that establishes and checks procedure for correct operation and safety X Checks preparatory work to ensure no unnecessary damage occurs and complies with requirements Follows OH&S policies and procedures for installing devices/system s Installs devices / systems in accordance with requirements, without damage or distortion to the surrounding environment or services X X X Carries out variation to devices / systems installation in accordance to custome r/client requirements Responds to the events or conditions that are not planned Obtains approval in accordance with established procedures from appropriate pers onnel before any contingencies are implemented Establishes and undertakes procedures according to on-going checks of quality of work Follows OH&S policies and procedures X Checks and isolates circuits and sy stems where necessary using specified testing procedures X

Removes parts or connections of the installation or service in order to conduct the test are stored to protect against loss or damage and in accordance with est ablished procedures Responds to events or conditions that are not a part of plan according to establ ished procedure Obtains approval in accordance with established procedures from appropriate pers onnel before any contingencies are implemented Tests devices / systems and/or installation to determine whether it conforms to requirements X Removes parts, and/or connections for the purpose of testing and returns to pretest conditions in accordance with established procedures Undertakes final inspections to ensure the installed devices / systems conforms to requirements Forwards documentation to appropriate personnel in relation to t est and to authority in accordance with requirements Installs the computer systems and networks in accordance with requirements, with out damage or distortion to the surrounding environment or services* Tests and installs computer systems and network to determine whether it conforms to clients requirements*

Conducts final inspections to ensure the installed devices / systems conforms to clients requirements* Types of computers Identifies the different computer operating systems X Enumerated the different p eripheral devices Application packages & use of application programs X X X X X Identifies Multimedia systems Identifies motherboard properly X Identifies Multimedia storage devices Identifi es video cards properly X X X Identifies sound card X Configures Computer PC Hardware X Installs Local Area Network Graphical user interface Use of utilities/software Operating systems Diagnostic software Device drivers

NOTE: *Critical aspects of competency

Table of Specification Objectives/ Content Area/ Topics Installation is planned and prepared to ensure OH&S policies and procedures are followed, the work is ap propriately sequenced in accordance with requirement s Computer operating system s Appropriate personnel are consulted to ensure the work is coordinated effectiv ely with others involved on the work site Computer PC Hardware Tools, equipment and testing devices needed to carry out the installation work are obtained in ac cordance with established procedures Knowledge Comprehensive Application # of It ems/ % of test (5) 10% (2) 4% (3) 6% (10) 20% (2) 4% (3) 6% (5) 10% (10) 20% (1) 2% (1) 2% (3) 6% (5) 10% (2) 4% (5) 10% (3) 6% (3) 6% (10) 20% (2) 4% (15) 30% (10) 20%

and checked for correct operation and safety TOTAL (15) 34% (12) 24% (23) 42% (5 0) 100%

COMPETENCY EVALUATION TOOLS Trainee: ______________________________________ Score: _____________ Qualification: __________________________________ Date: ______________ UNIT OF COMPETENCY: CONFIGURE COMPUTER SYSTEMS AND NETWORKS I. MULTIPLE CHOICE DIRECTION: Select the best answer from among the choices give n. Write your answer on your answer sheets.(15 minutes time limit. 10 items each ) 1. In OHS policies and procedures, OHS stands for: A. Occupational Health and Sa fety B. Operational Health and Safety C. Occupational Help and Safety D. None of Above 2. Before starting the ________, read carefully the documentation and procedures on any hardware and software settings that may be required. A. Inspec tion B. Installation C. Intonation D. None of the Above 3. Failure to do the proper jumper setting may cause damage to your ________. A. Monitor B. Printer C. CPU

D. All of the Above 4. Without an effective ________, the CPU can overheat and cause damage to both CPU and the motherboard. A. Cooling Fan B. Heat Sink C. Motherboard D. A ll of the Above 5. Each bank must have the same _____ and type of memory installed in pairs. A. B. C. D. Size Speed Accuracy All of the Above 6. Before adding and removing any other system components, make sure that you unplug your _________. A. B. C. D. Motherboard UPS Power Supply All of the Above 7. Failure to do so may cause damage to your motherboard and in the _________. A. B. C. D. Solar System System Component Shoot System None of the Ab ove 8. Test the computer, insuring that it meets the necessary system requirements before _________. A. Booting Up

B. Heating Up C. Warming Up D. All of the Above 9. If the computer does not pass any of the ________________ (POST), the computer will receive an irregular_________________. An irregular POST is a beep code which is different from the standard beep which can either be no beeps at all or a combination of different beeps. A. B. C. D. Power on Self-Test Power on Supply-Test Power on System-Test None of the Above 10. Some effects of computers relating to the violation of privacy, the impact o n the _______, health risks, and the impact on the environment. A. B. C. D. Stri ke Force Lightning Force Labor Force None of the Above. II. MATCHING TYPE

Directions: Match the appropriate description of the following. Refer to the sel ection of words on the top and match them to the questionnaires below. Write the letter of your answer in your answer sheets. (10 minutes time limit. 10 items e ach) A. Fundamentals of Operating System A. Operating System B. Application Programs C. Time-Sharing Operating System D. Multi-User Operating System E. Single-Tasking System F. Distributed Operating Sy stem G. Embedded Operating System H. Ken Thompson I. Mac OS X J. Linus Torvald 1. Require an operating system which are usually separate programs, but can be combined in simple systems. 2. Is a set of programs that manage computer hardware resources and provide common services for application software. 3. It allows multiple users to access a computer system concurrently. Time-sharing system can be classified as multi-user systems as they enable a mul tiple user access to a computer through the sharing of time. 4. He began the Lin ux kernel project in1991, in a university in Finland. 5. Is a line of open core graphical operating systems developed, marketed, and sold by Apple Inc., the latest of which is pre-loaded on all curre ntly shipping Macintosh computers. 6. He wrote B, mainly based on BCPL, which he used to write Unix, based on his experience in the MULTICS project.

7. An operating system designed to be used in embedded computer systems. 8. An operating system type that manages a group of independent computers and makes them appear to be a single computer. 9. When only a single program is allowed to run at a time, the system is grouped under this system. 10. An operating system type that schedule tasks for efficient use of the system and may also include accounting for cost allocation of processor time, ma ss storage, printing, and other resources. III.TRUE OR FALSE

Directions: Write TRUE if the statement is TRUE. If the statement is FALSE. Writ e your answers in your answer sheets. (5 minutes time limit. 5 items each). A. Qualification for a Computer Hardware Servicing Personnel ___________ 1. Anyone can do an installation as long as he knows how to do it. _ __________ 2. The Department of Education, Culture and Sports conducts the asses sment for NC II Computer Hardware Servicing. ___________ 3. Computer Technicians need not to have a strong oral communication skill. ___________ 4. Companies pr efer candidates with previous pc repair experience, and they may look for candid ates with experience in repairing branded computer. ____________ 5. PC Technicia ns must be able to jump, bend and reach to access the computer equipment requiri ng repair.

IV. Modified TRUE OR FALSE Directions: Write TRUE if the statement is TRUE. If the s tatement is FALSE change the underlined word and write the correct answer. Write your answers in your answer sheets. (10 minutes time limit. 15 items each. Wron g spelling wrong) A. Computer Devices and Peripherals 1. A computer is an electronic machine, operating under the control of instructions stored in its own memory, that can be programmed to accept data (input), proces s it into useful information (output), and store it away in a secondary storage device (store) for safekeeping or later reuse. 2. The encoding of input into output is directed by the software but performed b y the hardware. Figure below shows some common computer hardware components. 3. Computer system hardware components include devices that perform the function s of input, processing, data storage; output and transfer. 4. Input devices allow you to enter data or commands in a form that the computer can use; they send the data or commands to the processing unit. 5. Input devices show people the processed data--information --in understandable and useful form. 6. Processing devices are the computer electronic circuitry housed in the system processing. 7. The circuitry in the system unit is part of a circuit board called the mother board.

8. The memory, formally known as the central processing unit (CPU), has electron ic circuitry that manipulates input data into the information people want. Compu ter instructions are actually are executed in the central processing unit. 9. Memory is a series of electronic elements that temporarily holds data and pro gram instructions while they are being processed by the CPU. t 10. Both the processor and memory consist of chips. A chip is an electric device that contains many microscopic pathways designed to carry electrical current. 11. Storage usually means primary storage that can store data and programs outsi de the computer itself. 12. Communications devices provide connections between the computer and communic ations networks, and enable computer users to communicate and to exchange data, information, and programs with other computers. 13. The system unit is a box-like case that houses the processor, memory and oth er electronic components of the computer that are used to process data. 14. When the cover of a system unit is removed, the motherboard, also called sys tem board, can be seen inside the housing. 15. An interior circuit (IC) contains many microscopic pathways capable of carry ing electrical current.

V. COMPLETION Complete the sentence by giving the right answer in the blanks. Wr ite your answer in you answer sheets. (10 minutes time limit. 10 items each. Wro ng spelling wrong) A. Tools and Equipments 1. enclose or protect the eye area in order to prevent particulates, infectious fluids, or chemicals is called___________. 2. An electronic measuring instrument that combines several measurement functions in one unit is called_____________. 3. A hand tool used to hold objects firmly, for bending, or physical compression is called_________. 4. A tool for driving screws and often rotating other machine elements with the mating drive system is called___________. 5. A tool for soldering metals using tin-based solder to achieve a highly conductiv e contact is called_______________. separated are called_______________. 6. Tools used for removing the molten solder so that the joint may be 7. A is a hand-held portable electric-powered light source is called__________. 8. Tools used for picking up objects too small to be easily handled with the human hands are called _________________. 9. A garment used for covering and protecting the whole hand is called__________ _. 10. A peripheral which produces a text or graphics of documents stored in electronic form, usually on physical print media such as paper or transparencies is called________________. ANSWER KEYS

I. MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. 2. 3. 4. A B C A 5. 6. 7. 8. A C B A 9. A 10. C II. MATCHING TYPE A. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. B A D J I H G F E C III. TRUE OR FALSE A. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. FALSE FALSE FALSE TRUE FALSE

IV. Modified TRUE or FALSE A. 1. TRUE 2. PROCESSING 3. COMMUNICATION 4. TRUE 5. OUTPUT DEVICE 6. SYSTEM UNIT 7 . TRUE 8. PROCESSOR 9. TRUE 10. ELECTRONIC DEVICE 11. SECONDARY STORAGE 12. TRUE 13. TRUE 14. TRUE 15. INTEGRATED CIRCUIT V. COMPLETION A. 1. PROTECTIVE EYEWEAR 2. MULTI-METER OR MULTI-TESTER OR VOM METER

3. PLIER 4. SCREWDRIVER 5. SOLDERING GUN OR IRON 6. DESOLDERING TOOLS 7. FLASHLI GHT 8. TWEEZERS 9. GLOVE 10. PRINTER DEMONSTRATION WITH QUESTIONING Trainees name: Trainers name: QUALIFICATION: Title of Evaluation Units of competen cy covered: Date of evaluation: Time of evaluation: Instructions for Practical D emonstration: Please see attached Instruction for Practical examination (Trainee ) In the workshop, given the supplies, materials, tools and equipment, you are req uired to install, assemble and test computers and common peripherals in 4 hours only. COMPUTER HARDWARE SERVICING NC II INSTALL COMPUTER SYSTEMS AND NETWORKS INSTALL COMPUTER SYSREMS AND NETWORKS

Supplies and Materials

Paper

Ball pen

Reference books

Manuals

Tools and equipment Computer Anti Static Risk Wrap PPE Multi-Tester Screw Driver Tweezers to show if evidence is demonstrated N/ During the demonstration of ski lls, the trainee: Yes No A Plans and prepares installation to ensure OH&S polici es procedures and requirements Consults appropriate personnel and ensures the wor k coordinates effectively with others involve on the work site Obtains devices / systems which establishes procedures and to comply with requirements Determines job requirements location and installs device/systems Follows OH&S policies and procedures for installing devices/systems Identifies the different computer ope rating systems

Enumerates the different peripheral devices

Identifies motherboard properly card Feedback to trainee:

Identifies video cards properly

Identifies sound

The candidates overall performance was: Satisfactory ignature: Not Satisfactory Date: Date:

Trainees signature: Trainers s

Questioning: 1. What is employed in order to ensure that safety measures, policies 2. 3. 4. 5. and procedures followed, and that work is appropriately sequenced in accordance with the industry standards? Who are the competent personnel to be consulted to ensures effective and proper work coordination? What is the device use to test c onnectivity? multi-tester What do you need to read in order before you start ins tallation? What is an application needed to run another application 6. What is the tangible part of the computer? 7. What is the main printed circui t board on your computer? 8. What is the device that helps to display the images on the monitor? Acceptable Answers: 1. Planned Installation 2. A TESDA Certified Trainer and Tec hnician 3. Multi-tester 4. Manual 5. operating system 6. Peripheral devices 7. M otherboard 8. Video Card

INSTRUCTION FOR DEMONSTRATION: (FOR THE TRAINEE) Trainees name: Trainers name: QUA LIFICATION : Title of Evaluation Units of competency covered: Date of evaluation : Time of evaluation: PLEASE READ CAREFULLY: COMPUTER HARDWARE SERVICING NC II INSTALL COMPUTER SYSTEMS AND NETWORKS INSTALL COMPUTER SYSTEMS AND NETWORKS 1. The facilitator/trainer will provide you the necessary supplies/materials, to ols/instruments and forms. Inform the facilitator/trainer if you intend to use y our own materials/supplies, tools and instrument. 2. You are required to perform the tasks in plan and prepare for installation Identify the different computer components and peripherals 15 Minutes only. 3. You will be evaluated through dem onstration of skills observation with questioning, written test and practical de monstration.

INSTRUCTION FOR DEMONSTRATION: INSTRUCTION FOR DEMONSTRATION: (FOR THE TRAINEE) Trainees

name: Trainers name: QUALIFICATION : Title of Evaluation Units of competency cove red: Date of evaluation: Time of evaluation: PLEASE READ CAREFULLY: COMPUTER HAR DWARE SERVICING NC II PLAN AND PREPARE FOR INSTALLATION PLAN AND PREPARE FOR INS TALLATION 4. The facilitator/trainer will provide you the necessary supplies/materials, to ols/instruments and forms. Inform the facilitator/trainer if you intend to use y our own materials/supplies, tools and instrument. 5. You will be evaluated throu gh demonstration of skills observation with questioning, written test and practi cal demonstration. INSTRUCTION FOR DEMONSTRATION: (FOR THE TRAINER) Trainees name: Trainers name: QUA LIFICATION : COMPUTER HARDWARE SERVING NC II

Title of Evaluation Units of competency covered: PLAN AND PREPARE INSTALLATION PLAN AND PREPARE INSTALLATION PLEASE READ CAREFULLY AND PREPARE AS NECESSARY: The Facilitator/trainer will: Or ient the trainee on the conduct of competency evaluation. o Context and purpose of evaluation o Allowable/Reasonable adjustments o Legal and ethical responsibil ities o Competency to be assessed o Methods of evaluation o Evidence requirement s as reflected in the evidence plan Provide the necessary supplies/materials, to ols and equipment needed in the evaluation Conduct competency evaluation Provide feedback to trainee after evaluation Record and report result of evaluation

COMPETENCY ASSESSMENT RESULT SUMMARY Candidates Name: Assessors Name: Qualification: Title of competency assessment Uni ts of Competency covered: Date of Assessment Assessment Center The performance o f the candidate in the following assessment methods: [Pls. Tick (/) appropriate box] Satisfactory Not Satisfactor y COMPUTER HARDWARE SERVICING NC II PLAN AND P REPARE FOR INSTALLATION PLAN AND PREPARE FOR INSTALLATION A. Observation with questioning B. Practical Demonstration C. Written Examinatio n Did the candidate overall performance meet the required evidences / standards? Recommendation For re-assessment. _____________________________________ For iss uance of certificate. Pls. Specify (Qualification, NC Level ) __________________ ___ General Comments [Strengths / Improvements needed] Candidates signature: Assessors signature: Date: Date:

Inventory of Training Resources Inventory of Training Resources Resources for pr esenting instruction Print Resources Requirements as per in TR inventory Motherb oards manual and installer Information Sheets Computer book, PC Magazines and jou rnals Non Resources Print 11 1 1 1 1 2 1 +2 +1 10 pieces 10 5 8 +5 Gap Remarks Videos/slides VHS/VCD player White board OHP/LCD Resources for non-print Supplies Materials and Requirements as per TR 10 sets 2 sets 50 pieces 1 box 1 can 1 piece in inventory 15 2 sets 100 1 box 1 can 2 +2 + 50 Gap +5 Remarks Software applications Network OS software RJ 45 UTP cable Contact cleaner Whiteb oard Tools Screwdriver (standard) 10 pieces 10

Screwdriver (Philips) Long nose pliers Mechanical pliers Allen wrench Electronic tester Crimping tools Soldering gun Solder sucker Lead Wire stripper 10 pieces 10 pieces 10 pieces 10 sets 10 units 5 pieces 10 pieces 10 pieces 1 sp ool 5 pieces 10 7 5 10 sets 10 sets 8 5 5 2 5 +3 -5 5 +1 For Purchase -3 -5 For Purchase For Purchase

LEGEND: Symbol Description Door Computer S Server Stool P Projector A Air Conditioning Garbage Bin G S C Security Area Progress Chart/Bulletin Board

Note: This workshop layout was based on a small ACLC School in Manila that share s with other building offices. That is why some components of competency based u tilities are merged. Noted are the components that are FORMER ACLC merged: COMMONWEALTH, QC Practical Work Area are also utilized as Quality Control Area and Support Servic e for Electronics NC II. All of the resources of NC II and Electronics NC II are located in a centralized Training Resources Center. Computer Laboratory also se rve as Contextual Control Laboratory. Area CHS Practical Work Area, Hardware and Equipment Room and Administration Office H A L L W Quality Control Mens Ladies Area/Support STATION CR STATION Service Area CR A 2 SC 1 W h i t e b o a r d Information/Reception Area Faculty Room A Training Y Resource center G G LAB PC SUPPLIES G S G Contextual Control Laboratory A P

Date Developed: Document No. Issued by: CHS NC II Install Computer Systems and Networks Developed by: Ronaldo Supetran Revision #: Page 103 of 85