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Modifiable risk factors: 1.

Diet Malnutrition Sharing food utensils


Book and Net Based

Alteration on the Normal cycle of the B-cell maturation in the germinal center found on secondary lymphoid Nonmodifiable risk tissue occurs factors: 1. Age 15-35 years old Older than 55 years old

2. Environment Crowded Areas Most common in the United states, Canada and Asia

2. Genetics Can be inherited

3. Gender Male usually are affected

3. Lifestyle Kissing other partners

4. Idiopathic

Entry of EBV virus into the body either through saliva or current infection of Infectious Mononucleosis POSSIBLE EFFECTS OF EBV in HL, although no direct study is of definite to the direct effects 1. Oncogenic function to the Immune cells 2. Dysregulation of several signaling factors for B-cell 3. Reprogramming of mature B-cell which allows prolonged survival

Process on the germinal center: 1. Activated B cells function from the lymph follicle changes and begin monoclonal expansion in the environment of Folliculardendritic cells( Non-migratory) 2. After several days Somatic Hypermutation occurs. A process in which a single clone is created through normal immune- DNA mutation and type switching or

4. EBV induced protein These cells become switching occurs Decrease immune production RS cells have not undergone Not all B-cells isoof : bigger and either and normally apoptosis occurs for response renders the hypermutation, iso-switching multinucleated or those EBNA1 they immune response function body vulnerable to is who are not switched nucleated both bacterial and diminished These cells are very LMP1 viral invasion light Due to unknown visible cause upon or some Increase in growth and monoclonal LMP2 microscopy biopsy of suggests are by EBV, B-cells still rate of RS cells with help of unknown the tumor growth survives factor possibly by protein induced by and proliferates and they from Hodgkins are now called RS cells EBV

S/SX: 1. Cough 2. Fever 3. Chills 4. Sweating 5. Fatigue 6. . Painful or swollen lymph nodes 7. Skin irritations and Lesions may occur as a result of decreased immune response to any bacteria However RS cells still have B-cell They travel through the lymph vessels origins, which make it not a threat to and some are lodged and are trapped other immune cells. It attracts the in the Lymph node immune micro-environment and infiltrates local immune response Different CD molecules such as CD30 and CD 45 which are confirmatory for HL are also found in the RS since it is a B-cell in origin, many CD molecules are found in it and they serve as receptors which make them unable to be attacked and are sometimes not recognized as threats Further proliferation of RS cells and Abnormal B-cells that are oncogenic in nature Immune response is activated as a result of foreign or threat detection

Stage I. The cancer is limited to one lymph node region or a single organ.

StageStage II. In this in two III. stage, When the the cancer cancer is moves todifferent lymph lymph nodes or the cancer is the in a diaphragm, portion of tissue nodes both above and below it's or an organ and nearby lymph nodes. But the is considered stage III. Cancer may also be in cancer one still limited to a section of the body either above or portion of tissue or an organ near the lymph node Hodgkins Lymphoma can be classified in either A or B below the diaphragm. groups type. or in the spleen. Stage IV. This is the most advanced stage of A. No significant signs cells and symptoms of Hodgkin's lymphoma. Cancer are in several cancer portions of one or more organs and tissues. Stage IV Hodgkin's lymphoma affects not only the lymph B. With significant signs and symptoms of

Complications of HL varies from its different stages however common complications are: Metastasis of cancer through several parts of the body that can be very fatal if it occurs on vital organs such as Brain, Lungs and Liver Sepsis or Viremia Severe airway compression especially if the Tumor affects the cervical lymph nodes Superior Vena cava syndrome Fatigue experience upon moving or because of References: 1. Seeleys Principles of Anatomy and Physiology 2. 3. Hodgkins and Non-Hodgkins Lymphoma (John P. Leonard, Morton Coleman) 4.