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EDU 3101

1st Lecture by Abd Razak Kaprawi 2012

Development of the Education System in Malaysia: Pre-Independence Post-Independence The Development of Curriculum in Malaysia 1. The colonial period 1. Traditional colonial type of education To train the required manpower to fill minor posts in the modern sector of economy English-medium schools 2. Vernacular schools Aimed at disseminating values and knowledge in line with the character of their respective traditional communities Malay vernacular education Chinese vernacular education Indian (Tamil) vernacular education Malay vernacular education Focused on the 3Rs Quranic schools Transmit Malay culture, rural and agriculture sector Chinese vernacular education Propagator and preserver of Chinese traditional heritage Aimed at preparing the child for life in China rather than for Peninsula Malaya 1911-1920 was influenced by Kuomintang Party of China 1917 all Chinese schools use Kuo Yu (Mandarin) as the medium of instruction Teachers and textbooks from China Indian (Tamil) vernacular education 1816 Tamil school attached to the Penang Free school 1914 Hindu mission set up Vivekananda Tamil school in KL 1923 Labour code mandatory for the plantation to provide education to children 6 12 yrs old; No provision for secondary education Medium of instruction was Tamil; English and Malay taught as single subjects Reading, writing, dictation, arithmetic and physical education Administrators and teachers barely met requirements of Labour Code Tamil schools were viewed as source plantation labour 1936 (rubber price increase) in-service teacher training for Tamil teachers Discussion Question Why do we have the 3 types of vernacular education? Talk about their differences. What do you wish to happen after the colonial period?

2. The post-war period The Razak report The Rahman Talib Report The post-war period 1955 Alliance ( UMNO, MCA and MIC) Importance of education because colonial experience had awakened the Malayan people regarding Social mobility Restructuring society Method of enculturation Tool for imparting political ideology The Razak report 1956, that is .. review education policies . (Chairman - Tun Abdul Razak) Bring together the children of all races under a national education system National language is the main medium of instruction Preserving and sustaining language and culture Common syllabuses for all schools To achieve 1. Social mobility 2. Restructuring society 3. Method of enculturation 4. Tool for imparting political ideology Implementation: 1957 - 1980 Education focus on: 1. Democratization of education Education accessible to more people 2. Education for national integration and national unity Multi racial especially in the urban areas 3. Education for national development

Post-Independence The Rahman Talib report School leaving age be raised to 15 Establish a new type of post-primary school known as continuation school - sekolah pelajaran lanjutan 3 further years of education upon completion of primary education with a vocational bias who fail to gain entry to other secondary schools. Introduce commercial subjects 1962 free primary education 1965 comprehensive system ie 6 years of primary and 3 years of lower secondary education available for all children Implement common content syllabuses and timetable to all schools a united Malayan nation. Standardized entry qualifications and training for teachers Discussion What are the events that happen to the childrens education between 1957 to 1980? Give your views on

Democratization of education, Education for national integration and national unity, and Education for national development.

The Mahathir Era To promote national unity To produce the required manpower with the requisite skills 1982: New Primary School Curriculum / Kurikulum Baru Sekolah Rendah 1988: Integrated Sec. School Curriculum/ Kurikulum Baru Sekolah Menengah Both were based on the National Philosophy of Education emphasized a holistic and integrated approach. Language proficiency The reasons for the reversal in English language : 1. Influence of globalization 2. Human resource capability 3. Knowledge and information explosion 4. English in business and industry 5. Employment base

Discussion Give your own opinion regarding teach mathematic and science in English How does the above (English) help students to further their studies or in their career/job?