Sie sind auf Seite 1von 14

The Enlightenment The Enlightenment is a general term for the intellectual and cultural changes experienced in much of Europe

in the C18th. Generally it was characterised by a rejection of religious authority over intellectual questions, and a dismissal of traditional and superstitious beliefs in favour of new scientific discoveries.

The Age of Enlightenment was a period of time during the Eighteenth Century. The term is used to describe the thinking of some of the great preFrench Revolution philosophers in both Europe and America. The term itself reflects one of the fundamental ideals that the writers tended to believe, and that is that they were on the frontier of a new age which had emerged from a period of ignorance (sometimes referred to as the dark ages'). This new age was enlightened' by an open-mindedness in the realms of science and religion and a sceptical view of conventional values and beliefs. Some of the most important philosophers of the time include Ren Descartes, Baruch Spinoza, Thomas Hobbes, and John Locke. The philosophical thought that dominated during the period was a common belief in the power of human beings to reason rationally. The thinkers of the time argued that human beings were good and were able to act in a rational manner. Education was seen as an important way for human beings to better themselves and society. The pursuit of truth and knowledge was extremely important.

In the scientific world, Isaac Newton's discovery of the existence of gravity was profoundly important.

Many thinkers of the period developed a sceptical view of the church. During the Middle Ages the church had been the source of much teaching which led to human degradation. The church was frequently criticised for its decadent displays of wealth, its control of the political system, and its efforts to stifle free thought. One of the main characteristics of the period was a desire to question all previously unquestioned ideas, conventions, and values. Immanuel Kant, a German philosopher, summed up the era by suggesting that people should dare to know'. Instead of blindly following the church's dogmatic rules and teachings, human beings were encouraged to think for themselves.

There were a number of important writings of the period which encapsulate the zeitgeist (that is, the spirit of the age'). Encyclopdie (1751-1772) by Denis Deiderot outlined many of the most important ideologies of the period. Voltaire's plays and poems, as well as his essays and pamphlets were also extremely significant.

The American Revolution was seen by the European philosophers of the time as being the embodiment of their ideals. In fact, they thought that it was putting their ideologies into action. The Age of Enlightenment is generally considered to finish at the start of the French Revolution in 1789. While the thinking from the period may have been one of the causes of the French Revolution, many of the philosophers became disgusted with how bloodthirsty it ultimately became

The term "medieval" comes from the Latin meaning "middle age." The term medieval (originally spelled mediaeval) wasn't introduced into English until the 19th century, a time when there was heightened interest in the art, history and though of the Middle Ages. There is some disagreement about when the Medieval Period started, whether it began in the 3rd, 4th, or 5th century AD. Most scholars associate the beginning of the period with the collapse of the Roman empire, which began in 410 AD. Scholars similarly disagree about when the period ends, whether they place the end at the start of the 15th century (with the rise of the Renaissance Period), or in 1453 (when Turkish forces captured Constantinople).

General Introduction to the Medieval Period


When we think about the Medieval Period or the Middle Ages we often have a romanticised image of what life was like. Cinema is largely responsible for us associating such images with the period. Some of the common images of this period include knights in shining armour, lavish banquets, wandering minstrels, kings, queens, bishops, monks, and pilgrims. In reality, however, life in the Middle Ages, was not necessarily so glamorous. The Medieval period is generally considered to extend from the fifth century to the fifteenth century in Western Europe. Living Conditions: People tended to live in small communities and there was a central lord or master. This arrangement was necessary for safety and for defence. Most people lived on a manor. The manor was made up of the castle, the church, the village, and the surrounding farmland. Manors were typically isolated from the outside world but they occasionally received visitors from travelling peddlers or pilgrims on their way to the Crusades. This style of community is sometimes referred to as the "feudal" system. The feudal system worked by the king giving land grants to his loyal servants. This included nobles, barons, and bishops. The land was a reward for their contributions to the king's armies. The peasants (who were called "serfs" or "villeins") were the lowest class of people within the community. Peasants could live and work on the lord of the manor's land but they were heavily taxed and they usually had to give the lord of

the manor a sizable proportion of the food that they produced. Living conditions were difficult. For example, most medieval homes were cold, damp, and dark. This was partly because most houses were built without windows for added security. Health: As the populations of medieval towns and cities increased, the hygienic conditions began to worsen this lead to an increase in the rate of diseases. Medical knowledge was limited and limited health care was available to the common people. Antibiotics were not invented until the 1800s and it was almost impossible to cure diseases without them. Many myths and superstitions about health and hygiene began to emerge. For example, people believed that disease was spread by bad odours and that if you got sick it was because you were being punished for your sins.

Clothing: Most clothes wore made from wool and underwear was usually made from linen. If you were wealthy you would were bright colours and better quality fabrics to demonstrate your wealth. This meant that the clothing for the upper classes tended to be very ornate. Towards the end of the Middle Ages, men of the wealthy classes would wear a form of tights and a jacket or a tunic with a surcoat. Aristocratic women wore long flowing gowns and they always wore detailed headwear. Tall steeple caps were common but sometimes they were turbans or ornamental headdresses. Members of religious orders wore long woollen habits with the colour of the habit indicating which order they belonged to. The Benedictine order wore black and the Cistercians wore either natural-coloured wool or white. The male serfs tended to wear stockings and tunics while the females wore long gowns with sleeveless tunics and wimples to cover their hair. People never washed the outer layers of clothes (but they usually washed the linen underwear). The Wealthy members of the community used fur to line their clothes for extra warmth. They also wore extravagant jewellery. Diamonds were popular throughout Europe in the fourteenth century. The Role of Women: The role that women played within the medieval community was primarily restricted to domestic duties including cooking, baking bread, sewing, weaving, and spinning.However, some women were permitted to hunt for food and fight in battles. It was important for women to learn how to use weapons so that they could defend their homes when the men were away at war or on Crusades. Some medieval women held other occupations. There were women blacksmiths, merchants, and apothecaries. Others were midwives, worked in the fields, or they spent their time writing, playing musical instruments, dancing, and painting.

Some women were known as witches. These women were often herbalists who were thought to be involved in sorcery as well as healing. Others became nuns and devoted their lives to God and spiritual matters. Some of the most famous women of the Middle Ages include, Christine de Pisan who was a writer; Hildegard of Bingen who was an abbess and musician; Eleanor of Aquitaine who was known for being the patron of the arts; and Joan of Arc who was a French peasant who heard voices telling her to protect France against the English invasion. She dressed in armour and led her troops to victory in the early fifteenth century. She was later burned at the stake for being a witch.

The Magna Carta: The Magna Carta is one of the most significant documents from the Medieval Period. Its history is essentially that the nobles divided their land among the lesser nobility, who became their servants or "vassals." Many of these vassals became so powerful that the kings couldn't keep control of them. By 1100, certain barons had castles and courts that were as powerful as the king's. This posed a serious threat to the King. If they didn't agree with the King's decisions they could challenge his authority. In 1215, the English barons formed an alliance that forced King John to sign the Magna Carta. This document gave no rights to ordinary people, but it did limit the king's powers of taxation and established a system where people needed to be put on trial before they were punished. This meant that for the first time in English history, the monarch came under the control of the law.

Religion: The Catholic Church was the only formalised church in Europe during the Middle Ages and it was an extremely rich and powerful institution. Bishops were allowed to be a part of the king's council and they held influential positions within the government. Bishops were typically independently wealthy and they usually came from noble families. Parish priests, on the other hand, came from poorer backgrounds and often had very little education. The village priest tended to the sick and if he was able to, he taught Latin and the Bible to the youth of the village. Monasteries were the principal places of learning and scholarship but Universities began to take over this function late in the period.

crusades to the Holy Land. The main aim of the Crusades was to take Jerusalem out of the control of the Moslems. There were seven crusades. People on crusades fought under the sign of the Cross. Some people joined the Crusades because of their religious convictions while others were nobles or knights who wanted to find fame and fortune. Knights and nobles enjoyed fighting in battles commandeering castles, and gaining land. The Crusades were sanctioned by the Pope. Medieval Entertainment: Art and music played an important role in medieval religious life. Singing featured in church services but it was usually unaccompanied, but some churches used organs and bells as musical accompaniment. Monks and priests chanted the mass every day. At some point during the eleventh century, medieval drama began to appear. It was closely associated with the liturgy. Its role was to teach lessons from the bible to a largely illiterate congregation. Some of the topics were taken from the Old Testament. This included stories such as Noah and the flood, Jonah and the whale, and Daniel in the lion's den. Plays were also created about the birth and death of Jesus Christ. These dramas were performed with costumes and musical instruments and at first took place directly outside the church. Later in the period they were staged in marketplaces. Myth of Chivalry: The Myth of Chivalry is closely associated with the Medieval Period. The concept of chivalry included the system of knighthood and its practices. Chivalry was marked by practices of honour, courtesy, and generosity and is most often associated with courtesy toward women.

People use the phrase Middle Ages to describe Europe between the fall of Rome in 476 CE and the beginning of the Renaissance in the 14th century. Many scholars call the era the medieval period instead; Middle Ages, they say, incorrectly implies that the period is an insignificant blip sandwiched between two much more important epochs.

The Middle Ages: Birth of an Idea


The phrase Middle Ages tells us more about the Renaissance that followed it than it does about the era itself. Starting around the 14th century, European thinkers, writers and artists began to look back and celebrate the art and culture of ancient Greece and Rome. Accordingly, they dismissed the period after the fall of Rome as a Middle or even Dark age in which no scientific accomplishments had been made, no great art produced, no great leaders born. The people of the Middle Ages had squandered the advancements of their predecessors, this argument went, and mired themselves instead in what 18th-century English historian Edward Gibbon called barbarism and religion. This way of thinking about the era in the middle of the fall of Rome and the rise of the Renaissance prevailed until relatively recently. However, todays scholars note that the era was as complex and vibrant as any other.

The Middle Ages: The Catholic Church


After the fall of Rome, no single state or government united the people who lived on the European continent. Instead, the Catholic Church became the most powerful institution of the medieval period. Kings, queens and other leaders derived much of their power from their alliances with and protection of the Church. (In 800 CE, for example, Pope Leo III named the Frankish king Charlemagne the Emperor of the Romans--the first since that empires fall more than 300 years before. Over time, Charlemagnes realm became the Holy Roman Empire, one of several political entities in Europe whose interests tended to align with those of the Church.) Ordinary people across Europe had to tithe 10 percent of their earnings each year to the Church; at the same time, the Church was mostly exempt from taxation. These policies helped it to amass a great deal of money and power.

The Middle Ages: The Rise of Islam


Meanwhile, the Islamic world was growing larger and more powerful. After the prophet Muhammads death in 632 CE, Muslim armies conquered large parts of the Middle East, uniting them under the rule of a single caliph. At its height, the medieval Islamic world was more than three times bigger than all of Christendom. Under the caliphs, great cities such as Cairo, Baghdad and Damascus fostered a vibrant intellectual and cultural life. Poets, scientists and philosophers wrote thousands of books (on paper, a Chinese invention that had made its way into the Islamic world by the 8th century). Scholars translated Greek, Iranian and Indian texts into Arabic. Inventors devised technologies like the pinhole camera, soap, windmills, surgical instruments, an early flying machine and the

system of numerals that we use today. And religious scholars and mystics translated, interpreted and taught the Quran and other scriptural texts to people across the Middle East.

The Middle Ages: The Crusades


Toward the end of the 11th century, the Catholic Church began to authorize military expeditions, or Crusades, to expel Muslim infidels from the Holy Land. Crusaders, who wore red crosses on their coats to advertise their status, believed that their service would guarantee the remission of their sins and ensure that they could spend all eternity in Heaven. (They also received more worldly rewards, such as papal protection of their property and forgiveness of some kinds of loan payments.) The Crusades began in 1095, when Pope Urban summoned a Christian army to fight its way to Jerusalem, and continued on and off until the end of the 15th century. No one won the Crusades; in fact, many thousands of people from both sides lost their lives. They did make ordinary Catholics across Christendom feel like they had a common purpose, and they inspired waves of religious enthusiasm among people who might otherwise have felt alienated from the official Church. They also exposed Crusaders to Islamic literature, science and technology--exposure that would have a lasting effect on European intellectual life.

The Middle Ages: Art and Architecture


Another way to show devotion to the Church was to build grand cathedrals and other ecclesiastical structures such as monasteries. Cathedrals were the largest buildings in medieval Europe, and they could be found at the center of towns and cities across the continent. Between the 10th and 13th centuries, most European cathedrals were built in the Romanesque style. Romanesque cathedrals are solid and substantial: They have rounded masonry arches and barrel vaults supporting the roof, thick stone walls and few windows. (Examples of Romanesque architecture include the Porto Cathedral in Portugal and the Speyer Cathedral in present-day Germany.) Around 1200, church builders began to embrace a new architectural style, known as the Gothic. Gothic structures, such as the Abbey Church of Saint-Denis in France and the rebuilt Canterbury Cathedral in England, have huge stained-glass windows, pointed vaults and arches (a technology developed in the Islamic world), and spires and flying buttresses. In contrast to heavy Romanesque buildings, Gothic architecture seems to be almost weightless.Medieval religious art took other forms as well. Frescoes and mosaics decorated church interiors, and artists painted devotional images of the Virgin Mary, Jesus and the saints. Also, before the invention of the printing press in the 15th century, even books were works of art. Craftsmen in monasteries (and later in universities) created illuminated manuscripts: handmade sacred and secular books with colored illustrations, gold and silver lettering and other adornments. In the 12th century, urban booksellers began to market smaller illuminated manuscripts, like books of hours, psalters and other prayer books, to wealthy individuals.

The Middle Ages: Economics and Society


In medieval Europe, rural life was governed by a system scholars call feudalism. In a feudal society, the king granted large pieces of land called fiefs to noblemen and bishops. Landless peasants known as serfs did most of the work on the fiefs: They planted and harvested crops and gave most of the produce to the landowner. In exchange for their labor, they were allowed to live on the land. They were also promised protection in case of enemy invasion. During the 11th century, however, feudal life began to change. Agricultural innovations such as the heavy plow and three-field crop rotation made farming more efficient and productive, so fewer farm workers were needed--but thanks to the expanded and improved food supply, the population grew. As a result, more and more people were drawn to

towns and cities. Meanwhile, the Crusades had expanded trade routes to the East and given Europeans a taste for imported goods such as wine, olive oil and luxurious textiles. As the commercial economy developed, port cities in particular thrived. By 1300, there were some 15 cities in Europe with a population of more than 50,000. In these cities, a new era was born: the Renaissance. The Renaissance was a time of great intellectual and economic change, but it was not a complete rebirth: It had its roots in the world of the Middle Ages.

PHYSICAL EDUCATION IN THE MIDDLE AGES AND EARLY MODERN TIMES

Physical Education for Medieval Disciplines Early Christian disciplines Moral discipline Social discipline Intellectual discipline Physical Education in Humanistic Education (Renaissance period) PHYSICAL EDUCATION FOR INTELLECTUAL DISCIPLINE Aims of P.E. : Scholasticism was devoted to define and limited intellectual objectives. Because of the preoccupation with theological scholasticism, and because many ascetic attitudes toward the body still persisted, the need of p.e. went unheeded. Promotion of P.E. : About the 11 Th. century the monasteries began to decline in educational importance. Cathedral and parish schools operated by the secular clergy gradually became the dominant educational institutions. However, none of these institutions gave formal attention to p.e. Program of P. E. : P.E. was not part of the university curriculum nor did the university authorities encourage participation in sports and games outside of school. However, there are enough references to university students participating in sports. Methods of P.E. : Scholasticism was an intellectual and religious training. Logical analysis, reasoning, debate, lectures were employed in schools and p.e. was never a part of curriculum. PHYSICAL EDUCATION FOR SOCIAL DISCIPLINE Aims of P. E. : Physical education was the core of the chivalric curriculum, in which youths were to acquire military prowess, social graces, and sports skills. however, unlike the Greek, the medieval noble was not concerned with developing a beautifully proportioned, graceful body. Military obligations, and fight for the cause of the Church. Promotion of P.E. : Education was provided by the home, the castle, and the Church. The majority of noble youths aspired to become knights, and they received their education in the castle or palace school. Girls were also sent to the castle for their training, which emphasized the courtly graces. The formal education of the youth was in two stages: page-henchmen (714) and squire (14-21). 7 years service eligible for being knight. Conferring knighthood was a religious ceremony that took place on some great military occasion or Church holiday e.g.. : Easter, Christmas. PHYSICAL EDUCATION IN HUMANISTIC EDUCATION(THE RENAISSANCE PERIOD) Aims of P.E. : The central interest of philosophy became humankind rather than God, and this new perspective was designated humanism.

Promotion of P.E. : the Renaissance educators no longer followed the tenets of authoritarianism and scholasticism promoted in medieval times. Instead, they developed new programs of liberal, humanistic education that included a prominent place for physical training as well as education in personal manners and moral standards. Programs of P.E. : The Athenian ideal of the harmonious development of the mind and the body was rekindled. increased attention was given to health education and particularly to the importance of physical exercise. Fencing, archery, sport tournaments, war-like activities were popular as were ballets, dancing, bowling, and tennis. Whole man'' was accepted as a guiding principle. PHYSICAL EDUCATION FOR THE EARLY CHRISTIAN DISCIPLINES Aims of P.E. : Effects of religion-Body obstructed the cultivation of the soul-Most churchmen opposed p.e and Church suppressed many sports and games and failed to include p.e. in the school curriculum. The body was mortal and little consequence to a man looking for eternal salvation-save your soul Promotion of P.E. : Early Christian education was very informal, but when the Church became established, catechumental schools were founded to provide instruction for converts who desired to become members. Parents who wanted their children to receive some general education had to send them to the pagan schools (closed in 529 A.D. Emperor Justinian). When the Church had perfected its organization, new Christian schools were established and practically the sole centers of learning in Western Europe. The Church schools were not agencies of p.e., but it fostered religious dancing.

Girls and women were encouraged to participated in certain aspects of p.e. such as horseback riding dance but they were not encourage to engage in sporting games just to be spectators. Methods of P.E. : Textbook methods of education was a new approach in teaching p.e.

Program of P. E. : Considerable time was devoted to the development of skills essential for performance in battle. holding a tournament was naturally the favorite peacetime amusement of the people. Methods of P.E. : Observation or direct participation are two ways for noble to acquire the skills.

Program of P.E. :The informal education of early Christian youth was moral, religious and emotional. In the formative period of the Church, the catechetical schools of the East offered theological and secular studies integrated the Roman and Greek culture. When the Western Church powers soon became critical and tended to inspire heretical views. When the Western Church established the monastery and cathedral schools, education became confined largely to Church doctrine, theological studies, rituals; pagan literature, art, science, philosophy, and p.e. were neglected. Some early Church fathers e.g.. Clement did advocate p.e. in the schools recommended wrestling, ball-playing, and walking. No changes occurred suddenly, 5th century Bishop Sidonius reported he enjoyed running, swimming, and hunting as a boy. The church authorities were not necessarily opposed to health and cleanliness, but they felt that nude and mixed bathing were partly responsible for the immoral practices that were undermining Roman society. In 394 A.D. Theodosius, an early Christian emperor abolished the Olympics, and the last gladiatorial exhibition was held in Rome in 404 A.D. Dancing was a means of religious expression for the early Christians. Later, the religious dances were also degenerated. Methods of P.E. : The teaching standards of the early Middle Ages fell short of those established by Jesus. As educational content became systemized, the question and memorized answer method of education was adopted. Physical Education For Moral Discipline Aims of P.E. : Monasticism was an educational ideal designed to nourish the spiritual rather than the physical being. Men were to develop the beauty of their souls not their bodies. The Dark ages were a sterile period in p.e. The monks censured all physical and aesthetic activities pursued by worldly pleasures. However, physical fitness was never part of the aims of monastic education, the doctrine of labor helped to keep the monks busy. St Benedict proclaimed Idleness is the enemy of the soul, therefore the monks should always be occupied, either in manual labor or in holy reading. Physical Education For Moral Discipline Promotion of P. E. : The monasteries and convents were practically the only schools in existence from the 6 to 1 centuries, with the exception of the less important cathedral schools, a few secular guild schools in Italy, and the palace schools of Charlemagne and Alfred the Great. Program of P.E. : The curriculum was not really liberal, for practically all subject matter was directed toward theology. Physical education activities was not part of this monastic curriculum. The early monasteries failed not only to provide any formal physical education content in their school program but also attempted to suppress the spontaneous play of youth. Methods of P.E. : The main methods of teaching were memorization, imitation, and question to answer. PES 415 HISTORY AND PHILOSOPHY OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SPORTS

http://www.metu.edu.tr/~settar/hp2.htm